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Chapter 1

Aerospace Science and Engineering

Sudip Bhattrai
Assistant Professor

Institute of Engineering (IOE)


Tribhuvan University
December 1, 2014
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Introduction to Aeronautics and Airframe
Introduction to Aeronautics
History of aircrafts, and their evolution
Aircrafts operational in Nepalese skies
Principles of flight and aircraft dynamics
Basic Aerodynamics (Incompressible & Inviscid Flows)
Analytical solutions to basic inviscid flows
Potential flow over a circular cylinder
Concept of lift generation and drag
Airframe (Aircraft Structures)
Aircraft structural components
Structural design of fuselage and lifting surfaces
Functional study of aircraft structures
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Background
Research Specialty
Advanced Aerospace/SSTO Propulsion Systems
Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics
Computational Fluid Dynamics and Combustion
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles
Sudip Bhattrai, Hao Tang, Comparative Performance Analysis of Combined Cycle Pulse Detonation
Turbofan Engines (PDTEs), Propulsion and Power Research 2(3), Sept. 2013.
Sudip Bhattrai, Hao Tang, Numerical Study of Shcramjet Combustor Characteristic Control Techniques,
Frontiers in Aerospace Engineering 2(3), Aug. 2013.
Sudip Bhattrai, Hao Tang, Stabilization of Near-Chapman-Jouguet Oblique Detonation Waves, Shock
Waves (SCI), 2014.
Sudip Bhattrai, Hao Tang, Research of Ramp-Supported Oblique Detonation Waves for Hypersonic Vehicle
Propulsion, 1st International Academic Conference of NUAA Graduate Students, December 12, 2013,
Nanjing, China.
Sudip Bhattrai, Hao Tang, Numerical Study of Supersonic Fuel-Air Injection and Mixing Characteristics
using Cantilever and Strut Injectors, 1st International Academic Conference of NUAA Graduate Students,
December 12, 2013, Nanjing, China.
Sudip Bhattrai, Effects of equivalence ratio and gap size on the propagation behavior
of detonations, Journal of Aerospace Power, V235.22, 2012, 27 (9).
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Aircraft and/or Airplane?

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Aircraft and/or Airplane?

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Spacecraft and/or Spaceplane?

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Spacecraft and/or Spaceplane?

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Spacecraft and/or Spaceplane?

Elon Musk

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???

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1. History of Aircrafts

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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Flyer
The Flyer lifted from level ground, at 10:35 a.m., on
December 17, 1903 at Kill Devil Hill, North Carolina.

The first successful controlled,


powered and sustained heavier-than-
air flight.

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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Flyer
Orville piloted the plane which weighed about 270 kg.
The plane used rail tracks for a guided launch, with a 12
horsepower piston engine.
The first attempt was made on 14th December with
Wilbur willing the toss, but he pulled a sharp pitch which
stalled the aircraft. Only minor damages incurred.
The Orville flight lasted for 12 seconds, covering 36.5 m.
Then they took turns making 4 low-altitude flights.
It is now an exhibit at the National Air and Space
Museum in Washington D.C.
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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Flyer
The Wright brothers tested gliders at Kitty Hawk, North
Carolina between 1900 and 1902, beginning initially with
kites to understand the role that wind flow over the
wing surfaces play in generating lift.
The Wrights chose the area because its frequent winds
and soft sandy surfaces were suitable for their glider
experiments, which they conducted over the period prior
to making the powered flights.
They even build a wind-tunnel to test airfoil shapes that
would give higher lift.
The 1902 Wright Glider was the adopted design for Flyer.
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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Gliders

WG 1901
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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Gliders

WG 1902
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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Homemade Wind Tunnel

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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Flyer in a NASA Wind Tunnel

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1. History of Aircrafts
The Wright Flyer Configuration

Canard stabilizer (pitch)

Devised an early method of roll


control, and a coupled roll and
yaw control now widely used as
a lateral control technique.

In 1905, Wilbur Wright piloted


the Flyer III airplane for 39
minutes, covering a distance of
about 40 km, till the plane ran out
of fuel. Man kind could fly!

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1. History of Aircrafts
Wright Military Flyer

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1. History of Aircrafts
Robert H. Goddard
Founding Father of Modern Rocketry. He designed and built the
first liquid-fueled rocket, carrying out a successful test on March
16, 1926 (US).

