4 ESO Academics - UNIT 09 - FUNCTIONS

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4 ESO Academics - UNIT 09 - FUNCTIONS

© All Rights Reserved

- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 08 - VECTORS AND LINES.
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 07 - TRIGONOMETRY.
- 1 ESO - UNIT 09 - ALGEBRA.
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 04 - EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS
- 1 ESO - UNIT 10 - LINES AND ANGLES. GEOMETRIC FIGURES.
- 1 ESO - UNIT 08 - PERCENTAGES. PROPORTIONALITY.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 06 - Exercises 4.6.1 - Areas and Volumes.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 07 - Exercises 4.7.3 - Solving Triangles.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 09 - Exercises 4.9.1. - Functions
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 06 - AREAS AND VOLUMES. SIMILARITY.
- 4 ESO Academics - UNIT 05 - SYSTEMS OF EQUATIONS AND INEQUATIONS.
- 1 ESO - Unit 08 - Exercises 1.8.2 - Proportionality.
- 1 ESO - UNIT 06 - THE METRIC SYSTEM AND THE IMPERIAL UNITS
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 08 - Exercises 4.8.3. - Lines.
- 1 ESO - Unit 07 - Exercises 1.7.4 - Adding and Subtracting Fractions.
- 1 ESO - UNIT 07 - FRACTIONS.
- 1 ESO - Unit 08 - Exercises 1.8.1 - Percentages.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 05 - Exercises 4.5.1 - Systems of Linear Equations.
- 1 ESO - UNIT 11 - GRAPHS AND TABLES. PROBABILITY.
- 4 ESO Academics - Unit 04 - Exercises 4.4.2 - Other Types of Equations.

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1. DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION.

A Function is a relation between two Variables such that for every value of the

first, there is only one corresponding value of the second. We say that the second

variable is a Function of the first variable. The first variable is the Independent

Variable (usually ), and the second variable is the Dependent Variable (usually ).

The independent variable and the dependent variable are real numbers.

Example 1:

You know the formula for the area of a circle is = 2 . This is a function as each

value of the independent variable gives you one value of the dependent variable .

Example 2:

one value of

Unit 09 May

and f(x) are the same).

If () = 2 5 + 2, then (2) = 22 5 2 + 2 = 4

give us a visual picture of the function. Normally, the values of the independent

variable (generally the x-values) are placed on the horizontal axis, while the values of

the dependent variable (generally the y-values) are placed on the vertical axis.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.2

Unit 09 May

2. ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS.

2.1. LINEAR FUNCTIONS.

Plane by a straight line is called a Linear Function. The equation of a linear function is

= +

is the Slope of the line and is the y-intercept. Remember that if > ,

the line is an Increasing Function, and if < , the line is a Decreasing Function.

called Constant Functions. Their graphs are horizontal lines.

Unit 09 May

are called Proportional Functions. The variable is directly proportional to . The

constant ratio = / is called Proportionality Constant (or constant of

proportionality). Their graphs pass through the point (, ).

Function. This line is the Angle Bisector of the first and third quadrants.

Unit 09 May

equation of a quadratic function is:

= + + ,

This point is called the Vertex of the parabola. There is a Line of Symmetry which will

divide the graph into two halves. This line is called the Axis of Symmetry of the

parabola.

Unit 09 May

If two Quadratic Functions have the same , the corresponding parabolas are

equal, but they are placed in different positions.

The parabola will open upward or downward. If > , the parabola opens

Upward. If < , the parabola opens Downward.

Unit 09 May

= + + = . When we solve the equation we can have:

Two different real solutions: ; . Then there are two x-intercept points

( , ) and ( , ).

point: ( , ).

No real solutions. Then the graph does not intercept the x-axis.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.7

Unit 09 May

the y-intercept point is (, )

Unit 09 May

Vertex , .

=

= ( ) = + +

points we can Plot the graph:

The Basic Parabola is = . The function is symmetrical about the x-axis. Its

vertex is the point (, ) , which is also the absolute minimum. The graph has two

branches (one of them is decreasing and the other one is increasing).

Unit 09 May

dependence between them is represented by the equation:

= ; =

=

Its graph is a Hyperbola. It has two branches. If we focus on the branch for >

: As increases, then decreases to . As drops to , then y increases to +. The

and are Asymptotes of the function. Asymptote is a line that a graph gets

closer and closer to, but never touches or crosses it.

=

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.10

Unit 09 May

Functions. We will study the easiest case which equation is:

= +

coordinate axes:

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.11

Unit 09 May

To plot the graph we have to know , and . and find the Asymptotes and

draw them. Then we look for values on each branch with the help of a table. We study

the function taking in care of the value of .

Unit 09 May

A Radical Function is any function that contains a variable inside a Root. This

includes square roots, cubed roots, or any nth root.

= +

=

end up with the equation of the parabola in terms of .

= =

Unit 09 May

Exponential Function (the variable is at the exponent of a power).

The easiest one is: = . The base can be any positive real number,

. Look at these graphs:

The graphs of the functions passes through the points (, ) and (, ). The

functions = ; , , are also exponential functions. Their graphs are

similar to the graph of = .

