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d]/L ;f;"

-efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] cfs[lt_

OlGb/f k|;fO{
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k|sfzs M gO k|sfzg
kf]:6 aS; M !!$$!, sf7df8f}+ -g]kfn_
6]lnkmf]g M $&&!$%%, ofS;M $&&)%*)
Email : naiprasai@gmail.com
website : www.nai.com.np
kmf]6f] ;f}hGo M ;\u]z >]i7
;+zf]ws M pk]Gb| ;'j]bL
;'/lIft, @)^% ;fn (2008A.D.)
ISBN : 978-9937-509-04-6
MERI SASU
(Biographical Eassays on Bhagiratha Prasai by Indira Prasai)

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d]/L sfsL efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] hLjgn] ;'g;l/sf] ;'Vv / lkQn;l/sf] b'Vv klg ef]Ug'kof] t/
;'Vvdf dflQg] / b'Vvdf cflQg] :jefj pxfFdf b]vf k/]g . pxfFsL a'xf/L ljb'ifL / rlr{t ;flxTosf/
OlGb/f k|;fO{n] d]/L ;f;" gfds ;\lIfKt hLjgufyf k|sflzt u/]/ g]kfnL gf/L ;dfhsf] lglDt Pp6f
;Gb]z lbPsL l5g\ .
vg'k\?b] /fdafa"

xfd|L cfdf efuL/yf k|;fO{ lg/If/ eP/ klg r]tgfsL k|v/ gf/L x'g'x'G5 . ;\3if{k"0f{
hLjgofkgsf ;fy} pxfFdf ePsf] ;fdflhs efjgfsf] k|r'/tf :t'To 5 . cfgf dftflktfnfO{ lt/:sf/
ug]{ k|rngsf a]nf 5f]/f g/]Gb| / a'xf/L OlGb/fsf] sQ{Joaf]w cfhsf] cfw'lgs ;dfhsf nflu k|]/s /
cg's/0fLo;d]t 5 . c ;f;'sf] hLjgsyf a'xf/Laf6 n]lvg' cfk}mdf dxjk"0f{ / cltLo sfo{ xf] .
t]haxfb'/ k|;fO{

OlGb/fsf] cfgL ;f;";Fusf] ;DaGw cfdf5f]/Lsf] h:t} cfTdLo dfq geP/ To; 3/leqsf]
s'/f hfGg] ;a}nfO{ ;f;" a'xf/Lsf] k|;\u pbfx/0fLo nfU5 . ;f;" a'xf/Lsf] 7fs7's, 7;d; /
ltSttfnfO{ ;fdfGo Jojxf/ / 3/3/sf] syf dfGg] ;dfhdf d]/L ;f;" cg's/0fLo 5 .
k|f=8f= eLid/fh k|;fO{

OlGb/f k|;fO{f/f lnlvt d]/L ;f;"n] g]kfnL ;dfhdf gf/Lsf] ;hLj lrq0f k]; u/]sf] 5 . o;
s[ltdf xfd|L sfsLsf] dfq Psnf}6L hLjgsyf eP tfklg Tof] syf vf; u/]/ g]kfnsf] k"jf{~rnLo
gf/Lxsf] hLjg ef]ufOsf] k|ltlglw syf klg xf] .

;Ltf/fd k|;fO{

1
ljifo;"rL
e"ldsf
!= cy{k"0f{qmflGt M d]/L ;f;" -u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{_ / @
@= Rofb/3/sL xfd|L sfsL -gGbs'df/ k|;fO{_ / %
#= d]/L ;flNbbLsf] syf -k|f=8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL_ / ^
$= d]/L ;f;" -n]vsLo_ / *

%= d]/L ;f;"sf] k"j{syf / !(
^= d]/L ;f;"sf kl/jf/ / @@
&= d]/L ;f;"sf ;Gtfg / @$
*= d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f}tfk|;\u / @*
(= d]/L ;f;"sf] 3/Jojxf/ / @(
!)= d]/L ;f;" / @))& ;fn / #@
!!= d]/L ;f;"sf] wd{sd{ / ##
!@= d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f]v / ;Lk / #%
!#= d]/L ;f;" / g/]Gb|sf] syf / #*
!$= d]/L ;f;"sf] a;fOF;/fOF / $$
!%= d]/L ;f;" c:ktfn egf{ / $%
!^= d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgz}nL / $^

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cy{k"0f{qmflGt M d]/L ;f;"


u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{

ljut tL; jif{otf lg/Gt/ n]vg sfo{ ug]{ / :jo+ :yflkt x'g k'Ug] k|d'v ;flxTo ;|i6fdWo]
Pp6f gfpF xf] OlGb/f k|;fO{ . pgsf] ;an n]vgL ;flxTosf ;a} ljwfdf ;dfg kn] rn]sf] kfOG5,
tfklg ;dfnf]rsx eg] pgsf] syf / pkGof; ;flxTosf] rrf{ ug{ ljz]if ?lr b]vfpF5g\ . OlGb/f
k|;fO{sf] yk lrgf/L vf]Hg'kbf{ pgL ljleGg ;flxlTos k|lti7fg;Fu ;DalGwt l5g\, ;flxlTos sfo{qmd
;~rflnsfsf kdf klg pgL lgSs} rlr{t /xg uPsL l5g\ . pgn] uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgsf] k|yd dlxnf
cWoIf x'g] ;f}efUo kfPsL lyOg\ tyf g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;Nnfxsf/sf] ul/dfdo kbdf klg pgL cf;Lg
eO;s]sL l5g\ . To;af6 s'g lgisif{ lgsfNg ;lsG5 eg] pgsf] JolQmTjsf tL ;a} kf6fdf pgL
hlt rlr{t l5g\ Tof]eGbf sd rlr{t pgsf] ;an n]vgLaf6 hGdu|x0f ug]{ ;flxTo klg 5}gg\ .
kmntM OlGb/f k|;fO{ g]kfnL ;flxTosf] Oltxf;df :yflkt x'g cfPsf o'jf syfsf/dWo] Pp6f ;an
gfpF xf] .
ltg} OlGb/f k|;fO{n] hLjgLk/s ;flxTosf] If]qdf k|j]z u/]/ d]/L ;f;" zLif{s lbO{ Pp6f gofF
s[lt hGdfPsf] b]Vg kfOof] . pgn] cfgL ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{;Fu x'g] cGt/\u jftf{sf cfwf/df
tof/ u/]sf] o; s[ltnfO{ g/]Gb| / OlGb/fn] k9]/ ;'gfpg] saf]n ubf{ d h:tf] cfFvf sdhf]/ eO;s]sf]
dfG5] @)^$ ebf} dlxgfdf pgLxsf] 3/ 36\6]s'nf]df uPsf] lyPF . To; lbg pgLxn] kfn}l;t o;
/rgfsf] kf7 ubf{ ;'Gg] >f]tf b'O{ hgf xfdL cfdf5f]/f dfq cyf{t\ efuL/yf k|;fO{ / d u0f]zaxfb'/
k|;fO{ dfq lyof}F . g/]Gb| / OlGb/fn] k|To]s cg'R5]b k9]/ ;'gfpFbf cfdfn] pgLxnfO{ /f]s]/ ToxfF
n]lvPsf] d"ne"t s'/fsf] h;/L dnfO{ JofVof ;'gfpg'x'GYof] To;nfO{ dgg ubf{ OlGb/f t cfdfsf]
hLjgnfO{ efiffdf k|ltlalDat t'NofOlbg] dfWod dfq alglbPsL /lx5g\ s[ltsf sltko :yndf
k|:t't ljrf/ / ts{ OlGb/fsf ljrf/ / ts{ x'g\ eGg] e|d xfd|f] dgdf pTkGg x'g] h'g :yn To;
s[ltdf kfOG5g\ tL :yn klg OlGb/fsf xf]Ogg\ cfdfs} cfgf] ljrf/ / ts{ /x]5g\ eGg] h'g ljZjf;

2
To; lbg d]/f dgdf pTkGg eof] Tof] ljZjf; cfh klg d]/f] dgdf h:tfsf] t:t} 5, tfh} 5 . oL
;a} sf/0fn] ubf{ s'g s'/f d ls6fg u/]/ eGg ;St5' eg] d]/L ;f;"df OlGb/f snfTds of]hgf /
efiff k|bfg ug]{ n]lvsfsf kdf dfq ;Lldt /x]sL l5g\ . To; s[ltdf ;j{q cfdf efuL/yf k|;fO{
dfq JofKt aGg k'Ug'ePsf] 5 . ToxL g} o; s[ltsf] r/d k|flKt / ;kmntf klg xf] eGg] dnfO{
nfUb5 . hLjgL;flxTodf geOgx'g] cfjZos u'0f klg ToxL xf] .
d]/L ;f;"sL gflosf >LdtL efuL/yf k|;fO{sf gf} bzs nfdf] hLjgsf] syfJoyfnfO{ dgg
ubf{ /f0ffsfnLg g]kfnsf] v; afx'g ;dfhsf cfdfafa'n] ;s] 3/ vf, g;s] gbLdf 8'a]/ d/\ egL
afnv}df 3/ k7fOg] 5f]/Lsf] k|ltlglwTj xfd|L cfdf efuL/yf k|;fO{n] u/]sf] b]Vg kfOG5 . tfklg
hLjgsf ;a} k|sf/sf xfFsnfO{ :jLsf/ ub}{ ]Nb} cl3 a9\bf sxLF klg s:t} cfkt cfOkbf{ klg oL
gflosf sflqPsL k]mnf klb{gg\ . l;+lxgLn] h:t} pgn] klg PSn} hLjge/ cfgf] kl/jf/sf] bfloTj
lgjf{x u/]sL b]lvlG5g\ . Tof] sfo{ ;DkGg ubf{ klg cfgf] kl/jf/sf ;b:odWo] sf] s[t1 /Xof] / sf]
s[tg /Xof] eGg] s'/fkl6\6 pgL cNdlnPsL 5Fb} 5}gg\ . hLjgnfO{ hLjgs} kdf u|x0f ug]{ pgsf]
a[xt\ rfxgfn] ubf{ pgLk|lt xfd|f dgdf >4f pTkGg x'G5 . xfd|f kf}/:To gf/Lsf] dlxdf eGg' klg
ToxL xf] .
d]/L ;f;"df efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] oyfy{ hLjgsf] syfJoyf k9\g kfOG5 . OlGb/fn] To; oyfy{
syfJoyfnfO{ cfgf] lr/ kl/lrt oyfy{jfbL z}nLdf ptf/]sL 5g\ . pbfx/0ffy{ o; s[ltdf gflosfsf
5efO 5f]/fsf] rl/q h'g 9\un] ptfl/Psf] 5 To;nfO{ lng ;lsG5 . tL 5efOdWo] dft[eQm cGt/]
5f]/f] g/]Gb|sf] lrq0f OlGb/fn] o; s[ltdf o;/L u/]sL l5g\, cfdfsf kfpdf cfgf] lz/ k'ofPkl5
g/]Gb|sf] x/]s lbgsf] sfo{qmd cf/De x'G5 . pxfF cfgL cfdfnfO{ g9f]uL kfgL klg vfg'x'Gg . Tolt
dfq xf]Og pxfF hlt g} Jo:t eP tfklg cfdfnfO{ klg cfjZos ;do lbg'x'G5 . cfdf;Fu} a;]/ vfg],
lbpF;f] Ps kN6 s]xL ;dosf nflu eP klg cfdfsf 5]pdf a:g'kg]{ / ;'Tg'cl3 /flt klg cfdf;Fu}
s]xLa]/ b'Vv;'Vvsf aft dfg]{ g/]Gb|sf] cfdfk|ltsf] b}lgs tflnsf x'g] u5{ . ;fy} cfdfsf]
vfglkgk|lt lgu/fgL /fVg], nufpg] n'ufsf] lx;fa /fVg] / ;fFdf cfdfsf] cf]5\ofgsf] Joj:yfkgdf
;d]t Wofg lbg] sfdaf6 klg g/]Gb| r'Sg'ePsf] dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . of] xf] OlGb/fsf] oyfy{jfbL z}nLsf]
Pp6f ;'Gb/ gd'gf . eg]s} klg 5 M leGg ?lrlx{ nf]sfM .
o; s[ltsL gflosf efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] hGd cf7/fO{ O{afdf a:g] k|]dnfn pk|]tLsL 5f]/Lsf
kdf ePsf] lyof] . pgL cfgf ;dosf t]h:jL k'?if lyP . wgs'6fdf cfpFbf hfFbf / ToxfF a:bf
pgsf] cf7/fO{ xfkf a:g] Rofb/3/] d'lvof cyf{t\ g/Wjh k|;fO{;Fu ulx/f] ldqtf sfod ePsf]
lyof] . To:t}df g/WjhsL kTgLn] 5f]/f] / k|]dnfnsL kTgLn] 5f]/L ;Fu;Fu} hGdfOlbFbf tL b'j}sf dgdf
;DwL aGg] /x/ hfUof] / sfnfGt/df tL b'O{ efO k'/fgf] af]n saf]ncg';f/ ;DwL aGg k'Ubf g/Wjhsf
;fOFnf 5f]/f hok|;fb / k|]dnfnsL ;fOFnL 5f]/L efuL/yf kltkTgLdf kl/jlt{t x'g k'u] . To;/L pRr
;+:sf/o'Qm dfOtLdf x's]{a9]sL efuL/yf To:t} pRr ;+:sf/n] kl/k"0f{ To; a]nfsf k|Voft wd{k'?if
gGbdl0f k|;fO{sL gfltgLa'xf/Ldf kl/jlt{t x'g k'u]sL x'g\ . To;}n] k|;fO{s'ndf ufFl;g k'u]sL efuL/yf
klg cfgL a"9L ;f;" gGbdl0fsL sfG5L kTgL / cfgf rf/efO ;;'/f h:t} sfnfGt/df Rofb/3/]
d'lvgLsf gfpFn] Onfsfe/ g} k|Voft aGg k'u]sL lyOg\ .
afnssfndf Rofb/3/] k|;fO{dWo] efuL/yf k|;fO{ / hok|;fbsf] aLrdf /x]sf] cgf}7f] /f]df~rs
/ cnf}lss k|]dsf] syf ;'gfpg]n] ;'gfpFbf d ;'Gby]F . sfnfGt/df cf7/fO{df cfgf] af; ;fx|}
gePsf]n] lh1f;' x'Fbfx'Fb} klg d}n] tL b'O{ hf]O{kf]Osf] cnf}lss k|]dkIfsf] o; hLjgLk/s s[ltdf kfOg]
l/dl/d] 5fofeGbf a9\tf s]xL klg yfxf kfpg ;lsgF . ;fdflhs k|f0fLsf txdf /x]/ hLjg sf6]sL
dfG5]n] cfgf] lgtfGt lk|o / uf]Ko JolQmut hLjg kIfnfO{ gvf]Ng' :jfefljs} klg xf] eGg] nfU5 .
efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] hLjgnLnf cgf}7f] 5 / Ps b[li6df sxfnL nfUbf] klg 5 . gfafns cj:yfd}
Rofb/3/] kl/jf/df k|j]z ubf{ pgsf klt hok|;fb gfafns g} lyP . pd]/nfO{ g;'xfpg] lx;fan]
a"9fkfvf dfG5]n] h:tf] 1fgu'gsf s'/f dfq ug]{ ePsf]n] To; ;+o'Qm kl/jf/sf ;a} ;b:on]
hok|;fbnfO{ lhh' eg]/ af]nfpg] ub{y] . Rofb/3/] a"9L d'lvgL cyf{t\ gGbdl0f k|;fO{sL sfG5L kTgL
cwj}F;] pd]/d} cfgf] / cfgf rf/efO 5f]/fsf] c+z yfkL cnu ePsLn] pgsf] To; a]nf 7"nf] wfs
lyof], /jfkm lyof] . cfgf rf/efO 5f]/f / ltgsf kTgLdfly klxn]b]lv g} Ps5q zf;g rnfpFb}
cfPsL tL a'l9of cl3lNt/ kbf{ efuL/yfsf ;f;" / ;;'/f t xRsGy] eg] gfltgLa'xf/Lsf] s'g xljut
x'GYof] To;sf] ;xh sNkgf ug{ ;lsG5 . a"9L d'lvgLsf] d[To' ePkl5 pgsf rf/efO 5f]/f c+z u/]/
cnu ePkl5 aNn g/Wjh kl/jf/sf] a'xf/L eP/ pgn] ;fgf] ;\Vof ePsf] kl/jf/sL ;b:o x'g]
;f}efUo kfOg\ . To; ;fgf] kl/jf/df b'O{ bh{geGbf s]xL a9L ;b:o x'Fbf x'g\ . To; kl/jf/sL ;b:o
ePkl5 pgsf hLjgdf b'O{j6f cf3ft kg{ cfP M Ps pgsL ;f;"n] lhh' efuL/yfk|lt a9\t} cfzQm
/x]sf] b]lvg\, ;xg ;lsgg\ / 5f]/fnfO{ csL{ s]6L lax] ug{ afWo t'NofOg\ . csf]{ s'/f a"9L ;f;"sf
kfnfdf eGbf cfgL ;f;"sf kfnfdf a'xft{gsf] ef/L w]/} ux|f}F / sl7g klg eof], tL lbg klg lat] .

3
xfd|L gflosfsf] sfG5L ;f;" cyf{t\ h]7fh' dfgaxfb'/ k|;fO{ / h]7fh' v8fgGb k|;fO{sf] kl/jf/ c+z
lnO{ cnu x'Fbf hok|;fb k|;fO{sf] kl/jf/ klg cnu eof] . ca t ;'vsf lbg cfpF5g\ ls eGg]
nfu]sf] To;} ;dodf dfgaxfb'/sL cfdf cyf{t\ xfd|L gflosfsL sfG5L ;f;" / pgsf] cfg} hLjgdf
csNkgLo cf3ft kg{ cfof] . s] eg] cs:dft\ dfgaxfb'/ k|;fO{ 3/af6 lg:sL a]kQf eP clg xfd|L
gflosfsf klt klg vu|f; u|x0f nfu]sf] rGb|df aGg k'u] . clg cfhLjg cfgL kTgL efuL/yfk|lt
cnf}lss k|]djif{0f ug]{ k|]dLsf kdf afx]s cGo b[li6df pgL ljb]x g} /x] tyf TolQs} d'Qm eP
eGg'k5{ . xfkfsf] ;dfh;Fu To;kl5 pgsf] s'g} k|sf/sf] ;DaGw ePg . kmntM xfd|L gflosfn]
cfk}m kTgL / cfk}m klt ag]/ cfgf] hLjg wfGg s/ nfUof] . oL ;a} s'/fnfO{ dWogh/df /fv]/ g}
xf]nf, cfgL ;f;"sf] rrf{ ug'{kbf{ OlGb/f n]lV5g\ M
d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{ tL dxfg\ gf/Lsf] gfpF xf], h;n] cfgf hLjgsf ulx/f] rf]6 klg
;dfh ;fd" slxNo} b]vfpg rfxg'ePg . cfk"m leqleq} ;Ns]/ klg kl/jf/ / ;Gtfgsf nflu pk\m
klg geGg] gf/Lxsf] oxfF afx'No 5 . To;}n] dnfO{ nfU5 d]/L ;f;" leq d}n] k|:t't u/]sf] syf
clwsf+z g]kfnL u|fdL0f gf/Lxsf] syf xf] . ef]ufOsf qmddf k|foh;f] gf/Ln] ef]u]sf Joyf g} d]/L
;f;" xf] eGg] d]/f] dfGotf 5 . efuL/yf k|;fO{;Fu kl/lrt dfG5] OlGb/f;Fu ;xdlt hgfpF5g\
lsgeg] ToxL oyfy{ ;To xf] .
d}n] dfgaxfb'/ / hok|;fbsf] hf]8LnfO{ !(($ ;fndf pgLx d]/f lktfnfO{ e]6\g egL xfd|f
3/ lg3'/flbgdf cfpFbf Ps k6s b]Vg kfPF . To; a]nf;Dddf g/Wjh k|;fO{sf tL b'O{efO 5f]/f
wgs'6f lhNnfe/ g} k|Voft eO;s]sf lyP . a8fxflsd dfwjzdz]/sf lk|o kfq alg;s]sf ev{/sf
nSsf hjfg eP klg t]h:jL k'?ifdf pgLxsf] u0fgf x'g yfln;s]sf] lyof] . dflg; eGy]
dfgaxfb'/sf] cfF6, lhh'sf] a'l4 pgLxsf cufl8 l6Sgsf]] xf] < 6nSs 6Nsg] ;]tf bf}/f;'?jfn /
sfnf] sf]6 le/]sf tL b'O{ bfh'efO dWod sbsf eP klg kftnf] z/L/sf ePsfn] ;'xfpFbf], cfsif{s /
cUnf g} b]lvGy] . /ftf] j0f{sf dfgaxfb'/sf cufl8 uf}/ j0f{sf xfd|f lhh' yk sf]dn l:gUw / cfsif{s
nfUy] . kl5 d}n] hLjgdf jL=kL= sf]O/fnfsf] ;fdLKo k|fKt u/]F . pxfF;Fu ;fIffTsf/ x'Fbf dnfO{ hlxn]
;'s} klg lhh';Fu e]6 ePsf] Nsf] cfpFYof] . lsgeg] !(($ ;fndf k|yd k6s / @))( ;fndf
bf];|f] k6s d}n] b]Vg kfPsf lhh' k|;fO{ / jL=kL= sf]O/fnf p:t} snfTds / lrl6Ss k/]sf cToGt
cfsif{s JolQmTj lyP . Pp6fnfO{ b]Vbf csf{nfO{ b]Vg kfPh:tf] nfUg] . km/srflxF s] lyof] eg] Pp6}
jL=kL=df dfgaxfb'/sf] cfF6 / b':;fx; dfq xf]Og lhh'sf] a'l4 / w}o{ klg lyof] . kmntM lhh'
dfgaxfb'/ lanfpgf;fy ckf\u h:tf aGg k'u] . tL ljfg\, j]bfGtL, ;\uLt1 Pj+ gt{sn] PsfGtsf]
cf>o u|x0f ug{ k'Ubf To;} lanfP dxfdfgj jL=kL= h:tf] pgL rDsg ;s]gg\ . xfdL h:tf
Jofjxfl/s hutsf g/gf/Lsf b[li6df h] b]lvP klg xfd|L gflosfsf] b[li6df rflxF pgL j]bfGtL x'gfn]
dxfTdf l;4 x'g k'u]sf lyP . clg PsfGtdf a;]/ lg{G hLjg ef]Ug] tL k'?ifsL xfd|L gflosf Ps
dfq k|]ldsf lyOg\, kTgL lyOg\ clg hGd]sf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf lktfdftf h] eg] klg pgL g} /lxg\ . h;nfO{
efuL/yf k|;fO{n] lz/f]k/ u/L hLjg sf6]sf] b]Vg kfOG5 . efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] Tof] ;fx;, cfF6 /
;\3if{k"0f{ hLjgufyfnfO{ dgg ubf{ pgsf] k|z+;f ug{ dg nfU5 .
lhh' cyf{t\ hok|;fb k|;fO{ dfgaxfb'/ a]kQf x'g'eGbf cufl8 / k5fl8 klg Pp6f lh2Ldf
cl8P/ a:g] uy]{ . o;nfO{ efuL/yf k6Ss} dg gk/fpg] x'gfn] cfgf] /fo ahfpFlyg\ . pgL elGyg\
tkfO{+sL cfdfn] tkfO{+sf] bf];|f] ljjfx ul/lbPsL x'g\ . To;df To; s]6Lsf] s] bf]if < hok|;fb
eGy] Tof] s]6L d]/L kTgL xf]Og, cfdfsL /x/sL k'tnL xf] . To;;Fu d]/f] ;DaGw x'g ;Sb}g .
To;f] geGg'xf];\ kltsf gftfn] tkfO{+n] kltwd{sf] kfngf ul/lbg'k5{ . efuL/yfsf] cfu|x x'GYof] .
geGb} kl5 pgn] cfgL ;f}tfsf] sf]v ;kmn ePsf] b]Vg kfOg\ / cfgf] dfg /flvlbPsf]df k|;Ggtf
k|s6 ub}{ cfgf kltsf b'j} kfp xiff{>'n] kvfNg kfOg\ . cfh klg d]/L ;f;"sL gflosf uj{k"j{s Tof]
s'/f ;Dg] / eGg] ub{l5g\ M xfd|L sfG5Lsf] klg sf]v ;kmn eof] . pHofnf] g pHofnf] cg'xf/
nufP/ pgsf d'vaf6 To:tf ujf]{lSt ;'Gbf dgdf nfU5 o:tf pbf/dgf gf/L o; k[YjLdf c} klg
5g\ / g} k[YjLdf dfgjhflt cl:tTjdfg\ 5 . o:tf sNof0fsf/L / pbf/jf0fL cGoq ;'Gg sxfF
kfOG5 . wGo x'g\ efuL/yf
o; s[ltsf] cWoog ubf{ lgDg a'Fbf :jod]j k|s6 x'g cfOk'U5g\ M Ps kfl/jfl/s lj36gsf]
jt{dfg ljZj kl/j]zdf OlGb/f k|;fO{n] d]/L ;f;" gfds s[lt xfd|f cufl8 k|:t't u/]sL 5g\ / of]
s'/f :jo+df cToGt cy{k"0f{ l;4 x'g k'Ub5 . b'O{ g]kfnL;flxTosf] Oltxf;df hLjgL;flxTosf] h'g
clgsfn b]lvG5 To;nfO{ cjnf]sg ubf{ g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{n] }F OlGb/f k|;fO{n] klg hLjgL;flxTo k|bfg
ug'{ :jo+df dxjk"0f{ l;4 x'G5 . c g/]Gb|n] u|x0f u/]sf Oltxf;cfa4 k'?if jf gf/Lsf] hLjgL n]Vg]
dfu{sf] ljk/Lt ;dfhsf c1ft gf/Lsf] hLjgL n]Vg' OlGb/fsf] ljlzi6 pknlAw xf], qmflGt xf] ;d]t
eGg ;lsG5 . OlGb/f ltdLnfO{ d]/f] d'/Ld'/L wGojfb, awfO / cfzLjf{b 5 .
wfOhg, fkf

4
Rofb/3/sL xfd|L sfsL
gGbs'df/ k|;fO{
xfd|L ;fOFnL sfsLsf] gfpF xf], efuL/yf k|;fO{ . pxfF cf7/fO{ O{afsf ;DkGg JolSt k|]dnfn
pk]|tLsL ;fOFnL 5f]/L x'g'x'G5 . ;fy} pxfF cf7/fO{ xfkfsf Rofb/3/] g/Wjh k|;fO{sL klg ;fOFnL
a'xf/L x'g'x'G5 . g/Wjh k|;fO{sf ;fOFnf 5f]/f hok|;fb k|;fO{ cfgf] pd]/eGbf dflyNnf] :t/sf
af}l4s 1fg ePsf JolSt x'g'x'GYof] . w]/} hfGg];'Gg]] ePsfn] ufpF7fpFsf ;a}n] pxfFnfO{ lhh' eGy] . d
klg pxfFnfO{ lhh'sfsf eGy]F .
d]/f lhh'sfsfsL >LdtL efuL/yf k|;fO{ 8an ;fOFnL x'g'x'G5 . Tof]eGbf 7"nf] s'/f pxfF xfd|L
;fx|} dfofn' / bofn' cfdf x'g'x'G5 . pxfF xfd|L sfsL eP tfklg xfdL ;a} 5f]/f5f]/L hltn] pxfFnfO{
;fOFnL cfdf eGYof}F . d}n] yfxf kfPb]lv g} xfd|L ;fOFnL cfdf ;/n Jojxf/ / pRr ljrf/sL wgL
x'g'x'G5 . pxfFdf Ps yf]kf] klg cf8Da/ 5}g . cfkm"leq 3d08 s:tf] x'G5 eGg] Joxf]/f pxfFsf]
cGtr]{tgfn] klg ;fob ;\s]t kfPsf] 5}g .
;DkGgtfdf x's]{sL, a9]sL / 3/ vfPsL xfd|L ;fOFnL cfdfn] xfdLn] b]Vtfb]Vt} la:tf/} cg]s
b'Vv, G6, kL/, Joyf / d]nfsf] x'G8/L ef]Ug' / ;fdgf ug'{kof] . cfk}mkl6\6sf 5efO 5f]/f /
Pp6L 5f]/LsL cfdf pxfFn] pd]/df g} ;f}tfnfO{ klg xfF;LxfF;L leofpg' / a]xf]g'{k/]sf] lyof] . pxfFsL
;f}tf lbJokf d]/L cfdf hd'gf k|;fO{sL sfG5L alxgL cyf{t\ d]/L ;fgLdf x'g'x'GYof] .
;fOFnL cfdfn] cfgf] ;Gtfgsf] kfngkf]if0f / lzIffbLIffdf w]/} d]xgt ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pxfFn]
cfk"mn] hGdfPsf ;GtfgnfO{ dfq dfof ug'{ePg ;f}tfsf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ klg cfgf 5f]/f5f]/L ;dfg
Jojxf/ ug{'ePsf] lyof] . pxfF pbf/tfsL k|ltd"lt{sf kdf cf7/fO{ xfkfdf lrlgg'ePsf] lyof] .
pxfF GofojfbL k|s[ltn] cf]tk|f]t x'g'x'GYof] .
;fOFnL cfdfsf dgdf hlt;'s} rf]6 / j]bgf eP tfklg cyjf pxfFn] 3/kl/jf/sf] s6' a]xf]/fsf]
df/ v]Kg'k/] tfklg pxfFsf] cg'xf/df slxNo} klg lrGtfsf /]vf e]l6Fb}gYof] . xfd|f df pxfF ;w}F Pp6L
sd{zLn / w}o{jfg\ dlxnfsf kdf lrlgg'eof] . pxfFnfO{ hlt lag ;tfpg vf]lhFbf klg pxfFn]
xfF;LxfF;L tL ;d:ofx ;dfwfg ug]{lt/ cfk"mnfO{ cu|;/ u/fO/xg'eof] . cfkmGt} cyf{t\ cfg}
>Ldfg\sf cToGt} glhss} JolStxdWo]af6 pxfF 3/L3/L cfly{s / ;fdflhs kdf k|xf/ / k|tfl8t
x'g'ePsf] lyof] . t/ klg pxfFn] slxNo} klg x/]; vfg'ePg .
;fOFnL cfdf nf]sefsfdf gfRg / ufpg l;kfn' x'g'x'GYof] . 3/sf] rf8af8 / lax]af/Ldf ufP/
/ gfr]/ pxfFn] /ft} klg 5n{\u} kfg'{x'GYof] . pxfFsf] dL7f] :j/nx/L hlt ;'Gof] Tolt g} ;'g';g' ' nfUg]
x'GYof] . c} klg clt k|;Gg / clt lj/x rn]sf a]nf dL7f] nf]sefsfdf pxfF uLt ufpg'x'G5 .
jf:tjdf To; a]nfdf To; If]qsf g} gfdL ufossf] gfpF lhh' k|;fO{ lyof] . xfd|f lhh'sfsf
d'/nL ahfpg klg ;fx|} l;kfn' x'g'x'GYof] . pxfFn] afF;'/L ahfPkl5 xfdL ;a} hgf pxfFs} jl/kl/
'lDdg yflnxfNYof}F . pxfF xfdf]{lgodsf rflxF cf]:tfb g} x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF cfk}m xfdf]{lgod ahfP/ uLt
ufO/xg'x'GYof] . pxfFsf 3/df k'Ubf pxfF vfnL a;]sf] d}n] slxNo} klg b]lvgF . pxfFnfO{ ufgahfgdf
w]/} g} ;f]v lyof] . af]nLrfnLdf klg pxfF d[b'efifL x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF h:tf] ;/n x'g'x'GYof] af]nLrfnL
klg Tolts} g/d lyof] . pxfFdf s;}k|lt klg l/;/fu lyPg .
lhh'sfsf a9L efj's x'g'x'GYof] ;fy} pxfF Hofb} ;Dj]bgzLn klg x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF cfkm"eGbf
;fgfsf] klg sb/ ug'{x'GYof] . To;}n] d klg 3/L3/L lhh'sfsfnfO{ e]6\g Rofb/3/ hfGy]F . d
afNosfndf g} pxfFs} ljBfyL{sf kdf k|lji6 ePF . pxfF e'/fx k9fpg pT;lu{s x'g'x'Gof] . Tolt
a]nf ;fOFnL cfdfn] klg cfgf klt ;Fu;Fu} nfu]/ ToxfF s;}n] ug{ g;s]sf] b'O{j6f sfd klg ug'{eof]
Ps, cfg} 3/hUufdf lzjfnosf] :yfkgf / csf]{, cfg} uf]bfddf :s'nsf] :yfkgf . Tolt a]nf
pxfFxn] cfg} 3/df lgMz'Ns 5fqfjf; klg vf]Ng'ePsf] lyof] / To;sf] gfpF lhh'xfp; lyof] . csf]{
:s'nejg gagfOGh]n;Dd pxfFxs} uf]bfddf :yfgLo e'/fe'/Ln] lzIff cfh{g u/]sf lyP . csf]{ :s'n
agfpg klg lhh'sfsf / ;fOFnL cfdfsf] cu'jfOdf jl/kl/sf ;a}sf] e"ldsf lyof] .
;'?;'?df lhh'sfsf hg;Dks{ / ljBfyL{nfO{ lzIff cfh{g u/fpg] sfddf w]/} ;lqmo x'g'eP
tfklg kl5kl5 pxfF PsfGtlk|o k|s[ltsf] aGb} hfg'ePsf] lyof] . t/ klg pxfFn] lhh'xfp;df a:g]
ljBfyL{xnfO{ k9fpg eg] 5f]8\g'ePg . o;sf ;fy} ufpF7fpF lxF8\bf / 8'Nbf klg dL7f] / ;'l/nf] /Gsf]
5f8]/ uLt ufpg klg pxfFn] 5f]8\g'ePg . pxfFsf] uLtsf kftsf] lklk/Ln] Tolt a]nf ;a}nfO{ dGqd'Uw
kfg]{ uYof]{ .

