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International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, pp. 13-22, © IASTER 2014 www.iaster.com, ISSN Online:2347-5188 Print: 2347-8772

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, pp. 13-22, © IASTER 2014

Design of Hydraulic Power Pack for Vertical Turret Lathe

1 M. Rama Narasimha Reddy, 2 D. Sreenivasulu Reddy, 1 P. Sundera, 1 S. Madhusudhana

1 Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVTM (JNTUA), Madanapalli, A.P., India. 2 HOD, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SVTM (JNTUA), Madanapalli, A.P., India

ABSTRACT

The project is aimed at the Design of hydraulic power pack for vertical turret lathe. This Hydraulic power pack is used to obtain the various motions of the Vertical Turret Lathe Clamping and unclamping is also done with hydraulic system. Hence versatility and reliability of hydraulics is prime importance. The power pack is an integral supply unit usually containing a pump, reservoir, relief valve and direction control valve, Pressure control valve. For the purpose of design of hydraulic power pack, the component are to be designed are pump, reservoir, heat exchanger and an electric motor. Hydraulic drives and controls have become more important due to automation and mechanization. Many of the modern and powerful machinery are controlled partly or completely by hydraulics. Hydraulic system is less complicated and has less moving parts. Today drive and control system engineering is inconceivable without hydraulics. Special emphasis is made on design of power pack in which the elements, maintenance aspects and trouble-shooting methods is dealt with.

Keywords: Turret Lathe, Hydraulic Power Pack, Hydraulic Fluid Flow, Turret Indexing, Turret Clamping, Pressure Loss.

1. INTRODUCTION

The word hydraulics is derived from the Greek word „hydro‟ means water. The term hydraulics means the transmission and control of forces and movement by means of fluid. The power pack is an integral power supply unit, which basically determines the working of the control unit. Power packs offer capacities, control options and configuration for virtually any application requirement. A wide variety of manifold options and choice of pumps enables customers to match any application requirement with a power pack that meets his system, at the same time ensuring cost effective operation and optimum productivity. A hydraulic power pack offers a simple method of introducing hydraulic Operation to individual machines, with flexibility of being adaptable to other duties.

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, pp. 13-22, © IASTER 2014

Fig 1 Line Diagram of Hydraulic Power Pack

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, pp. 13-22, © IASTER 2014

Fig 2 Circuit Diagram of Hydraulic Power Pack

It consists basically of an integral electrical motor, with associated tank. The pump or motor unit may be mounted on the tank or separately and packs are usually available in either horizontal or vertical configuration. Relief and check valves are normally incorporated on the tank. The basic unit may be

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piped to the cylinders or actuators through a suitable control valve. Hose assemblies are generally preferred to rigid piping for connecting the power pack to actuators. The hydraulic power packs consist of a reservoir / tank that house the hydraulic fluid, which is the working medium. The capacity of the tank may vary accordingly to the requirements. The reservoir is also equipped with an air breather at the top to maintain the pressure in the tank at the atmospheric pressure and filters the oil to 40 microns.

1.1 Working

The working of a power pack commences when the pump is initialized with the help of an electric motor coupled to it. The oil is pumped from the reservoir along the suction line through a suction strainer with a capability to retain the foreign particles up to 149 microns. From the suction line the oil is forced in to the pressure line through the pump at 35 bars. There is provision to measure the pressure, with the help of a pressure gauge. An isolator is used to measure the pressure immediately in any line. When the set of pressure is reached, the fluid moves to the cylinder present at the fixture (clamp). The hydraulic energy of the fluid is converted back to the mechanical energy by the cylinder. According to the direction of the energizing of the solenoid valve, the linear movement of the clamps (clamping and unclamping) is controlled. When the solenoid valve is energized in reverse, unclamping of the work piece occurs. There is a return line provided so that the used fluid may be utilized again. Due to the friction losses, total energy is not converted into the useful work so a part is converted into the heat. So, a heat exchanger is incorporated. The return line filter has a return capacity of 10 microns.

A vertical turret lathe works much like an engine lathe turned up on End. The principles used to operate a vertical turret lathe are not very different from those for a horizontal turret lathe. The only significant difference is in the main turret. And also feed is transferred vertically toward the headstock (down), and at an angle. To cut a taper of less than 30° and more than with a main turret-held tool, set the turret slide for the correct degree of taper and use only the vertical feed for the slide. In this type of turret lathe, the revolving turret is mounted on a ram or a slide carried in a base which can be clamped in any position along the bed of the machine, as shown in fig.