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2. Early Pioneers
Gliders- George Cayley
Known as Father of Gliders as well as Aerodynamics.
Over the course of fifty years (between 1799 and the
1850s) he designed several variations of glider designs,
carrying-out successful gravity assisted flights.
Optimized wing shapes to achieve proper flow over it.
Discovered the necessity of a tail for stability and
acknowledged the need for carrying a propulsion system
for power.
Hence, identifying the four main forces acting on a flight
vehicle, namely- lift, drag, thrust and weight (body
force).
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2. Early Pioneers
Gliders- George Cayley

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2. Early Pioneers
Gliders- Otto Lilienthal
Known as Glider King.
By the time of his death he had achieved an unbeaten
flight time of 5 hours with a total of 2500 flights.
Gravity assisted glides against an upwash wind, his
gliders were able to fly long distances (record of 250 m).
He wrote a book on aerodynamics in 1989, which was
used by Wright brothers as a basis for their design.
Died after a glider test gone wrong in 1896. He fell 15 m
with the glider, fracturing a vertebra.
His last words were- Sacrifices must be made!
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2. Early Pioneers
Gliders- Otto Lilienthal

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2. Early Pioneers
Aerodome- Samuel P. Langley
Acknowledged the necessity of generating power to
achieve flight, and became the first inventor to use a
propulsion system in a glider.
Launched from a boat with a catapult, his first attempt on
Oct. 7, 1903 ended with the Aerodome plunging into
water, though an unmanned catapulted test in 1896 was a
success (sort of; it ran out of fuel within a mile).
His second attempt, on December 8th 1903, the
Aerodome crashed again nearly killing the pilot. It was
the second public crash he faced within a few months.
Depressed, disappointed and criticized he gave up!
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2. Early Pioneers
Aerodome- Samuel P. Langley

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2. Early Pioneers
Aerodome- Samuel P. Langley

He's remembered as one of the most unlucky trail


blazers in flight history.
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2. Early Pioneers
Aerodome- Samuel P. Langley

1914- Modified Aerodome.


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2. Early Pioneers
Hot-Air Balloons- Montgolfier Brothers
The French brothers, Joseph Michel and Jacques Etienne
Montgolfier, were inventors of the first hot air balloon.
The public demonstration was made on June 4th, 1783. It
climbed to a height of about 1600-2000 m and traveled
for about 10 minutes covering 2 km.
In 1783, On the 19th of September 1783, the Arostat
Rveillon was flown with living beings on it as a public
demonstration. The first passengers in the colorful
balloon were a sheep, rooster and duck. It covered about
3 km in in 8 minutes, raising to an altitude of 460 m.
The first manned free flight was on Nov. 21, 1783.
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2. Early Pioneers
Hot-Air Balloons- Montgolfier Brothers

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2. Early Pioneers
Hot-Air Balloons- Montgolfier Brothers

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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company
The concept has been around for long, since the 1670
flying boat concept of Francesco Lana de Terzi
(Italian), but the German Zeppelin company pioneered
the use of very large airships in the early 20th century.

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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company
They are known to be of three types: Rigid (has a
structural framework), Semi-Rigid and Non-Rigid
(shaped by internal pressure).
They are also commonly referred to as Dirigibles, or
simply as Zeppelin.
Saw wide-spread military use in World-War I; they
proved to be terrifying but highly inaccurate.
The physical damage done by airships over the course
of the war was insignificant, and the deaths that they
caused amounted to a few hundred.

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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company

Graf Zeppelin Intercontinental PassangerAirship.


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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company
The Hindenburg disaster on May 6, 1937.

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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company

Good Year Blimp


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2. Early Pioneers
Airships- Zeppelin Company

Lockheed-Martin Hybrid Airship

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2. Early Pioneers
The Ornithopter- Leonardo Da-Vinci

Da-Vincis Ornithopter
Plan from 1490

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2. Early Pioneers
The Ornithopter- Leonardo Da-Vinci

Otto Lilienthal
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2. Early Pioneers
Other Honorable Attempts
The Aerial Steam Carriage, conceived by William
Henson in 1843, was the first aircraft design to show
propellers.
In 1874, Felix du Temple made the first attempt at
manned flight in a powered aircraft. He was not
successful.
Thomas Walker, a portrait-painter from Hull, England
publishes a pamphlet on the possibilities of fixed-wing
aviation.
A single wing was composed of 8 long slender wings that overlap one another. The
control system adjusts the angle of attack of the winglets. This, in turn, varied the lift
and caused the airplane to ascend or descend. Or so Walker hypothesized.
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2. Early Pioneers
Other Honorable Attempts
The oldest known attempt to describe a parachute is found in an
anonymous depiction from 1470s Italy.

