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POWER WALL AND SOLAR ROOF

Objectives
To inform the classmates about the newest technology about solar energy.
How to apply in residences
How to take the most advantages of it.
Power wall
The Powerwall system provides backup power in blackouts, natural disasters and
even in a "zombie apocalypse" (you know it will happen). Being compact, stackable
and with an integrated inverter, the Powerwall is also ready to integrate perfectly
into solar energy systems, allowing you to supply the energy of your home on your
own.
Powerwall is a battery of Tesla Energy, a US subsidiary of Tesla Motors, the
company created by Elon Musk. The Powerwall battery is a rechargeable battery
for home and small industries.

Technical specifications
Usable capacity: 13.5 kWh
Depth of discharge: 100%
Efficiency: 90% of the complete cycle
Power: 7 kW peak / 5 kW continuous
Compatible Applications: Self-consumption of solar energy, time-of-use
load switching, backup and independent of the electricity network
Warranty: 10 years
Scalable: Up to 10 Powerwall units
Operating temperature: -20 C to 50 C
Dimensions: Long 1150 mm, Wide 755 mm, High 155 mm
Weight: 120 kg
Installation: Floor or wall installation, interior or exterior
Certification: North American and International Standards, Standard,
Complies with the code of the electric network
Electrochemistry of cells and batteries
Systems able to storing electrical energy in the chemical energy form are called
electrochemical cells.
The fundamental structure of an electrochemical cell are two electrodes, metallic in
many cases, introduced into a conductive solution or electrolyte. Real examples
are car batteries or AA and AAA batteries.
When the chemical reaction that releases energy is not reversible, once the
reagents are consumed in the discharge process, we speak of pilas. If the
chemical reaction can be reversible, the system is called a battery and can be
recharged with the flow of current with sign opposite to the discharge process.
Li-ion batteries have become the main source of energy for portable devices
because they can store more energy per unit weight (energy density per mass
Wh/kg) and volume (energy density per volume Wh/L).

Lithium batteries
Lithium is a light metal, with a standard potential of high reduction which provides
high electrochemical potential and high energy capacity. It has thermodynamic
instability in protonic solvents, such as water, or in humid air environments, limiting
its use or construction of lithium batteries in no aqueous electrolytes.
Operation of lithium batteries
The operation of the rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are based on processes
called insertion and disinsertion of Lithium Ion.
The reactions are in the solid state between two insertion compounds as
electrodes. One of the compounds is called guest, of ionic nature, it reacts
occupying vacant places in the structure of another species called host. These
reactions may be reversible.
In the primary lithium batteries, the negative electrode consists of metallic lithium
and the positive electrode consists of a compound that acts as a host in the
insertion reaction. The electrolyte may be a solution of a lithium salt in a non-
aqueous solvent.
In the process of discharge, the negative electrode oxidizes the metallic lithium.
The lithium ion moves through the electrolyte towards the positive electrode where
the host species is reduced and the guest species is inserted.
In the charging process, the opposite reaction occurs: on the positive electrode, the
oxidation of the host species and, on the negative electrode, the metallic lithium is
deposited.
The lithium metal batteries use as a negative electrode, with problems of reactivity
and insecurity. In the charging process the lithium ions are deposited in the
negative electrode growing and expanding more and more in each charge-
discharge processes, and at some point, the two electrodes make contact by
making a short circuit and, in some cases, the explosion of the battery.
To avoid this problem, lithium-ion batteries using two intercalation compounds have
been developed as electrodes. One of the electrodes contains the initially ionized
lithium, so that during loading and unloading processes are inserted into the
opposite electrode. This type of batteries are stable to the air (wet).