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, www.iaster.com (O) 2347-5188 (P) 2347-8772

Fig 3 Vertical Turret Lathe

A turret lathe can perform internal or external work such as turning, boring, drilling reaming, tapping, threading, forming, knurling, chamfering and parting off etc. the operations which are usually performed from the hexagonal turret include: turning, boring, drilling, reaming, tapping and threading. The operations which are done from cross slides include: facing, forming, knurling, chamfering, recessing and paring off. Internal cuts are almost always made by tools in hexagonal turret.

Technical Specifications of Vertical Turret Lathe Component

NAME

DESCRIPTION

Table diameter

1500mm.

Maximum swing diameter

1650mm.

Maximum turning height above top of table

1200mm.

speed range (Infinitely variable) Turret feed range

4 to 200mm. 0.05 to 10mm/Rev

Vertical travel of Cross Rail

750mm.

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Vertical travel of Turret

700mm.

Distance from Tabletop to Turret face

1304mm.

Swivel of Turret Head

30 deg on either side.

Rapid traverse rate(X & Y Direction)

2000mm/min

Main Motor Power

30KW

Type of Spindle motor speed Feed motor torque (X & Y axes) Type of feed motor (X & Y axes) Power supply

A.C Variable 18.5 N-m A.C Servo. 415+_10% Hz+3%

Table loading capacity

2000Kg

Table stopping

By Regenerative

Gross weight of machine

25 Tonnes

Total connected load

60 KVA

1.3 Different Fluids used in Hydraulics

1. Water

2. Mineral oil

3. Organic oil

4. Synthetic oil

Water was one of the most widely used hydraulic fluid in early hydraulic machinery. It has the advantages of being inexpensive, readily available. Its disadvantages are that it is a poor lubricant, is corrosive to steel and iron, and cannot be used below 0°c unless additives are added. In spite of its disadvantages it is still used in large central hydraulic pressure systems such as in rubber plants and modeling plants. Mineral oil has displaced water as a hydraulic fluid in hydraulic machine design.

Mineral oil is a good lubricant and if proper oils are selected it can be used successfully at sub freezing temperatures. Mineral oil has the disadvantages of having poor temperature, viscosity characteristics. Various additives have been included in mineral oils to improve their viscosity characteristics. Organics oils have received wide use as hydraulic fluids, notably in automobile breaks. This has been brought about by the use of natural rubber for lines and packing. Organic oil do not affect natural rubber. These oils are rapidly and must have additive to minimize these tendencies.

In recent years, synthetic oil notably, the silicon‟s have been offered for hydraulic service. They are

excellent for this use but cost more than mineral oils. Their advantages lie in their freedom from

sludge forming components and they have very flat viscosity characteristics.

1.4 Design Considerations

  • 1. Space Available: The available physical-space with in which a hydraulic cylinder or a fluid must

be accommodates or dictates the size of cylinder or the fluid motor.

  • 2. Force Required: Once the piston size is decided, the force required at the actuator depends up on

the working pressure of the system. Higher the working pressure, lower is the size and weight of the actuator, for the same force. But it results in many disadvantages. systems working pressure are known the power of the prime mover can be easily calculated. There by the size of the reservoir, the

suction strainer, the pipelines and all other valves are determined.

  • 3. Flow Required: The speed of the actuator determines the flow capacity of the pump.

  • 4. Environmental Conditions: This determines whether the system should have ordinary or fire

proof hydraulic fluid in hazardous condition, shock resistance on mobile use, nonmagnetic construction in certain applications, noise elimination arrangement in noisy atmosphere, more filtration arrangement in a dusty atmosphere and some special designs of mountings or fittings in

typical applications is required.

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  • 5. Economical Consideration: This is the most important factor, which must be kept in mind while

designing a hydraulic circuit. If a hydraulic machine is likely to operate only a few hours in a month, no customer will likely to buy it, if its cost is very high. If a hydraulic machine is likely to operate 24 hours a day, the life expectancy of each component becomes an important consideration. The need of

frequent replacement of components will create maintenance problems and production losses.

  • 2. DESIGN CALCULATIONS (DATA FROM THE MACHINE DESIGN DEPARMENT)

1

Number of Cylinders for Cross Rail Movement

2

2

Number of cylinders for cross rail support

2

3

Number of cylinders for Clamping &de-clamping chuck

1

4

Number of cylinders for ram counter balancing

2

5

Number of cylinders for turret indexing location

1

6

Number of cylinders for turret clamping

1

 

Total No of cylinders

9 No‟s

2.1 Dimensions of Cylinders

Rate of traverse of all pistons V = 20mm/sec.

