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# PAPERS

ELECTROMAGNETIC INDUCTION

## Lecturers: Devi Solehat M.Pd

Arranged by:
Laili Fauziah : 11140163000001
Rizka Nabila : 11140163000024

JAKARTA

2017
FOREWORD

## lord Prophet of Allaah 'alaihi wasallam, because thanks to the

hard work it was he we can know and study science with a bright

## friends and readers, in general, is very much needed in order to

make the paper better dri before. Finally, we would like to thank

## Ciputat, March, 7, 2017

Composer

Foreword..................................................................................................................i

Chapter I.................................................................................................................1

INTRODUCTION..................................................................................................1

1.1. Background....................................................................................................1

1.2. Limitations................................................................................................. 2

## 1.3. Problem formulation....................................................................................2

1.4. Purpose.........................................................................................................2

Chapter II...............................................................................................................3

DISCUSSION.........................................................................................................3

## 2.2. Lenzs Law...................................................................................................4

2.3. Self-Induced.................................................................................................5

## 2.4. Application the faraday induction of technology products..........................6

Chapter III..............................................................................................................7

CLOSING...............................................................................................................7

3.1. Conclusion...................................................................................................8

3.2. Suggestion....................................................................................................9

References..............................................................................................................iii
Chapter I
INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background

## In the physics of electromagnetism, an electromagnetic field is a field

composed of two related vector fields: the electric field and magnetic field.
The electromagnetic field imaginable covering the entire room; usually the
electromagnetic field is confined in a small area around the object in space.
Vectors (E and B), which is a character field each have a defined value at
every point in space and time. When only the electric field (E) is not zero,
and constant in time, the field is said to be an electrostatic field. E and B
(magnetic field) associated with Maxwell's equations. Electromagnetic field
can be explained by a basic quantum by quantum electrodynamics.

## Electricity can generate magnetism. Can cause electrical magnetism?

Magnetism and electricity are the two natural phenomena that the process can
be inverted. When H.C. Oersted proved that around electrical current carrying
wire contained a magnetic field (magnetic cause electrical means), the
scientists began to think the relationship between electricity and magnetism.
In 1821 Michael Faraday proved that changing magnetic field can induce
electrical currents (magnetic means raises electricity) through a very simple
experiment. A magnet is moved in and out on the coils can generate electrical
current in the coil. Galvanometer is a tool that can be used to determine
whether there is an electrical current that flows.

In human life today, power tools increasingly being used to gain the
ease and enjoyment. The role of electricity more widely used in a variety of
life infrastructure. So that all around us are surrounded by an electric field
and electromagnetic fields. Various studies have been conducted to determine
the influence of both to health.
1.2. Limitations

## In this research the problem is limited in terms EMF induction,

Faradays law, Lenz's law, self induction and the use of electromagnetic
induction in technology products.

## 2. How Faradays law and Lenz's law?

3. What is a self-induced?

1.4. Purpose

## 1. Know and understand the EMF induction

2. Knowing Faraday and Lenz's law
3. Know and understand the self induction
4. Knowing the usefulness of induction faraday technology products
Chapter II

DISCUSSION

## Electricity can generate magnetism. You think, can cause electrical

magnetism? Magnetism and electricity are the two natural phenomena that the
process can be inverted. When H.C. Oersted proved that there is an electric
current carrying wire around a magnetic field (magnetic cause electrical means),
the scientists began to think the relationship between electricity and magnetism.

In 1821 Michael Faraday proved that changing magnetic field can induce
electrical currents (magnetic means raises istricts) through a very simple
experiment as shown in the figure. Likewise, if the magnet is now held
stationary and only the coil is moved towards or away from the magnet the
needle of the galvanometer will Deflect Also in either direction. Then the action
of moving a coil or loop of wire through a magnetic field induces a voltage in
the coil with the magnitude of this induced voltage being proportional to the
speed or velocity of the movement.
Then we can see that the faster the movement of the magnetic field the
greater will be the induced emf or voltage in the coil, so for Faraday's law to
hold true there must be "relative motion" or movement between the coil and the
magnetic field and either the magnetic field, the coil or both can move.
a. If a conductor cuts the lines of force of a magnetic field (flux) is constant, then
the conductor will arise induced voltage.
b. Changes in the magnetic field flux in a series of conducting material, will
cause the induced voltage in the circuit.

