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Citation: K.A. Olive et al. (Particle Data Group), Chin. Phys.

C, 38, 090001 (2014) and 2015 update

LEPTONS
e J = 1
2
Mass m = (548.57990946 0.00000022) 106 u
Mass m = 0.510998928 0.000000011 MeV
m + m /m < 8 109 , CL = 90%

e e
q + + q e < 4 108
e e
Magnetic moment anomaly
(g2)/2 = (1159.65218076 0.00000027) 106
(g e + g e ) / gaverage = ( 0.5 2.1) 1012
Electric dipole moment d < 0.87 1028 e cm, CL = 90%
Mean life > 4.6 1026 yr, CL = 90% [a]

1
J = 2

Mass m = 0.1134289267 0.0000000029 u


Mass m = 105.6583715 0.0000035 MeV
Mean life = (2.1969811 0.0000022) 106 s
+ / = 1.00002 0.00008
c = 658.6384 m
Magnetic moment anomaly (g2)/2 = (11659209 6) 1010
(g + g ) / g average = ( 0.11 0.12) 108
Electric dipole moment d = ( 0.1 0.9) 1019 e cm
Decay parameters [b]

= 0.74979 0.00026
= 0.057 0.034
= 0.75047 0.00034
P = 1.0009 + 0.0016 [c]
0.0007
P / = 1.0018 + 0.0016 [c]
0.0007
= 1.00 0.04
= 0.98 0.04
/A = (0 4) 103
/A = ( 10 20) 103
/A = (4 6) 103
/A = (2 7) 103
= 0.02 0.08

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Citation: K.A. Olive et al. (Particle Data Group), Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014) and 2015 update

+ modes are charge conjugates of the modes below.


p
DECAY MODES Fraction (i /) Confidence level (MeV/c)

e e 100% 53
e e [d] (1.4 0.4) % 53
e e e + e [e] (3.4 0.4) 105 53

Lepton Family number (LF ) violating modes


e e LF [f ] < 1.2 % 90% 53
e LF < 5.7 1013 90% 53
e e+ e LF < 1.0 1012 90% 53
e 2 LF < 7.2 1011 90% 53

J = 1
2

Mass m = 1776.86 0.12 MeV


(m + m )/maverage < 2.8 104 , CL = 90%
Mean life = (290.3 0.5) 1015 s
c = 87.03 m
Magnetic moment anomaly > 0.052 and < 0.013, CL = 95%
Re(d ) = 0.220 to 0.45 1016 e cm, CL = 95%
Im(d ) = 0.250 to 0.0080 1016 e cm, CL = 95%
Weak dipole moment
Re(d w
) < 0.50 10
17 e cm, CL = 95%

Im(d w
) < 1.1 10
17 e cm, CL = 95%

Weak anomalous magnetic dipole moment


Re(w 3
) < 1.1 10 , CL = 95%
Im(w 3
) < 2.7 10 , CL = 95%
K 0S (RATE DIFFERENCE) / (RATE SUM) =
( 0.36 0.25)%
Decay parameters
See the Particle Listings for a note concerning -decay parameters.
(e or ) = 0.745 0.008
(e) = 0.747 0.010
() = 0.763 0.020
(e or ) = 0.985 0.030
(e) = 0.994 0.040
() = 1.030 0.059

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Citation: K.A. Olive et al. (Particle Data Group), Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014) and 2015 update

(e or ) = 0.013 0.020
() = 0.094 0.073
()(e or ) = 0.746 0.021
()(e) = 0.734 0.028
()() = 0.778 0.037
() = 0.993 0.022
() = 0.994 0.008
(a1 ) = 1.001 0.027
(all hadronic modes) = 0.995 0.007
+ modes are charge conjugates of the modes below. h stands for
or K . stands for e or . Neutrals stands for s and/or 0 s.