   

Diameter in (mm)

Stroke

No. of

S. No.

Type of Cylinder

Length

Cylinders

Bore

Rod

1.

Cross Rail Movement

125

70

  • 900 2

 

2.

Cross Rail Support

70

50

  • 200 2

 

3.

Chuck

120

60

  • 320 1

 

4.

Turret Indexing

55

20

  • 550 1

 

5.

Turret Clamping

90

45

  • 600 1

 

6.

Ram Counter Balance

63

28

  • 850 2

 

Design of Circuit Diagram for Vertical Turret Lathe

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Fig 4 Circuit diagram of Vertical Turret Lathe with Cylinders

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Fig 5 Block Diagram of Hydraulic Fluid Flow

The circuit diagram in fig shows how to control a machine element with double acting cylinder and a direction control valve condition the system pressure is maintained by the pressure relief valve. All return lines from the system are bought back to the reservoir. The control valve could be actuated by various manual, hydraulic elements as shown in fig. one of the problems of such a circuit is that the cylinder cannot have an intermediate position.

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Design of Line Diagram for Fluid Flow Circuit Diagram for Fluid Flow

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Fig 6 Line Diagram of Energy Transfer

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Fig 7 Circuit Diagram of Fluid Flow

The line diagram consists of various components. Design of a hydraulic system starts with the mode of energy transfer in the system the energy transfer in the system is done by the pump which draws the oil from the reservoir and transfers the same to the system we know that energy transfer occurs due to changes in potential energy inside the reservoir and as the oil starts moving on wards there are further losses.

The circuit diagram in fig shows how to control a machine element with double acting cylinder and a direction control valve condition the system pressure is maintained by the pressure relief valve . All return lines from the system are bought back to the reservoir. The control valve could be actuated by various manual, hydraulic elements as shown in fig. one of the problems of such a circuit is that the cylinder cannot have an intermediate position.

In the circuit diagram the cylinder movement is controlled by a direction control valve (DCV) with solenoid control. The electrical system used to control the solenoids could again be a simple manual push button type or could also be made automatic by using limit switches it may be noted here that the addition of a non return valve in the return line to provide some resistance to the flow of oil through the return line will project.

Calculations for Pump Size and Details of Fluids

  • a) Working pressure of fluid

= 70kg/cm².

  • b) Oil viscosity (γ)

= 68cst mm²/sec.

  • c) Oil density (ρ)

= 0.89 kg/m³.

1)

Considering Cross Rail Movement

Fluid flow rate: Q=AV

π = 3.141 constant.

Q = Rate of flow in l/min,

A = Area of cylinder in m, V = Velocity in m/sec

A = π/4[(125²)-(70²)] = 8423.395mm²

Q1 = 8423.395 x 20

= 168467.9 mm³/sec.

=

168467.9x60

1000x1000

= 10.10 l/min.

The flow rate is calculated for only one cylinder. As there are 2 cylinders, the total flow rate is Q1 = 10.10x2 = 20.20 l/min.

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2)

For Cross Rail Support

Area A = π/4 x [(70²) – (50²)] = 1884.95 mm² Flow rate Q = 1884.95 x 20 mm³/sec. = 2.262 l/min. The fluid flow rate for two such cylinders is Q2 = 4.523 l/min.

3)

For Chuck Flow rate: Q3 = π/4 x [(120²)-(60 2 ) ]x 20 = 169646.80 mm³/sec. Q3 =10.1648 l/min.

4)

For Turret indexing Flow rate: Q4 = π/4 x [(35²)-(20 2 )] x 20 = 41233.5 mm³/sec. Q4 = 2.47400 l/min.

5)

For Turret Clamping Flow rate: Q5 = π/4 x [(90²)-(45²)] x 20 = 95425.876 mm³/sec. = Q5= 5.725 l/min.

6)

For RAM Counter Balance

Flow rate: Q6 =

π /4 x [(63²)-(28 2 )] x 20 = 50029.86 mm³/sec = 3.00179 l/min.

For two such cylinders Q6 = 3.00179 x 2 = 6.4676 l/min.

Pump selected should be able to supply fluid at a flow rate required by different cylinders working at given time, i.e. the pump flow rate is taken as maximum value among Q1, Q2, Q3,Q4, Q5 and Q6.

Therefore the flow rate of Q1 is selected. For better result it is taken 120% of the maximum value.

