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Running head: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Assignment 5

Annotated Bibliography

Presented to: Mary-Ann Updike

Presented by:

Garret Brook
Annotated Bibliography 2

May 22nd 2017

Annotated Bibliography

The goal of my SRV Implementation Project is to mentor and guide a

grade 7 student by giving him positive leadership roles within the school

community and opportunities to build trust and repair relationships both in

the school and with a neighbouring school. My hope is that by building trust

and repairing relationships there will be a decrease in verbal and physical

aggression, and more valued social roles for this student.

As I researched articles related to my project, it became evident that in

order to develop positive relationships and build trust, one had to first focus

on helping my focus student and others develop appropriate social skills. I

have examined ten research-based articles that have contributed to my

understanding of how to best implement, focus, and teach social skills within

an intramural/ sport environment. A brief summary of each study, including

the purpose, method, outcomes and potential implications for my change

project are discussed.


Annotated Bibliography 3

1. Reducing child aggression through sport Intervention: The role of self-control skills and

emotions

Article reference: Purpose of the study:


Shachar, K. Rosenbaum, R. T., The purpose of this study was to
Rosenbaum, M., Orkibi, H., & Hamama, examine how sport intervention
L. (2016). Reducing child aggression reduces aggressive behaviour
through sports intervention: The role of amongst elementary children by
self-control skills and emotions. studying the relationship between
Children and Youth Services Review, 71, self-control skills (SCSs) acquisition
241-249. Retrieved from Science Direct and a reduction in aggressive
database. behaviour.
Summarize the method in your own Draw a figurative representation.
words.
This study was apart of a greater
assessment process for one of several
Israeli social-educational projects. This
particular study gathered baseline data
from both students and teachers at the
beginning of the study and at the end
of 24 weeks, in the form of
questionnaires. These questionnaires
targeted self-reported emotions, self- Retrieved from
control skills, aggression, and teacher- https://pixabay.com/get/e837b8092f
rated child aggression. The study 3003ed1584d05fb0938c9bd22fd41d
targeted 39 typical schools in northern b8144592f7c871a5/angry-
and southern Israel. 21 of these schools 1296771_1280.png
received intervention, while the
Annotated Bibliography 4

remaining schools made up the control


group.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Students in experiential group How does culture play a role in
experienced increase in SCSs and aggressive behaviour? Do the results
greater reduction in physical have an implication cross-culturally?
aggression, hostile thoughts, anger,
and negative emotions
Increased SCSs contributed to a chain How does age afect the connection
of mediating mechanisms, leading to between SCSs, aggressive behaviour
decrease in aggressive behaviour and hostile thoughts?
Results were consistent with past
findings
SCSs can be enhanced in at-risk
children through sport programing
Girls changes in SCSs were linked
directly to changes in physical
aggression
Boys changes in SCSs linked indirectly
to changes in physical aggression
Implications for change project
This study focused on how sport intervention would afect childrens social
control skills and reduce aggressive behaviour. The results proved that reducing
aggressive behaviour in both boys and girls can be achieved through targeted
intervention, specifically through activities valued by the children.
Implementing cooperative games that focus on problem solving skills, self-
regulation and social skills could improve behaviour.

2. Efects of fair play instruction on student social skills during a middle school
sport education unit
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Vidoni, C., & Ward, P. (2009) Efects of The purpose of this study was to
fair play instruction on student social examine the efects of Fair Play
skills during a middle school sport Instruction on middle school physical
education unit. Physical Education education classes.
and Sport Pedagogy, 14:3, 285-310,
DOI: 10.1080/17408980802225818
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
Annotated Bibliography 5

Participants in this study were


students in eighth grade attending a
suburban middle school of middle to
high-middle socio-economic
background. Seven students were
targeted participants who were
videotaped and closely observed on a
daily basis.
The physical education classes were
part of the Health and Wellness
program, which took place on a bi-
weekly basis. The students received a
40 minutes lesson (5 minutes of
warm-up, 15 minutes of practice
drills, 20 minutes of game. The unit
lasted 18 classes.
A pre-baseline observation occurred
one week prior to the study to Retrieved from
determine the extent to which these
https://www.google.ca/search?
participants presented low or no
q=harmful+OR+helpful+OR+child&lr=
incidences of supportive behaviours
&hl=en&tbs=sur:f&source=lnms&tbm
and active participation. Direct and
=isch&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwib6OjHjoTU
videotaped observations were
AhUFyoMKHYfADQoQ_AUICigB&biw=13
conducted in order to collect data
01&bih=620#hl=en&tbs=sur:f&tbm=is
throughout the study. The researchers
ch&q=fair+play+&imgrc=iJf1wuG4b4z
measured two categories of
yYM:&spf=1495477161911
behaviours based on Fair Play
Instruction: give your best efort and
be helpful, not harmful.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Development of social behaviours in How would the results difer if students
P.E is not an automatic outcome of were praised for helpful behaviours?
engagement
Fair Play Instruction was consistently
efective in increasing students active How does group size afect teachers
participation and in decreasing ability to appropriately address harmful
harmful behaviours, however there and helpful behaviours?
was no significant diference in helpful
behaviours
Sport has the potential to promote
Annotated Bibliography 6