5
lhh'sfsf 3/Jojxf/df czSt x'g yfn]kl5 ufpF3/sf hfnL km6fxf / cfk"mnfO{ ;fx'dxfhg
sxnfpg vf]Hg]xn] pxfFsf] hfoh]yfdf ;d]t df}sfsf] kmfObf p7fpg yfn] . To; a]nf pxfFs}
cfkmGtn] pxfFsf] ;DklQdf lu2] b[li6 nufO{ cfly{s wSsf klg k'ofPsf lyP . To; sfnv08df
;fOFnL cfdfn] cfly{s kdf w]/} ;\s6sf] ;fdgf ug'{k/]sf] lyof] . To:tf] cj:yfdf klg ;fOFnL
cfdfn] klt, ;f}tf / ;f}tfkl6\6sf 5f]/f5f]/Lxsf ;fy} cfgf nfnfafnf :ofxfg]{ / k9fpg] sfd
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . Tolt dfq xf]Og pxfFn] cfg} 3/ jl/kl/sf hfnLkm6fxfsf] lyrf]ldrf] lj?4 7"n}
;\3if{ klg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pxfFnfO{ cGofo kbf{ Ps k6s d]/f a'jf /ljnfn k|;fO{n] pxfFsf kIfdf
jsfnt ug'{ePsf] Joxf]/f klg d clxn] NnL ;DG5' . ;fOFnL cfdfsf cfkmGtn] pxfFnfO{ hlt g}
7Ug vf]h] klg / xf]Rofpg vf]h] klg pxfF cfgf] st{Joaf6 slxNo} xlNng'ePg .
;fOFnL cfdf cfgf] wd{df wGo x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF cfgf] hLjgk4ltdf clnslt klg r'Sg'ePg .
clxn];Dd klg pxfF ;fx;sf s'/f u/]/ yfSg'x'Gg . d}n] yfxf kfPb]lv g} pxfF pbf/tfsL vfgL
x'g'x'GYof] . ;fOFnL cfdfn] l/; / kL/nfO{ ;w}F k}tfnfn] s'Nr]/ xfF:g / afFRg hfGg'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFn]
ufpFsf ;a} s]6fs]6L / ul/a u'?jfnfO{ dfof ug'{x'GYof] / ;s]sf] ;xof]u klg ug'{x'GYof] . To;}
k|;\udf d klg pxfFsf uf]bfddf k9]tfsf ef]s nfUg] laltSs} pxfFsf 3/df hfg] uy]{+ . d ef]sn] xQ'
ePsf a]nf pxfFn] dnfO{ ds}, e6\df; / ;fFw]sf] u'Gb|'s lbg'x'GYof] . ;fy} d}n] pxfFsf af/Lsf ;'Gtnf
klg w]/} jif{ vfPsf] 5' . pxfFsf af/Ldf n6/Dd ;'Gtnf kmNy] . ;fob xfkfdf pxfFx h:tf]
v'jfpg ;f}lvg dfG5] c lyPgg\ klg .
;fOFnL cfdf fkfdf a;fOF ;bf{ klg d pxfFnfO{ e]6\g uO/xGy]F . ;fy} clxn] pxfF sf7df8f}F
a;]sf] a]nf klg d pxfFnfO{ e]6\g gO k|sfzg k'lu/xG5' . pxfFn] klg cfgf] dg dnfO{ v'n:t kf/fn]
kf]Vg'x'G5 . pxfF c} klg dnfO{ e]6\tf 5f]8\g} dfGg'x'Gg . pxfF dnfO{ c} klg afnv} b]Vg'x'G5 . pxfF
dnfO{ e]6\tf v';Ln] / ljutsf kL/ ;D]/ klg ?g'x'G5 . d k6sk6s h]n kbf{ d]/L cfdf hd'gfl;t
klg pxfF b'Mlvt x'Fb} ?g'ePsf] s'/f h]nd} yfxf kfPy]F . d ljwfos -;f+;b_ x'Fbf pxfF v';Ln]
gfRg'ePsf] lyof] . cfgL cfdfljxLg d]/f] bo Tolt a]nf pxfFaf6 k|fKt ePsf] cfzLj{rgk"0f{ ddTjn]
eSsflgPsf] lyof] . pxfFn] dk|lt ;b\efjgf /fv]sf] If0fel/ d d]/L cfdf;Fusf] k"j{:d[ltdf k'Ug] u5'{ .
;fOFnL cfdfsf] ddtfdoL dft[:g]xn] d w]/} k|]l/t ePsf] 5' . To;}n] xfd|L dfofn' ;fOFnL cfdfsf
gfpFsf] s[lt k|sflzt x'g] ;Gbe{n] dnfO{ cfh ckf/ xif{ nfu]sf] 5 .
pd]/df g} ;flxlTos ;[hgfdf k|l;l4 sdfPsL ;|i6f OlGb/f k|;fO{n] d]/L ;f;" gfds s[lt
n]v]/ :t'To sfd u/]sL l5g\ . cfgL ;f;"k|lt ;dlk{t eO{ ef}lts kdf pgn] ;f;"sf] hlt ;]jf
ul/g\ ;f;"sf] hLjgsyf n]v]/ klg Tolts} ;f/k"0f{ sfd ul/g\ .
xfd|f] cfg} ufpF3/sf ;'v / b'Mvsf cg'e"lt / hLljt oyfy{nfO{ snfTds 9\un] cfd kdf
pb\3f6g ug'{ n]vssf] ;dof]lrt / k|z+;gLo sfo{ xf] . OlGb/fn] cfgL ;f;"sf lhGbufgLsf k|;\u
cIf/df cfa4 u/L xfd|f] ;dfhsf nflu pbfx/0fLo sfd u/]sL 5g\ . lg/If/ eP/ klg cfgf
;GtltnfO{ lzlIft t'Nofpg cys k|oTg u/]sL, cg]sf}F+ cK7f/fx ef]u]sL clg ;x;| j]bgf /
kL/nfO{ 5ftLdf afFw]/ cf]7df ;w}F d':sfg k'mnfpg] ;fOFnL cfdfsf] o; s[ltdf cfPsf] lhpFbf] syfn]
xfd|f ;a} pTkLl8t / zf]lift cfdfxsf] k|ltlglwTj u/]sf] 5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . ;fOFnL cfdfsf]
hLjgnfO{ 9fs]/ n]lvPsf] eP tfklg o; s[ltn] g]kfnsf] clt b'u{d ufpFs} gf/L hfltsf] syf af]n]sf]
h:tf] dnfO{ nfUof] . ;du|df g]kfnL cfdfxn] ljjztfjz ef]Ug'k/]sf] hLjgsyfsf] ;Unf] :jk g}
d]/L ;f;" xf] . o;sf ;fy} o:tf syfxn] ;dfhsf lg/Lx / lgd'vf hgdfg;sf nflu k|]/s e"ldsf
lgjf{x ug{ ;S5g\ h:tf] klg dnfO{ nfU5 .
o; dxjk"0f{ sfo{sf nflu d alxgL OlGb/f k|;fO{nfO{ xflb{s awfOsf ;fy} wGojfb 1fkg
ub{5' .
:joDe" ;b:o, ;+ljwfg;ef
g]=s=kf=-dfcf]jfbL_
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;flNbbLsf] syf


k|f=8f= /fdk|;fb pk|]tL
d]/f afh] k|]dnfn pk|]tLsL h]7L kTgL sf};Nof / sfG5L kTgL kfdWo] h]7Lkl6\6sf rf/efO
5f]/f / rf/alxgL 5f]/L x'g'x'GYof] . tLdWo] d]/f a'jf sfG5f 5f]/f ;'a]bf/ vu]Zj/ pk|]tL / ;fOFnL
5f]/Lsf] gfpF efuL/yf k|;fO{ xf] . ;fdfGotM xfd|f] 3/df k'mk"nfO{ lbbL g} eGg] rng 5 . To;}n]

6
efuL/yf k|;fO{ gftfdf k'mk" x'g'eP klg pxfFnfO{ xfdLn] slxNo} k'mk" eg]gf}F . xfd|f] 3/df pxfFnfO{
;a}n] ;flNbbL eGy] . xfd|f] 3/sf dfG5] dfq xf]Og 3/l5d]sL klg pxfFnfO{ ;flNbbL g} eGy] . pxfF
xfd|f] kxf8ufpF cf7/fO{ O{afdf klg ;flNbbL / fkfsf] rf/kfg]df klg ;flNbbLsf gfpFn] k|Voft
x'g'x'G5 .
d]/L ;flNbbL d}n] yfxf kfPb]lvs} dfkfsL x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF xfd|f] 3/df cfpFbf xfd|f a'jfcfdfnfO{
ysf{pg'x'GYof] . Tolt a]nf xfd|f 3/df pxfFn] af]Nbf ;a}n] pxfFsf] af]nLsf] sb/ ug'{kYof]{ . To;f] t
pxfF xfd|f] 3/df cfPkl5 xfdL ;a} pxfFsf] cufl8 'lDdg] uYof}{+ . lsgeg] pxfF dg ePsL x'g'x'GYof],
km:of{OnL x'g'x'GYof] / Goflos klg x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF sf]xL l/;fpF5 / sf]xL v';fpF5 eg]/ xf]Og, ;To
s'/f s] xf] eGg] lx;fan] cfk"m k|:t't x'g'x'GYof] . To;}n] xfd|f] 3/df pxfFnfO{ ;a}n] hlt ;Ddfg / >4f
uy]{ pxfF;Fu Tolt g} 8/fpg] klg uy]{ . pxfFnfO{ e]6]kl5 d]/f a'jfcfdf pxfFsf] cf1fkfngdf g} Jo:t
x'g] ug'{x'GYof] . To;}n] d]/L ;flNbbL clxn] klg sf7df8f}F l:yt xfd|f] 3/ xfQLuf}F8fdf cfPkl5 d]/L
wd{kTgL nIdL / d pxfFnfO{ ljutdf d]/f a'jfcfdfn] u/]sf] ;]jf la;f{pFg] k|of; u5f}{+ . klxn] d
;flNbbLnfO{ e]6\g h;/L xfkf hfGy]F, h;/L fkfsf] ;fnaf/L hfGy]F To;/L g} sf7df8f}F l:yt
36\6]s'nf]sf] gO 3/df klg nIdL / d a/fa/ hfg] u5f}{+ .
d]/L ;flNbbLn] dnfO{ ;fg}b]lv dfof ug'{eof] . ;flNbbLsf] dfofsf] kf]v/Ldf 8'a]/ d ;fgf] x'Fbf
klg O{afaf6 xfkf hfg] uy]{+ . Tolt a]nf xfdLnfO{ O{afaf6 xfkf hfg k}bndf gf} b; 3G6f
nfUYof] . d afNosfndf g} xfkf hfg'sf] csf]{ cfsif{0f g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{ g} klg x'g\ . To; a]nf g/]Gb|
/ d Gg} *!) jif{sf lyof}F . xfdL p:t}p:t} pd]/sf ePsfn] xfdL Pscsf{df ;fx|} ldNYof}F klg .
To; a]nf O{af cfpFbf g/]Gb| klg d;Fu} ;'Ty] / d xfkf hfFbf klg g/]Gb| dnfO{ cfk"m;Fu} ;'tfpg]
uy]{ . Tolt a]nf xfdL b'O{sf] e]6 ePkl5 xfdL 5'6\l6g dfGb}gYof}F . d xfkf hfFbf pgL dnfO{ s]s]
lbP/ v';L kfg{ vf]Hy] . To;} qmddf pgn] cfk"mn] e]nf kf/]sf snddWo] s'g} gLa gePsf], s'g} 6f]qmf]
gePsf], s'g} k'm6]sf] / s'g} 6'6]sf] cyf{t\ 5fgL5fgL yf]qf sndx hlt dnfO{ lbg] uy]{ . To; avt
dnfO{ To;/L yf]qf snd lbg]df d]/f] nflu o; w/tLdf g/]Gb|afx]s csf]{ dflg; lyPgg\ / g/]Gb|n]
klg a8f] htg;fy hDdf kfl/Psf tL yf]qf snd dafx]s c s;}nfO{ sbflk lbFb}gy] . To;}n] To;
avt pgLaf6 kfOPsf tL yf]qf sndx d]/f] nflu cToGt} dxjk"0f{ pkxf/ ePsf lyP . o;/L
pgsf] sndk|ltsf] df]xaf6 d ;fg}df k|efljt / k|]l/t;d]t ePsf] lyPF . jf:tjdf To; k|efjsf]
aLhf/f]k0fn] ubf{ g} kl5 d}n] yf]qf sndx -@)%$_gfds lgaGw;\u|x klg n]v]F .
g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{eGbf d b'O{ jif{ sfG5f] eP tfklg pgL dnfO{ dfdf eGg] u5{g\ . pgn] dfq
xf]Og pgsf] nxnx}df nfu]/ ;flNbbLsf ;a} 5f]/fx dnfO{ dfdf eGg] u5{g\ . d]/L ;flNbbLsf
5f]/f5f]/Lx h]7f bfh' lji0f'eSt k|;fO{ -!((%_, lbbL gL/f l;6f}nf -!((^_, ;fOFnf bfh' bL3{/fh
k|;fO{ -@)))_, sfOFnf bfh' e/t/fh k|;fO{ -@))*_, cGt/] bfh' g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{ -@)!@_ / sfG5f
efO u\uf/fh k|;fO{ -@)!$_ n] d]/f h]7f bfh' cyjf deGbf h]7fsfG5f k|foM ;a}nfO{ dfdf g} eGg]
u/]sf 5g\ . jf:tjdf g/]Gb| xfdLnfO{ dfdf eGg] uy]{ / pg}sf] k|efjn] cfh;Dd klg d d]/f
efGbfOxf/f dfdf egL ;Daf]lwt x'Fb} cfPsf] 5' . Tolt dfq xf]Og gO bDktLsf 5f]/f5f]/Lx klg
dnfO{ dfdf g} eGg] u5{g\ .
d]/L efph" -t/ xfd|f] pQm rngcg';f/ d pxfFnfO{ efGhL eGg] u5'{_ OlGb/f k|;fO{ g]kfnL
efiff;flxTosf] k|rlnt gfpF xf] . g]kfnL;flxTodf pxfFsf] pkl:ylt d Pp6f pknlAw dfG5' .
pxfFh:tL l;4x:t ;|i6fn] d]/L ;flNbbLsf] ljifodf n]Vg' eg]sf] d}n] d]/f] nflu klg yk uj{ dfg]sf]
5' . o; s[ltsf] kf08'lnlk x]/]/ d ;fx|} k|efljt ePsf] 5' . k|:t't d]/L ;f;" hlt k9f] Tolt kl9/xg]
ljifoj:t' ag]sf] 5 . Psflt/ d]/L ;flNbbLsf] hLjgsyf g} cToGt} dfld{s 5 eg] csf{lt/ o;
s[ltdf klg n]vssf] k|:t'lt Hofb} dgdf]xs 5 . To;}n] o; s[ltn] g]kfnL efiff;flxTodf cfgf] a]Un}
pRr cl:tTj sfod /fVg]5 eGg] d}n] cfzf lnPsf] 5' .
d]/f efGhf g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{sf] d]/L efGhL OlGb/f k|;fO{;Fusf] j}jflxs hLjgsf] csf]{ pknAwL
d]/L ;f;" klg xf] . efGhL OlGb/f k|;fO{n] lstfa n]v]/ dfq cfgL ;f;"k|ltsf] hohosf/df
b]vfj6Lsf] gf/f nufpg'ePsf] 5}g . pxfFn] cfgf] j}jflxs hLjgsf] cf/Deb]lv g} d]/L ;flNbbLsf]
tgdg / wgn] ;]jf ug'{ePsf] 5 . To;}n] d]/L ;flNbbL a/fa/ eGg'x'G5 OlGb/f geP d]/f] hLjg
o:tf] x'Fb}gYof] . OlGb/f d]/L a'xf/L dfq xf]Ogg\ cfdf klg x'g\ . d]/L ;flNbbLsf] jf0fLdf dfq xf]Og
OlGb/f k|;fO{sf] dfG5];Fusf] Jojxf/ klg Hofb} cg's/0fLo g} 5 . pxfFsf] cfgL ;f;"k|ltsf] Jojxf/
cToGt} cg's/0fLo / k|]/0ffbfoL 5 . pxfF cfgL ;f;"df g} k|foM s]lGb|t b]lvg'x'G5 . o; ljZjs} b'n{e
36gfsf kdf ;f;"k|lt a'xf/Lsf] dfof gOejgdf clxn] klg k|ToIf b]Vg ;lsG5 .
g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{sf] kfl/jfl/s hLjg g} cToGt ;f}xfb{tfn] el/Psf] 5 . k|;fO{ bDktL;Fu}
gOu[xdf ;]jf/t kl/rfl/sf g]kfnu~hsL ;'ldqf rf}w/Lsf] ;]jf klg pTs[i6tfsf] gd'gf dflgG5 .

7
@)^@ ;fnsf] h]7 dlxgfdf d]/L ;flNbbL dl:tisdf An8 Sn6 eP/ df]8n c:ktfndf egf{
x'g'ePsf] lyof] . g]kfnsf Voflt k|fKt Go'/f] ;h{g 8f=j;Gt kGtn] pxfFsf] zNolqmof ug'{ePsf] lyof] .
To; ;dodf efGhf s~rgh\3f / efGhL cg's[ltsfn] cfgL xh'/cfdfk|lt u/]sf] ;]jf k|]/s /
cg's/0fLo lyof] . To; avt lszf]/L josL cg's[ltsff/f ul/Psf] ;flNbbLsf] ;>4f ;]jf d]/f]
:d[ltdf a]nfavt cfO/xG5 . csf{lt/ d]/L ;flNbbLsf] uLtf~hln, lgs]ltsf / cg's[ltsfk|ltsf]
jfT;No klg cfZro{hgs / pNn]vgLo 5 . oxfFlg/ dnfO{ d]/L ;flNbbLdf 6gf6g el/Psf]
dfgjtfk|ltsf] efjgfsf] k'gM pNn]v ug{ dg nfu]sf] 5 .
;fy} efGhf s~rgh\3f;Fu blIf0fef/tl:yt sGofs'df/LsL ;'sGof lk|of k|0fo;"qdf afFlwPkl5
tL bDktLn] klg cToGt >4f;fy d]/L ;flNbbLsf] ;]jf u/]sf] d}n] b]v]sf] 5' . o:tf] b]Vtf Ho]i7
gful/sk|lt ul/g] cfb/ / ;]jfz'>'iffsf] ;';+:sf/df sGofs'df/L lgs} wgL /x]5 eGg] s'/fsf] ulx/f]
5fk d]/f] dgdf a:of] .

d]/L ;f;"gfds s[lt g]kfnL gf/Lsf] hLjgz}nLdf cfwfl/t 5 . ;fdfGotM g]kfnL gf/Lxsf]
hLjgk4ltsf] k|ltlglw :jk g} d]/L ;f;" xf] . d]/L ;flNbbLsf hLjgdf 36]sf x/]s syfJoyf k|foM
d]/L ;f;"n] a6'n]sf] 5 . t}klg o; s[ltdf d]/L ;flNbbLpk/ 36]sf y'k|} ljifoj:t'x cg'kl:yt
5g\ . o;af/] d}n] efGhL OlGb/f;dIf lh1f;f /fVbf pxfFn] eGg'eof] d}n] d]/L ;f;"sf] ljifodf n]Vtf
w]/} s'/fsf] ;fjwfgL ckgfpg'k5{ . d}n] n]Vg g;s]sf clwsf+z s'/f g/]Gb|n] cfgf] cfTdsyfdf
n]Vg'x'g]5 .
g]kfnL efiff;flxTodf d]/L ;f;" k|]/s s[lt xf] . cfhsf] ;dfhdf ;f;"a'xf/Lsf] dfofk|Lltsf]
s'/f k/} hfcf];\ huN6f ;dftf;dft ug]{ k|j[lQ JofKt 5 . d]/L ;f;"leq k|:t't ;f;"a'xf/Lsf]
JolQmTj / st[{Tj ;+o'St kl/jf/ 6'qFmbfsf] kL8f ef]lu/x]sf] clxn]sf] xfd|f] g]kfnL ;dfhsf] nflu
dnd}F ePsf] d}n] dx;'; u/]F . Psflt/ cf}ifwLlj1fgn] ubf{ cfo'j[{l4sf] ;'v klg clxn]sf] ;+;f/nfO{
k|fKt ePsf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ ;+o'Qm kl/jf/ 6'qFmb} uPsf]n] xfd|f] ;dfhdf klg Ho]i7 gful/ssf]
nfngkfngsf] ;d:ofn] lgs} hl6n k lng yfln;s]sf] 5 . kl/jf/df Ho]i7 gful/s x'g' ;'vb s'/f]
geP/ ;d:of x'g nflu;s]sf] 5 . lxhf]sf o'jf / o'jtL cfhsf Ho]i7 gful/s / cfhsf o'jf /
o'jtL g} ef]lnsf Ho]i7 gful/s x'g\ eGg] ;fwf/0f oyfy{;Fu kl/ro eP/ klg xfdLn] a'krfO/x]sf]
cj:yf 5 . cyf{t\ cfh ;f;" ePsL :qL lxhf]sL a'xf/L / cfhsL a'xf/L ef]lnsL ;f;" x'G5] . b'j}
y/Ln] Pscsf{k|lt ;b\efj /fVg' g} ;';+:s[t kl/jf/sf] klxrfg xf] . a'xf/L / ;f;"sf] dgf]lj1fg b'j}n]
a']/ Pscsf{k|lt ;b\Jojxf/ ug{ ;s] k|]dk"0f{ kfl/jfl/s j[Qsf] :yfkgf ug{ ;lsG5 eGg] ;Gb]z klg
d}n] o; s[ltdf kfPF . To;}n] o; s[ltnfO{ k|To]s ;f;" / k|To]s a'xf/Ln] uLtfsf kdf lng
;Sg'k5{ eGg] dnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . 3/nfO{ lj36gaf6 hf]ufpg] d"ndGqs} kdf d]/L ;f;" b]vf k/]sf] 5
eGg] d}n] 7x/ u/]sf] 5' .
cGtdf d]/L ;flNbbL efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] cfs[lt cyjf hLjgrqm lnlkdf cfPsf]df d d]/L
;flNbbLnfO{ xflb{s awfO1fkg u5'{ . ;fy} d]/L efGhL ;|i6f OlGb/f k|;fO{n] ef}lts kdf d]/L
;flNbbLsf] oy]i6 ;]jf ug'{ePsf] d]/f] hfgsf/Ldf lyof] . o; s[ltsf] ;[hgf u/]/ pxfFn] To;nfO{ klg
gfg'ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] cIf/dfk{mt klg cfgL ;f;"k|lt ;dlk{t eO{ ljZjsf a'xf/Lx;dIf zLif{:yfg
k|fKt ug'{ePsf] cg'e"lt d}n] ;Fufn]sf] 5' . jf:tjdf d]/L ;flNbbLnfO{ cd/Tj k|bfg ug]{ n]vs OlGb/f
k|;fO{k|lt cg'u[lxt x'Fb} d pxfFk|lt cfef/;d]t k|s6 ub{5' . d]/L ;flNbbLsf] dfOtL x'g kfPsf]df o;
a]nf dnfO{ yk uj{ nfu]sf] 5 .
xfQLuf}+8f, sf7df8f} SofDk; k|d'v, dxf/fhu~h SofDk;
lrlsT;fzf:q cWoog ;+:yfg -lq=lj=_
)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"
-n]vsLo_
d cfk"m k|f}9 hLjgsf] ;F3f/df k'Ubf dfq d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{;Fu d]/f] ulx/f] ;fxro{
/Xof] . gftfn] pxfF d]/L ;f;" eP tfklg pd]/df pxfF d]/L xh'/cfdfs} josL x'g'x'G5 . pxfFsf h]7f
5f]/f / d]/L cfdfsf] pd]/ Pp6} xf] .
d]/f a'jf u0f]zk|;fb zdf{sf a'jf cyf{t\ d]/f xh'/a'jf g]qk|;fb g]kfnn] ;fthgf lax] u/]sf]
eP klg d]/L cfg} xh'/cfdf o1dfof g]kfnrflxF d hGdg'eGbf tLg jif{cl3 g} k/d]Zj/sL Kof/L

8
eO;Sg'ePsf] /x]5 . To;sf] Ps jif{cl3 g} d]/L dfjnsL xh'/cfdf lrq/]vf l3ld/] klg :juL{o
eO;Sg'ePsf] lyof] . d lzz' 5Fb} d]/f a'jfxsf] c+zaG8f eO;s]sf] x'Fbf d]/f] dfOtL Psn kl/jf/df
kl/0ft eO;s]sf] lyof] .
cfk"m;Fu h] s'/f 5}g ToxL gePsf] s'/fsf] dflg;nfO{ g\ w]/} rfx x'G5 . To;}n] afNosfndf
dnfO{ d]/L klg xh'/cfdf eP dnfO{ s:tf] dfof ug'{x'GYof] xf]nf h:tf] nfUYof] . d;Fu cfk"meGbf ;fgf
d]/f efOalxgL klg lyP . clg Tolt a]nf d]/L cfdf 3/wGwfdf g} Jo:t x'g'kYof]{ . d]/f a'jfrflxF
cfly{s pkfh{gdf lbnf]Hofgn] nfUg'ePsf] lyof] . o;n] ubf{ ddf d]/f] afnjon] vf]h]sf] dfofsf]
cefj lyof] . d d]/f] 3/kl/jf/af6 ck]lIft afn;'ne dfofsf] cefj dx;'; uy]{+ . ctM d]/L klg
xh'/cfdf eO{ pxfFsf] sfvdf n'6'k'6' x'Fb} pxfFs} d'vaf6 /f]rs / /f]df~rs syfx ;'Gg] tLj|
nfn;fn] dnfO{ v'a ;tfpFYof] . jf:tjdf 6f]nl5d]ssf cyjf ;fyL;FuLxsf xh'/cfdfxn] cfgf
gfltgfltgLnfO{ dfof u/]sf] b]Vbf d klg xh'/cfdfsf] dfof kfpg nf]leGy]F . To;}n] afnjodf
xh'/cfdfxsf] cefj d}n] lgs} dx;'; u/]sf] s'/f] xf] . x'gt d]/f] a'jfsL h]7Lcfdf xl/dfof -pxfFnfO{
dfuf{cfdf eGy]_ klg slxn]sfxLF wgs'6faf6 xfd|f] 3/ lj/f6gu/ cfpg''x'GYof] . d]/f a'jfsL cfgL
cfdf rfF8} laTg'ePsf] / dfuf{xh'/cfdf c;n klg x'g'ePsf]n] xf]nf d]/f a'jf pxfFnfO{ w'dwfd dfof
ug'{x'GYof] . d]/L cfdf klg pxfFnfO{ lgs} >4f ug'{x'GYof] .
d]/f a'jf u0f]zk|;fb zdf{ k/b]zdf lzIffh{gdf nfUbf d]/L cfdf b'uf{b]jL g]kfn wgs'6fdf
dnfO{ lnP/ a:g'ePsf] lyof] . To; avt d]/L cfdfn] cfgf] 3/df lgs} xG8/ kfpg'ePsf] lyof] . tL
sl7g lbgxdf dfuf{kf]v/Ll:yt d]/f a'afsL h]7L cfdfsf] 3/df d]/L cfdf k'Ubf h]7L cfdfn] lgs}
rLh u/]sf] ;+:d/0f klg d]/L cfdf;Fu lyof] . d]/f a'jfsf] cg'kl:yltdf d]/L cfdfnfO{ cfgf] 3/df
l6sL vfg g;Sg] cj:yf lyof] . To;} a]nf dfuf{cfdfn] g} 6]jf lbP/ pxfFs} 3/df d]/L cfdfnfO{ a:g
klg lbg'ePsf] lyof] . dfuf{cfdfsf] Tof] u'g klg d]/L cfdfn] slxNo} la;{g'ePg . To;f] t
dfuf{xh'/cfdfsf] :jefj klg lgs} g/d lyof] / pxfF lgs} dfofn' :jefjsL klg x'g'x'GYof] . d]/f]
afnjodf d}n] ;j{k|yd e]6]sf] / glhsaf6 5'g kfPsf] j[4 :jk pxfF g} xf] . t/ pxfF klg xfd|L
dfq xh'/cfdf x'g'x'Gy]g . pxfFsf] vf; 3/ klg cs}{ lyof] / To; 3/df pxfFsf c y'k|}
gfltgfltgLx klg lyP . pxfF b'O{rf/ jif{sf /Ltdf s]xL lbgsf] nflu dfq xfd|f] 3/df cfpg'x'GYof] .
xfd|f] /x/} gk'uL pxfF km]l/ kxf8 kms{g'x'GYof] . To;}n] pxfFn] klg d]/f] xh'/cfdfk|ltsf] rfxsf] wLt
dfg{ ;Sg'ePg . pxfFsf] dfof d]/f] nflu dfu]/ k]6 eg'{h:tf] dfq x'GYof] . d]/f xh'/a'jfrflxF d]/f a'jf
:juL{o ePsf] kGw| jif{kl5 dfq k/dwfd hfg'eof] . t/ d]/f xh'/a'jf x'g' / gx'g' xfd|f] nflu Tolt
dxjo'Qm s'/f] slxNo} ePg . pxfFsf] dfof s:tf] x'G5 eGg] s'/f] d}n] rflxF slxNo} yfxf kfOgF .

Pstfsf d}n] g]kfnL;flxTosf d"w{Go JolQmTj dxfgGb ;fksf]6fsL wd{kTgL /Tgdfof
;fksf]6f;Fu klg s]xL ;do ;Fu} a:g] O{Zj/Lo cg'sDkf k|fKt u/]sL lyPF . /Tgdfofh:tL j[4ff/f
To; sfnv08df dk|lt ul/Psf] dfofsf] a]nLlj:tf/ d cIf/xdf ;d]6\g ;lQmgF . o; 38L tL
k/dtk:jL :g]xdoL ljnIf0f j[4fsf] cfTdfsf] lr/zflGtsf] sfdgf ug'{ d]/f] st{Jo ePsf] 5 .
jf:tjdf pxfFsf] eb|tf / lgM:jfy{tfaf6 d w]/}w]/} k|efljt 5' . To;}n] pxfFsf] gZj/ b]x ljnLg eP
klg pxfFsf] cfTdf o; a]nf :juL{o cfgGbdf ljr/0f ul//x]sf] cg'ej d ub{5' . cfh;Dd d}n] h]hlt
k|fKt u/]sL 5' ltgdf pxfFsf] :jR5 dgn] k|bfg u/]sf] cfzLjf{b klg lgs} xb;Dd ;+nUg /x]sf]
cg'e"lt u/]sL 5' .

ljljw kl/k]|Iodf d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{;Fusf] d]/f] ;fxro{n] lgs} dxj /fv]sf] 5, cyf{t\
hLjgsf] kl5Nnf] ;dodf pxfF;Fu ;\ut ug{ kfpFbf d]/f rfxgfn] kl/t[lKt kfPsf] 5 . pxfF;Fu d
hlthlt glhs x'Fb} uPF pxfFsf] JolQmTjsf] ul/dfn] clee"t klg x'Fb} uPF . o;n] ubf{ d}n] d]/f]
n]vgLsf] dfWodn] pxfFsf] JolQmTjnfO{ hLjGt kfg'{k5{ eGg] c7f]6 u/]F . To;}n] o; n]vgsf] ceLi6
d]/L ;f;"nfO{ k|sfzdfg kfg'{ dfq} xf] .
d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{n] tfKn]h'sf] xfkfdf hLjgsf lgs} dxjk"0f{ ;do latfpg'ePsf]
lyof] . To; 7fpFdf pxfFn] slt ;do /f]P/ latfpg'eof] / slt ;do xfF;]/ latfpg'eof] . o;}
s'/fnfO{ cfg'kflts kdf eGg'kbf{ pxfFn] hLjgsf] cTolws efu kL8f, zf]s / ;'tf{df g}
latfpg'eof] . Toltv]/sf] pxfFsf] x/]s ofqf Pp6f b'MvfTds bGTosyfsf] 7]nL +}F lgs} 7"nf] 7]nL klg
aGg ;S5 . Pp6L ;DkGg kl/jf/sL gflosfsf] 3/df r6f\ k/]kl5 Tof] If0f b'Vvdf s;/L
kfGtl/t x'Fbf] /x]5 eGg'sf] k|df0f d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgj[tfGt xf] .

d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{ @)@& ;fndf tfKn]h'sf] xfkfaf6 fkfsf] zlgZr/]cGtu{t
;fnaf/Ldf a;fOF ;g'{eof] . kl5Nnf] ;dodf ;fnaf/Ldf cfk}Fmf/f lgld{t a/au}FrfaLr cjl:yt

