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Published in: Harmonics and Quality of Power (ICHQP), 2014 IEEE 16th
International Conference on
The frequency range of the above harmonics is from 2 to 150 kHz. Because more
system loads are using this type of bandwidth, especially the transmission of power
lines should be considered a general acceptance of the need for research to
understand the origin, propagation and consequences of emissions in this frequency
range. More documented cases are needed to conduct research on supraharmonics.

Primary and secondary emission

In the frequency range above 2 kHz, the evaluation of primary and secondary
emissions is established, which emphasizes that the primary emission is driven by
sources within the device and on the other hand specifies that the secondary
emission plays an important role and is often the Dominant contribution. Also
considering that the consequences of these (total) emissions depend heavily on

Communication by power line

The interest in the superharmonic is in the reduction of the secondary emission,
without increasing the primary emission since it plays an important role between a
transmitting PLC and an end user.

Some speakers mentioned the need for new standards and improved versions of
existing ones, especially in the frequency range of 2-150 kHz.

IEC 61000-3-2
It is necessary to change or extend this rule since the harmonic emission limits can
increase considerably or even exceed the established limits, since more equipment
is using the switching at higher frequencies. Not only the distortion, also the
impedances of the source in the equipment can affect the emission. The distortion
obtained from the standardized test may not be a good indication of the distortion
as it will occur in the actual application.
IEC 61400-21
This standard refers to the energy quality of wind turbines, the idea of the standard
is to analyze the impact of wind turbines and wind power plants on the grid with
respect to electrical performance. It is of utmost importance to deepen the
realization of an energy quality assessment, as power converters have become
more complex now, so the new revision is expected to define extended and more
sophisticated metering procedures.
The appropriate harmonic evaluation can be divided into the following stages:
Arm Harmonic measures.

Data processing.
data analysis
Development of possible models.

Each stage can be used in both wind turbines and wind farms.
Connection Agreements
The connection of a generating plant often has requirements on the emission of
harmonics. These requirements should not be too harsh as this would increase the
cost of such plants, but neither should they be very flexible or light as this would
lead to unacceptable levels of harmonics for network users.
Establishing reasonable limits of voltage and current distortion for the network and
translating these into reasonable emission limits for installation is an important
research task as well.

Conventional Instrument Transformers

The measurement must be made with the appropriate transducers. The resonance
frequency decreases considerably as the nominal voltage increases in the primary.
These transformers are also affected in the resonance parameters by the load or
temperature, on the other hand it is wanted that the instrument transformer is
within the nominal precision range.

Rogowski coils
The measurement of harmonic currents is important in the use of these meters
since, considering that the current transformer does not have distinctive resonance
points, its accuracy can be considerably affected even by very small inductive
pieces, while on the other hand Part of the Rogowski coil allows for wider loads for
smaller loads without altering its accuracy, but is very susceptible to environmental
Supraharmonic Methods of Measurement
A coherent measurement is essential and requires a unique measurement method
and must be sufficiently precise and without requiring intensive processing, so more
research is required to standardize a measurement method.


Data on voltage and harmonic currents in the network are currently monitored by
hundreds or thousands of instruments. Without strong automatic analysis methods,
the enormous amount of information and knowledge that can be obtained from this
data will disappear.
Currently there are many power converters with a certain degree of complexity, for
this reason should be studied more thoroughly research topics about the evolution
of harmonics that are generated, as many of this is around kilohertz as It is the case
of supra-harmonicas that are also generated because of the high frequency
commutations of these devices, we must also ensure that the data obtained by the
currents and voltages can be processed, store independent of the devices managing
to handle a large volume of information.