Flow rate of Q1 Flow rate of Q1

= 20.20 x 1.2 = 24.24 l/min

According to standards the pump of fluid flow rate 30 l/min is selected.

Calculations for Power of Electric Motor

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Pump flow in l/min, Working pressure in “N/m².

Geometric efficiency = 0.8 (assumed) , K= proportion constant in fluid flow 30 X 70 ------------------

Power =

= 4.9282 KW

612 X 0.8

= 5.71 HP.

The motor considering the various requirements taken the motor of 10 HP is selected.

Calculations for Tank Capacity

To provide uninterrupted supply of hydraulic fluid and to prevent vacuum inside the tank, capacity is taken as 2.5 to 3 times of the pump capacity. Therefore the tank capacity is taken as 3 x 30=90 l/min.

But the lubrication oil is also pimped from the tank to the chuck with a 10HP motor therefore the total capacity of the tank is 90 x 2=180 l/min.

Therefore from the standards, the tank capacity of 250 litres is selected.

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Calculation for Relative Pressure Loss

  • a) Reynolds No. Re =-

V X D ------------------

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, www.iaster.com Calculation for Relative Pressure

Where V= velocity of fluid flow through pipe in m/sec.

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, www.iaster.com Calculation for Relative Pressure

= viscosity of fluid in m²/sec

and

D= inner diameter of pipe in mm.

b) Pressure Losses in Pipe Connected to a Cylinder λ X ρ X L X V² X 10

P= ----------------------------------------

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2

X D

 

λ = pipe coefficient in friction, V= flow sped in the line (m/s)

L=length of pipe (meters), D= Diameter of pipe in mm,

ρ = density of the oil in kg/m³,

k=valves of factor =10 (wide open).

1) Cross Rail Movement

 

Flow rate Q = 336935.8 mm³/sec.,

Area

A = 78.5 mm²,

Diameter of hose D = 8 mm, Length of hose L= 1000 mm.

 

Velocity of fluid is calculated from the Bernoulli‟s

equation of fluid flow, Q= AV

V= 336935.8 mm³/sec

 

= 6703.851 mm/sec.

(¡) Re =

6703.851 x 8 = 788.2

 

68

 

(<2300 hence the flow is laminar)

 

(¡¡) λ =

64/ 788.2= 0.0812

 

(¡¡¡) ∆P = 0.0812 x 0.89 x 1000 x (6.698)² x10 2 x 8

= = 2.02bar

2) Cross Rail Support

 

Q= 75398.2 mm³/sec., A= 50.26 mm², D= 08 mm. (diameter of hose) L1= 1500 mm., V= 75398.2/ 50.26 = 1501.95 mm/sec. (¡) Re= 1501.95 x 10 = 176.7

 

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(¡¡) λ =

64 /176.7=

0.362

 

(¡¡¡) ∆P 1 = 0.362 x 0.89 x 1500 x (1.501)² x 10

 
 

2

x 8

 

= 0.436 bar (RH)

 

∆P 2 =

0.362 x 0.89 x 1500 x (1.501)² x 10 2 x 8 = 0.436 bar (LH)

Total pressure loss= 0.436+0.436 = 0.872 bar.

3) For Turret Indexing

Q = 41233.50 mm³/sec., Diameter of hose D = 4mm, A= 12.566mm², L= 650mm., V= 41255.50 =3282.925

12.566

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(i) Re = 3282.92 x 4 = 193.144

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68

 

(ii) λ =

 

64 / 193.14=0.811

 
 

(iii) ∆P = 0.811 x 0.89 x 650 x 1.53² x 10 = 1.2 bars

 
 
  • 2 x 4

 

4)

For Chuck

 

Q = 169646.80 mm³/sec., D= Diameter of hose = 8mm.

A = 50.265 mm².

L = 2000mm.

 

V = 169646.800/50.265= 3375 mm/sec

(i)

Re = 3375 x 8 = 397.176

 
 

68

 

(ii) λ =

64/397.176= 0.1609

 

(iii) ∆P =

0.1609 x 0.89 x 2000 x(0.45)² x 10

= 2.72/8= 0.34 bars

5)

For Turret Clamping and Unclamping

Q = 95425.876mm³/sec.,

D= Hose diameter = 8mm

A = 50.26mm²

L = 900mm., V = 95425.876/ 50.26= 1898.64mm/sec.

(i). Re = 1898.64 x 8 = 223.36

 
 

68

 

(ii) . λ = 64/ 223.36= 0.286 (iii). ∆P = 0.286 x 900 x 0.89 x 1.89² x 10 =0.5168 bars

 

2 x 8

6)

For Ram Balance

 

Q = 100059.726mm³/sec., D= Hose diameter = 10mm.

