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Unit 09 May

1. DEFINITION OF A FUNCTION.

A Function is a relation between two Variables such that for every value of the
first, there is only one corresponding value of the second. We say that the second
variable is a Function of the first variable. The first variable is the Independent
Variable (usually ), and the second variable is the Dependent Variable (usually ).
The independent variable and the dependent variable are real numbers.

Example 1:

You know the formula for the area of a circle is = 2 . This is a function as each
value of the independent variable gives you one value of the dependent variable .

Example 2:

In the equation = 2 , is a function of , since for each value of , there is only


one value of

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Unit 09 May

We normally write Functions as (), and read this as function of .

For example, the function = 2 5 + 2, is also written as () = 2 5 + 2 (y


and f(x) are the same).

The Value of the Function () when = is ().

If () = 2 5 + 2, then (2) = 22 5 2 + 2 = 4

A good way of presenting a function is by Graphical Representation. Graphs


give us a visual picture of the function. Normally, the values of the independent
variable (generally the x-values) are placed on the horizontal axis, while the values of
the dependent variable (generally the y-values) are placed on the vertical axis.

MATH VOCABULARY: Function, Independent Variable, Dependent Variable, Graph.


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Unit 09 May

2. ELEMENTARY FUNCTIONS.
2.1. LINEAR FUNCTIONS.

A function that can be graphically represented in the Cartesian Coordinate


Plane by a straight line is called a Linear Function. The equation of a linear function is
= +

is the Slope of the line and is the y-intercept. Remember that if > ,
the line is an Increasing Function, and if < , the line is a Decreasing Function.

If = , the equation of the function = .This type of linear functions are


called Constant Functions. Their graphs are horizontal lines.

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Unit 09 May

If = , the equation of the function is = , This type of linear functions


are called Proportional Functions. The variable is directly proportional to . The
constant ratio = / is called Proportionality Constant (or constant of
proportionality). Their graphs pass through the point (, ).

If = , the proportionality function is = , and it is Called Identity


Function. This line is the Angle Bisector of the first and third quadrants.

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Unit 09 May

2.2. PARABOLAS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS.

A function whose graph is a Parabola is called a Quadratic Function. The


equation of a quadratic function is:

= + + ,

A Parabola will have either an Absolute Minimum or an Absolute Maximum.


This point is called the Vertex of the parabola. There is a Line of Symmetry which will
divide the graph into two halves. This line is called the Axis of Symmetry of the
parabola.

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Unit 09 May

If two Quadratic Functions have the same , the corresponding parabolas are
equal, but they are placed in different positions.

The parabola will open upward or downward. If > , the parabola opens
Upward. If < , the parabola opens Downward.

The greater is || , the slimmer the parabola will be:

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Unit 09 May

A Parabola = + + can be represented from these points:

Axes Intercept Points.

: An x-intercept is a point on the graph where = . If


= + + = . When we solve the equation we can have:

Two different real solutions: ; . Then there are two x-intercept points
( , ) and ( , ).

One double real solution: = . Then there is only one x-intercept


point: ( , ).

No real solutions. Then the graph does not intercept the x-axis.
Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.7
Unit 09 May

To summarize we can say that it will depends on the Discriminant:

: is a point on the graph where = . If = = . Then


the y-intercept point is (, )

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Unit 09 May

Vertex , .

=

To find we need to calculate:

= ( ) = + +

Once we have these


points we can Plot the graph:

The Basic Parabola is = . The function is symmetrical about the x-axis. Its
vertex is the point (, ) , which is also the absolute minimum. The graph has two
branches (one of them is decreasing and the other one is increasing).

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Unit 09 May

2.3. INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL FUNCTIONS.

If the variables and are Inversely Proportional, then the functional


dependence between them is represented by the equation:


= ; =

Lets start from the easiest one:



=

Its graph is a Hyperbola. It has two branches. If we focus on the branch for >
: As increases, then decreases to . As drops to , then y increases to +. The
and are Asymptotes of the function. Asymptote is a line that a graph gets
closer and closer to, but never touches or crosses it.

In the general case the Inversely Proportional Functions are:


=

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.10
Unit 09 May

They are Hyperbolas whose Asymptotes are the coordinate axes:

2.4. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS.

The Inversely Proportional Functions are a particular case of Rational


Functions. We will study the easiest case which equation is:

= +

If = = . . . They are Hyperbolas whose Asymptotes ARENT the


coordinate axes:

The Asymptotes will depends on the values of and


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Unit 09 May

To plot the graph we have to know , and . and find the Asymptotes and
draw them. Then we look for values on each branch with the help of a table. We study
the function taking in care of the value of .

