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# MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

## Automatic Control (ME-1401)

B. Tech. IV Semester (Mechanical + Production)

Faculty: Dr. Samir Sarswati, Dr. Praveen Kumar Agarwal and Dr. J. C. Mohanta

OBJECTIVE

The objective of the course is to provide the students the knowledge of modelling, analysis
and design for linear feedback control systems. The knowledge will help the students in the
design of control systems for real life applications through mathematical analysis and
numerical simulation.

INTRODUCTION

The Increased system complexity and more demanding performance requirements in real life
have necessitated the applications of automatic control systems. Automatic control is
generally used to maintain the desired system performance in the presence of variations in
operating conditions. This course will enable the students in developing an understanding of
the fundamental theories of linear control systems as applied to the design of control systems.
Students will learn how to model mechanical, electrical, and electromechanical systems as
differential equations and transfer functions. The mathematical analysis includes the time
responses of open-loop and closed-loop systems and the stability analysis. The design
methods are divided into root-locus techniques and frequency response techniques using
Bode plots for designing PID and lead/lag controllers. The modelling and analysis methods
for linear discrete time systems will also be discussed.

COURSE CONTENT

Unit I 8(L)
Introduction: Introduction to control, open-loop control, feedback control. System modeling:
Modeling of electromechanical systems, Modeling of dynamic systems, State-space
modeling, Modeling and simulation of dynamic systems in Matlab/Simulink. Laplace
transform: Properties of Laplace transform, Laplace transforms of electromechanical systems,
Laplace transform of state equations, Transfer functions, Poles, zeros. Representation of
multiple subsystems: Block diagrams, Signal flow graphs.

Unit II 4(L)
Sensors and Transducers: characteristics, contact and non-contact type, pressure switches,
proximity and position sensors. Actuators: solenoids, hydraulic and pneumatic actuators,
valves and circuits.

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Unit III 8(L)
Time response patterns: Response of first and second order systems, System response versus
pole and zero location, approximation of high order system by low order system. Stability
analysis: Stability analysis using the Routh-Hurwitz test. Feedback systems: Steady state and
tracking analysis, The PID compensator, Tuning rules of PID compensator.

Unit IV 6(L)
Root locus analysis: Sketching a root locus, Selection of gain from the root locus, Controller
design using the root locus: Lead compensation, Lag compensation.

Unit V 6(L)
Frequency response of linear systems: Frequency response analysis, Bode plot techniques,
Stability Analysis: The Nyquist theorem, Stability Margins, Closed loop frequency response,
Frequency domain compensation techniques: Lead and lag compensators.

Unit VI 8(L)
Linear discrete time systems: z-transform, mathematical modeling, stability analysis, steady-
state error, dynamic performance of discrete time systems

References:
1. Ogata, K., Modern Control Engineering, Pearson Education.
2. Gopal, M., Control Systems: Principles and Design, Tata McGraw-Hill.
3. Raven, F. H., Automatic Control Engineering, McGraw-Hill.
4. Nagrath, I. J. and Gopal, M., Control Systems Engineering, New Age International.
5. Kuo, B. C. and Golnaraghi, F., Automatic Control Systems, Wiley.
6. Franklin, G. F., Powell, J. D., and Emami-Naeini, A., Feedback Control of Dynamic
Systems, Prentice-Hall.