9
lgjf;df pxfF /huh;Fu a:g'ePsf] lyof] . kxf8sf s]xL v]tLkftL laqmL u/]/ ;f]xL k};f / cfgf
uxgfu'l/of;d]t xfn]/ pxfFn] cfgf] h]7f] 5f]/f] dfkm{t db];df hUuf lsGg'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;"sf nflu ;'?;'?df ;fnaf/L cToGt la/fgf] 7fpF lyof] . PSnL cfOdfO{n] b'O{hgf
nfnfafnf lnP/ ToxfF v]tLkftL u/]/ a:g' lgs} 8/dbf]{ s'/f lyof] . Tolt a]nf ToxfF rf]/8fFsf /
h\unL hgfj/sf] laulauL lyof] . t/ pxfFn] lgs} ;fx;;fy v]tLkftL ug'{eof], af/Lau}Frf cfafb
ug'{eof] / 3/Jojxf/sf ;Dk"0f{ bfloTj ;DxfNg'eof] . pxfFn] kxf8nfO{ la;f{pg] u/L To;} 7fFpdf
kmnk"mnsf la?jf x'sf{pg'eof] .
d]/L ;f;"sf] ;fnaf/Ldf cToGt} d]xgt /f]lkPsf] lyof] . pxfF Psl5g r'k nfu]/ a:g
;Sg'x'GgYof] . To; 7fpFdf laxfg rf/ ah]b]lv ;fF ;ft ah];Dd pxfF zf/Ll/s kl/>dd} s]lGb|t
x'g'x'GYof] . To;}n] pxfFnfO{ ca hLjgsf] ;Dk"0f{ efu ToxLF latfpF5' eGg] lyof] . jf:tjdf ;fnaf/L
pxfFsf] dg, jrg / sd{n] r'lnPsf] 7fpF lyof] . pxfF slxn]sfxLF sf7df8f}Fdf 5f]/fx e]6\g cfP klg
pxfFnfO{ sf7df8f}Fdf a;'Gh]n k/b]zL cg'ej x'GYof] / pxfF ;s];Dd l56f] fkf kms{g'x'GYof] . t/
krf;sf] bzsdf pxfF lgs} la/fdL kg'{eof] . To; a]nf fkfsf] cf]vtLd"nf]n] pxfFnfO{ 5f]Psf] lyPg .
cfdfsf] clGtd a]nf cfO;s]h:tf] 5, d'v x]5{;\ eg] 6\6} cfOh eg]/ fkfaf6 lbbL gL/f
l;6f}nfn] d]/f ;xofqL g/]Gb|nfO{ 6]lnkmf]g ug'{eof] . To;kl5 g/]Gb| cfgL cfdfnfO{ e]6\g t'?Gt} fkf
hfg'eof] .
d]/L ;f;"nfO{ pkrf/sf] nflu g/]Gb|n] sf7df8f}Fl:yt xfd|f] 3/ gO k|sfzgdf Nofpg'eof] . To;
avt d]/L ;f;" Gg} cr]t;l/ x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF lgs} lbgsf] la/fdLn] ubf{ xf85fnfdf dfq ;Lldt
x'g'ePsf] lyof] . To; a]nfsf] pxfFsf] cltzo j[4 sfofn] dnfO{ pxfFk|lt b|ljt kfof] . czQm /
c;xfosf] ;]jf ug'{kbf{ dnfO{ eujTk|flKtsf] cg'e"lt x'G5 . d]/L ;f;"nfO{ d}n] o; kdf kfPkl5
s;/L pxfFnfO{ :j:y kfg]{ eg]/ d lrlGtt ePF . vf; u/]/ Tolt a]nf g/]Gb| / d lbg/ft gegL
pxfFsf] ;]jfdf h'6f}F . o;/L la/fdL k/]/ crfgs d]/f glurdf cfOk'Ug'ePsL pxfFsf] c6'6 ;]jf ug]{
df}sf klg d}n] To;} a]nfb]lv dfq kfPsL x'F .
d]/L cfdf b'uf{b]jL g]kfn d afnv} x'Fbfb]lv g} /f]uL x'g'x'GYof] . To;sf/0f afnjob]lv g} d}n]
pxfFsf] kof{Kt ;]jf u/]sL lyPF . To;sf/0f dnfO{ la/fdLsf] :ofxf/ ug]{ snfsf] s]xL dfqfdf cg'ej /
1fg;d]t 5 .
sf7df8f}Fl:yt gO k|sfzgdf d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] k|j]z x'gf;fy} 8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL
8f=jL/]Gb| fkfnLx;d]t ePsf] lrlsT;ssf] 6f]nL lnP/ xfd|f] lgjf; 36\6]s'nf] cfpg'eof] /
8f=pk|]tL klg tL lrlsT;sx;lxt d]/L ;f;"sf] pkrf/df ;+nUg x'g'eof] . 8f=pk|]tL lzIf0f c:ktfn
dxf/fhu~hsf lrlsT;s x'g'x'G5 . gftfdf pxfF d]/L ;f;"sf ebf x'g'x'G5 . d]/L ;f;"sf sfG5f efO
;'a]bf/ vu]Zj/ pk|]tLsf dfOnf 5f]/f 8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL lqe'jg ljZjljBfnosf] lzIf0f c:ktfn
dxf/fhu~hsf dfgjz/L/ lj1fg ljefusf k|d'v x'g'sf ;fy} xfn pxfF ;f]xL SofDk;sf SofDk;
k|d'v klg x'g'x'G5 . To;f] t 8f=pk]|tL g/]Gb|sf dfdfsf 5f]/f dfq geP/ g/]Gb|sf afNosfnb]lvs}
cToGt} ldNg] ;fyL klg x'g'x'G5 . pxfFxsf] ;fg}b]lv dg ldNYof] eGg] d}n] klg ;'g]sL lyPFF . Tolt
dfq xf]Og 8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL g]kfnL efiff;flxTodf klg /fd|f] lgaGwsf/ / sljsf kdf ;d]t
kl/lrt x'g'x'G5 .
To; avt d]/L ;f;"sf] lrlsT;sLo b[li6n] hfFr ubf{ tTsfn pxfF sdhf]/Ln] dfq ynf
kg'{ePsf] eGg] a'lof] . fkfdf la/fdL k/]kl5 s}of}F lbgb]lv pxfFnfO{ eftsf] ;fx|} yf]/} df8 dfq}
v'jfpg] ul/Psf] /x]5 . To;}n] ;'?;'?df pxfFnfO{ df8} v'jfpg'k5{, pxfF cyf]{s vfg} ;Sg'x'Gg eGg]
e|d ddf klg lyof] . t/ pxfFsf] k|d'v /f]u gftfut dfq xf] eGg] yfxf kfPkl5 d}n] pxfFsf] vfgfdf
qmdzM ;'wf/ Nofpg] hdsf]{ ug{ yfn]F . vfgfsf] pkqmd ufF:t} hfFbf vfhfafx]s d}n] pxfFnfO{ lbgdf
b'O{k6s;Dd d'uLsf] hfpnf] g} lg/Gt/ v'jfpg yfn]F . pxfFnfO{ x/]s lbg t/sf/Lsf] f]n, kmnk"mnsf]
/; / df;'sf] f]n yf]/}yf]/} / k6sk6s -aRrfnfO{ v'jfP;l/_ cfk}mn] v'jfpg] u/]F .
fkfaf6 cfPsf lbgxdf t d]/L ;f;" cfk}Fm a:g klg ;Sg'x'GgYof] . pxfFnfO{ d}n] cfg}
sfvdf c8]; nufP/ a;fpg'kYof]{ . pxfFnfO{ lb;flk;fa u/fpg klg ;dft]/ nfg'kYof]{ . pxfF cfgf]
lb;f w'g klg ;Sg'x'GgYof] . tLg dlxgf;Dd d}n] -cfk"mn] hGdfPsf] ;Gtfg;/x g}_ pxfFsf] nfngkfng
u/]F . To;kl5sf lbgxdf clncln ub}{ vfgf a9fpFb} uPkl5 pxfFsf] ;'s]sf] cfGb|f klg v'Nb} hfg
yfNof] . cGttM O{Zj/Lo cg'sDkfn] pxfFn] k"0f{ :jf:Yonfe ug'{eof] .

d]/L ;f;"sf] :jf:Yodf ck|Toflzt ;'wf/ eof] . To;kl5 xfdL pxfFsf] z/L/sf] k"0f{ k/LIf0f ug{]
qmddf nfUof}F . lrlsT;ssf] k/LIf0fkl5 pxfFsf z/L/df b'O{j6f /f]u b]vf k/] . pxfFdf
dw'd]x / lkQy}nLdf kTy/L ePsf] kQf nfUof] . Tolt a]nf pxfFsf] z/L/sf] ;Dk"0f{ hfFr ug]{ qmddf
8f= lz? k|;fO{ -clwsf/L_sf] e"ldsf klg lal;{g;Sg' lyof] . 8f=lz? xfd|L elthL -k|f=8f=eLid/fh

10
k|;fO{ / ;'eb|f k|;fO{sL h]7L 5f]/L_ x'g\ . ;fy} pgL c;n, ;bof / s?0ffsL k|ltlaDa g} x'g\ . s]xL
jif{b]lv lz? cd]l/sfdf a;]sL eP klg d]/L ;f;" pgsf] gfpF 3/L3/L lnO/xg'x'G5 . jf:tjdf
8f=lz?sf] k|jf; xfd|f] nflu rflxF gdL7f] ;flat ePsf] 5 .
d]/L ;f;" pRr /QmrfksL la/fdL ePsf] s'/f rflxF pxfF fkfaf6 cfpFbf g} xfdLnfO{ yfxf
eO;s]sf] lyof] . oL ;a} /f]u /f]syfd ug]{ pkfo dfq ug{ ;lsg] lsl;dsf lyP . ca pxfFn] lgoldt
cf}ifwL ;]jg ug'{kg]{ / kyk/x]h;fy a:g'k5{ egL pxfFsf] lgoldt pkrf/df ;+nUg lrlsT;s tyf
xfd|f k/dldq k|f=8f=dy'/f s]=;L=n] ;Nnfx lbO;Sg'ePsf] lyof] . ;dodf vfgkfg / lgoldt cf}ifwL
;]jgn] pxfFsf] :jf:Yo lgs} ;Gtf]ifhgs eO;s]sf] lyof] . o:t} kl/k|]Iodf qmlds kn] pxfF
sf7df8f}Fdf xfdL;Fu g} a:g] dg;fodf klg afFlwg'eof] .

k"0f{ kn] :j:y eO;s]kl5 eg] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ fkfsf] dfofn] klg jzLe"t kfg{ yfNof] .
pxfFnfO{ cfk}mn] b'Vv u/]/ lgdf{0f u/]sf] cfgf] 3/, sf]7f, af/L / au}Frfsf] cfsif{0fn] tfGg yfNg'
cgf}7f] klg xf]Og . To;}n] xfdL;Fu sf7df8f}Fdf b'O{jif{ al;;s]kl5 pxfFn] fkf hfg] w'dwfd dg
ug'{eof] . h;n] ubf{ xfdLn] klg pxfFsf] dg a']/ pxfFnfO{ fkf k7fOlbof}F . pxfF fkf uP klg
pxfFsf nflu cf}ifwLsf] Joj:yf xfdLn] g} uof}F . xfdLn] sf7df8f}Faf6} x/]s dlxgfsf] Ps ut] pxfFn]
;]jg ug]{ dlxgfel/sf cf}ifwL k7fpg] uYof}{+ . ;fy} pxfFnfO{ kmnk"mn vfgsf nflu vr{ klg xfdL g}
k7fOlbGYof}F . To; a]nf d]/L ;f;" / xfdLaLrsf] k'nsf] sfd fkfsf] latf{df]8df a;f]af; ug]{ xfd|f
efGhLHjfOF tf]ofgfy cf]8f/Ln] ug{'ePsf] lyof] . To; 38L cf]8f/LHjfOF+ latf{df]8af6 lgoldt kdf
x/]s xKtf d]/L ;f;"nfO{ e]6\g ;fnaf/L hfg'x'GYof] .

d]/L ;f;" fkfdf hfg'ePsf] 5 dlxgfdf g} fkfaf6 c3fpg'eP5 . fkfaf6 sf7df8f}F


cfpg] / pxfFnfO{ e]6\g hfg] x/]s dfG5]nfO{ dnfO{ sf7df8f}F af]nfcf] eg]/ xfdLnfO{ ;dfrf/
k7fpg yfNg'ePsf] lyof] . ;fy} lbbL gL/f l;6f}nf / d]/L h]7fgL kf k|;fO{dfkm{t klg d]/L ;f;"n]
OlGb/f;Fu} sf7df8f}F d} a:5' eg]/ tf/Gtf/ va/
k7fO/xg'eof] . o;sf ;fy} pxfFn] dnfO{ sf7df8f}F cfpg dg nfUof] . ca d ltdL;Fu} a:5' eg]/
d;Fu 6]lnkmf]gdf klg eGg yfNg'eof] . To;kl5 xfdLn] pxfFnfO{ k'gM sf7df8f}F lsfof}F .
d]/L ;f;" sf7df8f}F t cfpg'eof] . To;kl5 pxfFn] sf7df8f}F cfOk'Ugf;fy ca e]63f6
eOxfNof] d]/f] fkfsf] l6s6 sfl6b]cf] eGg yfNg'eof] . To;k6s pxfFnfO{ sf7df8f}Fdf yfDg lgs}
ufx|f] eof] . lbglbg} d"No a9\b} uPsf] xjfOhxfhsf] l6s6sf] ef8fsf sf/0f klg o;/L pxfFnfO{
t'?Gtt'?Gt} fkf / sf7df8f}F cfpg hfg u/fpFg xfd|f nflu lgSs} sl7g lyof] . t/ To; k6s klg
pxfFn] fkf guO5f8\g'ePg . To;kN6 rflxF ca cfdfnfO{ xQkQ sf7df8f}F gNofpg] eGg] lg0f{o
u/]/} pxfFnfO{ xfdLn] fkf k7fPsf lyof}F . t/ fkf uPsf] Ps xKtfkl5 g} pxfFn] k]ml/ eGg
yfNg'eP5 dnfO{ ca g/]Gb| eP 7fpFdf k'ofOb]cf] . cfdfnfO{ l56} sf7df8f}F gNofpg] hlt ;'s}sf]
k|lt1f eP tfklg cfdfsf] dg b'vfpg] clek|fo xfdLn] /fVg ;s]gf}F / xjfOhfxfhaf6 pxfFnfO{ k'gM
sf7df8f}F Nofof}F .
d]/L ;f;" sf7df8f}F cfpFbf g/]Gb| / d cf}wL v';L eof}F . ;fy} To; 38L xfdL;Fu} ePsf xfd|f
5f]/f5f]/L lgs]ltsf, s~rgh\3f / cg's[ltsf klg cfdfsf] u[xk|j]zsf sf/0f /dfPsf lyP . To;
38L d]/L ;f;" klg xfdL;Fu lgSs} /lQg'ePsf] lyof] .

d]/L ;f;" sf7df8f}Fdf /fd|/L ;xhfpg'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFn] xfd|f] dfofsf] klg /fd|f] sb/
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . t/ kl/l:yltn] pxfFn] km]l/ fkf hfg'kg]{ eof] . vf;s'/f s] xf] eg] fkfdf sfG5f
b]j/n] cfgf lbj\ut 5f]/f z\s/ k|;fO{sf] :d[ltdf @)%( ;fndf k'/f0f nufpg] sfo{qmd lyof] .
To; a]nf cfdfnfO{ ;f] k'/f0fdf hfgaf6 xfdLn] jl~rt ug]{ s'/} lyPg . To; a]nf klg pxfFnfO{
xfdLn] xjfOhxfhaf6 k'gM fkf k7fPsf lyof}F .
fkfdf k'/f0f ;lsPsf] nuQ} d]/L ;f;" cfk}mn] dnfO{ kmf]g u/]/ d ca fkfb]lv c3fPF
dnfO{ sf7df8f}F lsfcf] . ca d ;w}Fel/sf nflu ltdLx;Fu} a:5' eGg'eof] . Tolt a]nf xfdLn]
xfd|f] cfly{s cj:yf v/fa eP klg pxfFsf] dg b'vfpg rfx]gf}F / pxfFnfO{ hxfhaf6 km]l/ sf7df8f}F
Nofof}F . Tolt a]nfrflxF pxfF Ps jif{hlt xfdL;Fu} a:g'eof] . To;kl5 pxfFsf] km]/L fkf hfg] l9kL
;'? eof] . xfd|f] 5f]/f] s~rgh\3fn] klg dftfnfO{ oxfF hah{:tL g/fvf}F eGof] . clg d]/L ;f;"sf]
OR5fadf]lhd pxfFnfO{ xfdLn] km]/L klg fkf g} k'ofOlbof}F .

11
s]xL ;dokl5 sfd ljz]ifn] g/]Gb| klg b]z aflx/ hfg'ePsf] lyof] . o;}aLr d]/f ;fOFnf h]7fh'
bL3{/fh k|;fO{sL 5f]/L l6:6f k|;fO{sf] lax]sf] s'/f l5lgP5 . cfdfnfO{ ;f]xL lax]sf nflu eg]/
fkfaf6 sf7df8f}F NofOP5 .

g/]Gb| / d]/L ;f;"sf aLr crDdsf] 3lgi6 ;DaGw 5, b'j}n] Pscsf{nfO{ lgs} g} dfof u5{g\ .
d}n] cfdf5f]/faLrsf] olt lag dfof sxLFst} b]v]s} lyOgF . g/]Gb|sf] cfgL cfdfk|ltsf] :g]xflt/]s
b]Vbf dnfO{ Hofb} cgf}7f] nfUg] u5{ . To;}n] g/]Gb|sf] cfdfk|ltsf] Jojxf/ g} pbfx/0fLo / pNn]vgLo
5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfUg] u5{ .
cfdfsf kfpdf cfgf] lz/ k'ofPkl5 g/]Gb|sf] x/]s lbgsf] sfo{qmd cf/De x'G5 . pxfF cfgL
cfdfnfO{ g9f]uL kfgL klg vfg'x'Gg . Tolt dfq xf]Og pxfF hlt g} Jo:t eP tfklg cfdfnfO{ klg
cfjZos ;do lbg'x'G5 . cfdf;Fu} a;]/ vfg], lbpF;f] Ps kN6 s]xL ;dosf nflu eP klg cfdfsf
5]pdf a:g'kg]{ / ;'Tg'cl3 /flt klg cfdf;Fu} s]xLa]/ b'Vv;'Vvsf aft dfg]{ g/]Gb|sf] cfdfk|ltsf]
b}lgs tflnsf x'g] u5{ . ;fy} cfdfsf] vfglkgk|lt lgu/fgL /fVg], nufpg] n'ufsf] lx;fa /fVg] /
;fFdf cfdfsf] cf]5\ofgsf] Joj:yfkgdf ;d]t Wofg lbg] sfdaf6 klg g/]Gb| r'Sg'ePsf] dnfO{
yfxf 5}g .

d]/L ;f;"nfO{ d]/f ;fOFnf h]7fh' bL3{/fh k|;fO{n] @)^! ;fndf sf7df8f}F NofPkl5 ;f;"n]
cfgf] Kof/f] 5f]/f] g/]Gb|;Fu e]6\g vf]Hg' :jfefljs lyof] . t/ g/]Gb| ef/tsf] r]GgfO{df 5f]/f]
s~rgh\3f;Fu ePsfn] pxfF;Fu d]/L ;f;"sf] e]6 x'g ;s]sf] lyPg . vf]O d]/f] g/] 5f]/f] < d]/L
;f;"sf] 5f]/fsf]] vf]h ddTjk"0f{ lyof] . tkfO{+sf] 5f]/f]nfO{ tkfO{+sf] ToxL 5f]/fn] NofPsL /G8Ln] df/]/
stf xf] stf kmfln;sL, ca tkfO{+n] slxNo} 5f]/fnfO{ e]6\g'x'g] 5}g eGg] pQ/ bL3{/fh h]7fh'sL
wd{kTgL ;fg'afaf k|;fO{sf]] eP5 . 5f]/f]nfO{ b]v]e]6]sf] klg 5}g, s] xf] < s] xf] <, j[4sfofnfO{ z\sf
x'g' klg cgf}7f] lyPg . To;kl5 d]/L ;f;"sf nflu /f]u }F eP/ tL s'/f 5ftLdf ul8/Xof] . To; a]nf
pxfF cToGt} la/xL x'g'ePsf] a]xf]/fsf] hfgsf/L d]/f sfOFnf h]7fh' e/t/fh k|;fO{ / d]/L sfFOnL
h]7fgL kf k|;fO{af6 d 3/L3/L kfO/xGy]F . t/ To; a]nf d;Fu d]/L ;f;"nfO{ ;Gtf]if kfg]{ s'g} pkfP
klg lyPg .

d]/L ;f;" bL3{/fh h]7fh'sL 5f]/L l6:6f k|;fO{sf] lax]df fkfaf6 sf7df8f}F cfpFbf bL3{/fh
h]7fh's} 3/df a:g'eof] . To;} ;dodf Ps/ft d]/L ;f;"n] nufPsf ;'gdWo] unfdf nufO/x]sf]
tLgtf]nfsf] ;'gsf] l;qmLrflxF cf]5\ofgsf] cf]5\ofgd} x/fof] . ;f] l;qmL pxfFn] /flt ;'Tg] a]nfdf ;bf}F
vf]n]/ l;/fgLdf xfNg'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFn] ;'gsf r'/f / cf}F7LrflxF slxNo} klg vf]Ng'x'Gg . To; laxfg
p7]/ lgTosd{ ;s]kl5 pxfFn] ;w}F}F l;/fgLd'lGt/af6 l;qmL lSg vf]Hbf e]6\6fpg'ePg . pxfFn] l;qmL
w'dwfd vf]Hg'eof] t/ e]l6Pg . 3/sf ;a}nfO{ ;f]Wg'eof], t/ s;}u/] klg l;qmL e]l6Pg . cfdfsf]
xf]; x/fPsf] 5, st} ofFlsg\ xf]nL pxfFn] bL3{/fh h]7fh'sf] tLtf] / c;To egfO klg To;} a]nf
;'Gg'eof] . clg l;qmLrflxF x/fPsf] x/fo} eof] . d]/L ;f;"nfO{ cfgf] Kof/f] 5f]/f] g/]Gb|nfO{ ge]6]sf] kL/
t 5Fb} lyof] To;kl5 pxfFdfly l;qmL x/fPsf] tf]8 klg ylkof] . lsgeg] Tof] l;qmLnufot pxfFsf
z/L/sf k|foM ;a} ;'g ljleGg ;dodf g/]Gb|n] g} lslglbg'ePsf] lyof] .
Psflt/ Kof/f] 5f]/f] klg x/fPsf] / csf{lt/ 5f]/fn] g}] lslglbPsf] l;qmL klg x/fPkl5 d]/L
;f;"nfO{ ;+;f/} cFWof/f] nfUof] . cfgf] j]bgf zfGt kfg{ d]/L ;f;" d]/f h]7fh' e/t/fh k|;fO{sf] 3/
:joDe"df uPtfsf d}n] d]/L ;f;" / g/]Gb|sf df k'nsf] klg sfd u/]F . t/ pxfFn] To; a]nf d]/f
s'/f kTofpg ;Sg'ePg . clg km]l/ d}n] pxfF / g/]Gb|aLr 6]lnkmf]gdf s'/f ug]{ klg lx;fa ldnfOlbPF .
g/]Gb|sf] cfjfh ;'g]kl5 d]/L ;f;" SjfFSjfF ?g'eof] . cfdfsf] /f]bgdf g/]Gb| klg eSsflgP/ ?g'ePsf]
lyof] . 6]lnkmf]g jftf{ eOGh]n d]/L ;f;"n] 5f]/f] afFr]sf] 7x/ ug'{eof] . t/ ef]lnkN6b]lv k'gM pxfFn]
d]/f] g/], d]/f] g/] df g} lbg kmfNg yfNg'eof] .
d]/L ;f;"n] w]/} ugug ug{'ePsf] axfgfdf lax] ;lsPsf] nuQ} pxfFnfO{ bL3{/fh h]7fh'sf
3/af6 fkf k'ofOof] . t/ fkfdf klg pxfFsf cfFvf cfF;'n] cf]efgf ePgg\ . cxn] g/]Gb| lhpFb}
5 eg] tfklg d]/f h]7fh' bL3{/fh k|;fO{sL >LdtL ;fg'afaf k|;fO{n] eg]sf zAb dfq} pxfFsf] lbdfudf
;Nanfpg] uy]{ . g/]Gb|s} la5f]8sf sf/0f To; avt d]/L ;f;" lbgk|ltlbg lzlyn x'g yfNg'eof] .
clg pxfFn] g/]Gb|nfO{ ;D]/ ef]s, ltvf{ / lgb|f klg la;{g yfNg'eof] . ToxL j]bgfdf 56k6fpFbf
56k6fpFb} Pslbg d]/L ;f;" rkL{df n8\g'eof] . pxfFnfO{ d]/f sfG5f b]j/n] af]s]/ rkL{af6 aflx/
lgsfNg'eof] . t/ To;kl5 pxfFsf] bflxg] xft grNg] eof] . pxfFsf] To;/L xft lsg grn]sf] eg]/
v'6\ofpgsf nflu PS;/] ug]{ Joj:yf klg ToxfF x'g ;s]g . To;f] t To;} a]nf pxfFsf] 6fpsf] klg
dHhfn] e'OFdf ahfl/Psf] lyof], t/ pxfFsf z/L/df s'g} rf]6 eg] nfu]sf] lyPg . Tof] 36gfaf6

12
lbglbg} pxfF ;'t]sf] 7fFpaf6 p7\g klg g;Sg] x'g yfNg'eof] . ;Lldt vfgkfgkl5 lbgel/ cf]5\ofgdf
nl8/xg' / /f]O/xg' g} Tolt a]nf pxfFsf] lgTolqmof eof] .

To;} avt d]/L sfOFnL h]7fgL kf k|;fO{ ljz]if sfdn] fkf hfg'ePsf] lyof] . fkfaf6 kms]{kl5
@)^! ;fn df3sf] bf];|f] xKtflt/ pxfFn] g/]Gb| / dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] cfdfsf] fkfdf lahf]u 5,
pxfFn] g/]Gb| afa" / OlGb/fsf] dfq} s'/f ug'{x'GYof] . d]/f] x/fPsf] 5f]/f] klg e]l6Pg, sf7df8f}F hfg kfP
To;;Fu e]6 x'g] lyof] ls eGg'x'GYof] . tF;Fu} dnfO{ klg sf7df8f}F n}hf kf eGb} d;Fu cfdf
?g'eof] .
d]/L sfOFnL h]7fgL kf kl/jf/j[Qdf lgs} c;n / Jofjxfl/s a'xf/Lsf kdf lrlgg'x'G5 .
s;}sf] ldYof lrof]rrf{ / cgu{n s'/f gug]{, ;fbf Jojxf/ / pRr ljrf/sL wgLsf kdf g} pxfFnfO{
lrlgG5 . To;}n] pxfFn] xfd|L ;f;"sf af/] ;'gfpg'ePsf s'/fn] xfdLnfO{ lgs} lrlGtt t'Nofof] . d]/L
sfOFnL h]7fgL kf k|;fO{sf s'/f ;'g]kl5 xfdL kltkTgLaLr lgs} ljrf/ ljdz{ eof] . cfdfnfO{
sf7df8f}F pkrf/ ug{sf nflu Nofpg} kg]{ lyof], t/ cfdfn] sf7df8f}F cfOk'Ugf;fy dnfO{ fkf
k'ofOb]cf] eGg'x'G5 eGg] sf/0f pxfFnfO{ NofP/ t'?Gt} kmsf{pg nfossf] k};f klg xfdL;Fu lyPg .
t/ pxfF la/fdL x'g'ePsfn] gNofO{ klg gx'g] cj:yf lyof] . To;}n] xfdLn] k'gM pxfFnfO{ sf7df8f}F
Nofpg] lg0f{o uof}F . o;/L d]/L ;f;" km]l/ klg xfdL;Fu} a:g sf7df8f}F cfOk'Ug'eof] .

d]/L ;f;" sf7df8f}F cfpgf;fy xfd|f] 3/df /f}gs cfpg] uYof]{ . pxfFsf] pkl:yltn] dfq xfd|f]
3/ 3/h:tf] x'GYof] . To;}n] d]/L ;f;"sf] pkl:ylt xfd|f nflu cltlk|o ljifoj:t' lyof] . k|foh;f] d]/L
;f;"n] g/]Gb|sf] :kz{ kfpgf;fy pxfFsf] krf; k|ltzt ladf/L l7s x'g] u5{ . d}n] a']cg';f/ of]
klxn]b]lvs} /Lt xf] . klxn]klxn] klg d]/L ;f;" la/fdL ePsf] va/ cfPkl5 g/]Gb| bf}8]/ fkf
k'Ug'x'GYof] . Tolt a]nf d]/L ;f;"n] g/]Gb|sf] gf/L ;dfP/ eGg'x'Gyf] 5f]/f tF htf hfG5;\ dnfO{ klg
Tot} n}hf x} . d]/L ;f;" g/]Gb|;Fu a]Nbfaf]Nb} cfwf lgsf] eO;Sg'x'GYof] . To;}n] o; k6s klg
g/]Gb|;Fu d8fl/P/ ?Fbf?Fb} d]/L ;f;"nfO{ lgs} cf/fd eO;s]sf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;"sf] d]/f 3/df ePsf] pkl:yltnfO{ d}n] d]/f] hLjgsf] csf]{ Pp6f pknlAw dfGg] u/]sL
5' . pxfFsf] u[xk|j]z ePkl5 x/]s sfd 5f8]/ klg dnfO{ pxfFs} ;]jfdf ;dlk{t x'g dg nfU5 . To;}
qmddf To; k6s klg d}n] pxfFsf] ;]jfdf ;do lbg yfn]F . d cfk"m / kl/jf/df sf]xL la/fdL kbf{
klxn] cfk"mn] hfg]sf k|fs[lts cf}ifwL u5'{ / To;af6 kf/ gnfu]kl5 dfq} Pnf]k]yL lrlsT;ftkm{
nfU5' . To;}n] To; avt klg ;j{k|yd pxfFsf] grNg] xftdf d}n] xn'sf dfln; ug{ yfn]F . pxfFsf]
b'v]sf] xft d}n] dfln; bNbfbNb} ;Grf] u/fOlbPF . ;fy} pxfFsf] k"/} z/L/df cf}ifwLhGo t]n nufP/
d}n] dfln; ul/lbPF . d]/L ;f;"sf nflu Tof] cf}ifwL klg d}n] g} agfPsL lyPF . d}n] s]xL lbg rfs/
u/]kl5 pxfF cfk}m p7\g] / cfgf lgTosd{ ug{;Sg] x'g'ePsf] lyof] . s'g} 8fS6/;Fu klg gb]vfpFb}df
pxfF :j:Yo x'g'ePsf] lyof] . pxfF lgsf] ePkl5 pxfFn] ca dnfO{ fkf k'ofOb]cf] eGg'xf]nf eGg]
xfdLnfO{ 8/ nflu/x]sf] lyof] . t/ o; k6s xfd|f] ;f]rfO pN6f] ;flat eof] . lsgeg] d ca
ltdLx;Fu} a:5', o;kflnb]lv fkf ghfg] u/L cfPsL 5' eg]/ Pslbg pxfFn] cfgf] dgsf] s'/f
klg d]/f;fd' vf]Ng'eof] .
d]/L ;f;"sf nflu fkf pxfFsf] k|f0f hlQs} Kof/f] dflgG5 . t/ Tof] cfgf] /utkl;gfn] x/fe/f
agfPsf] 7fFpdf klg ghfg] lg0f{o pxfFaf6 ck|Tofl;t kdf ePsf] lyof] . fkfaf/]sf] pxfFsf] ;f]rsf]
lgisif{ kfpFbf Tolt a]nf d v';L / cfZro{sf] e'd/Ldf k/]sL lyPF . pxfF fkf ghfg] ljifosf]
sf/0fsf kdf pxfFn] lgs} lrQ b'vfPsf] s'/f klg d;Fu eGg'eof] . Toltv]/ pxfFaf6 kfPsf]
hfgsf/Ln] xfd|f] bo klg ghflgbf] qf;n] Psl5g 9Ss ePsf] lyof] . jf:tjdf j[4fj:yfdf pxfFk|lt
36]sf] ;f] 36gf hf];'s} cfdfafa'nfO{ cfgf ;Gtfgk|lt ;z\lst kfg]{ lsl;dsf] lyof] . To;f] t
cfdfafa'sf] ;DklQ xft kf/]kl5 cfk}mn] hGdfPsf 5f]/fn] a"9f afcfdfnfO{ j[4f>dsf] 9f]sfdf k'ofP/
5f]/frflxF+ x/fPsf] 36gf klg xfd}| ;dfhdf g;'lgPsf xf]Ogg\ . t/ ;'Gg' / ef]Ug'df lgs} km/s x'Fbf]
/x]5 . ;'Gbfv]l/ P=== To;f] kf] eP5 s7} eg]kl5 ;lsG5, t/ ef]Ug]n] x/]s kn ToxL ljifoaf6
cfk"mnfO{ x6fpg ;Qmf] /x]g5 . ;fob d]/L ;f;"sf nflu oxfFlg/ klg Tolt g} cGt/ k/]sf] lyof] .
;fFRr} dflg; ;DklQsf nflu slQ lgdf]{xL aGg ;S5 eGg] s'/f klg pxfFn] ;'gfPsf] a]xf]/fn] xfdLnfO{
5n{\u kf/]sf] lyof] . t/ ca xfdLn] ug{ ;Sg] s'/f klg s]xL lyPg . d]/L ;f;"sf] gfpFdf /x]sf]
lhpgL hUufdf klg cfk}m;Fu a;]sf 5f]/fa'xf/Laf6 g} 5n5fd ePsf] /x]5 . cyf{t\ d]/L ;f;"sf
gfpFdf /x]sf] hUufsf] nfnk"hf{ cs}{sf gfpFdf uO;s]sf] /x]5 . lg/If/ d]/L ;f;"sf] lhpgL v]t
lnO;s]kl5 g} pxfF cfk"mnfO{ x]/ljrf/ u/]/ a;]sf 5f]/fa'xf/Lsf nflu af] x'g yfNg'ePsf] /x]5 .