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Unit 09 May

2.5. RADICAL FUNCTIONS.

A Radical Function is any function that contains a variable inside a Root. This
includes square roots, cubed roots, or any nth root.


= +

Lets start with the easiest one:


=

It is half a Parabola. If we square both sides of the function and isolate , we


end up with the equation of the parabola in terms of .

= =

The functions = + and = + are also half parabolas.

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Unit 09 May

2.6. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS.

Do you remember Compound Interest problems? This is an example of


Exponential Function (the variable is at the exponent of a power).

The easiest one is: = . The base can be any positive real number,
. Look at these graphs:

The graphs of the functions passes through the points (, ) and (, ). The
functions = ; , , are also exponential functions. Their graphs are
similar to the graph of = .

The best thing about exponential functions is that they are so useful in real
world situations. Exponential Functions are used to model populations, carbon date
artifacts, help coroners determine time of death, compute investments, as well as
many other applications. If > , the function is increasing and if < , the function
is decreasing.

The functions with the equation:

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Unit 09 May

= +

Are also Exponential Functions. The graph = + can be obtained by


scrolling vertically the graph from the function = .

The functions with the equation:

= (+)

Are also Exponential Functions.

The graph = (+) can be obtained by moving horizontally the graph from
the function = .

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Unit 09 May

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Unit 09 May

2.7. LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS.

The functions = are called Logarithmic Functions. The base can


be any positive real number, .

Look at the graphs of = and = :

In general, if we have two functions, () and (), where if (, ) lies on the


graph of (), then the point (, ) lies on the graph of (), we say that is the
Inverse Function of and vice versa. The Inverse Function of is denoted by
(read f inverse, not to be confused with exponentiation).

The graphs of the functions = and = are symmetric with respect


to the line = . In general, graphs of inverse functions, and are symmetric
with respect to the line = .

Look now at the graphs of = and = :


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Unit 09 May

We see that the graph of = passes through the points (, ) and


( , ). If > the graph will be more closed than if is greater. If < < the
graph will be more closed than if is smaller. If > , the function is increasing and if
< , the function is decreasing.

If we have the function = + , we obtain the graph scrolling the


graph = . If > the graph is scrolling up units, if < the graph is
scrolling down units.

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Unit 09 May

If we have the function = ( + ) we obtain the graph obtained by


moving horizontally the graph = . If > the graph is moving left units, if
< the graph is moving right units.

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Unit 09 May

2.8. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

The Trigonometric Function = give for any angle measured in radians,


its sine value.

The Trigonometric Function = give for any angle measured in radians,


its cosine value.

MATH VOCABULARY: Cartesian Coordinate Plane, Linear Function, Slope, Increasing


Function, Decreasing Function, Constant Function, Proportional Function, Identity
Function, Angle Bisector, Parabola, Quadratic Function, Absolute Minimum, Absolute
Maximum, Vertex, Line of Symmetry, Axis of Symmetry, To Plot, Inversely Proportional
Function, Hyperbola, Asymptotes, Rational Function, Radical Function, Exponential
Function, Logarithmic Function, Inverse Function, Trigonometric Function.
Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.20
Unit 09 May

3. DOMAIN AND RANGE.

The Domain of a function is the complete set of possible values of the


independent variable in the function. The Range (or Image) of a function is the
complete set of all possible resulting values of the dependent variable of a function,
after we have substituted the values in the domain.

=
=
3.1. LINEAR FUNCTIONS.

The Domain of a Linear Function is . The Range is usually also . Only if


= , the Range is [, ]

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Unit 09 May

3.2. PARABOLAS AND QUADRATIC FUNCTIONS.

The Domain of a Quadratic Function is . The Range is depending of the


Vertex position.

3.3. INVERSELY PROPORTIONAL FUNCTIONS.

The Domain of a Inversely Proportional Function is {} . The Range is also


{}.

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Unit 09 May

3.4. RATIONAL FUNCTIONS.

Remember that

= +

The Domain is {} . The Range is {}.

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Unit 09 May

3.5. RADICAL FUNCTIONS.

Remember that:

= +

The Domain of Radical Functions depends on the value of on the radicand.


The Range in the functions seen is always [, ) if > and (, ] if < .

3.6. EXPONENTIAL FUNCTIONS.

The Domain of the functions = , = + and = (+) is . The


Range of the functions = and = (+) is [, ), the Range of = + will
depends on the value of .

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Unit 09 May

3.7. LOGARITHMIC FUNCTIONS.

If we have the function = ( + ) the Domain is depending on the


value of . The function = + has as Domain (, ). The Range of all of
them will be .

The domain of is the range of , and vice versa, the range of is the
domain of .