Scale factor/ p
DECAY MODES Fraction (i /) Confidence level (MeV/c)

Modes with one charged particle


particle 0 neutrals 0K 0 (85.35 0.07 ) % S=1.3
(1-prong)
particle 0 neutrals 0K 0L (84.72 0.08 ) % S=1.4

[g ] (17.41 0.04 ) % S=1.1 885

[e] ( 3.6 0.4 ) 103 885
e e [g ] (17.83 0.04 ) % 888

e e [e] ( 1.75 0.18 ) % 888
h 0K 0L (12.05 0.06 ) % S=1.2 883

h (11.53 0.06 ) % S=1.2 883

[g ] (10.83 0.06 ) % S=1.2 883
K [g ] ( 7.00 0.10 ) 103 820
h 1 neutrals (37.11 0.10 ) % S=1.2
h 1 0 (ex.K 0 ) (36.59 0.10 ) % S=1.2

h 0 (25.95 0.09 ) % S=1.1 878

0 [g ] (25.52 0.09 ) % S=1.1 878
0 non-(770) ( 3.0 3.2 ) 103 878
K 0 [g ] ( 4.30 0.15 ) 103 814

h 2 0 (10.88 0.11 ) % S=1.2

h 2 0 ( 9.53 0.11 ) % S=1.1 862
0
h 2 (ex.K ) 0 ( 9.37 0.11 ) % S=1.2 862
2 0 (ex.K 0 ) [g ] ( 9.30 0.11 ) % S=1.1 862
2 0 (ex.K 0 ), < 9 103 CL=95% 862
scalar
2 0 (ex.K 0 ), < 7 103 CL=95% 862
vector
K 2 0 (ex.K 0 ) [g ] ( 6.9 2.8 ) 104 S=1.3 796

h 3 0 ( 1.35 0.07 ) % S=1.1

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Citation: K.A. Olive et al. (Particle Data Group), Chin. Phys. C, 38, 090001 (2014) and 2015 update

h 3 0 (ex. K 0 ) ( 1.27 0.07 ) % S=1.1


h 3 0 ( 1.19 0.08 ) % 836
3 0 (ex.K 0 ) [g ] ( 1.05 0.07 ) % 836
K 3 0 (ex.K 0 , [g ] ( 5.2 2.7 ) 104 S=1.3 765
)
h 4 0 (ex.K 0 ) ( 1.6 0.4 ) 103 800
h 4 0 (ex.K 0 ,) [g ] ( 1.1 0.4 ) 103 800
K 0 0 0K 0 0
( 1.563 0.034) % S=1.2 820
K 1 ( 0 or K 0 or ) ( 8.63 0.33 ) 103 S=1.2
Modes with K 0 s
K 0S (particles) ( 9.1 0.5) 103 S=2.2
h K 0 ( 9.94 0.29 ) 103 S=1.8 812
K 0 [g ] ( 8.45 0.28 ) 103 S=1.9 812
K 0 ( 5.4 2.1 ) 104 812
(non-K (892) )
K K 0
[g ] ( 1.49 0.05 ) 103 737
K K 0 0 0 ( 3.01 0.09 ) 103 737
h K 0 0 ( 5.39 0.16 ) 103 S=1.1 794
K 0 0 [g ] ( 3.88 0.15 ) 103 S=1.1 794
K 0 ( 2.2 ) 103
0.5 612
K K 0 0 [g ] ( 1.51 0.07 ) 103 685
K 0 1 0 ( 3.2 1.0 ) 103
K 0 0 0 ( 2.6 2.4 ) 104 763
K K 0 0 0 < 1.6 104 CL=95% 619
K 0 K 0 ( 1.7 0.5 ) 103 S=2.2 682
K 0S K 0S [g ] ( 2.32 0.07 ) 104 682
K 0S K 0L [g ] ( 1.2 0.5 ) 103 S=2.2 682
K 0 K 0 0 ( 3.1 2.3 ) 104 614
K 0S K 0S 0 ( 1.80 0.21 ) 105 614
K K 0 0 ( 1.08 0.21 ) 105
K 0S K 0S 0
f1 (1285) ( 6.8 1.5 ) 106
K 0S K 0S 0
f1 (1420) ( 2.4 0.8 ) 106
K 0S K 0S 0
K 0S K 0L 0 ( 3.1 1.2 ) 104 614
K K 0S K 0S < 6.3 107 CL=90% 466
K K 0S K 0S 0 < 4.0 107 CL=90% 337
K 0 h+ h h 0 neutrals < 1.7 103 CL=95% 760
K 0 h+ h h ( 2.3 2.0 ) 104 760