13
d hlt ;sf}Fnf cfk}m sdfpFnf, d k}t[s c+z lnGg . c+zj08f ubf{ g} g/]Gb|n] cfgf] k}t[s
;DklQ Ps leQf hUuf klg lng rfxg'ePg . To;}n] pxfFn] cfdf / 7"NbfOnfO{ efu nufP/ cfk"mn]
lnFbf x'g] hUufdWo] Ps laufxf lbbL gL/f l;6f}nfsf gfpFdf / bz s6\7f rflxF cfdfsf] x]/ljrf/ u/]/
a;]sf sfG5f efO u\uf/fhnfO{ 5'6\6fpg'ePsf] /x]5 . g/]Gb|n] To;/L hUuf 5'6\6fPsf avt
g/]Gb|sf] g st} hUufhldg lyof] g st} 3/ lyof] . To; 38L h]7fh'x s[i0f/fh k|;fO{ / gGbs'df/
k|;fO{ ;f] c+zj08fsf ;fIfL x'g'x'GYof] . To;} a]nf gGbs'df/ bfh'n] g/]Gb|nfO{ eGg'eof] ltdL ;fx|}
dxfg\ xf}, efO
Tolt a]nf cfdfsf gfpFdf rflxF rfgr'g tLg la3f 3/hUuf lhpgLsf kdf df}h'b /x]sf]
lyof] . t/ lgbfg;]vdf ToxL hUuf hldgsf] nf]en] cfk}mn] cfh{g u/]sf] ufF;af;af6 cfdfsf] af;
p7fpg] sfd ul/Psf] lyof] . cyjf egf}F, cGTodf To; 7fFpdf cfdfsf gfpFdf rflxF Ps rk/L df6f]n]
klg gftf ufF:g ;s]g . hLjgel/ d]/L ;f;"sf /utkl;gfn] ;[hgf ePsf] wg;Dklt / hUufhldgaf6
pxfFn] cgfxs} xft w'g'k/]sf] lyof] . egf}F cfk}m;Fu a;]sf 5f]/fa'xf/Lsf ljZjf;df 8'Abf lg/If/ d]/L
;f;"n] cfgf] ;DklQnfO{ ltnf~hln lbg'k/]sf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;" cfgf] nufgL / wg;DklQ ;D]/
g/f]Psf] lbg klg xfdLn] b]v]sf 5}gf}F . t/ g/]Gb|, s~rgh\3f / d eP/ pxfFsf] dgf]efjgfnfO{ pRr
/fVg] sfdaf6 slxNo} jl~rt klg ePgf}F .
xf], cfh xfdL s]xLgs]xL ;Ifd 5f}F / d]/L ;f;"nfO{ h]h:tf] d"Nodf klg ;'vk"j{s /fVg' cfgf]
sQ{Josf kdf xfdLn] lnPsf 5f}F . pxfFs} dg;fodf cfwfl/t eP/} xfdLn] 3/ rnfPsf 5f}F . x/]s
sf]0faf6 pxfFnfO{ ;Gt'li6 lbg] clek|fon] xfdL nfluk/]sf 5f}F . o;} ljifodf Ps lbg dnfO{ d]/L
cfdfh" gL/f l;6f}nfn] eGg'ePsf] lyof] olb cfh ltdLx klg gePsf] eP cfdfsf] s] xfn x'g] lyof]
xf]nf pxfFsf] t kf6Lsf] jf; g} x'g] /x]5 . ;DFbf klg sxfnL nfu]/ cfpF5 .

d]/L ;f;" xfdL;Fu a:g yfNg'ePsf] s'/fn] xfdLn] xfd|f] efUof]bo ePsf] ;f]r]sf 5f}F . ha;Dd
s'g} 3/df j[4 JolQmTjsf] 5q5fofF x'Fb}g, ta;Dd Tof] 3/ Pp6f k"0f{3/ cyjf ;fFRr}sf] 3/ x'g ;Sb}g
h:tf] dnfO{ nfU5 . To;}n] d]/L ;f;" xfdL;Fu al;lbgfn] g} xfd|f] 3/ k"0f{tftkm{ pGd'v ePsf]
cg'e"lt xfdLnfO{ ePsf] 5 .
d]/L ;f;" fkfaf6 ca ;w}Fsf nflu xfdL;Fu a:g] x'g'ePkl5 xfdLnfO{ lgs} v';L nfu]sf]
lyof] . cfdfnfO{ ;fx|} g} fkf hfg dg nfUof] eg] xfdL tkfO{+nfO{ ;Fu} lnP/ hfpFnf, clg b'O{rf/
lbg 3'd]/ ;Fu} kmsf}{+nf xfdLn] pxfFnfO{ To;f] klg eg]sf lyof}F . d]/f] /ut kl;gf leh]sf] 5 ToxfF,
dnfO{ lsg hfg dg nfUb}g / d]/f] z/L/ oxfF eP klg d]/f] cfTdf t fkfd} 5 s'/fsfgLsf qmddf
k6sk6s pxfFn] uxel/ cfF;' kf/]/ eGg] jfSo xf] of] . pxfFsf] o:tf] jfSon] d]/f] d'6' lr/flr/f x'g]
u5{, t/ xfdLn] s] ug{ ;S5f}F / < pxfFn] lrg]sf] ;fnaf/Lsf] v]taf/Ln] pxfFsf] :ofxf/ ug{ ;Qm}g /
h;n] :ofxf/ ug'{kg]{ xf] pgn] a]jf:tf / c>4f u/]kl5 xfdLn] pxfFnfO{ fkf k'ofpg' klg
ck/fwl;jfo s]xL x'g] 5}g . xfdLn] o:t} 7x/ u/]/ pxfFnfO{ xfdL;Fu} /fVg] lg0f{o u/]sf lyof}F . ca
pxfF klg xfdL;Fu /dfP/} a:g'ePsf] 5 .

d]/f] 5f]/f]n] slt b'Vv u/]/ d]/f nflu xflnlbPsf] l;qmL klg bL3{/fhsL 5f]/Lsf] lax]df x/fof] .
t/ d]/f] l;qmL rf]g]{nfO{ SofG;/ x'G5 To; avt d]/L ;f;" lbglbg} cfgf] l/Qf] unf x]/]/ eGg'x'GYof] .
;'grfFbL, hUufhldg, wg;DklQ eg]sf] s'/f 7"nf] klg xf]Og . ef}lts s'/f geP klg clxn]sf] ef}lts
o'udf afFRg sl7g 5, t/ ef}lts s'/f g} ;a} s'/f klg t xf]Og . xfd|f] cfly{s pkfh{gsf] Go"gtfsf
cl3lNt/ ef}ltstf lgs} 7"nf] s'/f eP klg cfdfsf] v';L cl3lNt/ tLg tf]nf ;'gsf] l;qmL 7"nf] s'/f
klg xf]Og . pxfF To;/L lbg/ft ToxL cfgf] x/fPsf] l;qmLsf] kL/df k/]sf] b]Vbf xfdLnfO{ klg lgs}
g/dfOnf] nflu/xGYof] . of] lbg/ftsf] d]/L ;f;"sf] lrGtf / kL/ b]v]kl5 xfdL hf]O{kf]On] ;Nnfx u/]/
pxfFsf] klxn]sf] h:t} t/ Ps tf]nf ;'g 36fP/ l;qmL agfOlbof}F . To;kl5 aNn d]/L ;f;"sf
cg'xf/df zflGtsf] cf]h b]vf kof] .

@)^@ ;fnsf] h]7 dlxgfsf] klxnf] ;ftfb]lv d]/L ;f;"sf] :jefjdf qmdzM kl/jt{g b]lvg
yfNof] . slxn] xfFl;/xg], slxn] /f]O/xg], af]Ng yfn]kl5 af]ln/xg], /flt klg /ftel/h;f] ;FlugL ufP/
latfpg] pxfFsf] tflnsf}F b]lvg yfNof] . pxfFsf] lgb|f klg 36\b} hfg yfNof] . pxfFdf dfgl;s
ladf/Lh:tf] nIf0f b]lvPkl5 xfdLn] lqe'jg ljZjljBfno, lzIf0f c:ktfnsf dfgl;s /f]u ljz]if1
8f=ljBfb]j n'O{6]n;Fu ;Nnfx u/]/ pxfFnfO{ l/8flhg b; gfds rSsL v'jfpg yfNof}F . t/ Tof] cf}ifwL
vfg yfn]kl5 pxfF /flt dfq} xf]Og lbpF;f] klg lgbfPsf] lgbfo} ug{ yfNg'eof] . cf}ifwLsf] dfqf w]/}

14
eof] xf]nf eg]/ xfdLn] 8f=n'OF6]n;Fu ;f]w]/ cfwf uf]nLdfq} cf}ifwL pxfFnfO{ v'jfpg yfNof}F . clg ;f]
cf}ifwLsf] dfqf cfwf 36fpFbf klg pxfF lgbfPsf] lgbfo} ug{ yfNg'eof] .
o;/L d]/L ;f;"sf] Jojxf/df qmdzM lgs} g} kl/jt{g b]vf kg{ yfNof] . Tolt a]nfsf] pxfFsf]
Jojxf/ crDd}sf] lyof] . pbfx/0fsf nflu eGg] xf] eg] pxfFn] eft vfFbf klg slxn] lunf;df /fv]sf]
kfgL kf]Vg], yfnaf6 d'vlt/ nu]sf] eftsf] ufF; ufnflt/ n}hfg], udnfdf ePsf Knfl:6ssf k"mnnfO{
;SsnL 7fg]/ d/Ld/L l6Kg], pN6f] rKkn nufpg] h:tf pxfFn] c a]nf slxNo} gu/]sf
lqmofsnfkx To; 38L ug{ yfNg'eof] . Ps lbg t k"hf ug{ hfg'ePsf] pxfFn] hDd} cfgf] cg'xf/ /
skfndf cla/ nufpg'eP5 . a'af dftfn] t lgwf/el/ cla/ bn]/ s:tf] kfg'{ePsf] 5 sfG5L
5f]/L tfGt' -cg's[ltsf_n] eg]kl5 g/]Gb|sf] Wofg cfdflt/ uPsf] lyof] . Gg} krf; jif{b]lv ljwjf
eP/ /ftf] /} af/]sL d]/L ;f;"sf] k b]v]/ To; avt g/]Gb| cflQg'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFsf] o; k|sf/sf]
ljk/Lt lqmofsnfk lbglbg} a9\g nfu]sf] lyof] . c pxfF lbglbg} uNg klg yfNg'ePsf] lyof] . eft
vfFbf klg ;a} kf]Vg], 9f]Ng], ufnfel/ eft}eft nufpg] ug{ yfn]kl5 d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ d'Fusf] hfpnf]
ksfP/ klxn]h:t} km]l/ cfk}m v'jfpg yfn]F .
To; avt d]/L ;f;" hltv]/ klg cf]5fgdf n8\g'x'GYof] / cfFvf lrDng'ePsf] x'GYof] . eft
v'jfpg p7fof], v'jfof] r'7fof], To;kl5 k'gM pxfF cf]5fgd} lgbfP;l/ kN6g'x'GYof] . eft vfFbf klg
a]nfa]nf cfFvf lrlDng'x'GYof] . qmdzM pxfF lb;flk;fa ug{ hfg klg 5f]8\g'eof] . Psb'O{ rf]6L n'u}df
lb;flk;fa ePkl5 ;;fgf aRrfnfO{ ;do;dodf lb;flk;fa u/fPh:t} d}n] cfk}mn] ;dosf] x]Ssf
/fv]/ pxfFnfO{ lb;flk;fa u/fpg yfn]F . pxfF klg 1fgL aRrfh:t} h] eg] klg dfGg'rflxF x'GYof] .
;Gtf]ifL afnsh:t} pxfF r'k nfu]/ g} ;'Tg' klg x'GYof] . pxfFdf P]ofcfTy' s]xL klg lyPg . 8f=ljBfb]j
n'OF6n
] ;Fu cf}ifwLn] cfdfnfO{ unfof], ca xfdL Tof] cf}ifwL gv'jfpg] eg]/ ;Nnfx uof}F . Tof]
cf}ifwLn] t Tolt ljlw k|efj kfb}{ kfb}{g pxfFnfO{ lsg To:tf] eof] < Tof] cf}ifwL cToGt Go"g kfj/
ePsf] -b; PdhL_ xf] 8f= ljBfb]jn] dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .
8fS6/;Fusf] xfd|f] k/fdz{ rln/x]sf] lyof] / d]/L ;f;" uNb} klg hfg yfNg'ePsf] lyof] . gAa]
jif{sf] xf/fxf/LsL j[4fnfO{ s] ePsf] xf] s]xL eGg g;Sg] cj:yfdf xfdL plePsf lyof}F . xfdLn]
pxfFsf ebf 8f= /fdk|;fb pk|]tLnfO{ klg va/ uof}F] . b'O{rf/ lbg x]/f}F, gq c:ktfn g} egf{ ug'{k5{
eg]/ 8f=pk|]tLn] klg eGg'eof] . lbg k|ltlbg pxfFsf] xfnt lgs} v/fa eO/x]sf] d]/f] dgdf nflu/x]sf]
g} lyof] .
xfd|f] 3/df g/]Gb|, s~rgh\3f, tfGt' / d lyof}F . g/]Gb|, s~rgh\3f / tfGt' cfdfsf] o:tf]
xfnt b]v]/ ?Gy] . Tolt a]nf pgLx tLg} hgf d]/f] cfFvf 5n]/ ?Gy] . ;f;"sf] cj:yf / kl/jf/sf
;a}sf] ?jfjf;Ln] d klg s]xL ;do ls+st{Joljd'9 ePsL lyPF . s] ug]{ < d]/L ;f;"sf] clGtd a]nf
cfOk'u]sf] kf] xf] ls < kl08t af]nfP/ pxfFsf] b;bfg, j}t/0fL / cft'/Lbfg kf] ulb{g] xf] ls < t/ of]
ug{ klg g/]Gb| dfGg'x'Gg . cfdfsf nflu o:tf] ckzs'gsf s'/f u/L eg]/ g/]Gb| d;Fu} l/;fpg a]/
5}g eGg] klg dnfO{ nfUof] . To;}n] To; ;dosf] k|To]s kndf d :jod\ /ge'Nndf kg]{afx]s d]/f] yk
csf]{ sfd klg lyPg .

d]/L ;f;" ynf kl//x]s} avt d uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgsf] sfo{sf/L cWoIfdf lgo'lQm x'g] a]xf]/fsf]
g/]Gb| / d}n] hfgsf/L kfPsf lyof}F . cfdf tkfO{+sL a'xf/LnfO{ >L % 1fg]Gb|af6 sfd lgufx x'g] eof]
g/]Gb|n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] . g/]Gb|sf d'vaf6 of] s'/f ;'Ggf;fy ;'t]sf] 7fFpaf6 d]/L
;f;" h'?Ss p7\g'ePsf] lyof] . o; a]xf]/fnfO{ cfTd;ft ub}{ pxfFn] dnfO{ cflzif lbP/ /fhfsf] klg
ho dgfpg'ePsf] lyof] . Toltljlw c;Qm ePsL dflg; klg o:tf] ;dfrf/ ;'Gbf r\uf eP/ s'/f
ubf{ Tolt a]nf xfdL csf{] crDddf k/]sf lyof}F . ToxL kl/j]zdf d]/L sfG5L 5f]/L tfGt' -cg's[ltsf_n]
klg pxfFnfO{ ?Fb} cFufnf]df /fv]sL lyO{ . d]/L 5f]/L tfGt' ?Fbf of] lsg xfF;]sL xF < eg]/ d]/L ;f;"n]
cfFvf vf]n]/ xfF:b} eGg'ePsf] lyof] . ;':ttfsf] k/fsfi7f gfl3;s]sL d]/L ;f;"sf] o:tf] k|ltlqmofn]
To; avt dnfO{ pxfFsf] hLjgk|lt cfzfsf] ;~rf/ eg] u/fPsf] lyof] .

d]/L ;f;"sf] Tof] hl6n l:yltaf/] d}n] lgs} dGyg u/]F . d}n] lgs} ud]/ pxfFsf] /f]usf] lgbfg
ug{ vf]h]F . pxfFsf] kfrgz}nL 7Ls 5, vfgsf] ?lr klg lau|]sf] 5}g . pxfFn] cfgf] z/L/ dfq}
;~rfng ug{ ;Sg'ePsf] 5}g . dnfO{ nfUof] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ kSs} klg :gfo';DaGwL /f]u nfu]sf]
x'g'k5{ . To;}n] d}n] pxfFnfO{ :gfo' ljz]if1nfO{ g} hFrfpg] ljifodf g/]Gb|;Fu ;Nnfx u/]F . g/]Gb|n] klg
t'?Gt} cfgL efGhL 8f=ljhof kGtnfO{ kmf]g ug'{eof] . 8f= ljhof g/]Gb|sL ;fOFnL k'mk" lxdf d}gfnLsL
gfltgL x'g\ . 8f=ljhofsL cfdf kDkmf l;6f}nf;Fusf] d]/L ;f;"sf] gftf dfOh"efGhLdf dfq ;Lldt
5}g . pxfFx b'j} hgfsf] Pscsf{df cToGt} 3lgi6 ;DaGw 5 . o;} k|;\udf Ps lbg dnfO{ d]/L
;f;"n] eGg'ePsf] lyof] d]/L kDkmf efGhLsf] dnfO{ c;fWo dfof nfU5 . d]/L efGhL klg cToGt}

15
c;n lyOg\, To;}n] efGhL ;fgfdf kfFr jif{;Dd d;Fu} al;g\ . efGhLsf] gfpF kDkmf klg d}n] g}
/fv]sL x'F . kDkmf lbbLsL 5f]/L xfd|L efGhL 8f=ljho kGtsf klt 8f=j;Gt kGt s'zn :gfo'ljz]if1
x'g'x'G5 eGg] x]Ssf xfdLnfO{ lyof] . t/ g]kfnsf k|Voft / Jo:t lrlsT;s ePsfn] 8f= kGt;Fu
tTsfn ;lhn} hFrfpg kfOPnf gkfOPnf eg]/ xfdLn] pxfFsL kTgL cyf{t\ ljhof efGhLdfkm{t\ ;Dks{
/fVg vf]h]sf lyof}F .
xfdLn] 8f=ljhofnfO{ kmf]g u/]sf] laxLjf/sf] a]n'sL lyof] . ca 8fS6/;fx]a;Fu kl;{lt/ dfq}
e]6 ug{ ;lsG5 . ef]ln z'qmjf/ ck|];g ePsfn] 8f=;fx]a lgs} Jo:t x'g'x'G5 g/]Gb|;Fu efGhLn]
eGg'eof] . xf]Og efGhL s[kof ef]ln g} 8f=;fx]a;Fu ;do ldnfOlbgf];\ g cfdfnfO{ lgs} ufx|f]
ePsf] 5 . kl;{;Dd t lgs} l9nf] x'G5 g/]Gb| af]Nb} u/]sf] kmf]g vf];]/ g} d}n] lgs} efjljef]/ eP/
8f=ljhof;Fu eg]sL lyPF . dfOh" pxfF d]/L klg t xh'/cfdf x'g'x'G5, d ;s];Dd 8f=;fx]anfO{
ef]lnsf] g} ;do ldnfpF5' . t/ pxfF;Fu s'/f u/]kl5 d xh'/nfO{ kmf]g u5'{, lrGtf gug'{xf]nf
8f=ljhofn] eGg'ePsf] lyof] . nuQ}h;f] xfd|f] 3/df 8f= ljhof kGtsf] kmf]g cfPsf] lyof] .
h;cg';f/ ef]lnkN6} lbpF;f] b'O{ ah] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ xfdLn] sf7df8f}Fsf] k|bz{gLdfu{l:yt df]8n
c:ktfn k'ofof}F .
df]8n c:ktfndf k'u]kl5 8f= j;Gt kGtsf] lgb]{zgsf] kfngf u/]/ 8f= slknb]j pkfWofon]
cToGt} ;f}xfb{tfsf ;fy d]/L ;f;"sf] hfFr ug'{eof] . d]/f] s'/fnfO{ ljZjf; u/]/ 8f=slkn pkfWofon]
t'?Gt g} d]/L ;f;"sf] ;L=6L=:Sofg u/fpg'eof] . ;L=6L= :Sofgsf] l/kf]6{ cfPkl5 5Ss kg]{ kfnf]
8f=pkfWofosf] lyof] . lsgeg] d}n] eg]cg';f/ g} d]/L ;f;"sf] :gfo';DaGwL g} /f]u b]vf kof] . d]/L
;f;"sf] dl:tisdf An8 Sn6 ePsf] -6fpsfsf] Ps 5]pdf /ut hd]sf]_ /x]5 . d]/L ;f;"sf]
dl:tisdf cToGt ;"Id kn] /Qm>fj ePsfn] ToxfF /ut hDdf x'g yfn]sf] sf/0f pxfFsf]
dl:tisnfO{ bVvn u/]sf] /x]5 . ToxL sf/0fn] pxfFn] c;fdfGo Jojxf/ ug'{sf ;fy} pxfF c;Qm;d]t
x'g'ePsf] xf] eGg] 8f=pkfWofoaf6 To; a]nf xfdLn] hfgsf/L kfof}F . 8f= j;Gt kGt cGo ladf/Lsf]
zNolqmofdf Jo:t x'g'ePsfn] pxfFn] g} 8f=pkfWofonfO{ d]/L ;f;"sf] k/LIf0f u/]/ /f]usf] lgbfg ug{ /
:gfo';DaGwL /f]u eP pxfFnfO{ va/ ug{ klg cg'/f]w ug'{ePsf] /x]5 . 8f=pkfWofosf] l/kf]6{ k5\ofP/
8f=kGtn] d]/L ;f;"sf] t'?Gt zNolqmof ug'{k5{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .

d]/L ;f;"sf] 6fpsfsf] ck|];g xfd|f nflu lgs} 7"nf] s'/f lyof] . gAa] jif{sL xf/fxf/LsL
dflg;sf] o:tf] ck|];g ug'{knf{ eGg] dfgl;stf g} xfdLn] agfPsf lyPgf}F . 8f=;fx]a cfdfsf]
ck|];g g} ug'{k5{ / pxfFnfO{ cf}ifwLn] dfq lgsf] kfg{ ;lsFb}g / < ;se/ cf}ifwLn] lgsf] x'G5 eg]
lsg ck|];g u/]/ pxfFnfO{ b'Mv lbg] eg]/ 8f=j;Gt kGt;Fu d}n] kmf]gdf s'/f u/]F . pxfFsf] ;s];Dd
l56f] ck|];g ug'{k5{ . cfh pxfFsf] c OGe]l:6u];g u/]/ ef]ln g} pxfFsf] ck|];g ug'{k5{, tkfO{+xn]
pxfFnfO{ cfh} c:ktfn egf{ u/fpg'xf]nf . d]/f] k|Zgsf] 8f= kGtn] o:tf] hjfkm lbg'ePsf] lyof] .
8f=;fx]a pxfFnfO{ ck|];g ubf{ s]xL vt/f t x'Fb}g, lgsf] t x'G5 < d}n] k'gM z\sf JoQm u/]/
pxfF;Fu ;f]w]sL lyPF . x]gf]{;, ck|];g ubf{ pxfFnfO{ (( k|ltzt lgsf] x'G5, pxfF klxn]sf] cj:yfsf]
}F /fd|f] x'g'x'G5 . t/ ck|];g gubf{ eg] pxfFnfO{ 3/ gnfFbf x'G5 cyf{t\ tkfO{+xn] pxfFsf] d[To'sf]
k|tLIff ug{ ;Sg'x'G5 . dnfO{ t ef]ln d}n] pxfFsf] ck|];g ug{ klg kfpF5' of kfpFlbg eGg] nfUb}5 .
An8n] pxfFsf] lubLnfO{ lgs} dfqfdf lylr;s]sf] 5 . cfh /ftel/df pxfFnfO{ s]xL ePg eg] ef]ln
rfF8} pxfFsf] ck|];g ug]{5' . x]/f}F eujfgsf] klg s] OR5f 5
8f= j;Gt kGtsf s'/f ;'g]kl5 xfdL klg d]/L ;f;"sf] ck|];gsf] tof/Ldf h'6\of}F . clg
8f=kGtsf lgb]{zgn] xfdLn] d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f]xL lbg ;Dk"0f{ OGe]l:6u];g klg ;Sof}F . csf{lt/ /ftf]/ft
xfdL k};fsf] Joj:yfdf klg h'6\of}F . To;} a]nf dnfO{ e/v/} lj/f6gu/af6 sf7df8f}F cfPsL d]/L
dfOnL alxgL sNkgf zdf{sf] ;Dgf cfof] . cyf{t\ pm;Fu klg s]xL k};f x'g;S5 eGg] dnfO{
nfUof] . geGb} p;nfO{ kmf]g ubf{ p;n] To; a]nf xfdLnfO{ rflxg] cfjZos k};fsf] aGbf]a:t
ul/lbO{ .
@)^@ ;fn h]7 @* ut] zlgjf/sf lbg d]/L ;f;"sf] 6fpsfsf] zNolqmof ;DkGg eof] . Tolt
a]nf d]/f h]7fh' 8f=eLid/fh k|;fO{ / h]7fgL lbbL ;'eb|f k|;fO{ klg laxfg}b]lv df]8]n c:ktfn
cfpg'ePsf] lyof] . xfdL ;a} cfdfsf] xf];sf] k|tLIffdf g} lyof}F . 8f=j;Gt kGtn] eGg'ePcg';f/sf]
lglb{i6 ;dodf g} pxfFsf] xf]; klg cfof] . d slxn] fkf hfg] < xf];df kms]{kl5 d]/L ;f;"n]
af]Ng'ePsf] of] klxnf] jfSo lyof] . pxfFsf] tgdgdf 5fPsf] fkfaf/] pxfFn] k|Zg ;f]w]kl5 ca d]/L
;f;"nfO{ 7Ls eof] eGg] s'/fdf xfdLnfO{ klg k"/} ljZjf; eof] . jf:tjdf crDd} x'Fbf] /x]5, To:tf]
c;Qm la/fdL, af]NgrfNg g;Sg] dflg; ck|];gkl5 xf];xjf;df kms{+bf /x]5g\ . o:tf] /f]usf] klg
lrgf/L eof] eG7fGof}F xfdLn] . vf;df h'g a]nf d]/L ;f;" fkfdf n8\g'ePsf] lyof], To; avt
pxfFsf] 6fpsf]] e'OFdf alh|Psf sf/0f of] /f]usf] k|fk yflnPsf] /x]5 .

16

d]/L ;f;" c:ktfnd} x'g'x'Fb} uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgsf] sfo{sf/L cWoIfsf] kbdf d]/f] lgo'lQm eof] .
/]l8of] g]kfn, Pk\mPd\x / 6]lnlehgxsf] ;dfrf/kl5 cfkmGtxsf] awfOsf] kmf]g wdfwd cfpg
yfNof] . t/ xfdL c:ktfndf x'g] ePsfn] kmf]g;Dd p7fpg / pgLxnfO{ xfdLn] wGojfb eGg klg
kfPgf}F . /ftel/ c:ktfndf ;f;"sf] s'?jf a;]/ @)^@ ;fn h]7 #! ut] lbgsf] rf/ ah] d}n]
uf]/vfkq ;+:yfgdf sfo{sf/L cWoIfsf] kb axfnL u/]F . To; avt 3/df sfd ug]{ dflg; klg
gePsf sf/0f lgs} Jo:t cj:yfdf d}n] /xg'k/]sf] lyof] . t/ klg 5f]/f] s~rgh\3f, 5f]/L cg's[ltsf
/ efGhf ch'{g l;6f}nfsf] ;xof]un] d]/L ;f;"sf] ;]jf;'>'iffdf dnfO{ lgs} ;xof]u k'u]sf] lyof] . To;
avt d]/f kf]ifsk'q dfwj g]kfnn] klg xfdLnfO{ lgs} ;xof]u u/]sf lyP . To;f] t d]/f ;xofqL
g/]Gb|sf] lbnf]Hofgf/f cfdfsf] ;]jf ug]{ k|j[lQsf sf/0f dnfO{ cfgf] sQ{Jo lgjf{x ug{ lgs} ;lhnf]
ePsf] lyof] . h] xf];\ >Leujfg\sf] s[kf / xfdL ;a}sf] efUosf sf/0f d]/L ;f;"nfO{ xfdLn] d[To'sf]
d'vaf6 hf]ufpg ;Sof}F . To;kl5sf lbgxdf klg cToGt} ;+odsf] Jojxf/ ug'{ePsf sf/0f d]/L
;f;"n] zL3| :jf:Yo nfe ug'{ePsf] lyof] .

dl:tissf] zNolqmof ul/;s]kl5 klg d]/L ;f;"n] plQs} ;+oldt kdf hLjg latfpg'ePsf]
5 . pxfF xfd|f] 3/sf] rf/ tn] eof\u klg lbgdf s}of}F k6s ;xh kn] plSng] / cf]ln{g] ug{'x'G5 .
pxfFsf] lha|f]sf] :jfb, k]6sf] kfrgzlQm, cfFvfsf] b[li6 / sfgsf] >j0fzlQm s'g} d:to'jfsf] eGbf 36L
k6Ss} 5}g . pT;fxhgs hLjgz}nL, hLjgk|ltsf] c;Ld cf:yf, ;sf/fTds ;f]r / pRrtfaf]wsf
sf/0f g} pxfF ;':jf:YosL wgL / bL3{hLjL x'g'ePsf] x'g'k5{ eGg] d]/f] 7x/ 5 .

d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{;Fu ;dosf] sfnv08n] dnfO{ glhs NofOk'ofof] . pxfF;Fusf]
;fxro{n] dnfO{ pxfFk|lt lgs} g} ;+j]bgzLn;d]t agfof] . jf:tjdf pxfFsf] hLjgsyf ;'Gb} / u'Gb}
uPkl5 pxfFsf] ef]ufO s'g} sfNklgs syfeGbf klg lhpFbf] pkGof;h:tf] dnfO{ nfUof] . pxfF;Fusf]
jftf{nfk d]/f nflu cToGt} phf{zLn ePsf sf/0f d k|To]s lbgh;f] pxfFsf jf0fLxnfO{ sDKo'6/df
lnlka4 ug]{ uy]{+ . To; avt d]/f] nIo pxfFsf] hLjgsyf n]Vg] n]vsxnfO{ n]vg ;fdu|Lsf kdf
;f] n]vf]6 a'fpg] lyof] . To;}n] pQm sfnv08df d}n] pxfFsf] hLjgsyf n]vgsf nflu l6kf]6sf
kdf ;\u|x ug{ yfn]F . x'gt cfdfx n]Vg] qmddf d}n] d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] ;fgf]
cGt/syf klg n]lv;s]sL lyPF+ . t/ cfk"mn] glhsaf6 lrg]/ pxfFsf] cGt/syf u'lg;s]sf sf/0f
pxfFsf af/]df Pp6f ;fgf] syf dfq k|sflzt ub}{df pxfFk|lt Gofo xf]nf h:tf] dnfO{ nfu]g . To;kl5
pxfFsf] ljifodf l;\uf] s[ltdf cfa4 hLjgsyf d}n] g} lsg gn]Vg] eGg] cg'u'Dkmgdf k'u]F . cfg}
;f;"sf] hLjgsyf cfg} a'xf/Ln] s] n]Vg' / < eGg] bf]dgn] klg s]xL ;do;Dd pxfFsf] ;Dk"0f{
hLjgsyf n]vfOk|lt dnfO{ hfu[t u/fpg ;s]g . d n]vs eP/ cfgf] syf n]Vg ;S5', c s;}sf
klg syf n]Vg ;S5' eg] cfg} ;f;"sf] syf lsg n]Vg ;lQmgF < d]/f] ljj]sn] tF n]vs ePsf]
;fy{stfsf nflu klg t}n] cfk}mn] t]/L ;f;"sf] syf n]Vg} k5{ eGg] cfb]z lbof] . To;}n] d}n]
sDKo'6/df 6fOk ul/;s]sf] d]/L ;f;"sf] syfnfO{ k|sfzgsf nflu kl/dfh{g ug{ yfn]F .

d]/L ;f;";Fusf] cGtjf{tf{df cfwfl/t of] s[lt pxfFs} hLjgsf] k|foM ;]/f]km]/f]df cfwfl/t syf
xf] . o; ;\u|xnfO{ ;fdfGo k|Zgf]Q/sf kdf d}n] k|:t't u/]sL 5' . d]/L ;f;";Fusf] lg/Gt/sf] d]/f]
a;p7 / s'/fsfgLsf qmddf pxfFsf] syg l6Kb} hfFbf g]kfnL efiff;flxTodf o; s[ltn] hGd lng]
df}sf kfof] . clg k|:t't ;\u|xnfO{ s[ltsf] :jk lbg dnfO{ Gg} b; jif{ nfUof] . clxn]sf] /f]u,
zf]s, lg/fzf, Oiof{, ]ifhGoflb ljljw k|sf]kn] h]lnPsf] dfgj ;dfhsf nflu d]/L ;f;"h:tf dxfdgf
dlxnfxsf] hLjgsyf cg's/0fLo, pbfx/0fLo / pNn]vgLo;d]t x'g]5 eGg] dnfO{ nfu]sf] 5 . c
cfpFbf] lk9Lsf nflu o:tf lhpFbf syfx lgs} cfZro{ nfUbf] / P]ltxfl;s vhfgfn] el/k"0f{ kf7sf
kdf k|ltli7t x'g];d]t d}n] cfzf u/]sL 5' .

o; k':tssL gflosf d]/f ;xofqL g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{sL cfdf efuL/yf k|;fO{ nueu Ps
bzsb]lv d]/f;fy /xFb} cfpg'ePsf] 5 . d of] bzssf] k|To]s 3'DtLxdf pxfF;Fusf] ;fxro{af6 k|fKt
ePsf zAbf+zxnfO{ cIf/xsf dfWodn] pxfFnfO{ k|:t't ug{ vf]Hb} 5' . gftfdf pxfF d]/L ;f;" eP
klg pxfFnfO{ d cfdf eg]/} ;Daf]wg u5'{ . x'g t d]/f h]7fgL, b]j/fgL / xfd|f kl/jf/sf ;a}
s]6fs]6Lxn] pxfFnfO{ dftf eg]/ ;Daf]wg u5{g\ . t/ dnfO{ eg] To:tf] ;Daf]wg dg kb{}g, To;}n]
g/]Gb|n] }F pxfFnfO{ d cfdf g} eGg dg k/fpF5' .