equal opportunities between genders


Students showed increased efort and
participation when they had
ownership over experience and
expectations
Implications for change project
This study showed that minimizing wait time and increasing active participation
will improve behaviour. The study revealed that social skills remain
underdeveloped unless teachers implement strategies in the curriculum and
address them during instruction. To often, the expectation is that students
should know how to do this and will learn this through osmosis. It will be
important to teach desired social skills through modelling and reflection,
providing praise and constructive feedback regularly.

3. Outcomes from a school- randomized controlled trial of steps to respect: A


bullying prevention program
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Brown, E. C., Low, S., Smith, B, H., The purpose of this study was to
Haggerty, P, K. (2011) Outcomes from a evaluate the Steps to Respect
school- randomized controlled trial of program and its efficacy on reducing
steps to respect: A bullying prevention school bullying.
program. School Psychology Review,
40:3, 423-443. Retrieved from
EBSCOhost Academic Search Complete
database.
Summarize the method in your own Draw a figurative representation.
words.
The participants of this study were
teachers, students, administrators, and
volunteers from 33 diferent schools
across three geographic regions of
California. The schools were selected
based on predetermined criteria. Within
these schools third to sixth grade
teachers were selected at random for
the data collection sample.
Pre and post-test data was collected
from all participants through a series of
surveys. School staf were asked about Retrieved from
Annotated Bibliography 7

the school climate, specifically about https://pixabay.com/get/ef31b10c29f0


staf and student cooperation and 1c22d9584518a33219c8b66ae3d110
bullying intervention. Students were b4154692f8c978/angry-
asked about their school and staf 640314_1920.jpg
climate (ie. trust, willingness to help,
cooperation among peers and
teachers/school staf, and
connectedness to their school).
Teachers from each classroom were
given onsite professional development
on the Steps for Respect program,
classroom curriculum to follow, scripted
feedback to give to students, and a
sequence to implement program.
Additionally they were required to log
progress online.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
The results indicated: Since some students were of
elementary age, how was the survey
greater increases in school anti-bullying administered? Did they fully grasp the
policy and strategies ideas that the researchers were
greater increase in student and staf exploring?
climate
less decrease in student bullying
intervention Did size of school and age of students
larger decrease in school bullying impact the degree of bullying?
related problems
no efect on staf bullying

Implications for change project


Bullying prevention efectiveness is maximized when intervention occurs at
multiple levels, including multiple students, their peers and the larger school
community. This implies that problems with bullying and aggression can not be
reduced as efectively by targeting specific individuals, however addressing
from a greater community perspective may result in a larger impact.
The research also suggests that as educators we have to be intentional on
teaching our students on how to act, self-regulate, and help others. It also
suggests that one way in which we can determine success is by observing and
considering school climate and observing a decrease in intervention.
Annotated Bibliography 8

4. Physical education and sport programs at an inner city school: Exploring


possibilities for positive youth development
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
N. Holt, Sehn Z, L., Spence, J, C., This study examined school staf
Newton, A, S., & Ball, G, D, C. (2012) members and childrens perceptions of
Physical education and sport school Physical Education, intramurals,
programs at an inner city school: and sport teams to establish factors
Exploring possibilities for positive that improved or impeded positive
youth development, Physical youth development.
Education and Sport Pedagogy, 17:1,
97-113, DOI:
10/1080/17408989.2010.548062
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
This qualitative case study collected
data and information from September
to May. Data was collected
throughout one school year via
individual interviews with eight
teachers and 59 students, ranging
from grades 5-9. A fieldworker took
observational notes on a daily basis, Retrieved from
which were then summarized. https://pixabay.com/get/e837b00d2af40
Individual interviews were conducted 83ed1534705fb0938c9bd22fd41db814
with the participating students, which 4592f8c37fa2/frogs-1212209_1920.jpg
assessed perceptions of:
opportunities to play, physical
activity, sport and intramurals.
Interviews and observational notes
were transcribed and then used to
understand the results.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Importance of a Physical Education How large were the groups that took
specialist instructor is important part?
(someone who is knowledgeable and
invested)
Choice is important for students to Was there a heterogeneous grouping of
grades? If not, would this make a
Annotated Bibliography 9

have a positive perception of physical significant diference?