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Modes with three charged particles


h h h+ 0 neutrals 0K 0L (15.19 0.08 ) % S=1.4 861
+
h h h 0 neutrals (14.57 0.07 ) % S=1.3 861
(ex. K 0S + )
(3-prong)
h h h+
( 9.80 0.06 ) % S=1.2 861
h h h+ (ex.K 0 ) ( 9.46 0.06 ) % S=1.2 861
h h h+ (ex.K 0 ,) ( 9.43 0.06 ) % S=1.2 861
+ ( 9.31 0.06 ) % S=1.1 861
+ (ex.K 0 ) ( 9.02 0.06 ) % S=1.1 861
+
(ex.K ), 0 < 2.4 % CL=95% 861
non-axial vector
+ (ex.K 0 ,) [g ] ( 8.99 0.06 ) % S=1.1 861
+
h h h 1 neutrals ( 5.38 0.07 ) % S=1.3
h h h+ 1 0 (ex. K 0 ) ( 5.09 0.06 ) % S=1.2

h h h + 0 ( 4.75 0.06 ) % S=1.2 834
h h h+ 0 (ex.K 0 ) ( 4.57 0.06 ) % S=1.2 834
h h h+ 0 (ex. K 0 , ) ( 2.79 0.08 ) % S=1.2 834
+
0 ( 4.61 0.06 ) % S=1.2 834
+ 0 (ex.K 0 ) ( 4.48 0.06 ) % S=1.2 834
+ 0 (ex.K 0 ,) [g ] ( 2.70 0.08 ) % S=1.2 834
h h h+ 2 0 (ex. ( 5.21 0.32 ) 103
0
K )
h h h+ 2 0
( 5.08 0.32 ) 103 797
+ 0
h h h 2 (ex.K ) 0 ( 4.98 0.32 ) 103 797
h h h+ 2 0 (ex.K 0 ,,) [g ] ( 1.0 0.4 ) 103 797
h h h+ 3 0 [g ] ( 2.3 0.7 ) 104 S=1.3 749
+ 0
2 3 (ex.K ) 0 ( 2.1 0.4 ) 104 749
2 + 3 0 (ex.K 0 , , ( 1.7 0.4 ) 104
f1 (1285))
2 + 3 0 (ex.K 0 , ,
< 5.8 105 CL=90%
, f1 (1285))
+
K h h 0 neutrals
( 6.29 0.23 ) 103 S=1.7 794
K h+ (ex.K 0 ) ( 4.38 0.19 ) 103 S=2.7 794
+ 0
K h (ex.K ) 0 ( 8.7 1.2 ) 104 S=1.1 763
K + 0 neutrals ( 4.79 0.20 ) 103 S=1.4 794

K + ( 3.75 0.19 ) 103 S=1.5 794
0
0 (ex.K ) 0
K + ( 3.45 0.15 ) 103 S=2.2 794
+
K (ex.K ) 0 [g ] ( 2.94 0.15 ) 103 S=2.2 794
K 0 ( 1.4 0.5 ) 103
+
K
K + 0 ( 1.33 0.12 ) 103 763
K + 0 (ex.K 0 ) ( 8.1 1.2 ) 104 763

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K + 0 (ex.K 0 ,) [g ] ( 7.8 1.2 ) 104 763