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2. Early Pioneers
Other Honorable Attempts
Franz Reichelt, a French tailor and inventor, designed a wearable
parachute. With his parachute on, in February 4th 1912, he
jumped from Eifel tower for a test and died.

The Flying Taylor

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2. Early Pioneers

Timeline of Pioneering Developments in Flight.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Commercial Developments
The first commercial flight took place on January 1, 1914 aboard
a Benoist XIV through a 21 km journey between two cities in US.
The first commercial airliner was the Chalks International
Airline in US. Founded in 1917, It ceased operation in 2007.

First commercial flight aboard


Benoist XIV.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Commercial Developments
First commercial jetliner was the 40-seater De Havilland DH 106
Comet, first flown on 27th June, 1949.

Boeing 707 first flew in 1957,


while Airbus 300 first flew on
28 October 1972.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Commercial Developments
Currently the worlds biggest passenger airliner is the Airbus
A380, introduced in 2007, with up to 850 seating capacity. While
the largest cargo aircraft is the Antonov An-225 Mriya, which
is the longest and heaviest aircraft ever built.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Military Developments
The worlds first aircraft to fly with a jet engine was the Heinkel
He 178 experimental aircraft, built in Nazi Germany. It first flew
on August 27, 1939.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Military Developments
The German liquid-propelled rocket V-2 was the first application
of rocket propulsion with a definite payload, the first long-range
ballistic missile, and the first man-made object to reach suborbital
altitudes and beyond(~180 km, 1944).

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Military Developments
The first aircraft to achieve flight at level supersonic speed was
the rocket-powered Bell-X1 experimental aircraft. The record of
fastest air-breathing manned aircraft is held by Lockheed SR-71.

Bell X-1

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Military Developments
The official record for the highest speed achieved by a manned
aircraft is held by the North American X-15 rocket-powered
experimental aircraft at 7,271 km/hr (31.1 km). It also achieved
two suborbital flights. It achieved hypersonic speed.

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3. Modern Aircrafts
Military Developments
The NASA X-43 experimental hypersonic aircraft (scramjet) has
the highest speed record in horizontal flight at Mach 9.8 (Nov.
16, 2004). It had a burn time of approximately 10 seconds at an
altitude of ~33.5 km.

The record for longest airbreathing


hypersonic flight is held by Boeing
X-51 (210s, May 2013).

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4. The Atmosphere
Definition
Firstlythe space is separate and different from the
atmosphere. What is the dividing line between space and
the atmosphere?
The atmosphere and space are really one medium which
is best described by the compound term aerospace (aero
= atmosphere plus space).
For the purpose of our discussion, the word atmosphere
will be used to describe the aerospace portion where
humans do not require special life support systems and
space will be used to define the area above the
atmosphere where special equipment is needed.
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4. The Atmosphere
Definition
There are three major ways to study the makeup of the
atmosphere:
Its elements.
Its regions.
Its pressure.

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4. The Atmosphere
Composition
The atmosphere is composed of 78 percent nitrogen and
21 percent oxygen.
This leaves only one percent to be made up by other
permanent and variable gases.
The other permanent gases are argon, neon, helium,
methane, hydrogen and xenon. The variable gases are
water vapor, carbon dioxide, ozone, carbon monoxide,
sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide.
Added to this pure mixture there are also dust particles,
hydrocarbons and other matter given off by vehicles and
industries, the pollens of plants, and so forth.
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4. The Atmosphere
Characterization
Certain levels of the atmosphere can be identified
according to general characteristics, or atmospheric
regions.
The four usual ways of describing these regions (also
called atmospheric shells or layers) are:
By temperature distribution
Physicochemical (physical and chemical properties)
processes distribution
Molecular composition
Dynamic-kinetic (force-motion) processes

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4. The Atmosphere
Temperature Distribution
One of the most common and
easiest ways to understand and
describe the atmosphere is by
temperature.
There are four distinct regions of
the atmosphere where the
temperature distribution is
different enough to warrant a
different name.

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4. The Atmosphere
Temperature Distribution
Troposphere (tropo meaning
turn/change) raises from the
surface to about
Produces weather patterns and
this is where living things
predominantly live.

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4. The Atmosphere
Temperature Distribution
Stratosphere
Temperature goes up with
increasing altitude.
Begins at km altitude, and
extends upto..

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4. The Atmosphere
Temperature Distribution
Mesosphere
Temperature goes down with
increasing altitude.
Begins at km altitude, and
extends upto..

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4. The Atmosphere
Temperature Distribution
Mesosphere
Temperature goes up with
increasing altitude.
Begins at km altitude, and
extends upto..