activity
Intramurals were at times seen in a
negative light
important for school to be viewed as
a community hub (safe and
welcoming environment)
Empathy and social connections
increased through physical activity
Implications for change project
This study showed that without a purpose and knowledgeable individual
running the P.E program, intramurals, or after school programming there is less
focus on implementing skills and strategies and there are fewer boundaries.
Time and energy must be put into P.E and intramural endeavours in order for
there to be a focus on improving social skills and attitudes in students. The
simple act of being physically active within P.E. programs is not enough. The
study also showed there needs to be choice within structure in order for
students to find value in what they are doing. Within this, a focus on instruction
can be teaching students empathy and improving social connectedness.

5. Adlerian play therapy with students with externalizing behaviours and poor
social skills
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Walen-Meany, K., & Teeling S. (2016) The purpose of this study was to
Adlerian play therapy with students explore the efects of a mixed
with externalizing behaviours and treatment approach on children's on-
poor social skills, International Journal task behaviours to determine if there
of Play Therapy, 25:2, 64-77. was benefit for children to receive
Retrieved from EBSCOhost Academic individual and group play therapy
Search Complete database. sessions.
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
A single-case experimental design
was used to examine the efects of
mixed treatment Adlerian play
therapy (AdPt) on of-task behaviours
of elementary children. Participants
were observed on a weekly basis for a
total of 16 weeks beginning in
October. Pre and post data were
Annotated Bibliography 10

collected based on a Direct


Observation Form (DOF) that was
completed by a single observer in a
childs classroom for a minimum of
two and a maximum of six
observations. Five elementary aged
students from Midwest United States
met the specified criteria for this
study.
Participants engaged in 30- min, Retrieved from
individual sessions and 45 minute https://pixabay.com/en/wooden-blocks-
group sessions in a single week. The colorful-consulting-443728/
play therapy procedures were
followed as an outline in the
Treatment Manual for Adlerian Play
Therapy and appropriate adjustments
were made for group counseling
sessions. The use of a control group
was used to determine the trajectory
of behavioural outcomes during
various stages of intervention.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Efective at improving behaviour of Is play theory efective across all age
the 3 participants groups?
Very efective at maintaining the Were groups constructed with only
desired behaviour change individuals who were recommended for
Interventions are not immediate, but counselling? Would it be constructive to
improvements become apparent over have heterogeneous groupings?
a few sessions
Improvements occurred immediately
following group sessions
Waitlist participants did not show
change over time
Implications for change project
The study showed that misbehaviour improved after group sessions. Therefore,
learning empathy and appropriate behaviours may be better approached
through group play rather than through solely individual counselling sessions.
The study also identified that success was found for multiple participants in the
group, indicating what helps one child may help others. Therefore, other
students who are apart of the group will likely learn skills that will improve
Annotated Bibliography 11

social skills and empathy.

6. Utilizing the classroom peer group to address childrens social needs: An


evaluation of the circle of friends intervention approach
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Frederickson, N., & Turner, J. (2003) The purpose of this study was to
Utilizing the classroom peer group to evaluate the Circle of Friends
address childrens social needs: An intervention approach on the areas of
evaluation of the circle of friends social inclusion, social acceptance, and
intervention approach, The Journal of self perception and behaviour.
Special Education, 36:4. P.234-245.
Retrieved from Sage Journals
Database
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
This evaluative study had 20
participants, ages 6 to 12 years of
age. An educational psychologist
referred all of the participants to the
program and were assessed as having
emotional behavioural difficulties. 19
out of the 20 participants were boys
and 1 participant was a girl.
The participants were placed in two
groups of 10 and the study was
completed in two phases. Baseline
assessments were administered to all
participants in a whole class setting.
The measures used for the study were
a series of class profiles,
questionnaires, and rating scales
completed by both teachers and https://pixabay.com/get/e836b10f2af00
students. The intervention consisted 03ed1534705fb0938c9bd22fd41db814
of an initial class discussion and six 4592f8c77bae/circle-
weekly Circle of Friends meetings. 1300241_1920.png
During the first phase, group 1
received intervention, while the other
group was a comparison group and
did not receive intervention. The
Annotated Bibliography 12