K + 0 (ex.K 0 ,) ( 3.7 0.9 ) 104 763
K + K 0 neut.
< 9 104 CL=95% 685
K K + 0 neut. ( 1.50 0.06 ) 103 S=1.8 685
K K + [g ] ( 1.44 0.05 ) 103 S=1.9 685
K K + 0 [g ] ( 6.1 2.5 ) 105 S=1.4 618
K K + K ( 2.1 0.8 ) 10 5 S=5.4 472
K K + K (ex. ) < 2.5 106 CL=90%
K K + K 0 < 4.8 106 CL=90% 345
K + 0 neut. < 2.5 103 CL=95% 794
e e e + e ( 2.8 1.5 ) 105 888
e e + < 3.6 105 CL=90% 885

Modes with five charged particles


3h 2h+ 0 neutrals ( 1.02 0.04 ) 103 S=1.1 794
(ex. K 0S + )
(5-prong)
3h 2h+ (ex.K 0 ) [g ] ( 8.39 0.35 ) 104 S=1.1 794
+
3 2 (ex.K , ) 0 ( 8.3 0.4 ) 104 794
+
3 2 (ex.K , , 0 ( 7.7 0.4 ) 104
f1 (1285))
K 2 2 + < 2.4 106 CL=90% 716
+
K 3 + < 5.0 106 CL=90% 716
+
K K 2 + < 4.5 107 CL=90% 528
+ 0
3h 2h (ex.K ) 0 [g ] ( 1.78 0.27 ) 104 746
3 2 + 0 (ex.K 0 ) ( 1.65 0.10 ) 104 746
+ 0
3 2 (ex.K , , 0 ( 1.11 0.10 ) 104
f1 (1285))
3 2 + 0 (ex.K 0 , ,
( 3.6 0.9 ) 105
, f1 (1285))
K 2 2 + 0
< 1.9 106 CL=90% 657
+
K 3 + 0 < 8 107 CL=90% 657
3h 2h+ 2 0 < 3.4 106 CL=90% 687

Miscellaneous other allowed modes


( 5 ) ( 7.6 0.5 ) 103 800
+
4h 3h 0 neutrals < 3.0 107 CL=90% 682
(7-prong)
4h 3h+ < 4.3 107 CL=90% 682
+
4h 3h 0 < 2.5 107 CL=90% 612
X (S= 1) ( 2.87 0.05 ) % S=1.4
K (892) 0 neutrals ( 1.42 0.18 ) % S=1.4 665
0
0K L
K (892) ( 1.20 0.07 ) % S=1.8 665

K (892) K 0 ( 7.88 0.35 ) 103

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K (892)0 K 0 neutrals ( 3.2 1.4 ) 103 542


K (892)0 K ( 2.1 0.4 ) 103 542
K (892)0 0 neutrals
( 3.8 1.7 ) 103 655
K (892)0 ( 2.2 0.5 ) 103 655
( K (892) ) ( 1.0 0.4 ) 103
K 0 0
K1 (1270) ( 4.7 1.1 ) 103 433
K1 (1400) ( 1.7 2.6 ) 103 S=1.7 335
K (1410) ( 1.5 + 1.4 ) 103 326
1.0
K 0 (1430) < 5 104 CL=95% 317
K 2 (1430) < 3 103 CL=95% 317
< 9.9 105 CL=95% 797
0 [g ] ( 1.39 0.10 ) 103 S=1.4 778

