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know the answers to all of the questions since the sections that follow will build on this one.

1)It was developed by George Boole, and is often used to refine the determination of system

status or to set or clear specific bits.

A) On

B) NXOR

C) Boolean Logic

D) AND

2) Boolean Logic uses __1__ to determine how bits are compared and simulates __2__ .

A) Operators, Gates

B) Buffers, AND

C) Truth Tables, Off

D) NOR, NAND

3) The _____ operation says if and only if all inputs are on, the output will be on. The output will

be off if any of the inputs are off.

A) OR

B) NAND

C) NOR

D) AND

4) The _____ operation says if any input is on then the output will be on.

A) NOT

B) OR

C) NOR

D) XOR

5) If all of the inputs are on, the output will be off. This is called _____ .

A) NAND

B) NOR

C) Truth Tables

D) On

6) This operation says that if any input is on, the output will be off. What operation is this?

A) Boolean Logic

B) XOR

C) NOR

D) AND

7) _____ says that if the inputs are different then the output will be on.

A) Gates

B) Low

C) NXOR

D) XOR

A) Operator

B) NOT

C) AND

D) OR

1. C) Boolean Logic

2. A) Operators, Gates

3. D) AND

4. B) OR

5. A) NAND

6. C) NOR

7. D) XOR

8. B) NOT

Boolean Algebra Examples

Boolean Algebra Example No 1

Construct a Truth Table for the logical functions at points C, D and Q in the following circuit

and identify a single logic gate that can be used to replace the whole circuit.

First observations tell us that the circuit consists of a 2-input NAND gate, a 2-input EX-OR gate

and finally a 2-input EX-NOR gate at the output. As there are only 2 inputs to the circuit labelled

A and B, there can only be 4 possible combinations of the input (22) and these are: 0-0, 0-1, 1-0

and finally 1-1. Plotting the logical functions from each gate in tabular form will give us the

following truth table for the whole of the logic circuit below.

Inputs Output at

A B C D Q

0 0 1 0 0

0 1 1 1 1

1 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 1

From the truth table above, column C represents the output function from the NAND gate and

column D represents the output function from the Ex-OR gate. Both of these two output

expressions then become the input condition for the Ex-NOR gate at the output. It can be seen

from the truth table that an output at Q is present when any of the two inputs A or B are at logic

1. The only truth table that satisfies this condition is that of an OR Gate. Therefore, the whole of

the above circuit can be replaced by just one single 2-input OR Gate.

Find the Boolean algebra expression for the following system.

The system consists of an AND Gate, a NOR Gate and finally an OR Gate. The expression for

the AND gate is A.B, and the expression for the NOR gate is A+B. Both these expressions are

also separate inputs to the OR gate which is defined as A+B. Thus the final output expression is

given as:

The output of the system is given as Q = (A.B) + (A+B), but the notation A+B is the same as the

De Morgan´s notation A.B, Then substituting A.B into the output expression gives us a final

output notation of Q = (A.B)+(A.B), which is the Boolean notation for an Exclusive-NOR Gate

as seen in the previous section.

B A A.B A+B Q

0 0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 0 1

Then, the whole circuit above can be replaced by just one single Exclusive-NOR Gate and

indeed an Exclusive-NOR Gate is made up of these individual gates.

Find the Boolean algebra expression for the following system.

This system may look more complicated than the others to analyse but it also consists of simple

AND, OR and NOT gates. Again as with the previous example we can write the Boolean

notation for each logic function to give us a final expression for the output at Q.

The output from the 3-input AND gate is only a "1" when ALL the inputs are at logic level "1"

(A.B.C). The output from the lower OR gate is only a "1" when one or both inputs B or C are at

logic level "0". The output from the 2-input AND gate is a "1" when input A is a "1" and inputs

B or C are at "0". Then the output at Q is only a "1" when inputs A.B.C equal "1" or A is equal to

"1" and both inputs B or C equal "0", A.(B+C). Then by using "de Morgan's theorem" inputs B

and input C cancel out as to produce an output at Q they can be either at logic "1" or at logic "0".

Then this just leaves input A as the only input needed to give an output at Q as shown in the

table below.

C B A A.B.C B C B+C A.(B+C) Q

0 0 0 0 1 1 1 0 0

0 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1

0 1 0 0 0 1 1 0 0

0 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 1

1 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0

1 0 1 0 1 0 1 1 1

1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

1 1 1 1 0 0 0 0 1

Then, the whole circuit above can be replaced by just one single input labelled A thereby

reducing a circuit of 6 individual logic gates to just one single piece of wire, (or Buffer). This

type of circuit analysis using Boolean Algebra can quickly identify any un-necessary logic gates

thereby reducing the number of gates required, the power consumption of the circuit and of

course the cost.

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