A = 157mm²,

L = 2000mm.,

V = 100059.729/ 157= 637.72 mm/sec.

(i)

Re =

637.72 x 10 = 93.8

 

68

 

(ii) λ =

 

64/ 93.8=0.689

 

7)

(iii) ∆P = 0.689 x 0.89 x 2000 x 1.32² x 10 2 x 20

= 0.255 bars

Pressure Loss between Reservoir and Hydraulic Manifold

Q = 30 l/min.

30x1000x1000

60

= 500000 mm³/sec

D= Diameter of hose = 15mm, L= 7000mm, A = 176.714 mm².

V = 500000/ 176.714 = 2829.43 mm/sec.

(i) Re =

2829.43 x 15

= 624.139

68

(ii) λ =

64/ 624.139= 0.1025

(iii) ∆P=

0.1025 x 0.89 x 7000 x 2.829² x 10 = 1.704 bar.

  • 2 x 15

As the fluid is transferred from reservoir to the system through the manifold, the pressure loss of hydraulic manifold is to be added to every system. Then the total pressure loss of every system is given follows.

Cross rail movement Cross rail support For turret Index Chuck Turret clamping Ram balancing

= 2.02+1.704 = 3.724 bar = 0.436+1.704 = 2.14 bar = 1.2+1.704 = 2.904 bar = 2.72+1.704 = 4.424 bar = 0.5168+1.704 = 2.22 bar = 0.255+1.704 = 1.959 bar

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Calculation of Total Pressure Loss in the System

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Here for effective design considerations the maximum values among the loss of pressure valves are selected. Therefore the maximum value is 4.424 bar of chuck. There are two such lines connected to the system so maximum loss of power in the system is given as 4.424 x 2 = 8.848 bar.

   

Diameter in (mm)

     

Pressure

S.No

Type of Cylinder

Stroke

No. of

Discharge

Loss in

Bore

Rod

Length

Cylinders

In Lpm

Bar

1.

Cross Rail Movement

125

 
  • 70 2

  • 900 20.20

 

3.724

2.

Cross Rail Support

70

 
  • 50 2

  • 200 4.523

 

2.14

2.14

3.

Chuck

120

 
  • 60 1

  • 320 10.16

 

2.904

4.

Turret Indexing

35

 
  • 20 1

  • 550 2.47

 

4.424

5.

Turret Clamping

90

 
  • 40 1

  • 600 5.72

 

2.22

6.

Ram Counter Balance

63

 
  • 28 2

1100

 

6.46

1.959

Pressure Loss through the Valves

For solenoid valve of model no. DSG 01 3C D24 N150 and flow rate 20l/min is selected from the curves

P----A line = 1.1 kgf/cm². B----T line = 1 kgf/cm². P----B line = 1.1 kgf/cm². A----T line = 1 kgf/cm². Total pressure loss of the system = 4.2 kgf/cm².

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, www.iaster.com Calculation of Total Pressure

Fig 8 Losses Through Valves

Here four valves are used in the circuit at the various locations so the total pressure drop of the circuit = 4.2 x 2 = 8.4 kgf/cm².

Total discharge in the pipeline is Q = 20.20+4.523+10.16+2.47+5.72+6.46 Q = 49.5381 l/min.

3. RESULTS

After designing and selecting the required parts of the Hydraulic Power Pack including calculations of power requirements of motor and pump, it was found that the Hydraulic clamping system is more efficient and economical compared to Mechanical clamping system comprising of various levers, screws, cams etc. which are prone to overloading prevalent in many component clamping units.

International Journal of Research in Mechanical Engineering Volume-2, Issue-2, March-April, 2014, www.iaster.com Calculation of Total Pressure

=

49.5389 X 8.4 X 100

= 866.775 watts. = 1.606 HP

0.8 X 60

But 1 HP = 641.2 kcal/hr. Then 2.206 HP = 700.55 kcal/hr. So the cooler capacity of 2000 kcal/hr is selected for heat exchanging.

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4. CONCLUSION

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By employing a Hydraulic system, the advantage over Mechanical and Electrical systems are:

Possibility of automation of all types of movements. Speeds, forces can be easily and infinitely controlled by using cylinders, and linear movements can be carried out without the use of Mechanical components. Simple protection against overload can be made by means of pressure relief using hydraulic. Safe control systems without electricity for use in areas where there is danger of explosion.

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