0 0 ( 1.81 0.31 ) 104 746
K [g ] ( 1.52 0.08 ) 104 719

K (892) ( 1.38 0.15 ) 104 511
K 0 ( 4.8 1.2 ) 105 665
K 0 (non-K (892)) < 3.5 105 CL=90%
K 0 ( 9.3 1.5 ) 105 661
K 0 0 < 5.0 105 CL=90% 590
K K 0 < 9.0 106 CL=90% 430
+ 0 neutrals < 3 103 CL=90% 744
+ (ex.K 0 ) ( 2.25 0.13 ) 104 744
+ (ex.K 0 ,f1 (1285)) ( 9.9 1.6 ) 105
a1 (1260) 0 < 3.9 104 CL=90%
< 7.4 106 CL=90% 637
0 < 2.0 104 CL=95% 559
K < 3.0 106 CL=90% 382
(958) < 4.0 106 CL=90% 620
(958) 0 < 1.2 105 CL=90% 591
(958)K < 2.4 106 CL=90% 495
( 3.4 0.6 ) 105 585
K ( 3.70 0.33 ) 105 S=1.3 445
f1 (1285) ( 3.9 0.5 ) 104 S=1.9 408
f1 (1285) ( 1.18 0.07 ) 104 S=1.3
+
f1 (1285) ( 5.2 0.5 ) 105
3 2 +
(1300) ( ) < 1.0 104 CL=90%
(3)
(1300) < 1.9 104 CL=90%
(( )Swave )
(3)

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h 0 neutrals ( 2.41 0.09 ) % S=1.2 708


h [g ] ( 2.00 0.08 ) % S=1.3 708
K ( 4.1 0.9 ) 104 610
h 0 [g ] ( 4.1 0.4 ) 103 684
h 2 0 ( 1.4 0.5 ) 104 644
2 0 ( 7.3 1.7 ) 105 644
h 2 < 5.4 107 CL=90% 250
2h h+ ( 1.20 0.22 ) 104 641
2 + ( 8.4 0.7 ) 105 641

Lepton Family number (LF ), Lepton number (L),


or Baryon number (B) violating modes
L means lepton number violation (e.g. e + ). Following
common usage, LF means lepton family violation and not lepton number
violation (e.g. e + ). B means baryon number violation.
e LF < 3.3 108 CL=90% 888
LF < 4.4 108 CL=90% 885
e 0 LF < 8.0 108 CL=90% 883
0 LF < 1.1 107 CL=90% 880
e K 0S LF < 2.6 108 CL=90% 819
K 0S LF < 2.3 108 CL=90% 815
e LF < 9.2 108 CL=90% 804
LF < 6.5 108 CL=90% 800
e 0 LF < 1.8 108 CL=90% 719
0 LF < 1.2 108 CL=90% 715
e LF < 4.8 108 CL=90% 716
LF < 4.7 108 CL=90% 711
e K (892)0 LF < 3.2 108 CL=90% 665
K (892)0 LF < 5.9 108 CL=90% 659
e K (892)0 LF < 3.4 108 CL=90% 665
K (892)0 LF < 7.0 108 CL=90% 659
e (958) LF < 1.6 107 CL=90% 630
(958) LF < 1.3 107 CL=90% 625
e f0 (980) e + LF < 3.2 108 CL=90%
f0 (980) + LF < 3.4 108 CL=90%
e LF < 3.1 108 CL=90% 596
LF < 8.4 108 CL=90% 590
e e+ e LF < 2.7 108 CL=90% 888
e + LF < 2.7 108 CL=90% 882
e + LF < 1.7 108 CL=90% 882
e + e LF < 1.8 108 CL=90% 885
+ e e LF < 1.5 108 CL=90% 885
+ LF < 2.1 108 CL=90% 873
e + LF < 2.3 108 CL=90% 877

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e + L < 2.0 108 CL=90% 877


+ LF < 2.1 108 CL=90% 866
+ L < 3.9 108 CL=90% 866
e + K LF < 3.7 108 CL=90% 813
e K + LF < 3.1 108 CL=90% 813
e + K L < 3.2 108 CL=90% 813
e K 0S K 0S LF < 7.1 108 CL=90% 736
e K + K LF < 3.4 108 CL=90% 738
e+ K K L < 3.3 108 CL=90% 738
+ K LF < 8.6 108 CL=90% 800
K + LF < 4.5 108 CL=90% 800
+ K L < 4.8 108 CL=90% 800
K 0S K 0S LF < 8.0 108 CL=90% 696
K + K LF < 4.4 108 CL=90% 699
+ K K L < 4.7 108 CL=90% 699
e 0 0 LF < 6.5 106 CL=90% 878
0 0 LF < 1.4 105 CL=90% 867
e LF < 3.5 105 CL=90% 699
LF < 6.0 105 CL=90% 653
e 0 LF < 2.4 105 CL=90% 798
0 LF < 2.2 105 CL=90% 784
p L,B < 4.4 107 CL=90% 618
p + L,B < 3.3 107 CL=90% 618
p L,B < 3.5 106 CL=90% 641
p 0 L,B < 1.5 105 CL=90% 632
p 2 0 L,B < 3.3 105 CL=90% 604
p L,B < 8.9 106 CL=90% 475
p 0 L,B < 2.7 105 CL=90% 360
L,B < 7.2 108 CL=90% 525
L,B < 1.4 107 CL=90% 525
e light boson LF < 2.7 103 CL=95%
light boson LF < 5 103 CL=95%