17
glhssf] tLy{ x]nf eg]}F d]/L ;f;"sf ljifodf l;\uf] k':ts n]Vg ;lsg] oyfy{nfO{ d}n]
slxNo} klg Wofg lbg ;lsg5' . clxn] klg pxfFsf ljifodf k|j]z u/]/ pxfFsf] hLjg ;f\uf]kfuf]
kfg{ dnfO{ cK7f/f] eO/x]5 . pxfFsf] ztfAbL k'Ug} cfF6]sf] jonfO{ / c;\Vo lhpFbf syfsf
kfgfxnfO{ s;/L d}n] d]/f] of] ;\lIfKt n]vgLdf c6fpg] xf]nf < pxfFsf ljifodf n]Vt} hfFbf o:tf]
cK7\of/f]sf] r]kf]df klg d k/]sL 5' . t/ o; a]nfsf] d]/f] nIo pxfFnfO{ cFWof/f]af6 pHofnf]lt/ NofP/
k|sfz kfg'{ dfq} xf] a;\ d olt, dfq k|oTg ug{ vf]Hb} 5' .

d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{ tL dxfg\ gf/Lsf] gfpF xf], h;n] cfgf hLjgsf ulx/f] rf]6 klg
;dfh ;fd" slxNo} b]vfpg rfxg'ePg . To;f] t xfd|f] ;dfh o:t} 5 . g]kfnL ;dfhsf ljifodf
dlxnfsf] kL7df nflbPsf] ;dfh eGg] egfO klg 5 . k|s[ltn] lbPsf] cleef/f lgjf{x ug{df g]kfnL
gf/Lxsf] zLif{:y pbfx/0f k|:t't ug{ ;lsG5 . cfk"m leqleq} ;Ns]/ klg kl/jf/ / ;Gtfgsf nflu
pk\m klg geGg] gf/Lxsf] oxfF afx'No 5 . To;}n] dnfO{ nfU5 d]/L ;f;" leq d}n] k|:t't u/]sf]
syf clwsf+z g]kfnL u|fdL0f gf/Lxsf] syf xf] . ef]ufOsf qmddf k|foh;f] gf/Ln] ef]u]sf Joyf g}
d]/L ;f;" xf] eGg] d]/f] dfGotf 5 .
d :jod\ :qLhflt x'g' / n]vs;d]t x'g'sf sf/0f dnfO{ d]/L ;f;"sf j]bgfsf pR5jf;x
k|:t't ug]{ rfxgf eof] . jf:tjdf d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf] hLjgdf cfg} cfF;' lkP/ ofqf ug'{eof] .
pxfFn] hlt 3lgi6 eP tfklg d;Fu ;d]t cfgf Joyf c} w]/} n'sfpg'eof] . d]/f ;xofqL g/]Gb|n]
d]/L ;f;" sf] kf08'lnlk k9]/ dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] o; s[ltdf d]/L cfdfn] pxfFsf lhGbufgLdf
ef]Ug'ePsf] kL8fsf] krf; k|ltzt klg cfs[lt cfpg ;s]sf] 5}g . g/]Gb|sf s'/f ;xL x'g\ eGg] ts{
d}n] d]/f h]7fh' u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{af6 klg ;\u|x u/]sL lyPF . o;sf] lgSof}{n dnfO{ d]/L ;f;"n]
cfgf] hLjgsf tLtfkL/f syf c} k"0f{ kn] eGg ;Sg'ePg . lsgeg] tTsfnLg g]kfndf hGd]sf
d]/L ;f;"h:tf k|foM s;}n] klg cfgf] b'v]sf], kf]n]sf] / /f]Psf] lhGbufgL aflx/ NofPsf] Tolt
b]lvFb}g . lbof]sf] aftLh:t} hLjgel/ cfk"m hNg] o:tf ;xgzLn gf/Lx k|bQ pHofnf]sf sf/0fn] g}
clxn];Dd of] l;\uf] wtL{ k|sfzdfg x'g;s]sf] 5 . To;}n] gAa] jif{;Dd hn]/ Gg} v/fgLdf kl/0ft
x'g nfu]sf] To:t} lbof]sf af/]df s]xL k|sfz kfg]{ k|oTg dfq} xf] of] d]/f] n]vgL . d]/L ;f;"sf
jf0fLxs}] ;\u|xsf cfwf/df d}n] o; s[ltnfO{ hg;dIf Nofpg ;s]F, To;}n] klg dnfO{ o;
k|:t'ltk|lt ;Gt'li6 5 .

g]kfnLefiff ;flxTosf ;'ljVoft ;|i6f u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{n] d]/L ;f;"sf] kf08'lnlk xfd|} 3/df
a;]/ g/]Gb| / d]/f d'vaf6 ;'Gg'eof] . Toltn] gk'u]/ o; s[ltsf] kf08'lnlk lnP/ pxfF fkf hfg'eof] .
Psflt/ pxfF gftfdf d]/f h]7fh' / csf{lt/ g]kfnL ;flxTosf jt{dfg dxf/yLdWo] Ps x'g'x'G5 .
To;}n] dnfO{ o; s[ltdf pxfFsf] e"ldsf n]vgn] cToGt} pTk|]l/t t'Nofof] . Pp6f ;sf/fTds r]tsf
;fy} ljtfsf k'~hsf kdf d}n] ;Ddfg u/]sf JolStTjaf6 d]/} s[lt /l\ug' eg]sf] d]/f nflu
pT;fxsf] ljifo xf] . u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{ eGg' ;[hgfTds b[li6n] pkNnf] bhf{sf] ;|i6f x'g'sf ;fy} pxfF
g]kfnL ;flxTosf ;'k|l;4 ;dfnf]rs klg x'g'x'G5 . To;}n] klg pxfFsf] 7f]; d"Nof\sgn] o; s[ltsf]
cf]h a9]sf] 5 eGg] d}n] dx;'; u/]sL 5' .

To;} u/L o; s[ltn] d]/f h]7fh' gGbs'df/ k|;fO{sf] e"ldsfsf] f[\uf/ klg kfPsf] 5 .
jfdkGyL /fhg}lts j[Qdf ;\3if{zLn / cfbz{ JolQmTjsf kdf k|lti7flkt gGbs'df/ k|;fO{ xfd|f]
kfl/jfl/s j[Qdf klg cToGt} ;sf/fTds, k|]/s / phf{zLn JolQmsf kdf lrlgg'x'G5 . d]/L ;f;";Fu
k|f/lDes lbgb]lv g} pxfFsf] 3lgi6tf lyof] . ;fy} d]/f lktf u0f]zk|;fb zdf{;Fu klg pxfFsf] u'?jt\
;DaGw lyof] . oyfy{df o; s[ltdf pxfFsf] e"ldsf /xg'n] klg d]/f] o; s[ltn] Goflos klxrfg k|fKt
u/]sf] cg'e"lt d}n] u/]sL 5' .


d]/L ;f;" sf] k"0f{ cWoog u/L e"ldsf n]lvlbg] d]/f b]j/ k|f=8f= /fdk|;fb pk|]tLk|lt d
cg'u[lxt 5' . 8f=pk|]tL Psflt/ d]/L ;f;"sf ebf x'g'x'G5 eg] csf{lt/ pxfF ;|i6f klg x'g'x'G5 . d]/L
;f;"sf dfOtLkl6\6sf ;a}eGbf glhssf JolSt :jod\ ;flxTosf/ klg x'g' o; s[ltsf nflu d}n] yk
pknlAw ;D]sL 5' . To;}n] o; s[ltsf] dd{ / o; s[ltsf] pknlAw 8f= pk|]tLn] a'g'ePsf] 5 .
xfd|f dfjnL 8f= /fdk|;fb pk|]tLn] g} d]/L ;f;"sf] e"ldsf n]Vgfn] klg o; s[ltsf] d"No a9]sf] d}n]
dx;'; u/]sL 5' .

18
d]/f h]7fh'x ;j{>L vg'k\?b] /fdafa" k|;fO{, t]haxfb'/ k|;fO{, k|f=8f=eLid/fh k|;fO{ /
;Ltf/fd k|;fO{n] o; s[ltsf] kf08'lnlk x]/]/ dnfO{ lnlvt xf};nf lbg'ePsf] a]xf]/fn] d yk
pT;flxt 5' .

g]kfnL Gofohut\sL ;'k|l;4 x:tL tyf gO k|sfzgsf jl/i7 ;b:o OlGb/f /f0fff/f o; s[lt
k|sfzgsf] ;f}hGo k|fKt x'g' lgs} dxjk"0f{ 36gf ePsf] 5 . g]kfnL GofofnosL k|yd dlxnf
GofofwLz ;'>L /f0ffdf ePsf] af}l4stfsf af/] o; ;dfhnfO{ af]w ePs} s'/f xf] t/ pxfFdf ePsf]
bfgjL/tf / gf/L dxQf k|sfzgsf] pTs6 clenfzfnfO{ o; k'gLt sfo{n] k|sflzt u/]sf] 5 . ;'>L
/f0ffh:tf pbf/dgf JolQmTjx o; ;dfhdf eOlbgfn] d]/L ;f;" n] ck|sflzt cj:yfsf] kL8f
ef]Ug'gk/]sf] ;To klg o; a]nf d cleJoQm ug{ rfxG5' . jf:tjdf dxfdgf ;'>L /f0ffsf] o;
sfo{n] Psflt/ r/d af}l4s gf/Lsf] bfloTj k|sfz u/]sf] 5 eg] csf{lt/ pxfFdf ePsf] ;xhftLo
uf}/j klg phfuf/ u/]sf] 5 . d]/f] n]vs dg pxfFk|lt xflb{s cfef/ k|s6 u5{ .


d]/L ljb'ifL alxgL gdLtf l;+xaf6 k|fKt k|]/s :g]xjiff{k|lt klg o; avt d clee"t 5' .
k|fWofkg k];fdf ;lqmo / ;dlk{t eP/ klg gdLtf l;+xsf] g]kfnL efiff;flxTok|ltsf] ulx/f] cg'/fun]
dnfO{ pgLk|lt g} 3lgi7 agfPsf] 5 . ;fy} d]/f x/]s n]vgLsf] k|sfzgk"j{ g} d]/L alxgLf/f ;"Id
cWoog ug]{ kl/kf6LnfO{ klg d}n] ;'vb kdf l:jsf/]sL 5' .

d]/L ;f;" gfds k|:t't s[ltdf d}n] d]/L ;f;";Fu ;DalGwt rfx]hlt ;Dk"0f{ s'/f c6fpg
;lsgF . Pp6L a'xf/Lsf] :yfgaf6 cfgf] ;Ldfdf pleP/ hlt n]Vg ;lsG5 d}n] o; s[ltdf Tolt g}
zAb dfq n]v]F, lsgeg] d}n] d]/L ;f;"sf s'/f o;eGbf c} a9]/ n]Vg vf]Hbf d]/f] 3/kl/jf/, Jojxf/
/ gftfsf sf/0f d cK7f/f] l:yltdf klg kg{ ;S5' . To;}n] cfk"m ba]/ / d]/L ;f;"sf s'/fnfO{
5f]6fP/ / k|foM 36gfnfO{ n'sfP/ klg d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ k|:t't u/]sL 5' . o; avt d xif{ /
lj:dftsf] bf]efgdf plePsL 5' . d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgsyf n]Vg kfPsf] xif{sf ;fy;fy} d]/f] n]vsLo
:jtGqtfdf d}n] cfk}mn] aGb]h nufpg'k/]sf] lj:dftn] klg d cfqmfGt 5' .

d]/L ;f;"af/] d]/f sndn] aSg g;s]sf c cg]s syfJoyf / d]/f] 3/kl/jf/nufot k|;fO{
kl/jf/sf klg k|foM gfnLa]nL d]/f ;xofqL g/]Gb|/fh k|;fO{sf sndn] g} eljiodf k|:t't ug]{5 eGg]
d}n] cfzf /fv]sL 5' .

OlGb/f k|;fO{
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf] k"j{syf


of] s'/f ;+jt\ !(&% lt/sf] /x]5 . xfdL b'O{sf] ue{d} lax]sf] 6'\uf] nfu]sf] /] . d]/f a'jf
k|]dnfn pk|]tL / d]/f klt hok|;fb k|;fO{sf a'jf g/Wjh k|;fO{ d'2fsf] tfl/v v]Kg] qmddf wgs'6f /
tfKn]h' -cldgL_ uPsf] avt b'j}sf] lrgfhfgL ePsf] /] . Pp6} k|s[ltsf] sfdn] ;Fu;Fu} lxF8\b} hfFbf
pgLx b'j}aLr /fd|f] ldqtf eP5 . b'j}n] cfcfgf kl/jf/sf] s'/f ubf{ b'j}sL kTgLx ule{0fL ePsf]
a]xf]/f Pscsf{aLr ;f6f;f6 eP5 . To;} avt b'j}n] cfgf ;Gtfgx 5f]/f / 5f]/L hGd] eg]
lax]af/L u/]/ ;DaGwnfO{ g s'6'Da]nL kfg]{ lgwf] u/]5g\ . geGb} ;f]r]h:t} kl/0ffd cfPkl5 xfd|f] lax]
ePsf] /] . d]/L ;f;" cfgf k"j{:d[ltsf s'/fx ug]{ qmddf cfk"m hGdg'cl3sf s'/f;d]t eg]/
/dfpg'x'G5 . d]/L ;f;";Fu a;]/ k'/fgf s'/fx lsLlbg' dfq k5{ tL :d[ltsf kf]N6fx p3fb}{ pxfF
st} ?g'x'G5, st} xfF:g'x'G5 / st}st} k'u]kl5 Psl5g df}g klg a:g'xG5 . To; a]nf pxfFsf s'/f
;'Gg]nfO{ nfU5, tL s}of}F o'u klt{/ 36]sf 36gfx clxn] o;} 38L oxLF 36]sf x'g\ .
xfd|f] ;ft jif{sf] pd]/df lax] ePsf] lg lax]cl3 d}n] 3fF3/ nfpg] u/]sL lyPF . dnfO{ lax]
eg]/ u'Go'Frf]nL nufOlbP . To; a]nfsf] /Lltl:yltcg';f/ lax]kl5 klg dnfO{ d]/} dfOtL3/ NofOof] .
d}n] t]x| jif{ 6]s]kl5 dnfO{ k'gM k"jL{ kxf8sf] t]x|y'dsf] cf7/fO{ O{afaf6 tfKn]h'sf] xfkfl:yt
k|;fO{sf 3/df k7fOof] . To; a]nfsf] rngcg';f/ To;nfO{ d}tfn' k7fOPsf] elgGYof] . To;kl5
nf]Ug]:jf:gL eP/ ufFl;Psf d]/f klt / d pxfFsf] c;fdlos lgwgkl5 dfq 5'l6\6of}F . d]/L ;f;"sf]

19
syf pxfFs} d'vn] egfpg] qmddf pxfFaf6 yfxf kfPsf oL syf d]/f nflu Psfb]zsf] bGTosyf h:t}
ePsf 5g\ .

d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{sf] hGd !(&^ ;fn h]7 * ut] a'wjf/sf lbg cf7/fO{ O{afdf ePsf]
lyof] . clg d]/f ;;'/f hok|;fb k|;fO{sf] hGd !(&% ;fn r}t @( ut] z'qmjf/ cf7/fO{ xfkfdf
ePsf] lyof] . d]/f ;;'/feGbf d]/L ;f;" PsrfnL; lbg sfG5L x'g'x'G5 .
d]/L ;f;"sf] xfn;Ddsf] k"0f{ hLjgL h:tfsf] t:t} n]Vg] ;fdYo{ t d]/f] 5}g klg, t/ lzv/
r9\g] k|oTg u/]/ b]p/fnLdf kftL r9fpFg kfOof] eg] klg cfTd;Gtf]if x'G5 . o; hLjgsyf n]vgsf
qmddf d}n] o:t} dx;'; ul//x]sL 5' . d]/f] dfOtL t lgs} x'g]vfg] lyP, d]/f a'jfnfO{ ufFpdf
h]7fd'lvof eGy], pxfFnfO{ To; e]sdf w]/}n] cfb/ uy]{ . d]/f a'jf k/f]ksf/L / v/f] :jefjsf
x'g'x'GYof] . d]/f a'jfsf] a8f] s8f zf;g lyof], d]/L b'O6L cfdfxnfO{ pxfFn] v'a} sHofP/ /fVg'ePsf]
lyof] . a'jfsf] O;f/f geO{ d]/f dfOtLdf kft klg xlNFnb}g lyof] . dfOtLsf] eJotf ;D]/ d]/L ;f;"
a8f] ulj{nf] x'g'x'G5 . ufpF3/df d]/f a'afsf] v'a /jfkm lyof], ufpF3/af6 s;}n] s]xL dfUg cfof] eg]
cfdfxn] 5}g eGg'x'Fb}g lyof] . d s]6fs]6L x'Fb}sf] Psk6ssf] s'/f ;DG5', ufpFaf6 Pp6L cfOdfO{
t]n dfUg eg]/ xfd|f dfOtL3/df cfOg\ . tL cfOdfO{ k6sk6s dfUg cfP/ x}/fg kfg]{ ePsfn] lbSs
eP/ d]/L cfdfn] 5}g eGg'eP5 . To;} a]nf s;f]s;f] of] s'/f yfxf kfPkl5 d]/f a'jfn] tTsfn d]/L
cfdfnfO{ t]n dfUg cfpg] cfOdfO{sf ;fd'Gg] d} af]nfP/ xf] ;fFRr} 3/df t]n 5}g eg]/ ;f]Wg'eP5 .
cfdfn] To; cfOdfO{sf cl3 hjfkm lbFbf glbFbf g} d]/f a'jfn] P ;fFlRr g} t]n gePs} xf] t eg]/
j]tsf] n6\7Ln] t]nsf] ofDkf] 5]8\g'eP5, df6fsf] ofDkf] t t]nn] el/Ps} lyof], To;/L 5]8]kl5 t]nsf]
wf/f] 5'6\of] . ofDkf]af6 kf]lvP/ t]n 3/el/ / cfFugel/ 5tf5'Nn eP5 . 8/fP/ cfdfsf] ;ftf]
p8\of] / t]n dfUg cfPsL cfOdfO{ klg 8/fP/ eflug\ /] . d]/f a'af o:tf] vfnsf] x'g'x'GYof] . d]/f
a'jfnfO{ 9fF6 s'/f / ul/anfO{ x]nf ug]{ k|j[lQ 7fDd} dg kb}{gYof] . d]/f a'jfnfO{ dL7f] vfg'kYof]{ .
pxfFsf nflu ;fgf] e8\8' efF8f]df a]Un} eft kfSYof] . t/sf/L ksfpg] ;fgf] 8'Ss]df klg dL7fdL7f
t/sf/Lsf kl/sf/ ksfpg'kYof]{ . cfgf lktfsf] aofg ub}{ d]/L ;f;" /dfpg'ePsf] lyof] . clg
xh'/sL cfdfrflxF s:tL x'g'x'GYof] lg cfdf clg tkfO{n] lsg cfdfx eg]sf] lg, tkfO{+sf b'Oj6L
cfdf x'g'x'GYof] ls Sof xf] < lktfuj{df /dfpg'ePsL d]/L ;f;"nfO{ d}n] Ps}k6s b'O{ k|Zg u/]sL
lyPF . d]/L cfdf sf};Nof cToGt} ;Lwf;fwf x'g'x'GYof] . cfdf Psk6s lgs} la/fdL kg'{eof] /], clg
a'jfn] Hof]ltifL b]vfpg'x'Fbf Hof]ltifLn] d]/L cfdfsf] ;f}t]gL u|x /x]sf] / csf]{ lax] u/]df cfdfnfO{ lgsf]
x'g] s'/f atfP5g\ . clg d]/f a'jfn] l5d]sL ufpF xf]8fl:yt l86\7f nIdLk|;fb cf]nLsL 5f]/L
ltnkf;Fu lax] ug'{eof] . geGb} ;f}tf lelqg] lalQs} d]/L cfdf lgsf] x'g'eP5 . xfd|L ;fgLdf klg
c;n x'g'x'GYof] . xfd|f 3/df slxNo} ;f}t]gL Jojxf/ ePg . b'j} cfdfxaLr cToGt d]n lyof] . d]/L
cfdf klg cf]nLsL efGhL x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L cfdfn] d]/f a'jfsf ;;'/fnfO{ l86\7f dfdf eGg'x'GYof] .
clxn]sf h:tf l86\7f xf]Og, pxfF t kSsf l86\7f x'g'x'GYof] .
clg cfdf tkfO{+n] dfOtLsf] t lgs} aofg ug'{eof], 3/kl6\6sf] klg s'/f ;'gfpg' g d}n]
d]/L ;f;"nfO{ yk s'/f ;'gfpgsf nflu cfu|x u/]sL lyPF . 3/ -k|;fO{ kl/jf/_ sf] klg ;DkGgtfsf]
lgs} xNnf lyof], d lax] u/]/ hfFbf klg ToxfF tfdfsf a9]a9] ofDkfdf 9fs\ k};f /flvPsf x'Gy] .
p; a]nf xfd|f] 3/df k};f uGg] rng lyPg, kfyLdf xfn]/ gflkGy] . d]/f log} xft x'g\, tL ofDkfaf6
cFh'nLdf k};f pafPsf . Tolt a]nf pxfF af]Ng 5f]8]/ cfgf xft b]vfpFb} xfF:g'ePsf] lyof] .
xfkfdf k|;fO{x To; avtsf wgLdfgL sxlnPsf lyP . To; ufFpdf 5fgfdf Rofb/ -h:tfkftf_
xfn]sf] 3/ klg xfd|f] dfq} lyof] . To;tfsf Rofb/3/] d'lvofsf] 3/ eg]kl5 xfd|} 3/ lrlgGYof] . t/
To; 3/sf] vfgkfgdf eg] a]lylt /x]5 . 3/df 7"nf] efF8fdf eft ksfPkl5 of t bfn dfq} kfSYof]
of t u'Gb'|s dfq} kfSYof], c t/sf/L xQkQ kfSbf] /x]g5 . dfOtdf y/Ly/L t/sf/L vfPsL dnfO{
of] vfgkfgn] crDddf kf/]sf] lyof] . lbglbg} bfn / eft cyjf u'Gb'|ssf] f]n / eft vfPkl5 clt
eof] eg]/ d}n] g} Pslbg d'v kmf]/]F, of] 3/sf] vfgkfg t s:tf] ef]6] vfGsLh:tf] /x]5 d]/f] o:tf]
l6Kk0fL ;'g]kl5 d]/L ;f;" lzjdfof d;Fu lgs} l/;fpg'eof], t/ d]/f h]7f h]7fh' v8fgGb k|;fO{n]
Sofaft aNn of] 3/df eg]h:t} a'xf/L cfO5, ca dL7f] vfg kfOg] eof] eg]/ d]/f] k|z+;f ug'{eof] .
clg To; 3/df la:tf/} d}n] g} eft efG;f klg ug{ nfu]F . v'a dHhfn] xfF;]/ d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{
cfgf k'/fgf] syf ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] .


d]/L ;f;"n] g} eg]/ d}n] yfxf kfPsf k|;fO{ kl/jf/sf sltko syfx a8f] /f]rs 5g\ .
To;dWo]sf] Pp6f ;Tosyf klg pxfFn] g} eGg'ePsf] 5 d]/f xh'/;;'/f gGbdl0f k|;fO{ cfgf]
v]tLkftLsf ;Gbe{df v]tdf hfFbf :yfgLo r'jfF vf]nfsf] af9Ln] dflg; aufPsf] b]Vg'eP5 . pxfFn]

20
t'?Gt} vf]nfdf k;]/ tL aufPsf] dflg;nfO{ cfgf] k6'sfn] afFw]/ tfGb} lsgf/fdf Nofpg'eP5 .
To;df Hofg ePsf] yfxf kfPkl5 afn'jfdf 3f]K6f] kf/]/ ltgn] lgn]sf] ;a} kfgL cf]snfpg'eP5 .
To;kl5 tL lszf]/L afFlr5g\ . ltgsf k|foM n'ufkmf6f klg vf]nfn] aufPsf] / ePsf n'ufkmf6f klg
w'hfw'hf eP/ RofltPsfn] d]/f xh'/;;'/fn] cfgf] k6'sf Roft]/ tL lszf]/Lsf] z/L/df
cf]8fOlbg'eP5 . xf]; lkm/]sL tL lszf]/Ln] hF3f/ tg]{ qmddf e/v/} ljjfx ePsf tL hf]8LdWo] pgsf
kltnfO{ rflxF e\ufnf]n] xfGb} nu]sf] / pgL klg e\ufnf]df g} x/fpg] qmddf /x]sf] s'/f d]/f xh'/
;;'/fnfO{ ;'gfO5g\ . pgsf kltsf] nf;;d]t k]mnf gk/]kl5 cgsG6f/ / ckl/lrt 7fFpdf k'u]sL tL
e08f/LsL 5f]/L b]jsnfnfO{ d]/f xh'/;;'/fn] cfgf 3/df Nofpg'eP5 / cfg} ;+/If0fdf /fVg'eP5 .
clg tL lszf]/Ln] d]/} xh'/;;"/fsf cf8e/f];f / vr{df cfgf kltsf] a/vL afl/5g\ . a/vL ;s]kl5
d]/L xh'/;f;"sf] ;Nnfxd'tflas b]jsnfnfO{ d]/f xh'/;;'/f;Fu lax] u/fpFg d~h'/ u/fOP5 . Toltv]/
d]/L h]7L xh'/;f;" xl/dfofn] xh'/;;'/fnfO{ eGg'eP5 tkfO{+n] g} b]jsnfnfO{ arfpg'eof] . pgnfO{
arfpg] qmddf pgsf] ;jf{\u z/L/nfO{ tkfO{+n] cfgf] k6'sfn] 9flslbg'eof] . pgsf] OHht tkfO{+n]
g} hf]ufOlbg'eof] . tkfO{+h:tf] wdf{Tdfn] ca b]jsnfnfO{ kTgLsf kdf j/0f ug'{xf];\ . To;kl5 d]/f
xh'/;;'/f gGbdl0f k|;fO{n] b]jsnfnfO{ sfG5L kTgLsf kdf lax] ug'{eP5 . To;}n] d]/f xh'/;;'/fsf
b'O{ kTgL / pgLx b'j}af6 gf}efO 5f]/fx klg ePsf] s'/f d}n] d]/L ;f;"af6 ;'g]sL x'F . d]/L
xh'/;f;" b]jsnf wfld{s k|j[lQsL ePsf] s'/f klg dnfO{ d]/L ;f;" lzjdfofn] eGg'x'GYof] . xfd|f]
kl/jf/ k"jL{of / s'dfO{+sf ;ld>0f x'g\ . d]/L ;f;" efuL/yf k|;fO{af6 k|;fO{ kl/jf/sf] gfnLa]nL
s]nfpg] qmddf o:tf sltko syfx klg d}n] ;'Gb} cfPsL 5' .
d]/f] nf]Ug] /f0ffsfnLg ;dodf wgs'6fdf a}bf/ x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF k9fn]v]sf dfG5] x'g'x'GYof] .
pxfF slxn] bf}/f;'?jfn / slxn] sldh;'?jfn nufpg'x'GYof] . pxfFsf] af]nLrfnL klg dL7f] lyof] .
Toltsf] 1fgL dfG5] d}n] b]v]sf] 5}g . pxfF t b]ptfh:t} x'g'x'GYof] . d pxfFnfO{ dxfTdf eGy]F .
xfd|f]h:tf] dfofk|Llt t s;}sf] klg x'Fb}g . xfdL Pp6} yfndf eft vfGYof}F . d ;'Ts]/L x'Fbf klg d]/f
kltn] 3/kl/jf/sf] cfFvf 5n]/ dnfO{ t]n nufOlbg'x'GYof] . pxfFsf] dk|ltsf] k|]d ck/Dkf/ lyof] . t/
s] ug'{ / pxfFnfO{ b}jn] r6Ss} r'F8]/ nUof] . h] k/] klg ;xg'kbf]{ /x]5 . d]/f nfnfafnf 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{
6'x'/f] kf/]/ @)@) ;fn c;f/ $ ut] d\unjf/ c;f/ s[i0ffbzLdf pxfF laTg'eof] . d eg]
clxn];Dd of] lhGbuL wflg/x]sL 5' . Ps lbg d]/L ;f;"n] uxel/ cfF;' kf/]/ cfgf hLjgsyfsf
kf6f dnfO{ ;'gfpg'eof] . To; a]nf dnfO{ klg s;f]s;f] pxfFsf] lj/xn] 5f]Kg vf]Hof] . nf]Ug] rflxg]
a]nfdf nf]Ug] gePkl5 s:tf] eof] xf]nf pxfFsf] hLjg c To; a]nfsf] ;fdflhs kl/j]zdf Pp6L
lg/If/ ljwjf cfdfn] kfFr 5f]/f / Pp6L 5f]/LnfO{ of] lgb{oL ;dfhdf s;/L :yflkt ug'{eof] xf]nf <
o:tf k|Zgxn] dnfO{ klg a]nfavt 3f]Rg] u5{g\ . t/ d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf] ;a} sQ{Jo k"/f ug'{eof] .
clg d]/L ;f;"sf 5f]/f5f]/Ln] pxfFk|ltsf] st{Jo slt k"/f u/] Tof] pgLx g} hfg"g\ . cyjf cfdfsf]
dxQf slt a'] Tof] klg pgLxn] dx;'; ug]{ s'/f xf], t/ cfdfn] ug'{kg]{ st{Jodf pxfF clnslt
klg r'Sg'ePsf] 5}g . d]/f nflu cfdf x'g'eGbf sl7g sfd c s]xL 5}g t/ d}n] e]6]b]v]sf ;Dk"0f{
cfdfdf d]/L ;f;" klg Ps b]lvg'x'G5 . To;}n] klg d pxfFk|lt ufFl;Psf] gftfsf] km]/f]eGbf klg a9L
gtd:ts 5' .
ltd|f ;;'/f cToGt ;fdflhs efjgf ePsf dflg; x'g'x'GYof] . pxfFn] xfd|f 3/sf] uf]bfddf
:s"n / 3/df lgMz'Ns 5fqfjf; g} :yfkgf ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pxfF ;fg} pd]/df k|f}9 ljrf/sf wgL
x'g'ePsfn] lhh' eg]/ pxfFnfO{ lrlgGYof] . pxfFn] agfpg'ePsf] 5fqfjf;nfO{ lhh'xfp; elgGYof] .
To; 5fqfjf;df a;]/ w]/}n] k9]sf 5g\ . xfd|} 3/ kl/;/df lzjfnosf] :yfkgf klg ul/Psf] lyof] .
ltd|f ;;'/fn] kz'kltgfysf] j0f{g ;'Gg'ePsf] /x]5 . To;}n] pxfFnfO{ klg cfg} 3/ 5]pdf lzjfno
agfpg] OR5f hfUof] . kz'kltgfysf] }F rf/ 9f]sf ePsf] lzjfno agfpg d]/f h]7fh'x v8fgGb
k|;fO{ / dfgaxfb'/ k|;fO{ klg nflukg'{eof] . clg sfzLaf6 l;\udd{/sf] rf/d'v] lzjhLsf] d"lt{
NofP/ ToxfF k|lti7f ul/of] . To; dlGb/sf d'Vo k'hf/L k+=k'iknfn cfrfo{ x'g'x'GYof] / kl5kl5 pxfFsf
5f]/fx uf]ljGb / dx]Zj/n] klg kfn}kfnf] k"hf u/] . lzjfnosf] k"hf u/]afkt k+=cfrfo{n] jflif{s
kGw| d'/L wfg kfpFy] . @))) ;fnk"j{ ag]sf] Tof] dlGb/ cf7/fO{df g} rlr{t aGof] . d]/L ;f;" cfgf
kltsf] sfo{sf] j0f{g u/]/ slxNo} yfSg'ePsf] d}n] rfn kfPsL 5}g .
cfdf a'afsf] k|j[lQ s:tf] lyof] < a'jf lsg Tolt ;fgf] pd]/d} :ju]{ x'g'eof] < dleq ePsf]
n]vs d]/L ;f;"kL kfqsf] j]bgf;Fu v]Ng c} pBt lyof] . vf; u/]/ lzIffbLIff lbg / wd{sd{df
pxfF w]/} v6\g'x'GYof] . pxfFn] 7"nf] o1 u/]/ cf7/fO{ rfFu], g]zd a:g] kl08t lr/l~hLjL uf}td;Fu ldt
nufpg'eof] / ToxL cj;/df >LdtL uf}td;Fu d}n] klg ldt nufPsL lyPF . xfd|f ldtHo"x
;dfh;]jL klg x'g'x'GYof] . pxfFxn] :yfgLo ;dfh;]jL wgklt r'8fn -dfOnf d'lvof_;Fu ldn]/
g]]zddf :s'nsf] :yfkgf klg ug'{eof] . To; e]sdf klxnf] c\u|]hL :s'n ToxL g} lyof] . ldtHo"x
clxn] fkfsf] lj/f6kf]v/df a:g'ePsf] 5 . xfd|f ldtHo"xsf ;Gtfg klg ;DkGg / ljfg\ 5g\ .