## Equation emf Faraday's law of induction that meet are as follows:

The negative sign means in accordance with Lenz's Law, which is "Induction
emf always generate current magnetic field opposite to the source of the
magnetic flux change".
Affecting factors of the EMF Induction, EMF is actually a great little
induction can be seen in the size of the deviation angle of the needle
galvanometer. If the angle of deviation large galvanometer needle,EMF
induction and induced current generated great. There are several ways to enlarge
EMF induction. There are three factors that affect EMF induction, are:
a. magnet movement speed or the speed of change in the number of lines of
magnetic force (magnetic flux)
b. the number of windings,
c. magnetic field

## 2.2. Lenzs Law

Faraday's Law to take one step further, 19th century physicist Heinrich Lenz
observed electrical currents generated by changing magnetic fields and saw that
the induced magnetic fields opposed the original magnetic field. This filled in a
previous gap in the knowledge about the relationship between electricity and
magnetism, and the new finding was named Lenz's Law. Faraday's law only
shows the magnitude of induced emf in the coil, and can not indicate Directions
Flow Induction coils.
Lenzs law states are: "induced current flows in a conductor or coil in the
opposite direction to the movement that produced" or "magnetic fields thereof
against changes in magnetic flux that caused".

a. If the N pole magnet on hold coils AB, there will be increase lines of magnetic
force toward BA enclosed coil.
b. Lens accordance with the law, then there will be new lines of magnetic force
direction AB to oppose the increase of the magnetic lines of force.
c. The new lines of magnetic force generated by the AB direction of the induced
current in the coil.
d. If the magnet poles N eliminated, the opposite will happen.

2.3. Self-Induced
The property of self-inductance is a particular form of electromagnetic
induction. Self inductance is defined as the induction of a voltage in a current-
carrying wire when the current in the wire itself is changing. In the case of self-
inductance, the magnetic field created by a changing current in the circuit itself
induces a voltage in the same circuit. Therefore, the voltage is self-induced.

## The term inductor is used to describe a circuit element possessing the

property of inductance and a coil of wire is a very common inductor. In circuit
diagrams, a coil or wire is usually used to indicate an inductive component.
Taking a closer look at a coil will help understand the reason that a voltage is
induced in a wire carrying a changing current. The alternating current running
through the coil creates a magnetic field in and around the coil that is increasing
and decreasing as the current changes. The magnetic field forms concentric
loops that surround the wire and join to form larger loops that surround the coil
as shown in the image below. When the current increases in one loop the
expanding magnetic field will cut across some or all of the neighboring loops of
wire, inducing a voltage in these loops. This causes a voltage to be induced in
the coil when the current is changing.

By studying this image of a coil, it can be seen that the number of turns
in the coil will have an effect on the amount of voltage that is induced into the
circuit. Increasing the number of turns or the rate of change of magnetic flux
increases the amount of induced voltage. Therefore, Faraday's Law must be
modified for a coil of wire and becomes the following.

Where:

## d/dt = rate of change of magnetic flux in webers/second

The equation simply states that the amount of induced voltage (VL) is
proportional to the number of turns in the coil and the rate of change of the
magnetic flux (d/dt). In other words, when the frequency of the flux is
increased or the number of turns in the coil is increased, the amount of
induced voltage will also increase.

## In a circuit, it is much easier to measure current than it is to measure

magnetic flux, so the following equation can be used to determine the induced
voltage if the inductance and frequency of the current are known. This
equation can also be reorganized to allow the inductance to be calculated
when the amount of inducted voltage can be determined and the current
frequency is known.

Where:

## Self Inductance in a Long Seloid, what is meant by a long selenoid is a

very long selenoid compased selenoid with N coil turns and i current is
B=0 l

## Where as the magnetic flux for each coil turn is

m=B . A=BA cos ( =0 )

( 0 l) A
m =BA =

The total magnetic flux in a selenoid is the flux at each coiling multiplied by
the number of coilng
Self Inductance in Toroids, Toroid is a round coil, if current i flows
through a toroid of radius a with N coil turns, them the magnetic strength a the
center of the toroid is
B=0 l

## Share l is the torids circumfrence, l= 2 a , Magnetic flux at each coil turn

is m=BA , whereas the total flux is the amount of flux at each turn

## multiplied by the number of coil turns

0 N 2 lA
m total =NBA m total=
2 a

## Potential Energy in Inductor, Inductor can store electric energy. The

amount of electric energy (E) within an inductor (coil) with inductance L and
current l formulated as
E=1 /2 L I 2

Mutual Inductance, if two coils were put next to each other with

## closeness some of the field lines of coil 1 will reach coil 2

Lets say 21 is the magnetic flux in the coil 2 due to current I1. If current I1

changes with time the magnetic flux in coil 2 will also changes1

## Faradays law is one of the four celebrated Maxwells equations which

synthesize the electromagnetic theory. According to Maxwell himself, his
mathematical work is a translation of Michael Faraday's earlier qualitative ideas
in view of the symmetry in nature, the converse of Faradays law also must be
true i.e. Changing electric field must give rise to magnetic field. This line of
thinking led him ultimately to the concept of the displacement current and

1 Fendi Purwoko. 2010. Physics 3 for Senior Hight School. Jakarta: Yudistira
extension of Amperes law to dynamic conditions which is Maxwells significant
contribution to the theory of electrodynamics. Technological Applications

## Faradays law gives rise to countless technological applications too.

The law has far-reaching consequences that have revolutionized the living of
mankind after its discovery. Faradays discovery of electromagnetic induction
has numerous industrial, technological, medical and other applications. Some
of them are briefed as follows

## 1. Microwave: You can find a real-life example of Faraday cage right

inside your kitchen. The metal shell in your microwave oven acts as a
Faraday cage, and prevents the microwaves inside the oven from
leaking into the environment.