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Unit 09 May

3.8. TRIGONOMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

The Domain of = and = is . The Range is always [, ].

MATH VOCABULARY: Domain, Range, Image.

4. CONTINUOUS AND DISCONTINUOUS FUNCTIONS.

Consider the graph of = :

We can see that there are no gaps in the curve. Any value of will give us a
corresponding value of y. We could continue the graph in the negative and positive
directions, and we would never need to take the pencil off the paper. Such functions
are called Continuous Functions.
Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.26
Unit 09 May

Now consider the function



=

We can see that the curve is discontinuous at = . We observe that a small


change in near to = , gives a very large change in the value of the function.
x y
1.99 -199
2.01 201

For a function to be Continuous at a point, the function must exist at the point
and any small change in produces only a small change in (). If a function is not
continuous at a point, we say that it is Discontinuous at that point.

A function is Continuous on the Open Interval (, ) if is continuous at


every point in (, ). There are different reasons why a function is Discontinuous at a
point. The four functions below are discontinuous at = .

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Unit 09 May

The function has a Finite Jump.

The function is Missing a point.

The function has an Infinite Jump.

The function has a Moved point.

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Unit 09 May

All the functions seen are Continuous except the Rational Functions that are
Discontinuous. The discontinuous point will be in the asymptote point.

MATH VOCABULARY: Continuous Function, Discontinuous Function, Finite Jump,


Infinite Jump.

5. INTERSECTION POINTS WITH THE AXIS.

The Intersection Points, are the and points.


The points can be calculated by solving the equation when = . And
the points can be calculated by solving the equation when = .

The points are always (, ), and the are


always (, ).

Example 1:
= 5 + 2

() = 0
0 = 5 + 2
2
=
5
2
, 0
5

(0)
= 5 0 + 2 = 2
(0,2)

Example 2:
= 2 + 6

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.29


Unit 09 May

() = 0
0 = 2 + 6
1 12 4 1 (6) = 2
= = 1
2 2 = 3
(2,0) (3,0)

(0)
= 02 + 0 6 = 6
(0,6)

Remember that in Exponential Functions like () = , the is


always (, ) and in Logarithmic Functions as () = the is
always (, ). In the Basic Sine Function the points are those whose
= , and the is always (, ). In the Basic Cosine Function the
points are those whose = , and the is always
(, ).

MATH VOCABULARY: Intersection Points.

6. VARIATIONS IN A FUNCTION.
6.1. INCREASING AND DECREASING.

A function is Increasing on an interval (, ) if for any and in the


interval such that < then ( ) < ( ). Another way to look at this is: as you
trace the graph from to (that is from left to right) the graph should go up.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.30


Unit 09 May

A function is Decreasing on an interval (, ) if for any and in the


interval such that < then ( ) > ( ). Another way to look at this is: as you
trace the graph from to (that is from left to right) the graph should go down.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.31


Unit 09 May

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Unit 09 May

6.2. MAXIMA AND MINIMA.

A function has a Relative (or Local) Maximum at a point if its ordinate is


greater that the ordinates of the points around it. A function has a Relative (or Local)
Minimum at a point if its ordinate is smaller than the ordinates of the points around it.

A function has an Absolute (or Global) Maximum at a point if its ordinate is


the largest value that the function takes on the domain that we are working on. A
function has an Absolute (or Global) Minimum at a point if its ordinate is smallest
value that the function takes on the domain that we are working on.

MATH VOCABULARY: Increasing Function Decreasing Function, Relative Maximum,


Relative Maximum, Absolute Maximum, Absolute Minimum.

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Unit 09 May

7. PERIODIC FUNCTIONS.

A Periodic Function repeats Cycle may begin at any point on the graph of the
function. The Period of a function is the horizontal length a pattern of at
regular intervals. One complete pattern is a Cycle.

If is a Periodic Function whose Period is , then ( + ) = () for all


values of .

The Amplitude of a periodic function measures the amount of variation in the


function values.

The Amplitude of a periodic function is half the difference between the


maximum and minimum values of the function.

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Unit 09 May

The only Periodic Functions studied are the Trigonometric Functions seen.

MATH VOCABULARY: Periodic Function, Cycle, Period, Amplitude.

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Unit 09 May

8. SYMMETRIC FUNCTIONS.

There are two kinds of Symmetric Functions:

Symmetric Function respect to the Y-Axis: () = (). It is also called Even


Function.

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Unit 09 May

Symmetric Function respect to Origin: () = (). It is also called Odd


Function.

To study the symmetry of a function we have to calculate () and compare


the result with ().

MATH VOCABULARY: Symmetric Function, Even Function, Odd Function.

Axel Cotn Gutirrez Mathematics 4 ESO 4.9.37