21
xfd|f ldt 5f]/f b]j]Gb| uf}td cgf/dgL fkfsf] xfO:s"ndf x]8;/ 5g\ . ltd|f] ;;'/fn] xfd|f 3/el/
hf]uLdxGtsf] cv8f nufpg'x'GYof] . hf]uLn] h]h] dfu] klg pxfF lbg] ug'{x'GYof] . cfk"m g} hf]uL eP/
klg pxfF 3/L3/L x/fpg'eof] . kl5 3/ kmls{+bf pxfFnfO{ n6\6fwf/L hf]uLsf kdf b]v]/ 3/kl/jf/
;a}n] ;DfOa'fO u/]kl5 aNn pxfFn] bfx|Lskfn sf6\g dfGg'eof] . clg pxfF km]l/ u[x:y cf>ddf
kms{g'eof] / kl5 la/fdL kg'{eof] . kxf8sf] 7fpF bafOd"nf] klg /fd|/L ug{ ;lsPg . clg t pxfF
c;dod} laTg'eof] . d]/L ;f;"sf] j]bgfn] df}g ;':s]/f k:s]sf] lyof] . O{Zj/nfO{ g} d~h'/ gePkl5
s] nfUbf] /x]5 / pxfFn] k}tfnL;sf] ;]/f]km]/f]d} labf lng'eof] . o;f] elg/xFbf d]/L ;f;"sf]
O{Zj/k|ltsf] u'gf;f] klg df}g eP/ cfPsf] lyof] . ;fob o; k|;\un] To; avt d]/f] n]vs klg
cfjZostfeGbf a9L g} cfxt eO;s]sf] lyof], To;}n] d}n] o; k|;\unfO{ c cl3 a9fpg rflxgF .
cfdf, tkfO{+n] cIf/ lrGg'ePsf] 5 lg x}g < d]/L ;f;"sf af/]df hfGbfhfGb} klg ghfg]}F
u/]/ pxfFaf6} pxfFaf/]sf c yk s'/f hfGg rfxg] d]/f] ceLi6 lyof] of] . sfF k9\g' / ;fg}df lax]
ul/lbPkl5 dfOtdf k9\g] s'/} ePg . 3/df rflxF sfG5L gGbnfO{ k9fpg yflnPsf] lyof], pgn] k|]d
ljjfx ul/g\ / cn] klg To;} unf{g\ eg]/ k9\g] s'/} x/fof] . ToxL klg d]/f >Ldfg\n] dnfO{ cIf/
lrgfpg v'a} sf]l;; ug'{ePsf] xf] . d]/f klt dnfO{ k9fpg vf]Hg'x'GYof], d eg] pxfF;Fu} lhl:sP/
k9\g k6Ss} dg ulb{gy]F . luh] -d]/L ;f;"nfO{ pxfFsf kltn] dfofn] af]nfpg] pkgfpF_ kl5
r'Sr'sfpln;\, cIf/ glrg]kl5 7luOG5 . pxfFn] To; a]nf eg]h:t} eP/ clxn] dnfO{ s:tf] ySys\
nfU5 . d cfdfsf cufl8 a;]/ klqsf lstfa k9]sf a]nf pxfF cfgf] ljut ;D]/ dg b'vfpFb}
d;Fu eGg'x'G5 . s] ug'{ d]/f cfFvf k'ml6uP cfh d klg t o:tf lstfa klqsf k9\g ;Sy]F lg
Toltv]/ pxfFn] g} lrgfOlbPsf ;Unf cIf/ t clxn] klg lrG5' klg t/ cIf/ hf]8]/ af]nfpg
hflGbgF . To; avt nf]Ug]n] b]vfPsf] af6f]df cfk"m lxF8\g g;s]sf]df clxn] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ cfk}mk|ltsf]
w'dwfd u'gf;f] 5 .
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf kl/jf/


d]/L ;f;"n] eGg'ePcg';f/ d]/f ;;'/fafh] g/Wjh -g/klt_ k|;fO{sf a'jf gGbdl0f k|;fO{sf b'O{
kTgL u/]/ gf}efO 5f]/f x'g'x'GYof] . gGbdl0f k|;fO{ cf7/fO{sf cToGt} wgL dfG5]df lrlgg'x'GYof] .
pxfFsf 5f]/f g/Wjh -g/klt_ k|;fO{ gGbdl0f k|;fO{sL sfG5L kTgLaf6 hGd]sf dfOnf 5f]/f x'g'x'GYof] .
ltg} gf}efOsf ;Gtfgn] xfkfsf] ;]/f]km]/f 9fs]sf lyP . d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ cfgf kltsf k'vf{sf]
ljj/0f lbg'ePsf] lyof] . cfdf, ;a} gf}efOs} ;Gtfgsf af/] eGg ;Sg'x'G5 t < d}n] klg pxfFnfO{
c vf]tNg vf]h]sL lyPF . sfF ;S5' / < plxn] pd]/d} ;f]w]sL eP t t} cfgf b]j/h]7fh"sf
5f]/f5f]/Lsf] / efGhfefGhLsf af/]df eGg klg ;Sy]F, clxn] t cfk}mn] hGdfPsf 5f]/fgfltsf] lx;fa
ug{ klg ufx|f] x'g] eO;s]sf] 5 dnfO{ .
d]/L ;f;" cg'xf/el/ pxfFsf] :jefjhGo xfF;f] 5b}{ cfk"mnfO{ oyfy{ kn] k|:t't ug'{x'G5 . s'g}
5n5fd gePsf], Psbd} lgisn\s lzz'h:t} pxfFsf] j[4jon] dnfO{ g} pxfFk|lt gtd:ts kfg]{
u5{ .
d]/f ;;'/f g/Wjhsf b'O{ hgf kTgL lyP . h]7L kTgL d]/L ;f;" lzjdfof / sfG5L kTgLsf]
gfpF ?lSd0fL lyof] . d]/L ;f;"kl6\6af6 rf/efO 5f]/f v8fgGb, j]0f'k|;fb, hok|;fb, kgf/fo0f
hGdg'eof] eg] d]/L ;f}t]gL ;f;"af6 Pp6} 5f]/f dfgaxfb'/ x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f] k|Zgsf] pQ/
lbg] qmddf g} km//{ cfgf h]7fh' / b]j/sf] gfpF eGg'ePsf] lyof] . d}n] pxfFaf6 c} yk hfgsf/L
lng] ck]Iffn] pxfFsf] cg'xf/ x]l//x]F . h]7f h]7fh'n] yklnofsL 5f]/L lax] ug'{ePsf] lyof], pxfFsf] gfpF
s[i0fdfof xf] . pxfFsf tLgefO 5f]/f l8NnLk|;fb, s[i0f/fh / ljBf/fh clg tLg hgf 5f]/L hGd] .
dfOnf h]7fh'n] b'O{ lax] ug'{ePsf] lyof], dfOnL h]7fgL kfF8]sL 5f]/L ltnkfkl6\6af6 /Tgk|;fb,
b]js[i0f, /fds[i0f / s'nk|;fb hlGdP / 5f]/Lx of]udfof, zf/bf / OlGb/f eP . h]7f] 5f]/f] /Tg ;fx|}
ldng;f/ / ;xof]uL 5 . /Tg dnfO{ e]6\g cfFpbf klg slxNo} l/Qf] xft cfPg .
d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL yklnofsL 5f]/L ;Ltfb]jLaf6 k/z'/fd, u0f]zs'df/, pbo / g/]Gb| clg
5f]/Lx b/L, d}ofF, k'ikf / k'gd x'g\ . To;kl5 d]/L ;f;" r'k nfUg'ePsf] lyof] . clg tkfO{+sf
b]j/sf kl/jf/sf ljifodf klg s]xL yfxf 5 cfdf < d}n] c} pT;'stf JoQm u/]sL lyPF . pxfF d]/f]
k|Zg ;'g]/ lgs}a]/ df}g x'g'eof] . b]j/sf] gfpF t kgf/fo0f xf] . pxfFn] klxnf]kN6 r'xfg8fF8fsf
yklnofsL 5f]/L wgdfofnfO{ lax] ug'{ePsf] lyof] . tL b]p/fgLn] P3f/cf]6f 5f]/f5f]/L hGdfPsL
lyOg\ . lar/Lsf 5hgf 5f]/f5f]/L dfq afFlrjlt{ /x] . pgsf] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f' / sfG5f] 5f]/f] bLks xf] .

22
5f]/Lx t'n;f, b'uf{, df]xg / tf/f x'g\ . d]/f sfG5f b]j/ kgf/fo0fn] bf];|f]kN6 t]x|y'd, ;fAnfsf
hogf/fo0f ;'j]bLsL 5f]/L uf}/fnfO{ lax] ug'{eof] . d]/L tL b]p/fgL d;Fu ;fx|} ldlNyg\ . pgL / d
b'Vv;'Vv afF8\Yof}F . xfd|f dgsf s'/f xfdL Pscsf{df lgw{Ss vf]Ng] uYof}{+ . d]/L b]j/fgL uf}/fsf b'O{
5f]/f / b'O{ 5f]/L 5g\ . pgsf 5f]/fx e/tk|;fb / xl/k|;fb x'g\ eg] e'jg]Zj/L / wd{snf 5f]/Lx
x'g\ . e'jg]Zj/L ;fg}b]lv d]/L Kof/L lyO{ . pm ;fgfdf ;fx|} /fd|L lyO{ p;nfO{ d k'tnL eGy]F . p;sf
klt df]xg l;6f}nf kxf8df klg dnfO{ e]6\g cfO/xg'x'GYof] / d sf7df8f}F cfPkl5 klg dnfO{ e]6\g
a/fa/ cfO/xg'x'G5 . df]xg HjfOF cfFvfdf xfNbf klg lafpg'x'Gg . HjfOF ltdLxh:t} ;flxTosf/
x'g'ePsf] s'/f ltdLnfO{ klg yfxf 5 lg
d]/f sfG5f b]j/ kgf/fo0fn] km]l/ t];|f]kN6 klg lax] ug'{eof] . d]/L sfG5L b]j/fgL dx]Zj/f -
d}gf_ klg r'xfg8fF8fs} yklnofsL 5f]/L x'g\ . pgsf klg b'O{ 5f]/f / tLg 5f]/L 5g\ . pgsf] h]7f]
5f]/f] b]j/fh / sfG5f] 5f]/f] s[i0f x'g\ . dx]Zj/fsL h]7L 5f]/L d~h' d]/f g/]Gb|]sL afNosfnsL ;xkf7L
klg xf] . ;fgfdf pgLx b'j}nfO{ d}n] / d}gfn] a/fa/ b"w v'jfpFYof}F . d}gfn] pgLx b'j}sf] skfn
af6]/ r'N7f] agfOlblGyg\ . d~h' eg]kl5 g/]Gb| c} x'?Ss} x'G5 . d~h' t lxhf]cfh lgs} 7"nL dfG5]
ePsL 5 c/] . p;sf] gfpF klg u'?df df]xgd~h/L ePsf] 5 /] . OGb' / ljGb' gfpF u/]sf d~h'sf
b'O{hgf hDNofxf alxgLx klg 5g\ . dnfO{ d]/L sfG5L b]p/fgL dx]Zj/f -d}gf_sf] ;Dgf cfO/xG5,
pm klg dnfO{ ;D]/ slxn]sfxLF e]6\g oxfF cfpFl5g\ lg . sfG5L sfsLsf s'/f ubf{ klg pxfFsf]
cg'xf/sf] efjdf lgs} pHofnf]kg b]lvPsf] lyof] . pxfF /dfPsf] b]v]kl5 dnfO{ klg lgs} /dfOnf]
nfU5 . To; lbg olt s'/f u/]kl5 dnfO{ d]/L ;f;" lgs} yfSg'ePh:tL nfu]sf] lyof] . To;}n] d]/L
;f;"nfO{ ;Dgf eP;Ddsf pxfFsf ;Gtfgxsf af/] csf]{ lbg ;f]w'Fnf eg]/ To; lbg d}n] cfgf
k|Zg yfFtL /fv]F . pxfFsf] cg'xf/sf] pHofnf] oyfjt\ /fVg] dg;fon] klg d}n] To; lbgsf] s'/fsfgL
cl3 a9fPsL lyOgF .
s]xL lbg kl5 d}n] d]/L ;f;" k|zGg lrQ ePsf a]nf cfgf aSof}tf /x]sf k|Zg k'gM pxfFsf
cl3 t]:{ofPsL lyPF . cyf{t\ To; lbg d}n] pxfFsf] dgsf s'/f vf]Ng] pkqmd ldnfPsL lyPF . d]/f
kltsf ;f}t]gL cfdfsf 5f]/f dfgaxfb'/ h]7fh' / d]/f klt v'a} ldNg'x'GYof] . pxfFx slxNo}
5'l6\6g'x'GgYof] . pxfFx b'j} hgfnfO{ s;}n] klg PSnfPSn} e]6\b}gy] . dfgaxfb'/ h]7fh'sf klg b'O{j6L
kTgL kf / efuL/yf lyP . tL b'j} cf7/fO{ Xjfs'sf 8fFuLsf 5f]/L lyP . h]7Lkl6\6af6 u\uf k|;fO{ /
sfG5L kl6\6af6 lji0f' / dx]Gb| k|;fO{ hGd]sf lyP . Pp6L 5f]/L /fdKof/L tfKn]h' zx/df sfsL{nfO{
lbOPsf] lyof] . !((* ;fnsf] sflQs ! ut] d]/f h]7f h]7fh' v8fgGbsf] lgwg ePsf] lyof] . To;sf]
t]x| lbgsf lbg dfgaxfb'/ h]7fh' x/fpg'eof] . pxfF sxfF hfg'eof] eGg] s'/f s;}n] eGg ;s]gg\ . pxfF
x/fPkl5 d]/f kltsf] dg klg lalu|of] . To;kl5 g} pxfF klg Tolt lxF88'n ug{ 5f]8g'ePsf] xf] . d]/L
;f;"n] k'/fgf s'/f vf]tn]/ lr;f] ;f; km]b}{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/f 5j6L gGb / cfdfh" lyP . h]7L t'n;L cf7/fO{ t]x|y'd Xjfs'sf e6\6/fO{nfO{ lbOPsf]
lyof] / dfOnL zflGt klg Xjfs'sf e6\6/fO{nfO{ g} lbOPsf] lyof] . ;fOFnL xLdf xfkfs} d}gfnLnfO{,
sfOFnL nlIfdf klg xfkfs} dfYnf] ufpFsf r'8fnnfO{, cGt/L hd'gfnfO{ kfFry/ ;'jfsf
;\u|f}nfnfO{ / sfG5L xl/dfof r'xfg8fF8fsf yklnofnfO{ lbOPsf] lyof] . dnfO{ d]/f gGb cfdfh"xn]
w'dwfd dfof uy]{ . vf; u/]/ ;fOFnL / sfOFnL cfdfh"sf ;Gtfgx;Fu d xfkf al;Gh]n;Dd klg
Hofb} 3lgi6tf lyof] . ;fOFnL cfdfh" xLdfsf 5f]/f d]/f efGhf hok|;fb d}gfnLn] dnfO{ w]/} ;3fpFy] .
d]/L ;fOFnL cfdfh"sL h]7L 5f]/L d]/L efGhL clDasf klg d eg]kl5 x'?Ss} x'lGyg\ . ;fOFnL cfdfh"sL
5f]/L kDkmf efGhL;Fu clg sfG5L gGb xl/dfof / pgsf 5f]/f5f]/L;Fu plt a]nf d]/f] ljz]if lxdlrd
lyof] . clg sfG5L gGbsf 5f]/f lji0f'k|;fb klg To; a]nf d;Fu w'dwfd} ldNy] . dnfO{ Toltljlw dfof
ug]{ d]/f efGhfn] clxn] a'9];sfndf d]/f] jf:t} ub}{gg\ . pgsL h]7L kTgL /df]nfn] eg] dnfO{ c;fWo}
dfof ul5{g\ . ltdLnfO{ yfx} 5 lg, pgsf 3/df kfs]sf] dL7f] dl;gf] klg x'of{P/ dnfO{ v'jfpg
s;/L NofOk'ofpFl5g\ < /df]nf efph"sf af/]sf s'/f ;Dfpg] qmddf d]/L ;f;" dlt/ k|ZgfTds
b[li6 lbg'x'G5 . xf], cfdf /df]nf efph" c;n :jf:gLdflg; x'g'x'G5 . d klg d]/L ;f;";Fusf] :j/df
cfgf] :j/ ld;fpF5' . ltdLnfO{ yfxf 5 < sfG5L gGb xl/dfofsf] dfOnf] 5f]/fsf] gfpF a}hgfy d}n]
g} /flvlbPsf] xf] lg . pgL t clxn] stf s'g b]zdf xf] /fhb"t eP/ uP /] xf]Og < d}n] pgsf] gfpF
/]l8of]df ;'g]sL lyPF .d]/L ;f;" k'gM d]/f] ;xdlt vf]Hg dk|lt pGd'v x'g'ePsf] lyof] . jf:tjdf d]/L
;f;"nfO{ d'n'ssf] ;d;fdlos 36gfb]lv lnP/ k|foM h;f] w]/} ;dfrf/x klg s07 x'g] u5{ . pxfFsf
l;/fgdf hlxn] klg /]l8of] /xG5 . oxfF sf7df8f}Fdf t pxfFsf] lbgel/ a:g] a}7sdf / ;'Tg] sf]7fdf
5'6\6f 5'6\6} /]l8of]sf] Joj:yf ul/Psf] 5 . pxfF fkfdf a:g'x'Fbf klg g/]Gb|n] cfdfsf nflu /]l8of]sf]
Joj:yf ul/lbg'ePsf] s'/f dnfO{ yfxf lyof] .
xf] cfdf cfdfsf efGhf a}hgfy yklnof Oh/fOnsf /fhb"t x'g'ePsf] xf] . a? cfdfn]
efGhfsf] gfpF lsg a}hgfy /fVg'ePsf] xf]nf, s]xL ;Dgf 5 tkfO{+nfO{ < d}n] klg d]/L ;f;"sf]

23
efGhfsf] /fhb"t kbeGbf klg d]/L ;f;"n] /fVg'ePsf] pgsf] gfpF k|;\unfO{ a9L dxj lbPsL lyPF .
d]/f] 3/kl6\6sf] kl/jf/sf a'xf/L vfndf ;a}eGbf klxn] h'QfrKkn nufpg] d g} lyPF . To; a]nf d
tLhdf dfOt uPsL lyPF, d]/f dfOtdf To; a]nf w'lnv]n] Jofkf/L a;]sf lyP . ToxfF ltgsf] lgs}
lsl;dlsl;dsf ;fdfg kfOg] bf]sfg lyof] . afa}, h'Qf nufpg] ug'{k5{, o;n] ubf{ lr;f] klg
nfUb}g, v'6\6fdf 7]nf klg p7\t}gg\ . d]/L cfdfn] ltg} ;fx'sf] bf]sfgaf6 h'Qf lsg]/ dnfO{ lbFb}
eGg'ePsf] lyof] . d klxnf]k6s h'Qf nufP/ xfkf cfPsL lyPF . d]/f v'6\6fdf h'Qf b]v]kl5 To;
a]nf 3/kl6\6sf dflg;sf g]q an]sf lyP . d}n] h'Qf nufPF eg]/ To; a]nf dnfO{ gfgfjnL klg
elgof] . d]/f dfOnf h]7fh'n] t dnfO{ /fF8L d]/f cufl8 h'Qf nufP/ cfpF5] eGg'eof] . pxfFsf
s'/fn] dnfO{ lgs} la] klg To; avt d]/f kltsf] cf8e/f];fsf sf/0f d}n] h]7fh'sf s6'jrg Ps
sfgaf6 ;'g]/ csf{ sfgaf6 p8fOlbPF . t/ la:tf/} la:tf/} To;kl5 d]/f kl/jf/sf c cfOdfO{n]
klg h'QfrKkn nufpg yfn] . xf] Tof] w'lnv]n] ;fx'sf] gfpF a}hgfy lyof] . To;}n] d}n] To;} avt
hGd]sf] cfgf] efGhfsf] gfpF a}hgfy /fVg'k5{ eg]sL lyPF . d}n] /fv]s} gfpF g} pgsf] rNof] klg .
a9f] uj{sf ;fy pxfFn] cfgf] k"j{syfsf] lj:tf/ ug'{ePsf] lyof] . d]/L sfG5L gGbsf ;Gtfgx
klxnf klg x'g]vfg] g} lyP . clxn] g\ 7"nf dflg; eP lg pgLx t . t/ pgLxsL cfdfn] eg]
afFr'Gh]n pgLxaf6 ;'Vv kfOgg\ . d]/f h]7f eflgh huGgfy yklnofn] t cfdfnfO{ x]nf g} u/] .
d]/L sfG5L gGb d;Fu e]6\tf h]7f] 5f]/f] huGgfyaf6 kfPsf] kL8fn] hlxn] klg ?lGyg\ . pgL d;Fu
w'dwfd ldlNyg\ klg . t/ pgL lat]kl5 tL efGhfx la/fgf eP . 7Ls} 5, dnfO{ s] rflxPsf] 5 /
pgLxsf] gfpF rn]sf] ;'Gbf dnfO{ v';L nfU5 . d}n] s'g} k|Zg ;f]Wg' cl3 g} pxfFn] o; k|;\unfO{
6'\Uofpg'ePsf] lyof] .

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf ;Gtfg


d]/f ;;'/f hok|;fb k|;fO{ lhh' wgL x'gfsf ;fy} w]/} s'/fsf] ;f}lvg klg x'g'x'GYof] . cfgf]
;f]v k"/f ug{ pxfFn] sfzLaf6 dOG6f]n -k]6f]d]S;_, u|fdf]kmf]g, xfdf]{lgod cflb xfkfdf Nofpg'ePsf]
lyof] /] . To; a]nf To; e]sdf To:tf ;fdfg xfd|f 3/df dfq} lyP /] . s;}sf] lax] x'Fbf /flt afNgsf
nflu xfd|} 3/af6 dOG6f]n nluGYof] /] . Tolt a]nf To; 7fpFdf klxnf] kN6 dOG6f]n k'Ubf To; 7fpFsf
jl/kl/sf ufpFn]x dOG6f]n an]sf] x]g{ xfd|f 3/df cfpFy] /] . d]/L ;f;"n] To; a]nfsf ;a} s'/f
bf]xf]ofO{t]xofO{ dnfO{ eGg'x'G5 . ;fy} Tolt a]nf cfgf kltn] gofFgofF rLh NofPsf ljifodf klg
d]/L ;f;" uj{ ug'{x'G5 . xif{n] /dfpFb} To;} a]nf pxfF k]ml/ af]Ng'x'G5 a'of} d]/f oL 5f]/fxn] a'jf
afFr'Gh]n r}g u/]sf lyP . d]/f 5f]/fxn] af]ln;Stf ltd|f ;;'/fn] ;a} dfu k"/f ul/;Sg'x'GYof] .
cfdf, ca tkfO{+sf cfgf 5f]/f5f]/Lxsf af/]df elglbg' g n . csf]{ lbg d}n] d]/L
;f;";dIf yk k|Zg /fv]sL lyPF . To;f] t pxfFsf 5f]/f5f]/L, gfltgfltgf / kgfltkgfltgfsf af/]df
d}n] g} pNn]v u/] klg x'g] xf] t/ oxL s'/f pxfFnfO{ ;f]Wg'sf] cf}lrTo rflxF To;/L cfgf ;Gtfgsf
af/]df pNn]v u/]sf ;dodf d]/L ;f;"sf cg'xf/df JofKt x'g] bLlKt x]g]{ d]/f] nfn;f klg xf] . tL j[4
JolQmTjx h;n] cfgf] hLjgsf] ;Dk"0f{ phf{ cfgf ;Gtfgsf] nfngkfngdf ;dfKt u/]sf x'G5g\,
pgLxsf nflu ;a}eGbf 7"nf] k|flKt klg pgLxsf ;Gtfg g} x'G5g\ . jf:tjdf ;Gtfg eg]sf] klg
Psk|sf/sf nufgL g} x'g\ . h;n] hlt nufgL u/]sf] x'G5, cfgf] nufgLsf] To;nfO{ Tolt g} dfof
klg x'G5 . d]/L ;f;"sf ;Gbe{df klg oxL s'/f g} nfu" x'G5 . To; a]nf klg d}n] pxfFsf ;Gtfgsf
af/] s'/f ugf{;fy pxfFsf] cg'xf/ lgs} b]lbKodfg ePsf] lyof] .

d]/f ;Gtfgn] klg 8fF8fsfF8f 9fls;s]sf 5g\ . s]xL xf:ok'6 klg lyof] pxfFsf] efjdf, d]/f]
h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eQm !((% ;fn ebf}sf] >Ls[i0ffi6dLdf hGd]sf] xf] . d]/L 5f]/L gL/f !((& ;fn k';
@@ ut] hGd]sL xf] . clg d]/f] dfOnf] 5f]/f] kb\d/fh !((* r}t !$ ut], ;fOFnf] 5f]/f] bL3{/fh @)))
;fn a}zfv @) ut], sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/t/fh @))* ;fn d\l;/ !) ut], cGt/] 5f]/f] g/]Gb| @)!! ;fn
r}t @( ut] / sfG5f] 5f]/f] u\uf @)!$ ;fn a}zfv !$ ut] hGd]sf x'g\ .
d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eSt hGdg] lbg d]/f kl/jf/df ;a}sf] j|t lyof] . nf} s[i0f eujfg\sf] hGd
eof] eg]/ pm hGdFbf ;f/fn] xif{ a9fOF u/]sf lyP . clxn] w]/} eg]h:tf] x'G5, a'of} p;sf] Gjf/fgdf
v';L eP/ p;sf a'jfn] xfd|f] 3/k"j{sf] :joDe" v]t g} afx'gnfO{ bfg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . Tolt a]nf
xfd|f 3/df y'k|} ;fw'x a:y] . tL ;fw'xn] d]/f 5f]/fnfO{ houf]kfn s[i0f eg]/ af]nfpFy] . tL
;fw'xsf nflu xfd|f] 3/ 5]pdf e08f/f g} vf]lnPsf] lyof] . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] hGd]kl5 g} d]/f] a"9f, d]/f

24
h]7fh'x v8fgGb / dfgaxfb'/ eP/ xfd|f 3/ k"j{ lzjfnosf] :yfkgf u/]sf lyP . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f]
hGd]kl5 xfdLn] xfd|} uf]bfddf kf7zfnf vf]n]sf lyof}F . Tolt a]nf;Dd Totf c kf7zfnf v'n]sf
lyPgg\ . Tolt a]nf ufFpel/sf afnaRrfnfO{ af]s]/ k9fpg Nofpg'kYof]{ . ;'?;'?df t ljBfyL{ e]nf
kfg{ klg ufx|f] lyof] t/ d}n] vfhf v'jfpg yfn]kl5 e'/fx cfk}m k9\g cfpg yfn] . xfdLn] :s'n
vf]n]kl5 km"naf/Lb]lv d]/f gflt gu]Gb| kf7s -k'mnaf/Lsf wgf9\o /fdk|;fb kf7ssf 5f]/f_ klg To;
:s'ndf k9\g cfpg yfn] . To; a]nfsf] xfd|f] kl/jf/df b'Mv eg]sf] lyPg lg log} xft x'g\ ofDkfdf
/fv]sf 8jn?lkofF cFh'nLn] pafpg] . d]/f] dfOtLsf] vfgbfgsf af/] kl/lrt d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f]
cfgLafgL hfg]kl5 dnfO{ ljZjf; klg w'dwfd g} ug'{ePsf] lyof] / d}n] klg slxNo} ljZjf;3ft
ul/gF . d}n] ksfPsf] eft efG;f klg d]/L ;f;"nfO{ Hofb} ?lrs/ lyof] . d]/L ;f;";Fu d}n] pxfFsf
;Gtfgsf af/] s'/f u/]sL lyPF, t/ s'/fsf] nx/f] eg] psfnf] nfu]sf] lyof] .
clg cfdf 7"nf] h]7fh'sf] lax]af/L slxn] u/]sf] lg < d}n] psfnf] nfUg'ePsL d]/L ;f;"nfO{
cf]/fNg] pkqmd u/]sL lyPF . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/fsf] lax] !) jif{sf] pd]/df cf7/fO{ rf]Kk'/sf d}gfnLsL
5f]/L efuL/yf;Fu ePsf] lyof] . lax] u/]sf] csf]{ ;fn @))& sf] qmflGtdf d}gfnLx cf;fd uP .
Tolt a]nf d]/L h]7L a'xf/L klg cfdfafa'sf] kl5 nfuL . clg pgLx w]/} jif{;Dd gcfPkl5 d]/f] h]7f]
5f]/fsf] bf];|f] lax] ug'{kof] .
d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eStsf] t]x|y'd ;fAnfsf hogf/fo0f ;'j]bLsL 5f]/L efuL/yf;Fu bf];|f] lax]
@)!% ;fn df3 !@ ut] cfOtaf/ eof] . Tof] lax] eg] p;nfO{ kmfKof] . d]/L a'xf/Lsf bfh' 1fggfy
;'j]bL t]x|y'dsf gfdL dfG5] x'g\ . d]/L h]7L a'xf/L ultnL 5] . d clxn] sf7df8f}F a:tf klg dnfO{
7"nL a'xf/Ls} dfq ofb cfO/xG5 . p;n] klg dnfO{ ;fx|} dfof uyL{ .
d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/fsL h]7L 5f]/L k'ikfn] e"klth yfkf;Fu lax] u/]sL 5] . k'ikfsf b'O{ 5f]/L 5g\
O{zf / Plg;f . dfOnL 5f]/L d'gfn] dbg v/]n;Fu lax] u/]sL 5 ,p;sf 5f]/f cdg / 5f]/L dgf>L
5g\ . ;fOFnL 5f]/L /Ltfsf] lax] /fdk|;fb k'Fmofn;Fu ePsf] 5 / sfG5L 5f]/L h'gfsf] lax] s'df/
l;6f}nf;Fu ePsf] 5 . d]/f] lji0f'eQmsf h]7f] ;fu/ / sfG5f] ;Gb]z u/L b'O{ 5f]/f 5g\ . ;fu/sf] lax]
;nf{xLsf ljb"/ v/]nsL 5f]/L ljgLtf;Fu ePsf] 5 . pgLxsf] Pp6f 5f]/f] ;GbLk / Pp6L 5f]/L ;GWof
5g\ . d]/L ;f;" h]7f] 5f]/fsf] ;Gtfgsf] j0f{g ubf{ub}{ lgs} yfs]h:tf] x'g'ePsf] lyof] . To;}n] To;
lbg klg d}n] d]/L ;f;";Fu c s'/f ug{ vf;} plrt 7flggF .
cfdf dfOnf h]7fh'sf] t laxf g} ePg, afnv}df v:g'ePsf] x}g < clg ;fOFnf h]7fh'sf]
lg < csf]{ lbg d}n] d]/L ;f;";Fu ;f]w]sL lyPF . xf], d]/f] dfOnf] 5f]/f] ;fg}df lat]sf] xf] . ;fOFnf]
5f]/f] bL3{/fhn] nlntk'/ ;fg]kfsf s'n]Gb|k'?if 9sfnsL 5f]/L ;fg'afaf;Fu @)#! ;fndf lax] u/]sf]
xf] . t/ Tof] a'xf/L w]/} 3d08L 5] . pgLxsL 5f]/L l6:6fsf] lax] b]j/fh hf]zL;Fu eof] / l6:6fsf]
klg Pp6f 5f]/f] 5 /] . d]/f] ;fOFnf] 5f]/fsf] 5f]/f] sf\u8fn] klg 9sfns} 5f]/L lbJof;Fu lax] u/]sf]
5 /] . ca t afa'5f]/f b'O{ hgfs} 9sfn g} ;;'/fnL eof] . 5f]/f5f]/L x'g] dflg;n] a9\tf s'/f ug'{ g}
x'Fb}g, cx\sf/df hfg' g} x'Fb}g . d]/L ;f;"n] lgs} nfdf] ;f; km]b}{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] . To; a]nf pxfF
lgs} pbf; klg x'g'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/f] Tof] sf\u8f gflt c;n klg lyof] . To;n] dnfO{ slt dfof uYof]{ Pslbg ltdL / d
To;sf 3/sf] af6f]af6 lxF8]sf] a]nf To;n] dnfO{ ;8sd} nDk;f/ k/]/ 9f]u]sf] ;DG5\of} < d]/L
;f;"n] dnfO{ g} yk k|Zg ug'{ePsf] lyof] . xf] cfdf xh'/sf] 5f]/f g/]Gb| / xfd|f] s~rgh\3fn] klg
sf\u8fnfO{ t c;n eg]s} ;'g]sL 5' . t/ kl/jf/df ldNg' g} kof] p;n] klg, pm PSn}n] s] u/f];\
/ < ca lg/fz x'g] kfnf] d]/f] lyof] . olt glhs} 3/ eP/ klg b'O{ bfh'efOaLrsf] j}dg:o ePsf
sf/0f bf];|f] k':tf;d]t lk/nf]df k/]sf] s'/f dnfO{ dg gk/]sf] s'/f xf] . bfh'efOaLr t }u8f klg
x'g ;S5 t/ kl/jf/s} kfgL af/faf/ x'g' /fd|f] k6Ss} xf]Og . t/ of] s'/f PskIfn] dgg gu/]kl5
cfkmGt klg k/rqmL / j}/L g} x'Fbf /x]5g\ . ljZjaGw'Tjsf] s'/f u/]/ gyfSg] xfdL r]tgzLn
egfpFbfsf] kl/j]zdf cfg} kl/jf/aLrsf] j}dg:on] klg o:t} nHhf:kb pbfx/0f k|:t't u/]sf] 5 .
x'g t /fi6jfbL v]dfsf lgs} sxlnPsf ljfg\sf] gfpF xf] bL3{/fh k|;fO{ . d}n] afNosfnd} pxfFsf]
k|ltli7t gfpF ;'g]sL x'F . ljlwsf] n]vfGtsf sf/0f cfh cfP/ pxfFs} s'ndf d klg ufl;PF . jf:tjdf
bL3{/fh k|;fO{n] n]Vg'ePsf] k~rfotsf] lstfa k9]/ k|j]lzsf kf; ePsL d}n] cfh pxfF / pxfFsf
kl/jf/sf ;Gbe{df o:tf k|;\u n]Vbf dnfO{ klg /dfOnf] nfu]sf] 5}g, t/ of] Pp6f ;To ePsfn]
gn]Vg' klg t ePg .
cfdf clg sfOFnf] 5f]/f]sf] lg < bL3{/fh h]7fh'sf ;Gbe{sf ljljw s'/fxsf] eFufnf]nfO{
alnof] afFwn] afFw]/ d}n] k'gM d]/L ;f;";dIf csf]{ k|Zg /fv]sL lyPF . d]/f] sfFOnf] 5f]/f] e/t/fhn]
fkf wfOhgsf clUgk|;fb lzjfsf]6LsL 5f]/L kf;Fu @)#) ;fndf lax] u/]sf] xf] . p;sL h]7L
5f]/L /]vf !^ jif{sf] pd]/df d'6'sf] ladf/n] latL . e/tn] fkfdf /]vfsf gfpFdf /]vf:d[lt k'/:sf/
u'7L vf]n]sf] 5 . pgLxn] jif]{gL k|j]lzsf k/LIffdf fkf lhNnfdf ;j{k|yd x'g] ljBfyL{nfO{ k'/:sf/