measures were re-administered and


compared between groups. During
phase 2, the comparison group
received Circle of Friends
interventions and results were
compared to group 1.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Positive impact on social acceptance Do the students need to be aware that
No impact was seen on perceptions of there is a focus child? Would this
own social acceptance or behavioural isolate and label the child?
conduct
No impact on general ethos of the
learning environment When working with children whether it
Appears to be a useful means of be for IEPs, behaviour plans, or goals
changing childrens perception and within the classroom, as teachers we
judgments about a focus child typically involve students in goal
Promotes acceptance of focus child setting. Were target goals set as a
group and was the focus child involved
in goal setting?
Implications for change project
This study set specific target goals. This was a reminder to set purposeful goals
for individuals involved, but also include focus child in the goal setting process.
In this particular study the researchers labelled the focus child and it was clear
to the rest of the students that the child was the reason they were meeting. I
did not agree with this approach and my change project will follow a more
inclusive approach, setting goals that reflect the needs of the community. I
recognize the benefit of weekly group meetings as implemented in this
research. However, they will be focused around supplementing activities to
work on social skills and build upon the strengths and interests of the students.
The idea of measuring perceptions of students and staf would be an interesting
strategy to understand the perspective of others.

7. A play-based intervention for children with ADHD: A pilot study


Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Wilkes, S., Cordier, R., Bundy, A., The purpose of this study was to
Docking, & K., Munro, N. (2011) A develop and test the efficacy of a play-
play-based intervention for children based intervention aimed at improving
with ADHD: A pilot study, Australian the play and social skills of children
Occupational Therapy Journal, 58, with ADHD (Wilkes, S. et. al, 2011).
Annotated Bibliography 13

231-240. DOI: 10.1111/j.1440-


1630.2011.00928.x
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
Participants in this study were
selected based on a diagnosis of
ADHD and were matched in age with
children who do not have a diagnosis
of ADHD. Social play was promoted
throughout the intervention of seven
weekly video-recorded sessions of
free play. Video feedback and
therapist and peer modelling were Retrieved from
strategies used to promote play. The http://maxpixel.freegreatpicture.com/Ac
test of Playfulness was used both as a robatics-Bear-Friends-Shoulder-Carry-
pre and post test measure. On-Shoulders-1013945
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Video self monitoring was efective in How would the results difer with a
developing social play skills random sampling of students?
Video self monitoring allowed children
to better reflect on oneself
Self monitoring allowed them to Using a gradual release of
develop a diferent perspective and responsibility model, how long or often
problem solving skills should a therapist/ teacher model
Novel setting allowed students to be desired behaviours?
engaged, recalling and demonstrating
diferent skills
Therapist modelling improved social
interactions
Improvements were observed with
the social play of playmates
Mischief and teasing decreased
Implications for change project
The results of the study support the use of play, self-modelling techniques,
therapist and peer modelling, and parent involvement as efective means to
develop social play skills. By using the gradual release of responsibility model
and focusing on social skills acquisition, play therapy benefitted multiple
students involved in the program. The study also brings light to the importance
of parent involvement to improve social skills. This idea will be vital in bridging
Annotated Bibliography 14

the gap between home and school.

8. The efectiveness of peer support leadership training in a south Australian


school
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Gregoric C, & Owens, L. (2008) The The purpose of this study was to
efectiveness of peer support understand the multidimensional
leadership training in a south concept of Social Skills by considering a
Australian school. International range of specific social skills and
Journal of adolescence and youth, attitudes.
14:2, 93-112, DOI:
10.1080/02673843.2008.9747997
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
The participants of this study
consisted of 28 students, both male
and female ranging from 16-17 years
of age. Participation in this study was
voluntary with student and parental
consent. Pre and post test
questionnaires were taken for the
qualitative portion of the study. Three
males and two females were Retrieved from
randomly selected to be the subject https://www.slideshare.net/HelderFerrei
of the case study. These five students ra14/how-to-become-a-superhero-
were also interviewed to enhance 55557791
understanding of how the Peer
Support Program altered social skills.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Peer support leadership improves The authors note that social skill
cooperation skills development is particularly important
Improvements are attributed to during transition from childhood to
increased self-confidence adulthood. When is the best time to
The results suggest that the teach social skills? Are we expecting
intervention had some positive short too much from students at a young
term impact on cooperation, age?
communication, empathy, belonging
to school, relationships at home,
Was sampling of students random or
Annotated Bibliography 15

friendship, decision making, conflict was this group constructed through


resolution and self esteem/ volunteers?
confidence skills and attitudes
Less impact found on sense of
belonging and community
Implications for change project
The results of this study show that training of social skills and supporting peers
has positive implications on participants, at least in a short term context.
Review and follow through of skills taught after the program ends is essential to
continue to develop skills. If leaders have the potential to grow socially,
measures have to be put into place to allow for continuous growth of social
skills.