## 2. EMI shielding for Electronic Equipment: It is important to protect

various electronic equipment from the electromagnetic radiation
coming from other electronic units present in the environment. Coaxial
cables used for television generally consist of a copper braided shield
underneath the PVC jacket that acts as a Faraday cage to protect the
internal conductors from external electrical noise and to prevent any
RF leakage.

## 3. Protective Gear for Electricians and Linemen: The protective suits

worn by men working in hazardous environments are nothing but a
type of Faraday cage. These suits are designed to protect workers from
being electrocuted while working in close proximity to high voltage
power lines.

## 4. MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging): Faraday cages are also used in

MRI scan rooms to prevent external radio frequency signals from
causing any distortion to the data coming from the patient.

## 5. Lightening Safety: The protective metal compartment of a car or an

airplane acts a faraday cage to protect its passengers from external
electric charges such as lightning.
6. Transformer can transform the levels of A.C. voltage and current very
easily. They are useful to transmit A.C. electricity over long distances
without much loss of power. At the generating station, voltage is
increased to hundreds of kV by using step-up transformers. The
distribution system of power line has to carry proportionately reduced
current over long distances and power loss in transmission lines is
minimized. Afterwards, at the user end the voltage is decreased to the
230 V (A.C. Mains) by using step-down transformers for operating the
household appliances, industrial machines etc.

## 7. Electrical Generators, A coil of wire spun in a magnetic field at a

constant rate produces electromotive force. Mechanical energy is
converted to electrical energy. In hydro-electric power plant the energy
of falling water is used to spin permanent magnets around a stationary
loop of wire, to produce electrical power from hydrolic power.
Induction Welding, When an electrically conductive or a ferromagnetic
sample is placed in a high-frequency electromagnetic field of a coil
carrying radio-frequency electric current, the sample gets heated due to
combination of heat by magnetically induced currents called eddy
currents and hysteresis. This heat is useful for welding samples even
of nonmagnetic materials by implanting metallic or ferromagnetic
compounds in them.

## 8. Induction Cookers, A.C. flowing through the coil of copper wire -

placed below a cooking container - produces an alternating magnetic
field. That magnetic field induces a current in the electrically
conductive container, produces heat in it by Joule (I2R) heating effect.
In addition there is some amount of heat due to magnetic hysteresis in
the ferromagnetic container also. Induction cookers are faster, have
better thermal efficiency and offer instantaneous control of cooking
energy.

## 9. Electromagnetic Flow Meters, A magnetic field is applied to

electrically conducting fluids flowing in electrically insulated pipes, an
electromotive force proportional to velocity is induced according to the
principle of electromagnetic induction. Used to measure velocity of
blood, slurries etc.

## 10. Musical Instruments, Musical instruments like electric guitar, electric

violin etc have a pick-up device attached to them. It consists of a fine
enameled copper wire wound on a magnet. When the metal strings of
the guitar are strung, the vibrating string cuts the magnetic flux of
magnet linking the coil due to which electric current is induced in the
pick-ups coil. It is modulated by the mechanical vibrations of the
strings. This electrical signal is then amplified and recorded by suitable
devices. In addition the phenomena of electromagnetic induction is
also used in instruments and machines like Induction motors, Induction
Sealing, Audio video tapes, Hall effect meters, Faraday Disk etc.
Chapter III

CLOSING

3.1. Conclusion
The emergence of the electrical force (EMF) on the coil only in the event of
changes in the number of lines of force magnet.Gaya electric motion arising from
the change in the number of lines of magnetic force called EMF induced, while
the current flowing and the event is called the induced current is called
electromagnetic induction. There are several factors that affect a large EMF
induction are:
1. Speed magnetic field changes. The faster the magnetic field changes, the EMF
induction incurred even greater.
2. The number of coil windings more, then the induction arising EMF also getting
bigger.
3. The power of magnetism of The stronger the magnet, the induction arising
EMF also the greater it is.
To strengthen the symptoms of magnetism in the coil can enter the soft iron
core. GGL induction can be generated by other means, namely:
1. Play a magnet near the coil or coils rotate near the magnet. Then both ends of
the coil will arise EMF induction.
2. Terminate-Mutus or varying the direction of the direct current in the primary
coil secondary coil located nearby the both ends of the secondary coil may arise
EMF induction
3. Drain the AC current in the primary coil, the secondary coil is brought near
EMF induction can arise. Induction currents that arise is the AC current and
induced electromotive force is GGL AC.

3.2. Suggestion

The author, aware that there are still many shortcomings in this paper.
Therefore, the authors expect criticism and constructive suggestions from
readers for the formulation of a paper in the future better.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Fendi Purwoko. 2010. Physics 3 for Senior Hight School. Jakarta: Yudistira