25
lbG5g\ . pgLxn] Psb'O{ k6s t d]/f xftaf6 klg k'/:sf/ afF9\g nufPsf lyP . e/tkfn] d/]sL
5f]/LnfO{ aFrfpg] sfd u/]sf 5g\ . s7}a/L Tof] /]vf gfltgLn] dnfO{ dftf eg]/ af]nfPsf] clxn]
h:tf] nfU5 . d]/L ;f;"sf] cfjfh gfltgLsf dfofn] o;} a]nf klg ef/L x'g vf]h]sf] lyof] . t/ klg
pxfF cfgf gfltgfltgLxdf g} s]lGb|t eO/xg'ePsf] lyof] e/tsf tLg 5f]/LdWo] b'O6L 5f]/L /f]zg
/ /rgfn] w]/} k9]sf 5g\ . Pd\=P= kf; u/]kl5 /f]zgsf] sf7df8f}F 8Nn'sf of]u]z d}gfnL;Fu lax] klg
eof] . /rgfn] klg Pd\=P:;L= kf; u/]sL 5 . e/tsf] 5f]/f] s]z/ -/fh'_ n] klg Pd\=P:;L= kf; uof] .
/fh' clxn] cd]l/sfdf kLPr=8L= ub}{ 5 . d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/tn] fkfsf] latf{df]8df ePsf] 3/
hUuf a]r]/ sf7df8f}Fdf g} 3/ agfPsf] 5 . p;nfO{ d]/f] elth gGbs'df/ k|;fO{n] cfg} 3/ 5]p
:joDe" k'ofPsf] 5 . e/tsf] hUuf lsGg / 3/ agfpg klg gGbs'df/n] w]/} ;xof]u k'ofPsf] 5 .
d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f]sf] Jojxf/ klg ;fx|} /fd|f] 5 . pm OdfgL klg 5 . p;n] s;}sf] l/; klg ub}{g .
cfdf clg cGt/] 5f]/f] t d]/} >Ldfg\ eOxfNg'eof], pxfFsf af/]df s] ;f]w'F / sfG5f b]j/sf
af/]df rflxF eGg' g x} < d}n] pxfFsf] efjnfO{ k'gM kf]vfpg vf]h]sL lyPF . d]/f] sfG5f] 5f]/f]
u\uf/fhsf] lax] v/]nsL 5f]/L /fds'df/L;Fu ePsf] xf] . To; avt ;fnaf/Ldf d}n] g} eft efG;f
u/]sf] b]v]kl5 d]/L eb} sfnLn] d]/f]] b'Vv x]g{ g;s]/ dnfO{ eft ksfP/ v'jfpg] a'xf/L vf]lhlbPsL
lyO{ . d]/f] sfG5f]sf] lax]kl5 d}n] klg 3/sf] ;a} sfdwGwf sfG5L a'xf/LnfO{ l;sfO{ ;wfO{ u/]kl5
eftefG;fsf] sfd klg p;}sf] lhDdf 5f]8]F . ;'?;'?df sfG5L a'xf/L klg c;n} lyO{ . To;}n] d]/f]
;Dk"0f{ u[x:yL ToxL a'xf/LnfO{ ;'Dk]F . clg la:tf/}la:tf/} d kfvf x'g yfn]F . oL clxn] t d hf]uL g}
eOgF t < eSsfg' k'm6fpFb} d]/L ;f;" af]Ng'ePsf] lyof] . To; 38L pxfFsf] cJoQm kL8f eSsfg'sf
dfWodn] JolQmg vf]h]sf] lyof] . cfdf, lsg o:tf] s'/f ug'{x'G5, of] s:sf] 3/ xf], cfdfsf] xf]Og <
cfdfn] lsg lrQ ;fgf] kf/]/ s'/f ug'{ePsf] < d}n] s]xL ;Dfpg vf]h] }F u/L eg]sL lyPF . t/
To;kl5 pxfF s]xL klg af]Ng'ePg . cfdf, sfG5f b]j/sf slthgf 5f]/f5f]/L 5g\ < d}n] g} k'gM
s'/fsf] d];f] ;dft]sL lyPF . u\u]sf b'O{ 5f]/f z\s/, ;\ud / Pp6L 5f]/L zld{nf hGd]sf x'g\ .
z\s/sf] lax] ;[hgf;Fu ePsf] lyof] . ltgLxsL Pp6L 5f]/L kf~rgf klg 5] . t/ s7}a/L c/adf
k};f sdfpg uPsf] d]/f] gflt z\s/sf] nf; klg k]mnf k/]g . Ps dlxgf;Dd nf; kv]{kl5 xfdLn]
nf;sf] ;6\6f s'z hnfP/ lrQ a'fof}F . sfG5fsL 5f]/L zld{nfsf] lax] hLjg clwsf/L;Fu ePsf] xf],
pgLxsf] Pp6f 5f]/f] 5 .
d]/L ;f;"sf ;Gtfgsf] gfnLa]nL n]Vg] qmddf pxfFn] cfgL Psdfq 5f]/Lsf] s'/f eGg afFsL
/x]5 . To;}n] d}n] Ps lbg pxFf;Fu ;f]w]sL lyPF . d]/L 5f]/Lsf] Gjf/gsf] gfpF g/dfof xf], kl5 p;sf]
gfpF gL/f eof] . p;sf] lax] t]x|y'd d"nkfgLsf afns[i0f l;6f}nfsf h]7f 5f]/f gLns[i0f l;6f}nf;Fu
eof] . d]/f 5f]/LHjfOFsf] zlgZr/] ahf/df lgs} 7"nf] bf]sfg lyof] . d]/f HjfOF w]/} dgsf/L / k/f]ksf/L
:jefj ePsf / s'g} avt fkf lhNnfdf gfd rn]sf dflg; x'g'x'GYof] . t/ lbgbzfn] ubf{ lgs}
b'Vv kfP/ pxfF @)^! ;fn sflQs @^ ut] dg'{eof] . d]/} sfvdf pxfFsf] k|f0f uof] . d]/L ;f;"
HjfOFsf] c;fdlos lgwgn] lgs} lkl/g'ePsf] cleJolQm lyof] of] . t/ dnfO{ pxfF;Fu c} gL/f lbbLs}
kl/jf/sf ljifodf s'/f ug'{ lyof] . 5f]/Lkl6\6sf slthgf gfltgfltgf 5g\ lg cfdf < To;}n] s]xLa]/
r'knfUg'ePsL d]/L ;f;";Fu d}n] k'gM ;f]w]sL lyPF . d]/L 5f]/Ln] b;j6L 5f]/L kfO{ . p;sf rf/ hgf
5f]/L :juL{o eP . p;sf 5j6L 5f]/LdWo] u'gfafx]s r]tg, d'gf, 5'gf, 6Lsf / ;/:jtLsf] lax]bfg klg
ul/;sL . yfxf 5 ltdLnfO{ d}n] lbPsf] cflzif klg nfU5, ;/fk klg nfU5 kf] t d]/L 5f]/L ;fg}
x'Fbf p;n] Psk6s dnfO{ srsr u/L dnfO{ Pshf]/ /fd|f sk8f klg lbg g;Sg]n] lsg dnfO{
hGdfPsf] xf]nf Tolt a]nf d nf]Ug] d/]kl5sf] Jojxf/ ]Ng'k/]sf] tf]8df lyPF . 5f]/Ln] Jojxf/
a'lg eg]/ dnfO{ klg f]Fs rn]5, d}n] tFnfO{ hGdfP/ /fd|f n'ufsk8f lbg ;lsgF, t}+n] rflxF
eljiodf 5f]/L g} 5f]/L kfpg" a'l;\, clg /fd|f/fd|f n'uf lbg" . To; a]nf d}n] ;/fk]sf] a'g] pd]/
p;sf] lyPg . dnfO{ klg l/;sf] f]Fsdf s] af]n]F eGg] vf;} x]Ssf klg /x]g t/ kl5 ha p;sf] lax]
u/]kl5 p;n] Pskl5 csL{ 5f]/L hGdfpg yfnL . clg p;n] klg d]/f] ;/fk nfu]sf] a'L . d}n] klg
cfk"mn] ;/fk]sf] ;D]F t/ To; a]nf xfdL b'j}sf] s]xL nfUg] cj:yf lyPg . cg]sf}F j|t / tk:of
u/]kl5 p;n] P3f/f}F ;Gtfgsf kdf 5f]/f] ch'{gnfO{ hGdfO{ . p;sf ;a} 5f]/Lx 1fgL 5g\ . p;n]
HjfOF klg ultnfultnf kfPsL 5] . hLjgdf b'Vv / ;'Vv lgs} ef]u]sL d]/L 5f]/Lsf] dg ;fx|} sdnf]
5 . s'g} a]nf p;nfO{ k'uL;l/ lyof] . To; a]nf dnfO{ b'Vv} lyof] . pm a]nf gLns[i0f HjfOFsf] Jofkf/
rn]sf] lyof] . dnfO{ 5f]/L HjfOFn] w'dwfd ;3fPsf lyP . dnfO{ b'Vv ePsf a]nf d]/L 5f]/Ln] dnfO{
;s];Ddsf] d2t u/]sL 5] . d]/L ;f;"sf cg'xf/df cfgGb / b'Vvsf efj Ps};fy b]vf k/]sf] lyof] .
pxfFsf oL s'/f ;'g]sf a]nf dnfO{ klg g/]Gb|n] n]v]sf] k':ts cIf/sf] k|bz{gL leqsf] Pp6f n]v
gL/flbbL / d]/f] efUo/]vfsf] ;Dgf eof] . g/]Gb|n] klg d;Fu s'/f ubf{ ;w}Fh;f] lbbLnfO{
pRrf;gdf /fv]sf] Joxf]/f klg NnL eof] . a'of}, d]/f nflu cfdf / lbbL Ps} x'g\ . d]/f]
efUolgdf{0fdf b'j}sf] a/f]]a/L e"ldsf 5 g/]Gb|sf] syg x'g] u5{ . o:tf] a]nf d :jo+rflxF h]7L 5f]/Lsf

26
kdf hlGdPsfn] cfg} lbbL gePsf sf/0f cfk"mn] rflxF To;/L dfofn' lbbL klg gkfPsf] / cfk"m
klg To:tL lbbL x'g g;s]sf] Iff]en] klg ulnt x'G5', a]nfavt .


Toltsf 5f]/f5f]/L x'sf{pg b'Vv t lgs} ug'{eof] xf]nf x}g < d}n] d]/L ;f;";Fu ljifo kl/jt{g
ub}{ ;f]w]sL lyPF . xf] lg PSn} 5f]/f5f]/L x'sf{pg dnfO{ lgs} ufx|f] ePsf] lyof] . ltd|f ;;'/f ls t
la/fdL x'g'eof] ls eg] hf]uLh:tf] eP/ Gof;Wofgdf nfUg'x'GYof] . pxfFn] xfd|} 3/df hf]uLsf] cv8f
agfpg'x'GYof] . st} ufpFdf n6\6fwf/L hf]uL cfP eg] ltgnfO{ xfd|} 3/df ;Tsf/ u/]/ /fVg'kYof]{ .
To;}n] pxfFn] vf;} 3/ Jojxf/ x]g{'x'Gg lyof] . clg ;Dk"0f{ 3/Jojxf/ d}n] g} wfGg'kYof]{ . 5f]/f5f]/L
klg cfk}mn] b'Vv;'v u/]/ x'sf{PF . 5f]/f5f]/LdWo] klg d]/f] ;fOFnf] 5f]/f] bL3{/fhnfO{ x'sf{pFbf eg] d}n]
w]/} b'Vv u/]sL 5' . To;nfO{ cf7jif{sf] x'Gh]n;Dd d}n] af]sLaf]sL ;a} sfd uy]{+, ufO{e}F;L b'x'Fbf klg
p;nfO{ sfvdf t];f{P/} b'x'Gy]F . wfdL / fFqmL t slt nfPF slt . p;sf nflu slt vr{ u/]F lx;fa
klg 5}g . d]/L ;f;"n] k'/fgf] cfgf] b'Vv ;DFb} dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .

Tolt b'Mvn] x'sf{Psf] 5f]/f]n] clxn] dfof klg t w'dwfd ug'{x'G5 xf]nf lg x}g cfdf < d}n]
cfk"mn] hfg]sf s'/f n'sfpg vf]h]/ pxfFnfO{ g} km]l/ pbf\uf] kfg{ vf]h]sL lyPF . ltdLnfO{ yfxf 5Fb} 5
lg d]/f] s'/f ;'g]/ pxfF d]/f d'vdf x]/]/ xfF:g'eof] . d]/f] 7"nf] 5f]/f] lji0f'eStn] sdfpg yfn]kl5
dnfO{ d2t eO/Xof] . p;n] cf7/fO{sf] ;\qmflGtdf kmf]6f] :6'l8of]sf ;fy} ls/fgfk;n vf]n]/ a:bf
klg dnfO{ vr{ar{, n'ufkmf6f / vfg] s'/f v]lk/Xof] . ;\qmflGtdf a;]sf] a]nf / fkfdf a;]sf
a]nfdf p;n] efOxsf] k9fOn]vfOdf klg d2t uof] . bL3{/fhnfO{ p;}n] Pd\=P= k9fPsf] xf] .

d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ k]ml/ cs}{ s'/f plwGg vf]h] lsg dfof gu/]sf] bL3{/fh h]7fh'n] cfdfnfO{ <
c k|i6 eP/ cfk"mnfO{ pxfF;fd' /fv]F . ltdLx;Fu d a;]F eg]/ d;Fu pm l/;fPsf] xf] lg cfdfn]
xfF:t} hjfkm kmsf{pg'ePsf] lyof] . clg s] ef] t, To;f] xf] eg] tkfO{+nfO{ pxfFn] cfk"m;Fu} /fVg
vf]Hg'ePsf] xf]nf lg t < d}n] lh1f;f /fv];l/ ;f]w]/ km]l/ pxfF;fd' ;fdfGo k|Zg /fv]sL lyPF . pxfFn]
lgSs} cfqmf]; kf]Vt} hjfkm lbg''ePsf] lyof], s] sf] /fVYof] To; :jf:gLsf] sdf/f]n] dnfO{ < Psk6s
oxL 36\6]s'nf]sf] ;8sdf bL3{/fh 5f]/f];Fu d]/f] e]6 ePsf] lyof] sfdLsf 3/df s] vfg a;]sL <
v'?Ss fkf hfpm eg]/ dnfO{ xkfof] To;n] . lax] ug'{cl3 t p;n] dnfO{ dfof klg uYof]{ . pm
dgsf/L klg lyof] t/ xfd|} b'ef{Uo p;sL :jf:gL ;fg'afaf k|;fO{ d w]/} a'l4 ePsL 5' eG5] . pm
cfk"mnfO{ k9]n]v]sL, hflu/ vfPsL x'F eG5] . To;n] 3/kl6\6sf dfG5] t b]Vg} ;lQmg, dfOtL eP
p;nfO{ k'U5 . p;n] lgwf{nfO{ klg xf]RofFpF5] . d]/L 5f]/L gL/fnfO{ klg p;n] b]Vg} ;lStg .
d]/L h]7L a'xf/Lsf] gfpF klg efuL/yf xf] . p;sf] nf]Ug]n] 'Ss]/ s;}sf] s'/f sf6\tf klg pm
dg k/fpFlbg . bfh'efOaLr u8f kl/xfNof] eg] klg d]/L 7"nL a'xf/Ln] cfk}m aLrdf a;]/ bfh'efO
ldnfpF5] . To:tf kf] x'G5g t a'xf/L eg]sf] t c;ndf jL/ 5] d]/L 7"nL a'xf/L . d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f]
e/t/fhsL a]x'nL kf klg ;a}sf] ho lrtfpF5] . Tof] a'xf/L klg ;fx|} c;n 5 . d]/L ;f;"n] xfd|f]
kl/jf/sf af/] klg ?Fb} / xfF:t} dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .


cfdf tkfO{+nfO{ cfdfsf ;GtfgdWo] ;a}eGbf w]/} s;n] dfof u5{ < d}n] cfdfsf] dgsf]
leqL tx plwGg] sf]l;; u/]sL lyPF . dnfO{ ;a}eGbf dfof ug]{ 5f]/f] oxL g/]Gb|] g} xf] . d]/L ;f;"n]
eGg'ePsf] lyof] . d}n] ;f]w]sLn] pxfFsf] gfpF eGg'ePsf] xf]nf lg . d}n] pxfFnfO{ s]xL lh:Sofpg]
kf/fn] ;f]w]sL lyPF . h;n] ;f]w] klg of] ;fFrf] s'/f xf] . 5f]/f] t 5f]/} eOuof] gfltdWo] klg
s~rgh\3fn] hlt dnfO{ s;}n] dfof ub}{gg\ . cfk"mn] ;]s]sf tfk]sf gfltgfltgfn] t kms]{/ klg
x]b}{gg\ . s7}a/L a'9];sfndf ;a}sf] x]Fnf xf]OFbf] /x]5 . d]/L ;f;"sf :d[ltdf km]l/ g/dfOnf
k|;\ux v]Ng yfn]sf] cfef; dnfO{ ePsf] lyof] . clg cfdfnfO{ xfd|f] rflxF dfof nfUb}g < d
lg/fl;g'ePsL ;f;"sf] dg k|k'mNn kfg{] k|oTg u5'{ . lsg To;f] eg]sL < dnfO{ t ;+;f/sf] dfof
nfU5, k"mn la?jf, vkft, a:t'efp, ufFpl5d]sL ;a}sf] dfof ug{] dfG5] x'F d . plxn] kxf8df
ufpFdf x]nf ul/Psf a'xf/LxnfO{ klg d d]/f 3/df n'sfO{n'sfO{ cfk"mn] ;s]sf] vfg]s'/f v'jfpFy]F .
cfdfn] cfgf] k"j{syf ;'gfPkl5 dnfO{ klg 6\6 dx]Zj/ cfrfo{sL kTgL eLdfb]jL cfrfo{sf]
;Dgf eof] . pxfF sf7df8f}F cfpFbf cfdfsf] k"j{ u'g ;D]/ Ps/ft eP klg cfdf;Fu g;'tL 3/
kmls{g'x'Gg . d]/f 3/df ;f;"n] a'xft{g u/]/ vfg glbFbf dnfO{ ;fOFnL cfdfn] k]6el/ eft
v'jfpg'ePsf] 5 eLdfb]jL u'?dfn] uxel/ cfF;' kf/]/ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .

27
To;f] eP cfdfnfO{ ;a}sf] dfof nfU5 cfdf d}n] k'gM k|Zg bf]xf]ofPsL lyPF . lxhf]cfh
;a}eGbf a9L dfof dnfO{ o; s]6Lsf] nfU5 . ltdLx ;a}n] klg o; s]6LnfO{ dfof ug'{k5{ .
sxfFsxfF b]zsL s]6L s7}a/L xfdL ;a}n] dfof gu/] o;nfO{ s:tf] nfUnf < s~rgh\3fsL kTgL
lk|ofsf ;Gbe{df cfdfsf cleJolQmn] xfdL ;a}nfO{ cfdfk|lt yk ulj{t kf/]sf] lyof] . hfthflt,
efiffefifLeGbf lgs} dfly p7]sf] pxfFsf] dfofsf] :jk lgs} k"Ho kfP/ d]/f] n]vs dg klg clee"t
ePsf] lyof] .

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f}tfk|;\u


cfdf ;;'/fafh]sf] Toqf] aofg ug'{x'G5, clg xh'/ x'Fbfx'Fb} d]/f ;;'/fn] lsg csL{ lax]
ug'{ePsf] t < pxfFsf] klt ;Ddf]xg tf]8\g rfxG5' d . d}n] ;f]r]sL lyPF, ca d]/L ;f;"sf] cg'xf/df
lvGgtfsf /x 5fpg]5g\ / pxfFn] cfgf kltsf lj/f]wdf s]xL zAbx cf]sNg'x'g]5 . sfF pxfFn]
cfk}m lax] ug'{ePsf] xf] / < To;sf] klg syf 5 . pxfFn] t d';'d';' xfF:b} hjfkm lbP/ ddf pxfFsf]
;f}tfsyf ;'Gg] pT;'stf;d]t hufpg'eof] .
a'of} d]/L ;f;" lzjdfofsf dfOtL lzjfsf]6Lx / d]/f dfOtL pk]|tLxaLr Pp6f s'/fdf
6;n k/]5 . s'/f s] eg] lzjfsf]6L kl/jf/df ljjfx ePsL Pp6L pk]|tLsL 5f]/L ljwjf eO5g\ .
pk|]tLsL ljwjf ePsL 5f]/LnfO{ lzjfsf]6Lxn] vfg glbPsf] f]Fsdf pk|]tLxn] wfjf af]n]5g\ .
pgLxn] lzjfsf]6Lxsf wG;f/af6} wfg ls]/ cfgL r]nLsf] vfgkfgsf] Joj:yf u/]/ canf
r]nLnfO{ Gofo lbnfP5g\ . o; 36gfn] To; avt lzjfsf]6L kl/jf/df pk|]tL kl/jf/k|lt j}dg:o
eP5 . To;}n] o; 36gfaf6 OlvPsL d]/L ;f;"n] klg d pk|]tLsL r]nL ePsLn] dnfO{ ;f}tf
xflnlbP/ pk|]tLxsf] ;]vL fg{ vf]Hg'ePsf] /x]5 . t/ d]/f]rflxF ;]vL /]g . To:tf] syfdf
cfwfl/t d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f}tfk|;\u d]/} ;f;"f/f k|:t't ePsf] lyof] .
To; avt d}n] ;f]r] ljk/Lt d]/L ;f;"sf cg'xf/df ;f}tfk|;\udf klg uj{sf] efj b]vf kbf{ d
crlDdt ePsL lyPF . d]/L ;f;" ;f}tfh:tf] s'/fdf klg glkl/g'ePsf] b]Vbf ddf x'g;Ddsf] sf}t'xn
hfu]sf] lyof] .
dnfO{ b'Mv lbg eg]/ d]/L ;f;"n] ;f}tf t NofOlbg'eof], Tof] s]6L d}n] lax] u/]sL xf]Og,
cfdfn] lax] ug'{ePsf] xf], ca pxfFn] g} o;nfO{ h] ug'{k5{ ug'{xf];\ . dnfO{ dtna 5}g eg]/ ;f}tf
leofPkl5 d]/f kltn] eGg'eof] . d]/L ;f}tfsf af/]df d]/f kltsf o:tf s'/f ;'g]/ dnfO{ kf] kL/
kof] . ca pxfFn] lax] u/]/ NofO;s]kl5 To;af6 hfohGd ePgg\ eg] d]/f] nf]Ug]nfO{ g} kfk nfU5
eg]/ d}n] g} pxfFnfO{ ;DfPF, a'fPF . d}n] lgs} ;DfPkl5 pxfFn] d]/f nflu d]/L ;f}tfnfO{ j/0f ug]{
x'g'eof] . t/ pxfFn] d]/L ;f}tfnfO{ :jLsf/ ug'{cl3 To;nfO{ d]/f kfpdf 'sfP/ eGg'eof], x]/\ d
o;sf] nf]Ug] x'F, t]/f] nf]Ug] rflxF of] xf] . t}Fn] nf]Ug]k|lt ug]{ ;Dk"0f{ cfb/ ;Ddfgsf] Jojxf/ o;nfO{
ug"{ . nf]Ug]sf] o:tf] cfb]zsf] kfngf klg d]/L ;f}tfn] d]/f] nf]Ug] / pm :jod\sf] hLjgsfnel/ klg
ul//xL . h;n] ubf{ d}n] d]/L ;f}tfk|lt ;w}F cfl>tnfO{ h:t} ;+/Ifssf] Jojxf/ u/]F . ;f}tfsyf klg
a9f] bDe / k'?iffy{sf lx;fan] ;'gfP/ d]/L ;f;" r'k nfUg'ePsf] lyof] . To;f] t cf7/fO{ xfkf
lgjf;L blw/fd r'8fnsL 5f]/L lbJokf cyf{t\ d]/L ;f}t]gL ;f;" c;n klg x'g'x'GYof] eGg] s'/f d}n]
d]/L ;f;"af6 ;'g]sL lyP . clg d]/L ;f;"n] klg cfgL ;f}tfnfO{ dfof ug'{x'GYof] eGg] klg d}n] yfxf
kfO;s]s} s'/f lyof] .
x'g t To; a]nf d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f}tf ;Gbe{sf] k"0f{syf ;'g]/ eg] dnfO{ a8f] ;s; eof] . d t
To;/L klg cfgf] nf]Ug] afF8\g ;lQmgF . s'g} klg lx;fan] nf]Ug] afF8\g] s'/fnfO{ d ;xg ;lQmgF .
nf]Ug] afF8\g'kg]{ kl/l:yltdf a? TofUg' d]/f nflu ;'vb x'g;S5 / d]/f] hLjgdf Tof] 36gf 36]sf] klg
5 . d]/f] dgf]j[lQeGbf Hofb} km/s dgl:yltsL d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f}tfsyfn] d]/f] dfg; lsNnfdf g}
cfqmd0f ug{ vf]h]sf] lyof] . lkt[;QfTds pkh d]/L ;f;"hGo dlxnfxsf syfn] dnfO{ lgs}
lk/f]Ng] klg u5{ . clg ;f}t]gL cfdfaf6 klg hfohGd eof] x}g cfdf . d}n] o;} k|;\udf c}
pxfFsf efjgf plwGg vf]h]F . d}n] g} d]/f] nf]Ug]nfO{ lax] ul/;s]sL :jf:gLaf6 hfohGd gu/fOPdf
nf]Ug] dflg;n] ef]Ug'kg]{ kfk b]vfP/ d]/L ;f}tfaf6 klg hfohGd u/fPsL x'F . pxfF t To; cfOdfO{sf]
5fofF klg dgk/fpg'x'Gg lyof] . o;f] elg/xFbf klg pxfFsf] uj{ grf]l6Psf] b]Vbf dnfO{ yk cfZro{
nfu]sf] lyof] . k/Dk/fk|lt d]/L ;f;"sf] s] ljlw cf:yf nf]Ug]k|ltsf] sqf] lgi7f / s:tf] k|]d clg

28
nf]Ug] klg slt s'6gLlt1 lxhf]cfhsf nf]Ug] dflg;n] Pp6L :jf:gLnfO{ klg l/fpg ;St}gg\, To;
avt d]/f ;;'/fn] b'O{b'O{j6L :jf:gLnfO{ klg cfgf] eSt agfP/ /fVg ;Sg'ePsf] 36gf lkt[;Qfsf
/Ifsxsf nflu pbfx/0fLo / cg's/0fLo klg ePsf] 5 eGg] dnfO{ nfUof] .
d]/L ;f;"n] xfd|L ;f}t]gL ;f;"nfO{ slxNo} x]nf ug'{ePg . ToxL sf/0f d]/f b]j/ h]7fh'xsf
dgdf klg slxNo} ;f}t]gL efjgfn] h/f ;dft]g . g/]Gb|n] klg cfgL sfG5L cfdfkl6\6af6 hGd]sf
lbbLalxgL / bfh'nfO{ klg ;w}F cfb/ ul//xg'eof] . g/]Gb|n] g} sfG5L cfdfkl6\6af6 hGd]sf 5f]/f
nIdL h]7fh'nfO{ klg sf7df8f}F Nofpg'ePsf] /x]5 . jf:tjdf g/]Gb|sf] rflxF ;a} bfh'efO /
lbbLalxgLx;Fu a/fa/L g} x'?Ss} x'g] k|j[lQ d}n] ;w}F b]Vt} cfPsL 5' . g/]Gb| cfgL sfG5L cfdf;Fu
klg ;dlk{t x'g'x'GYof] . pxfF cfgL sfG5L cfdf xfd|f 3/df cfFpbf sfzL -tLy{_ g} 3/df cfP
h:tf] 7fGg'x'GYof] . jf:tjdf sfG5L cfdfk|lt g/]Gb|sf] efjgf ;fx|} pRr ePsf] d}n] k|ToIf b]v]sL 5' .
rGb|fjtL lbbL / uf}/L alxgLk|lt klg g/]Gb|sf] Tolts} nufj 5 . Tolt dfq xf]Og Gg} c9fO{bzsk"j{
:juL{o ePsL /fds'df/L alxgLsf] klg g/]Gb|n] k|foM s'/f lls/xg'x'G5 . pxfFsf nflu sfG5L cfdfsf
5f]/f5f]/L klg cfg} cfdfn] g} hGdfP h:tf dflgG5g\ .
d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf kltsf] b]xj;fgkl5 klg cfgL ;f}tfsf] sb/ ul//xg'eof] . cfgL
;f}tfnfO{ ef}lts ;xof]u ug{ klg pxfF slxNo} kl5 kg'{ePg . o;} kl/j]zdf d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{
eGg'eof] d fkf bf{ d]/f] ;Dk"0f{ 3/hUufnufot 3/af/sf ;a} ;fdu|Lx klg lbJokfnfO{ g}
lbP/ cfPsL lyPF . w]/} jif{ pm xfkf d} a;L . kl5 pm klg sf7df8f}Fd} cfP/ 8]9b'O{ jif{ hlt
sfn];Fu a;]sL lyO{ . :ju]{ x'g'eGbf cl3 klg pm dnfO{ e]6\g xfd|f] 3/ cfO/xGyL . pm dnfO{ d]/L
lbbL eGyL . p;n] x/]s e]6df d]/f v'6\6f 9f]UyL . p;sf] k|f0f hfg'cufl8 klg p;n] dnfO{ e]6\g
vf]h]sL lyO{ /] . t/ d]/f] 5f]/f] bL3{/fhn] xfdLdf ck/fw ul/lbof] . p;n] d]/L sfG5L;Fusf]
e]63f6df af/ nufOlbof] . bL3{/fhsf] d'v} sfnf], k]6} sfnf] ePsf] 5 . p;n] sfn]sL cfdfsf] ;f;
hfg] a]nfdf p;Fu dnfO{ e]6\g} lbPg . d]/L sfG5L;Fusf] d]/f] clGtd e]6\g] OR5f cw'/f] eof] .
s7}a/L sfn]sL cfdf :ju{ hfcf];\ .

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf] 3/Jojxf/


a'of} OlGb/f s7}a/L d}n] hlt t sfnf] afbnn] klg b'Vv ef]u]sf] 5}g xf]nf, t/ d}n] ;w}F
;s]sf] ;a}sf] enf] g} u/]F, enf] g} ;f]r]F . d]/f nflu t eujfg\ dfq} ;xf/f eP c s;}n] klg dnfO{
cfkt ljktdf ;xof]u u/]sf 5}gg\ . Toqf] wgL kl/jf/leq d]/f] lax] eP tfklg ltd|f ;;'/fsf] lgwg
ePkl5 d}n] sfnf] lbg;Fu cfk"mnfO{ lxF8fpFb} nfg'kof] . s'/fsfgLs} k|;\udf Ps lbg cldnf] d'v
kf/]/ d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ eGg'eof] .
d}n] h]7f] 5f]/f] c7f/ jif{sf] pd]/df hGdfPF d]/L ;f;"n] eGg'ePsf] lyof] . clg d}n] ;f]w]sL
lyPF, t]x|jif{sf] pd]/b]lv klt;Fusf] p7a;df klg lsg c7f/ jif{df dfq ;Gtfg eP cfdf < pxfF
s]xLa]/ uDeL/ x'g'eof], h]7f] 5f]/f]cl3sf b'O6f d]/f ;Gtfg t clwu|f] uP gL . nfdf] ;f; km]/]/
pxfFn] eGg'eof] . d}n] w]/} b'Vv u/]sL 5', t]x| jif{sf] pd]/df 3/df cfpFbf kl/jf/df gf]s/, xnL,
v]tfnf, sdf/fsdf/L;d]t u/]/ tL; hgfsf] kl/jf/ lyof] . To;f] t nf]Ug] dflg;sf] uf]8fdf t]n
nufpg] ldRg] sfd sdf/fn] uy]{ . xfdL cfOdfO{nfO{ klg t]n nufpg] sdf/L x'Gy] . t/ d]/L dfOnL
h]7fgL ltnkf / d}n] rflxF sdf/LnfO{ cfgf v'6\6f ldrfPgf}F .
d / d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL ltnkf 3/sf sfddf klg tu8f lyof}F . To;}n] d]/L ;f;"n] klg
xfdL b'O{ hgfnfO{ ;s];Dd sfddf nufpg'x'GYof] . xfdL lbgel/ sfd u/]/ /flt Pscsf{sf uf]8f
ldRg] uYof}{+ . Tolt a]nf eftefG;f / 3/sf] l9sLhfFtf]sf ;fy} v]taf/Lsf] sfd klg ;a} xfdL
a'xf/Ln] g} ug'{kYof]{ . d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL ltnkf ;fx|} ;f]L lyOg\ . To;}n] 3/sf] ;a}eGbf w]/} sfd
pg}nfO{ nufOGYof] . d]/L ;f;"n] klxn]s} ;dodf k'u] h;/L dnfO{ elg/xg'ePsf] lyof] .
nf]Ug]sf] hLp 5pGh]n t h:t} b'Vv klg v]lkof] . Pp6f dfof ug]{ dflg;sf] cf8df b'Vv klg
yf]/} nfUbf] /x]5, t/ pxfF v;]kl5 nfnfafnf :ofxfg{ dnfO{ ;fx|} xDd] k/]sf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"
ljutsf] ;\3if{sf] :d[ltdf k'u]/ dnfO{ cfgf] syfsf k|;\u elg/xg'ePsf] lyof] . lsg / cfdf,
wg;DklQ t lyof] lg, ;Gtfgsf] nfngkfng ug{ vr{sf] t sdL lyPg xf]nf < pxfFsf] cg'xf/df
b]lvPsf] j]bgfn] dfq d lrQ a'fpFlbg, dnfO{ pxfFsf] kL8f c vf]tNg dg nfU5 . o:tf] a]nf
dnfO{ cfk"m n]vs ePsf]df klg UnfgL x'G5 . ;fFRr} n]vs slt :jfyL{ x'G5 csf{sf] kL8fnfO{ cfgf]
n]vgsf] ljifo agfP/ /dfpF5 . kfqnfO{ hlt kL8f x'G5, hlt 56k6L x'G5 n]vs Tolt pT;fxL eP/