Heavy Charged Lepton Searches

L charged lepton
Mass m > 100.8 GeV, CL = 95% [h] Decay to W .
L stable charged heavy lepton
Mass m > 102.6 GeV, CL = 95%

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Neutrino Properties

See the note on Neutrino properties listings in the Particle Listings.


Mass m < 2 eV (tritium decay)
Mean life/mass, /m > 300 s/eV, CL = 90% (reactor)
Mean life/mass, /m > 7 109 s/eV (solar)
Mean life/mass, /m > 15.4 s/eV, CL = 90% (accelerator)
Magnetic moment < 0.29 1010 B , CL = 90% (reactor)

Number of Neutrino Types

Number N = 2.984 0.008 (Standard Model fits to LEP data)


Number N = 2.92 0.05 (S = 1.2) (Direct measurement of
invisible Z width)

Neutrino Mixing

The following values are obtained through data analyses based on


the 3-neutrino mixing scheme described in the review Neutrino
Mass, Mixing, and Oscillations by K. Nakamura and S.T. Petcov
in this Review.
sin2 (12 ) = 0.304 0.014
sin2 (212 ) = 0.846 0.021
m221 = (7.53 0.18) 105 eV2
sin2 (23 ) = 0.514 + 0.055
0.056 (normal mass hierarchy)
2 + 0.000
sin (23 ) = 1.000 0.017 (inverted mass hierarchy)
sin2 (223 ) = 0.999 + 0.001
0.018 (normal mass hierarchy)
2 + 0.000
sin (223 ) = 1.000 0.017 (inverted mass hierarchy)
m232 = (2.44 0.06) 103 eV2 [i] (normal mass hierarchy)
m232 = (2.49 0.06) 103 eV2 [i] (inverted mass hierarchy)
sin2 (13 ) = (2.19 0.12) 102
sin2 (213 ) = (8.5 0.5) 102
Stable Neutral Heavy Lepton Mass Limits
Mass m > 45.0 GeV, CL = 95% (Dirac)
Mass m > 39.5 GeV, CL = 95% (Majorana)
Neutral Heavy Lepton Mass Limits
Mass m > 90.3 GeV, CL = 95%
(Dirac L coupling to e, , ; conservative case( ))
Mass m > 80.5 GeV, CL = 95%
(Majorana L coupling to e, , ; conservative case( ))

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NOTES

[a] This is the best limit for the mode e . The best limit for electron
disappearance is 6.4 1024 yr.
[b] See the Note on Muon Decay Parameters in the Particle Listings for
definitions and details.
[c] P is the longitudinal polarization of the muon from pion decay. In
standard V A theory, P = 1 and = = 3/4.
[d] This only includes events with the energy > 10 MeV. Since the e e
and e e modes cannot be clearly separated, we regard the latter
mode as a subset of the former.
[e] See the relevant Particle Listings for the energy limits used in this mea-
surement.
[f ] A test of additive vs. multiplicative lepton family number conservation.
[g ] Basis mode for the .
[h] L mass limit depends on decay assumptions; see the Full Listings.
[i ] The sign of m232 is not known at this time. The range quoted is for
the absolute value.

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