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Chapter 7 The Atmosphere
Atmospheric regions. (continue)
4. The Atmosphere
Particulate Matter
Dust and other very small particles called particulate matter play
an important role in weather. If they were not present in the
atmosphere, there would not be certain forms of condensation
and precipitation.
These particles serve as a surface for condensation of water
vapor and are called condensation nuclei.
The molecules of water attach themselves to these nuclei if the
temperature is right. Water molecules continue to accumulate
until they can be seen in their familiar liquid or solid forms.
For an idea of just how small the condensation nuclei might be,
the diameter of a single condensation nucleus could be as small
as 0.000000004 inch (four billionths of an inch).

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4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
Several factors cause the atmosphere to be a constantly changing
landscape of invisible mountains and valleys.
The major influences are the uneven distribution of oceans and
continents, the seasonal
temperature changes, the heat transferring qualities of different
Earth surfaces and daily temperature changes.
The high-pressure areas of the atmosphere are the mountains and
the low-pressure areas are the valleys.
The wind flows from these high-pressure mountains into the low-
pressure valleys

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4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
The slope of the high-pressure mountain (defined by contours) is
called the pressure gradient. On weather maps, its degree of
steepness is shown by lines called isobars.
Isobars are drawn through points of equal sea-level atmospheric
(barometric) pressure. They identify five different types of
pressure patternshighs, lows, cols, troughs, and ridges.
A high is a center of high pressure surrounded by lower pressure,
and a low is a center of low pressure surrounded by higher
pressure. A col is a saddle-back area between two highs and
two lows.
An elongated area of low pressure is called a trough. An
elongated area of high pressure is called a ridge.

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Chapter 7 The Atmosphere
Chapter 7 The Atmosphere
4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
The general circulation of the air is complicated by the irregular
distribution of land and water areas. Different types of surfaces
vary in the rate at which they absorb heat from the Sun and
transfer heat to the atmosphere. Seasonal changes and daily
variations in temperature also affect this rate of transfer.
In some regions, local low-pressure areas form over hot land
surfaces in summer, and over the warmer water surfaces in winter.
Convection currents are formed along shorelines. These currents
are heated air rising upward which cause advection currents
(wind) to flow from the water over the warmer land during the
day. During the night, convection currents develop over the
warmer-than-land water and cause the wind to blow from the
land toward the water. This phenomenon is known as the land
and sea breeze.
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Sea Breeze

Land Breeze
4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
Local air circulation of limited scope is caused by variations in
the Earths surface.
Some surfaces- such as sand, rocks, plowed areas and barren
land- give off or reflect a great amount of heat.
Other surfaces- such as meadows, planted fields and water- tend
to retain heat.
Rising air currents are encountered by aircraft flying over
surfaces that give off considerable heat, while descending air
currents are encountered over surfaces that tend to retain heat.

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Advection is a transport mechanism of a substance or conserved property by a fluid
due to the fluid's bulk motion.
Chapter 7 The Atmosphere
4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
The rotation of the Earth complicates the simple concept of wind
that is due to pressure and thermal gradients. The rotation causes
the alternating heating and cooling of the equatorial and other
regions during day and night.
Perhaps the most significant influence on the creation and flow of
wind is the spinning planet and the resulting Coriolis Effect.

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4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
The jet stream is a comparatively narrow
current of air which moves around the
Northern (and Southern) Hemispheres of
the Earth in wavelike patterns.
It might be compared to a river of
wind moving at high speed. The jet
stream varies from about 100 to 400
miles wide and 1 to 3 miles thick. Its
strongest winds are generally
encountered above 30,000 feet. Jet-
stream winds usually have a speed of
140-to-480 km/h, but speeds up to 725
km/h have been recorded. Its general
motion is from west to east.
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4. The Atmosphere
Atmosphere in Motion
The jet stream shifts position frequently and actually migrates
with the seasons. The cruising range of aircraft flying
downwind within a jet stream is greatly increased. Pilots
anticipating high-altitude or long-range flights attempt to
discover the location of the jet stream and use it to their
advantage.
For several decades now, meteorologists have studied jet streams
and how they affect the movements of air masses. While the
relationship is still unknown, there is a common agreement that
jet streams may act as a barrier between cold air in the north and
warm air in the south. During their snakelike meandering, the
streams appear to allow some cold air to flow southward and
warm air to flow northward. These flows undoubtedly have some
affect on the formation of cold and warm air masses.
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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

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4. The Atmosphere
Clouds

Morning Glory
Clouds (Australia)

not clearly understood because their rarity means they have little significance
in terms of rainfall or climate
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