9. Associations among middle school students bullying roles and social skills
Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Jenkins, N., Demaray, M, K., Fredrick, The purpose of this study was to
S, S., & Summers, K, H. (2016) investigate the relationship among
Associations among middle school bully role behaviours (bullying,
students bullying roles and social assisting, victimization, defending, and
skills, Journal of School Violence, 15:3, outsider behaviour) and social skills.
259-278. DOI 10.
1080/15388220.2014.986675
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
The current study had a sample of
636 students, ranging from sixth
grade to eighth grade from a
suburban middle school. The study
explored the relationship among self-
reported bully participant role
behaviours and self-reported social
skills. Data was collected over a 3-day
period in the form of two diferent Retrieved from
surveys that were administered in a https://www.msx.org/news/websites/en/
small group setting, supervised by msx-game-cover-database
teacher and support staf.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Annotated Bibliography 16

Higher levels of cooperation were


associated with lower bullying
behaviours and victimization, but Are there other social skills that should
higher levels of defending. be focused upon to help students in
Females had higher cooperation than regards to bullying?
males
Higher levels of assertion were Data was not collected from teachers.
related to higher levels of bullying Would the perception of teachers and
and defending adults in the building represent a
Victimization is negatively associated diferent picture of bullying?
with assertion
Higher levels of empathy were
associated with defending behaviours
Girls had greater empathy than boys
Higher self control was associated
with less bullying
Implications for change project
The term social skills is a broad term that encompasses many important skills
for students to learn. Assertion, self-regulation and empathy are key social skills
that this research referred to and were identified to afect bullying. A focus on
social skill training in general is important; however selecting specific social
skills to teach will be an efective approach. Due to the nature of bullying and
aggressive behaviour associated with the child in my plan it will be important to
have a strong focus on assertiveness, self-regulation, and empathy. It is also
noted that a school-wide approach is most efective when dealing with bullying.
It will be important for all classrooms and teachers to deem this a priority in our
teaching.

10. Using a naturalistic sport context to train social skills in children


Article reference: Purpose of the study:
Ferguson, B, R., & Shapiro, K, S. The purpose of this study was to
(2016) Using a naturalistic sport examine the efectiveness of training
context to train social skills in soccer skills and sports-based social
children. Child & Family Behavior skills in children with difficulties in
Therapy, 38:1, 47-68, DOI: social behavior.
10.1080/07317107.2016.1135700
Summarize the method in your Draw a figurative representation.
own words.
This study examined six children,
ages eight to twelve during a social
Annotated Bibliography 17

skills training program. The students


selected for the study were attending
a soccer camp over a two week
period. Selection was based on
parent-reported difficulty in general
social skills.
The study followed a multiple- Retrieved from
baseline across behaviour design. https://www.flickr.com/photos/tocaboca/
Each participants self-concept and 30595393055
interest in soccer were evaluated for
baseline data. Intervention consisted
of behavioural skills training
intervention that focused on four
target social skills.
List the outcomes in point form, Write two questions you have
underlining five key words. about the research.
Students improved in their ability to Would there be a greater impact of
take turns, provide verbal and social acceptance, scholastic
physical compliments, and ofer competence, athletic competence,
positive postgame comments physical appearance, behavioural
Preservation of social skills over a 3- conduct over a longer period?
month period
Sport related skills improved
Increase in global self- worth Did the aspect of reward make a
No significant impact on social significant impact in childrens growth?
acceptance, scholastic competence,
athletic competence, physical This camp took place in a non-school
appearance, behavioural conduct setting, how would taking part in this
Significant reduction in negative process be diferent with peers whom
comments towards peers students knew?
Implications for change project
A soccer skills training camp was selected for several reasons. First,
independent of the physical benefits, the interactive nature of team sports may
provide support networks, positive relationships, and increased competence in
several domains. This suggests that children who participate in team sports
have an increased opportunity for peer acceptance relative to non-team sports
participants. Therefore, sport can be used as a avenue to promote acceptance
among students who are not socially accepted. The study also noted that
children who engage in more negative behaviour have less peer acceptance.
Consequently, opportunities should be given in a structured environment to
promote strengths that will allow for more positive behaviour, leading to
Annotated Bibliography 18

greater peer acceptance.