The best thing about exponential functions is that they are so useful in real

world situations. Exponential Functions are used to model populations, carbon date

artifacts, help coroners determine time of death, compute investments, as well as

many other applications. If > , the function is increasing and if < , the function

is decreasing.

Unit 09 May

= +

scrolling vertically the graph from the function = .

= (+)

The graph = (+) can be obtained by moving horizontally the graph from

the function = .

Unit 09 May

Unit 09 May

be any positive real number, .

graph of (), then the point (, ) lies on the graph of (), we say that is the

Inverse Function of and vice versa. The Inverse Function of is denoted by

(read f inverse, not to be confused with exponentiation).

to the line = . In general, graphs of inverse functions, and are symmetric

with respect to the line = .

Unit 09 May

( , ). If > the graph will be more closed than if is greater. If < < the

graph will be more closed than if is smaller. If > , the function is increasing and if

< , the function is decreasing.

graph = . If > the graph is scrolling up units, if < the graph is

scrolling down units.

Unit 09 May

moving horizontally the graph = . If > the graph is moving left units, if

< the graph is moving right units.

Unit 09 May

its sine value.

its cosine value.

Function, Decreasing Function, Constant Function, Proportional Function, Identity

Function, Angle Bisector, Parabola, Quadratic Function, Absolute Minimum, Absolute

Maximum, Vertex, Line of Symmetry, Axis of Symmetry, To Plot, Inversely Proportional

Function, Hyperbola, Asymptotes, Rational Function, Radical Function, Exponential

Function, Logarithmic Function, Inverse Function, Trigonometric Function.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.20

Unit 09 May

independent variable in the function. The Range (or Image) of a function is the

complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable of a function,

after we have substituted the values in the domain.

=

=

3.1. LINEAR FUNCTIONS.

= , the Range is [, ]

Unit 09 May

Vertex position.

{}.

Unit 09 May

Remember that

= +

Unit 09 May

Remember that:

= +

The Range in the functions seen is always [, ) if > and (, ] if < .

Range of the functions = and = (+) is [, ), the Range of = + will

depends on the value of .

Unit 09 May

value of . The function = + has as Domain (, ). The Range of all of

them will be .

The domain of is the range of , and vice versa, the range of is the

domain of .

Unit 09 May

We can see that there are no gaps in the curve. Any value of will give us a

corresponding value of y. We could continue the graph in the negative and positive

directions, and we would never need to take the pencil off the paper. Such functions

are called Continuous Functions.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.26

Unit 09 May

=

change in near to = , gives a very large change in the value of the function.

x y

1.99 -199

2.01 201

For a function to be Continuous at a point, the function must exist at the point

and any small change in produces only a small change in (). If a function is not

continuous at a point, we say that it is Discontinuous at that point.

every point in (, ). There are different reasons why a function is Discontinuous at a

point. The four functions below are discontinuous at = .

Unit 09 May

Unit 09 May

All the functions seen are Continuous except the Rational Functions that are

Discontinuous. The discontinuous point will be in the asymptote point.

Infinite Jump.

The points can be calculated by solving the equation when = . And

the points can be calculated by solving the equation when = .

always (, ).

Example 1:

= 5 + 2

() = 0

0 = 5 + 2

2

=

5

2

, 0

5

(0)

= 5 0 + 2 = 2

(0,2)

Example 2:

= 2 + 6

Unit 09 May

() = 0

0 = 2 + 6

1 12 4 1 (6) = 2

= = 1

2 2 = 3

(2,0) (3,0)

(0)

= 02 + 0 6 = 6

(0,6)

always (, ) and in Logarithmic Functions as () = the is

always (, ). In the Basic Sine Function the points are those whose

= , and the is always (, ). In the Basic Cosine Function the

points are those whose = , and the is always

(, ).

6. VARIATIONS IN A FUNCTION.

6.1. INCREASING AND DECREASING.

interval such that < then ( ) < ( ). Another way to look at this is: as you

trace the graph from to (that is from left to right) the graph should go up.

Unit 09 May

interval such that < then ( ) > ( ). Another way to look at this is: as you

trace the graph from to (that is from left to right) the graph should go down.

Unit 09 May

Unit 09 May

greater that the ordinates of the points around it. A function has a Relative (or Local)

Minimum at a point if its ordinate is smaller than the ordinates of the points around it.

the largest value that the function takes on the domain that we are working on. A

function has an Absolute (or Global) Minimum at a point if its ordinate is smallest

value that the function takes on the domain that we are working on.

Relative Maximum, Absolute Maximum, Absolute Minimum.

Unit 09 May

7. PERIODIC FUNCTIONS.

A Periodic Function repeats Cycle may begin at any point on the graph of the

function. The Period of a function is the horizontal length a pattern of at

regular intervals. One complete pattern is a Cycle.

values of .

function values.

maximum and minimum values of the function.

Unit 09 May

The only Periodic Functions studied are the Trigonometric Functions seen.

Unit 09 May

8. SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

Function.

Unit 09 May

Function.

the result with ().

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