29
cfgf] n]vgdf cu|;/ x'G5 . clxn] d klg To:t} eP/ cfg} ;f;"sf kL8fhGo ef]ufOx vf]tNg]
pkqmddf nfu]sL 5' .
d]/f ;;'/fn] lsg]sf s]xL v]tx lnDa"sf lsk6 /x]5g\, xfdL bfh'efOsf] c+zj08f x'Fbf
xfdLnfO{ rflxF w]/}h;f] ;f]xL lsk6 v]t kfl/Psf] /x]5 . ltd|f ;;'/fnfO{ wg;DklQsf] df]x lyPg .
To;}n] 6f7faf9fn] 5n5fd klg u/]sf /x]5g\ . ;ft ;fnsf] hgqmflGtkl5 lnDa"n] tL v]txsf] wfg
lbg 5f]8] . ltd|f ;;'/f ladf/L ePkl5 g} pgLx;Fu uP/ s'/fsfgL u/]/ wfg psf:g] sfd ug]{ klg
d]/f] kl/jf/df sf]xL ePgg\ . h]7fh' / b]j/af6 d2t klg ePg . ltdLnfO{ s] eg'F d, nf]Ug] d/]kl5
d}n 7"nf] efF8fdf yf]/} rfdn xfn]/ efF8fel/ kfgL xfNy]F / df8 ksfP/ afSnf]afSnf] 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{
v'jfpFy]F / kftnf] hlt cfk"mn] lkP/ klg lgjf{x u/]sL lyPF . cfgf a]nLlj:tf/df nfdf] v'Oo sf8\b}
pxfFn] d]/f k|Zgsf] pQ/ lbO/xg'ePsf] lyof] .
s7}a/L d}n] kfPsf] b'Vvsf] lx;falstfa lgs} df]6f] 5, dnfO{ t hftaf6 sf8\g klg afFsL
/fv]sf 5}gg\ lg Ps lbg d]/L ;f;"n] pxfFsf] hLjgdf 36]sf] csf]{ dfld{s k|;\u klg d]/f ;fd'Gg]
lSg'ePsf] lyof] . d}n] pxfFsf] s'/f ;'Gg] pT;'stf /fv]kl5 pxfFn] k'gM cfgf] sxfnL nfUbf] ljut
dnfO{ ;'gfpg yfNg'eof] . ltd|f ;;'/f la/fdL x'g'ePsf] lyof] . pxfF la/fdL ePkl5 d}n] pxfFnfO{
efG;faf6 eft nu]/ cf]R5\ofgd} v'jfpg'kof] . o;/L la/fdL ePsf] nf]Ug]]nfO{ eft af]s]/ v'jfPF eg]/
d]/f kl/jf/n] dnfO{ hftaf6 sf9] . d}n] klg nf} t sf9 eg]/ jf:t} ul/gF / 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ klg
ef]het]/ st} klg hfg lbOgF . d]/f] nf]Ug] la/fdL k/]sf a]nf kl/jf/n] ;xof]u ug'{sf] ;f6f] To:tf]
a]nfdf dnfO{ g\ ;f:tL lbg klg kl5 k/]gg\ . cg]s lsl;dsf x'Fb} gePsf aft nufpg klg
pgLx cl3 ;/]sf lyP . ;fOFnL efph"sf] eftefG;f grnfpg" eg]/ To; a]nf tfKn]h'af6 d]/f
b]j/ kgf/fo0fsf] lr7L klg xfd|f 3/df cfof] . la/fdL nf]Ug]sf] ;xf/f d]/f nflu kof{Kt lyPg . d]/f
sfG5f b]j/n] gePsf] '7f], clZnn / clzi6 aft nufpg klg vf]h] t/ To; a]nf eg] dfOnf
h]7fh' j]0f'k|;fbn] ;To / '7f]sf] km};nf u/]/ dnfO{ kmh'nsf] aftaf6 hf]ufpg'ePsf] lyof] . x'g t
d]/f dfOnf h]7fh' klg ck/fwL g} x'g'x'GYof] . dfOnf h]7fh'n] klg d canf / d]/f 6'x'/f
nfnfafnfnfO{ ;s];Dd 7Ug / 'Sofpg g} vf]Hg'eof] . Tolt a]nf xfd|f] kIfdf nfu]/ xfdLnfO{ zf]if0f
ug]{;Fu h]7fh' /ljnfn k|;fO{ -gGbs'df/ k|;fO{sf a'af_ klg h'Wg'ePsf] lyof] . x'g t plt a]nf dnfO{
aft nufpg] / xfdLnfO{ zf]if0f ug]{] d]/f kl/jf/sf dflg;xsf] clxn] xljut ePsf] d}n] ;'lg/x]sL
5' . To;}n] dnfO{ nfU5 dfG5]n] r'krfk ;xg'kbf]{ /x]5 . l9nf]l56f] O{Zj/n] b08 lbPsf] x]g{ kfOFbf]
/x]5 . ljutsf kf6f p3fb}{ hfFbf d]/L ;f;"sf hLjgsf] csf]{ bb{gfs syf klg cl3lNt/ ;/]/ d]/f
;fd' kf]v]kl5 d]/L ;f;"sf] cg'xf/df 5fO/x]sf kL8fsf efjnfO{ cleJolQmkl5sf] ;Gt'li6sf nx/n]
5f]k]sf] d}n] cg'e"lt u/]sL lyPF . kL8fsf] cyfx ef/ kf]Vg dfq} kfpFbf klg kLl8tn] /fxtsf] cg'e"lt
ubf]{ /x]5 eGg] s'/f dnfO{ To; If0f ;To nfu]sf] lyof] .
cfgf dfOnf h]7fh' j]0f'k|;fb k|;fO{ / sfG5f b]j/ kgf/fo0f k|;fO{sf af/] d]/L ;f;"n] k]ml/
cfgf] b'v]sf] dg vf]Ng'ePsf] lyof] a'of} OlGb/f plxNo} d nfnfafnf :ofxf/]/ kxf8d} ePsf a]nf
d]/f dfOnf h]7fh' / sfG5f b]j/sf] sdfOwdfO lj/f6gu/df lyof] . To;}n] pxfFx x/]s bz}Fdf 3/
cfpFbf vfg] s'/fb]lv nfpg] n'ufkmf6f;Dd cf7b; hgf el/ofnfO{ af]sfP/ Nofpg'x'GYof] . b]j/
h]7fh'sf 3/df hfg] af6f] xfd|} cfFug lyof] . xfd|} cfFugaf6 b]j/ h]7fh'sf el/of lxF8\y] . cfgf
sfsf a8fafp / el/of b]v]kl5 d]/f 5f]/fx v';Ln] pk|Fmb} kl5kl5 nfUb} pxfFxsf 3/ k'Uy] .
el/ofxsf 9fs/ vf]ln;s]kl5 klg d]/f 5f]/fx 3/ cfP/ /dfpFb} d;Fu 36gf ;'gfpFy] . Tolt a]nf
oL 6'x'/f s]6fxnfO{ pxfFxn] Pp6f ld7fO{sf] u]8f klg lbg'ePsf] dnfO{ yfxf 5}g . t/ klg cfgf
a'afsf] Gof;|f] d]6\g d]/f 5f]/fx lbgx'F ToxfF k'Uy] / cGttM lgGofp/f] cg'xf/ nufO{ 3/ kms{Gy] . d]/f
b]j/h]7fh'n] d]/f 5f]/f5f]/Lk|lt Ps s~rL klg dfof b]vfpg'ePg . To; a]nf vf;u/]/ d]/f 5f]/fx
e/t, g/]Gb| / u\ufn] kmf6]sf / 6fn]s} n'uf nufP/} klg lxF8] . t/ eujfg\sf] s[kfn] d]/f 5f]/fxn]
klg la:tf/} v'6\6f 6]s] .
d]/L ;f;" v'n:t ljrf/sL wgL eP tfklg pxfFsf h]7fh'h]7fgL / b]j/b]p/fgLn] cfk"mk|lt u/]sf
cg]s cTofrf/ n'sfpg vf]Hg'x'G5 . olt x'Fbfx'Fb} klg Ps lbg pxfFn] dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] ltd|f
;;'/f v;]sf] tLg jif{kl5sf] ;fpg dlxgfdf d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL ;Ltf k|;fO{n] d]/f 3/df cfP/
d;Fu aL; ?lkofFsf] ;fx|} vfFrf] eof] ;fOFnL eg]/ C0f dfUg'eof] . x'g t d;Fu g} klg slt k};f
x'GYof] / t/ b'O{rf/ k};f klg hf]xf] u/]/ d}n] ce/ke/sf nflu sfd nfU5 eg]/ /fv]sL lyPF .
h]7fgLn] To;/L k};f dfUg cfFpbf d}n] 5}g eGg ;lsgF . lbbL tkfO{+n] dnfO{ of] k};f
gkmsf{pg'xf]nf . o;kfln klg lnDa"n] wfg lt/]sf 5}gg\ , bz}Fdf 5f]/f5f]/Ln] wfgsf] eft vfg kfpg]
5}gg\ h:tf] nflu/x]sf] 5 . To;}n] tkfO{+n] of] k};fafkt dnfO{ bz}Fdf b'O{ d'/L wfg g} lbg" x} . o;/L
d}n] klg cK7\of/f] a]nfdf sfd nfUnf eg]/ htg u/]/ /fv]sf] aL; ?lkofF pxfFnfO{ lbFb} eg]sL lyPF .
Tolt a]nf b; ?lkofF d'/Ldf wfg kfOGYof] . k};f nfg] a]nfdf pxfFn] d]/f s'/fnfO{ ;xif{ :jLsf/ klg

30
ug'{eof], t/ bz}Fsf d'vdf cfP/ dnfO{ k};f kmsf{pFb} d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL ;Ltf k|;fO{n] eGg'eof]
;fOFnL of] bz}Fdf wfgsf] efp a9f], To;}n] d}n] wfg a]lr;s]F . d}n] ltdLnfO{ wfg lbg ;lsgF .
a? csf]{ bz}Fdf lbpFnf . pxfFsf] To:tf] Jojxf/n] d /f]PF . vf]O c h]7fgL / b]p/fgLsf] s] eGg'
sfG5L b]p/fgL wgdfofn] rflxF dnfO{ k|foM d'6' 5]8\g] jrgn] xflGyg\ . pgn] dnfO{ dfq xf]Og, d]/f
5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ klg ;Stf] ;/flKyg\ . pgsf jrg ;lDg] xf] eg] dnfO{ c} klg 8fFsf] 5f]8]/ ?g dg
nfU5 .
a'of} To; a]nf cfOdfO{sf nflu hLjg Hofb} si6s/ lyof] . clxn]sf ltdLxn] To; a]nf
xfdLn] ef]u]sf] hLjgsf] sNkgf klg ug{ ;Sb}gf} . d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf oyfy{ s'/fsf] k'gM pk;+xf/
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . xf], ;f;"sf s'/f ;tk|ltzt ;To x'g\ . pxfFsf s'/f ;'Gb} dnfO{ sxfnL nfu]/ cfPsf]
lyof] . d]/L ;f;"n] latfpg'ePsf tL lbg / pxfFk|lt pxfFsf cfkmGtn] u/]sf Jojxf/nfO{ d :jod\df
cfTd;ft\ ubf{sf] sfNklgs cg'e"ltn] g} dnfO{ si6af]w eO/xf] . d]/L cfg} cfdf, ;f;" / cGo To;
;dosf gf/Lhfltn] ef]u]sf si6k"0f{sf hLjgsyf ;'g]/ / ud]/ dnfO{ nfU5, k/Dk/f yfDg] gfpFdf
lkt[;Qfsf /Iffvflt/ gf/Lhfltn] o'uo'ub]lv cfgf] hLjgsf] cfx'lt ul//x] . gf/Lhfltsf] alnbfgsf]
cfx'ltn] bGs]sf] Hjfnfaf6 k|fKt /fkn] k'?if;Qfn] Gofgf] tflk/Xof] / zlQm k|fKt klg ul//xf] . To;}
zlQmsf] dbn] g} k'?if;Qfn] gf/Lhfltdfly cgj/t zf;g ul//xf] . clxn]sf xfdL gf/Ln] k|fKt
u/]sf] hlt klg :jtGqtf / ;'v 5 Tof] gf/Ln] ;xh} k|fKt u/]sf] sbflk xf]Og, To;sf nflu s}of}F
hGdb]lv gf/Ln] cfgf] alnbfgL of]ubfg lbPsf 5g\ . o; kl/k|]Iodf dnfO{ o; a]nfsf xfdL ;du|
gf/L hfltsf] hLjg tTsfnLg ;fdflhs c;dfgtfsf] o1j]bLdf v/fgL ePsf kz't'No hLjg ef]Ug
afWo tL ;du| hftLo gf/Lxsf] w/f]x/ xf] h:tf] nfU5 .

cfdf kxf8df cfdfsf ;xof]uLx sf]sf] lyP eGb} d}n] d]/L ;f;";Fu k]ml/ csf]{ lh1f;f
/fv]sL lyPF . d]/f k|Zg v:g] laltSs} d]/L ;f;" pT;flxt eP/ af]Ng'ePsf] lyof] dnfO{ xfkfdf
xfd|f k'/f]lxt /\unfn cfrfo{n] lgs} ;xof]u u/]sf lyP . /\unfn u'?n] d]/f 3/df w]/} u/] . d]/f
3/df b'x'gf ufO{ e}F;L gx'Fbf;d]t k'/]tn] b'x'gf ufO{e}F;L NofP/ uf]7df afFlwlbGy] . d]/f eflgh
hok|;fb d}gfnL, sfG5f eflgh -lbnaxfb'/ lji6_, h]7f eflghsf 5f]/f s0f{axfb'/ lji6n] klg dnfO{
w]/} ;3fPsf lyP . d]/f] elthf] gGbs'df/ k|;fO{ klg k|foM d]/f] vf]hL ul//xGYof] . d]/f] elthf]n] d]/f]
elStefj u/]sf] b]v]/} d]/f] 5f]/f] g/]Gb| klg p;}nfO{ k5\ofP/ afnv}df sDo'lg:6df nfUof] . g/] afx|}
jif{df tu8f sDo'lg:6 lyof] . To; a]nf g/] dfcf]sf] laNnf le/]/ :s'n hfGYof] . p;n] dfcf]sf]
/\lug kmf]6f NofP/ 3/sf leQfel/ uf]a/n] 6fF;]/ x}/fg kfYof]{ . To:tf lrGg' g hfGg'sf dflg;sf
kmf]6f 5f]/f]n] 6fF;]kl5 drflxF p;nfO{ n3fb}{ tL kmf]6f pKsfpFy]F . dnfO{ d]/f] elthf] s[i0f/fh k|;fO{ -
h]7f h]7fh' v8fgGb k|;fO{sf] dfOnf] 5f]/f]_ n] d]/f ;f/f b'Vv;'Vvdf ;fy lbof] . s[i0f/fh gePsf] eP
dnfO{ kxf8sf] hLjg latfpg ;fx|} sl7g lyof] . s[i0f/fh xfkf xfO:s'nsf] ;]q]m6/L klg lyof] .
p;}n] g} d]/f 5f]/fxsf] k9fOdf klg d2t uof] . s[i0f/fhn] ubf{ g} sfn] -nIdL_n] klg k9\g kfof] .
d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/tsf] gf} jif{sf] pd]/;Dd af]nL k'm6]sf] lyPg . kflye/f b]jLyfgdf k'ofpg ;s]
af]nL k'm6\5 eg]/ ;a}n] eg]sf lyP . t/ Toltv]/ d]/f] 5f]/f] lnP/ kflye/f b]jL uOlbg] sf]xL lyPg .
d]/f] ToxL s[i0f] 5f]/f]n] e/tnfO{ af]s]/ kflye/f k'ofPsf] lyof] . To;kl5 geGb} d]/f] e/t 5f]/f]]sf]
jfSo k'm6\of] . To;}n] d}n] d]/f] s[i0f/fh 5f]/f]sf] u'g slxNo} la;{g ;lQmgF . xfkfdf d]/f x/]s
kL/dsf{ wf]Olbg] g} s[i0f/fh 5f]/f] lyof] . d]/f] s[i0f] 5f]/f] ;fFRr}sf] s[i0f eujfg\ h:tf] lyof] . Tolt
c;n dfG5] kl5 Tolt km:6fpg ;s]g . s[i0f/fh /fli6o k~rfot ;b:odf yf]/} ef]6n] xf/]5 .
To;kl5 p;n] ;fdflhs sfdaf6 klg xft wf]of] . d]/f] k|Zgdf d]/L ;f;" cfgf] :d[ltsf] kl5Nnf]
lsgf/fdf g} k'Ug'ePsf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"sf] s[t1tfsf] of] :jk klg dnfO{ lgs} dg kof] .
xfkf] hLjgdf d]/L ;f;"n] dg k/fpg]xdWo] cfgf h]7f h]7fh' v8fgGb k|;fO{sL dfOnL
a'xf/L clDasf k|;fO{ -s[i0f/fh k|;fO{sL h]7L kTgL_ klg Ps x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"n] hfgsf/L
lbPcg';f/ d]/L ;f;"sf] k|foM dg d]/L h]7fgL clDasf;Fu w]/} vf]lng] uYof]{ .

cfdf, b'Vv kbf{ dfOtLn] x]y]{ xf]nfg\ lg < cfdfsf dfOtL t ;DkGg lyP x}g < d}n] pxfFsf]
gfnLa]nL s]nfpg] pkqmddf yk k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . plt a]nf dfOtLn] klg 5f]/LnfO{ ;xof]u ug]{
rng lyPg . 5f]/Lsf] lax] u/]kl5 o;f] slxn]sfxLF sf];]nLkft / tLhsf] ufn 6fg]{l;jfo dfOtLaf6
c yf]s s]xL x'Fb}gYof] . h:t} b'Vv k/] klg ;x]/ 3/ vfg] lzIff xfdLnfO{ lbOPsf] x'GYof] . b'Vv kof]
eg]/ dfOt hfg] sNkgf klg xfdLn] ub}{gYof}F . ls 3/ u/]/ vfg" g;s] tdf]/ vf]nfdf kmfn xfg]/
dg"{ xfdLnfO{ dfOtLn] eg]sf x'Gy] . t/ klg dnfO{ ce/ke/ k/]sf] a]nf d]/L cfdfn] w]/} ;xuf]u

31
ug'{ePsf] lyof] . cfk"m k9]n]v]sf] gePkl5, xftdf s]xL ;Lk gePkl5 c st} s]xL cfDbfgL x'g] s'/f
klg ePg . nf]Ug] lat]kl5 d]/f] kl/jf/df ul/aLsf] e'OFrfnf]n] lyRof] . To;kl5 d}n] klg s}of}F jif{;Dd
vfF8Lsf] ;f/L dfq} nfPsL 5' . 'gfsf] lsGof] eg] l56\6} kmf6\5 eg]/ d afSnf] vfF8Lsf] n'uf nfpFy]F .
5f]/fx sdfpg] eP kl5 dfq d}n] l;kmg / 'gfsf ;f/L nfPsL x'F . d]/L ;f;"n] JoQm u/]sf jfSo
;Fu;Fu} pxfFsf] ux el/Psf] cfjfh klg cfPsf] lyof] . ;f;"sf d'vaf6 Tof] sfn/fqLsf] ljj/0f ;'g]/
dnfO{ g} lgs} ;s; ePsf] lyof] . 5f]/Lsf] hGd xf/]sf] sd{ eGg] pvfg ag]sf] klg To;}
sfnv08df xf] }F dnfO{ nfUof] .
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;" / @))& ;fn


@))& ;fndf g]kfnsf ljleGg e"efudf 5'6\6f5'6\6} lsl;dsf cfGbf]ng ePsf lyP . o;}
qmddf g]kfnsf] k"jL{ kxf8 klg To; avt lgs} cfGbf]lnt lyof] . /fli6o Pstf vNalnP/ ljrng
cfPsf sf/0f Tolt v]/ kxf8sf dflg;xdWo] vf; u/]/ cfo{xn] cfcfgf] jf;:yfg 5f]8]/
db];lt/ efUg'k/]sf] lyof] . ToxL kl/j]zsf] l;sf/ d]/L ;f;" klg x'g'ePsf] lyof] . To; 36gfsf]
k|ToIf hfgsf/L lng] x]t'n] d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ k|Zg u/]sL lyPF, cfdf ;ft ;fndf kxf8af6 efu]/
db]; k;]sf] eGg'x'GYof] lg < xf] t, lnDa"af6 Hofg hf]ufpg ufpFaf6 ;a}hgf efufefu eof] . clg
d klg xfkfaf6 efu]F+ . Toltv]/ d]/f a"9f la/fdL x'g'ePsfn] lxF8\g czSt x'g'x'GYof], To;}n] pxfF 3/}
a:g'eof] .
clg ;;'/fa'jfnfO{ 5f]8]/ tkfO{+ s;/L lxF8\g ;Sg'eof] lg < la/fdL ;;'/fa'jfsf] dfof nfu]g
cfdf < d}n] s]xL 76\6f u/]sf] efsfdf pxfFnfO{ yk k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . dfof nfu]/ s] ug'{ < To;
avt lnDa"xn] cfOdfO{ / wgsf] n'6kf6 dRrfPsf] xNnf ;'g]kl5 d]/f a"9fn] g} 8/n] dnfO{ klg
;DfOa'fO u/]/ af6f] nfpg'ePsf] lyof] . dnfO{ t kl5 3/ kms]{/ pxfFnfO{ ge]6'Gh]n pxfFs}
lrGtfn] ;tfPsf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"n] To; avtsf] cfgf] oyfy{ ljj/0f dnfO{ ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;";dIf d}n] ;ft ;fnsf] 36gfsf] k|;\u sf]6\ofpFbf pxfF w]/} a]/;Dd To;}df g}
3f]l/g'ePsf] lyof] . pxfFnfO{ To; a]nfsf] 36gfsf] k|;\un] lgSs} 5f]Psf] klg lyof] . To;}n] d]/L
;f;"n] @))& ;fnsf] 36gfaf/] dnfO{ km]/L csf]{ lbg eGg'ePsf] lyof] ;ft ;fndf kxf8af6 Hofg
hf]ufpg db]; efUbf d]/L h]7L h]7fgL s[i0fdfof -d]/f h]7f h]7fh' v8fgGb k|;fO{sL kTgL_, d]/L
dfOnL h]7fgL ltnkf -d]/f dfOnf h]7fh' j]0f'k|;fb k|;fO{sL h]7L kTgL_, >Lk|;fb lji6, dgdfof
lji6 -hGt/] eflgh / hGt/L a'xf/L_, lji6]gL a'xf/L eLds'df/L lji6 -sfG5f eflgh lbnaxfb'/
lji6sL h]7L kTgL_ / dnufot xfdL ;a}sf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] lgs} 7"nf] x'b\bf g} fkflt/ nfu]sf lyof}F .
Tolt a]nf xfdLnfO{ xfkfaf6 lxF8]/ fkf k'Ug 5 lbg nfu]sf] lyof] . af6fdf klg To; a]nf lgs}
xG8/ vfOof] . To; a]nfsf] af6f]3f6f] h\unL hgfj/sf] t qf; g} x'GYof] . To;dfly cfGbf]ngsf/Ln]
e]6\nfg\ cyjf 8fFs'sf] lg;fgf algg] xf] eGg] klg xfd|f dgdf cft\s Tolt g} x'GYof] . To;}n] To;
a]nf b'Vvsi6eGbf klg cfgf] / cfgf nfnfafnfsf] s;/L Hofg hf]ufpg] < eGg] g} xfdLnfO{ lrGtf
lyof] . To; 38L xfdL ef]sef]s}h;f] fkf k'u]sf lyof}F .
d]/L ;f;"n] ;ft;fn] 36gfsf] a]nLla:tf/ nufO/x]sf] k|;\udf d}n] pxfFnfO{ km]l/ klg csf]{
k|Zg t]:of{PsL lyPF clg To;kl5 s] eof] cfdf, tkfO{+x To;} a]nfb]lv db]; d} a:g'eof] x}g <
d}n] pxfFsf ;dLkdf cfgf] pT;'stf JoQm u/]sL lyPF . cfGbf]ngdf nfu]sf lnDa"xn] klg dnfO{
db];d} lng k7fP . d]/f eflghx df]xgk|;fb d}gfnL / jneb| r'8fn-8Nn] efGhf_ dnfO{ lng fkf
cfP . la/fdL :ofxfg{ ;fOFnL cfdfnfO{ lnP/ cfpg" . oxfF la/fdLsf] lj:ofxf/ eof] . ;fOFnfp /
;fOFnL cfdfn] xfdLnfO{ ;w}F dfof klg ug'{ ePsf] 5 . xfdL pxfFnfO{ s]xL ub}{gf}F, g8/fOsg cfgf
3/df cfP/ Jojxf/ ug'{ eGg] lnDa"sf va/sf ;fy d]/f efGhfx fkfd} cfP . To;kl5 d 8/fpFb}
pgLx;Fu} xfkf kms]{+ . geGb} lnDa"xn] dnfO{ s]xL g/fd|f] klg u/]gg\ . To;}n] db];df ;w}F kfx'gf
nfu]/ d}n] a:g' klg k/]g . To; avt db];df xfd|f] 3/v]t sxfF lyof] / < xfd|f h]7fh' nK6g
b]jLk|;fb k|;fO{ -vg'k\?b] /fdafa" tyf ;Ls] k|;fO{sf a'jf_ sf] db];df /f;f]af;f] lyof] . kxf8af6
fkf k'Ubf xfdL pxfFs} sfdt 3/df a;]sf lyof}F . logL ;DkGg kl/jf/sL xfd|L a'xf/L x'g\, lognfO{
b'Vv gxf];\, lognfO{ dl;gf] rfdnsf] eft / ufO{sf] b"w g6'6fpg" dk|lt t pxfFn] a9f] :g]x u/]/
cfgf] sf/af/LnfO{ o:tf] cfb]z lbg'ePsf] lyof] . To; a]nf nK6g h]7fh'sf sf/af/Ldf k|d'vrflxF
j[x:klt k|;fO{ lyP . nK6g h]7fh'sf c klg sf/af/L lyP . vf]O lsg xf] s'lGg sf/af/Lxn] xfd|f]
ljifodf To; a]nf nK6g h]7fh'sf] cfb]z kfngf u/]gg\ . To;}n] ;w}F }F ToxfF h'/]sf] pxL af;Left

32
h:tf] x'g] df]6f rfdnsf] eft klg xfd|f nflu cxf]efUo }F ePsf] lyof] . cfgf 3/df vfO{ gvfO{
b"wbxL / dL7f]dl;gf]sf] ;Dgf ub}{ ToxfF /utsf cfF;' f/]/ xfdL eft vfGYof}F . 9fdf -d]/L
;f;"nfO{ pxfFsf 5f]/f5f]/Ln] ug]{ ;Daf]wg_ xfdLnfO{ lsg o:tf] eft lbPsf], xfd|f 3/df t xfdLn]
o:tf] eft slxNo} vfPsf lyPgf}F < d]/f] dfOnf] 5f]/f] kb\d/fhn] p;sf] yfndf kl:sPsf] df]6f]
rfdnsf] eft lgNg g;s]/ To; a]nf eg]sf] clxn] klg d ;DG5' . dfOnfsf tL s'/f e/v/}sf]
h:tf] nfu]/ d]/f] of] d'6'leq b'V5, ToxL 5f]/f]nfO{ To;} avt cf}nf]n] klg 5f]P5 / kxf8 kms]{kl5
@))( ;fndf ebf}sf] tLhsf] b/vfg] lbgd} pm laTof] . To;kl5 dnfO{ slxNo} tLh cfPg .
d]/L ;f;"n] To; a]nfsf] 36gfnfO{ lgSs} k|fyldstf lbO/xg'eof] . o;} qmddf pxfFn] km]l/
eGg'eof] a'of} dflg;nfO{ lbg nfUg slQ a]/ nfUbf] /x]g5 To; avt lnDa" cft\sn] xfdL
db]; a}tf nfluxfNof}F . xfdLn] xfd|f ePsf ;'g / k};f d]/L ;fOFnL cfdfh" xLdf d}gfnL / sfOFnL
cfdfh" nlIfdf r'8fnn] dfq b]Vg] 7fpFdf vf8n vg]/ k'/]/ pgLxs} lhDdf lbof}F . kl5 db];af6
kxf8 k'Ubf xfd|f c wgdfn ;a} n'6kf6df k/]sf] lyof] . xfd|f b'O{j6f 3/dWo] sf7}sf7n] agfPsf]
Pp6f 3/sf] vfFafxrflxF sfl6Psf klg lyP . t/ xfdLn] cfdfh"xsf lhDdf nufPsf ;DklQrflxF
h:tfsf] t:t} lyof] . Toltv]/ d]/f cfdfh"xn] tL ?lkofF k};f / ;'grfFbLsf] s;}nfO{ ;'OFsf];Dd klg
glbPsfn] xfdLn] kxf8 k'u]/ hf]uL x'g'k/]g . Tof] h]yf afFr]sfn] xfdLnfO{ To;kl5sf] Jojxf/ rnfpg
wf}wf} k/]g . d]/f b]j/h]7fh' ;a}sf] ;'grfFbL / k};f klg d]/f ltg} cfdfh"xn] g} ;+/If0f ul/lbPsf
lyP . ;fx|} gkfpgfsf gGb cfdfh" d}n] kfPsL lyPF . pgLxn] dnfO{ ;fx|} dfof uy]{, s7}a/L ca t
gGbcfdfh'sf] bafO klg afFsL 5}g . ;a} k/d]Zj/sf Kof/f eO;s] . ljutsf] sxfnL nfUbf] ;do
:d[ltdf ;FufNg' ePsL d]/L ;f;"n] To; a]nfsf c y'k|} s'/f klg dnfO{ eGg'eof] .

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf] wd{sd{


d]/f xh'/;;'/f gGbdl0f k|;fO{ cToGt wfld{s efjgf ePsf dflg; x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"n]
eGg'x'GYof] pxfFn] gnufPsf s'g} o1 g} lyPgg\ /] . xfkfsf] xfd|f] 3/af/Lsf] jNnf] 5]pb]lv kNnf]
5]p;Dd hxfF vg] klg v/fgL / tfdfsf k};f dfq} e]l6GYof] . d]/L ;f;" tLy{j|tsf s'/f rNbf a9f]
ltn:dL kf/fn] cfgf kltsf k'vf{sf] wfld{s cf:yf / sd{k|ltsf] uf}/jufyf ;'gfpg'x'G5 . xf] cfdfn]
eGg'ePsf] s'/f ;fFrf] xf], d}n] klg d]/f a'jfcfdfaf6 of] s'/f ;'g]sf] 5' u0f]zaxfb'/ k|;fO{n] klg o;
s'/fdf d]/L ;f;";Fu} ;xdlt hgfpg'ePsf] lyof] . clg s:tfs:tf k'/f0f nufpg'ePsf] lyof] t cfdf
xh'/sf xh'/;;'/fn] < d klg ca tL ufyfdf 8'Ag] dg;fodf k'U5' .
d]/f xh'/;;'/f gGbdl0f k|;fO{n] ;fgfltgf k'/f0f / o1 t slt / s'gs'g nufpg'eof] d]/L
;f;"n] sltko dnfO{ ;'gfpg'ePsf] eP klg clxn] dnfO{ x]Ssf /xg] s'/f klg ePg . pxfFn] Ps ;o
cf7cf]6f ufO{ bfg ug'{ePsf] lyof] /] . clt?b|ofu eGg] h;t;n] nufpg g;Sg] o1 klg pxfFn] g}
nufpg'ePsf] lyof] /] . kxf8L e]udf ls t Tof] k'/f0f nufpg]df gGbdl0f k|;fO{ s} gfpF rn]sf] lyof]
ls t aneb| l/hfn s} gfpF rn]sf] lyof] /] . d]/L ;f;"sf yk s'/f ;'g]/ d klg hfu?s x'G5' .
aneb| l/hfnn] clt?b|ofu nufPsf] k|;\u d}n] d]/L cfdf b'uf{b]jL g]kfnsf d'vaf6 yfxfkfO;s]sf]
s'/f lyof] . tL aneb| l/hfn eg]sf t d]/L cfdfsf xh'/a'jf x'g'x'GYof] lg cfdf d}n] klg d]/L
;f;"sf uj{df cfgf] dfOtLuj{ ld;fpg vf]h]sL lyPF . P xf] lj/f6gu/sf gfpF rn]sf
gf/fo0fk|;fb l/hfn / kl5 k|wfgdGqL x'g] gu]Gb|k|;fb l/hfn aneb|s} ;Gtfg x'g\ xf]Og < d]/L
;f;"n] cfgf] hfgsf/L k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] . xf], d]/L cfdfsf dfjnL x'g\ lg l/hfnx . d}n]
klg olt eg]/ of] k|;\u 5f]6\ofpg vf]h]sL lyPF .
gGbdl0f k|;fO{ cf7/fO{sf lgs} wgLdfgL dflg; x'g'x'GYof] eGg] s'/f d]/L ;f;"nfO{ e]6\g cfpg]
j[4hgxsf d'vaf6 klg d}n] ;'lgcfPsf] s'/f lyof] . cfdf, tkfO{+n] klg v'a} k'/f0f nufpg'ePsf]
s'/f tkfO{+sf 5f]/fn] eGg'x'G5 lg < d}n] g/]Gb|af6 ;'g]sf s'/fsf] k'li6 d]/L ;f;"af6 rfx]sL lyPF .
xf], d]/f ;f;" ;;'/fn] klg k'/f0fx nufO/xGy] / d}n] klg lgs} k'/f0f nufPsL 5', d}n] xfkfdf
x'Fbf klg k'/f0f nufPsL lyPF . otf ;fnaf/Ldf cfPkl5 klg k'/f0f nufPsL 5' . d}n] rf}df;f k'/f0f
klg nufPsL 5' . 5f]/fxn] sdfpg yfn]kl5 d]/f xftdf s]xL k};f xflNFbbf klg d To;af6 k"hf
cr{gf g} uy]{+ . wd{sf gfpFdf ca d}n] olt ug{ afFsL 5 eGg] klg 5}g . dlxgflbg;Dd cGg gvfP/
klg d j|t a;]sL 5' . d}n] cfgf] uR5]sf] tLy{j|t ;a} ul/;s]sL 5' . s7}a/L d]/f] bL3{/fh 5f]/f]
pm clxn] kf] ljk/Lt eof] t . t/ To;n] dnfO{ uofhL / agf/; klg k'ofPsf] 5 . d aflx/km]/

33
xf]6nsf] eft vfGg eg]/ d]/L ;fOFnL a'xf/Ln] To; a]nf u'g u/]sL 5], :6f]e / efF8fs'F8f af]sLaf]sL
7fpF7fpFdf cfk}m eft ksfP/ klg dnfO{ v'jfPsL 5 . clxn] ljlwn] To:t} kfof], dflg;sf] dltsf]
6'\uf] x'Fbf] /x]g5 . d]/L ;f;"n] k"j{:d[ltdf k'Ub} of] Joxf]/f klg dnfO{ ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] .
xfdLn] xfd|} 3/ 5]pdf lzjfnosf] dlGb/ klg agfof}F . ToxfF agfPsf] lzjfnodf lbgx'F
laxfga]n'sf k"hf u/fpg] kl/kf6L u/]sf lyof}F . To;afkt xfdL tLg kl/jf/n] cfrfo{ kl08tnfO{
hgxL jflif{s kfFrkfFr d'/L wfg lbg] uYof{} . d xfkf a;'Gh]n t h;/L klg lzjfnosf] k"hf cr{gf
u/fO/x]F . t/ d}n] xfkf 5f]8\g] lgwf] ugf{;fy d]/f h]7fgLx tNnf3/] s[i0fdfof / dfYnf3/]
efuL/yf;Fu ;Nnfx u/]/ sfa]nLsf] hf]uLnfO{ lzjhLsf] d"lt{ g} bfg ul/lbof}F . xfdLn] lzjsf] d"lt{
bfg u/]sf] Joxf]/fn] dnfO{ lrGtfn] ;tfof], Tof]eGbf 7"nf] s'/f xfdLn] k"hf/LnfO{ x/]s jif{ kGw| d'/L
wfg lbGYof}F . afx'gn] klg Tof] cGg lngaf6 jl~rt x'g'k/]sf] ddf a]Un} kL8f eof] .
csf]{ Ps lbgsf] enfs';f/Ldf d]/L ;f;"sf ux el/Psf] cfjfh cfPsf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"sf c
dd{sf s'/fnfO{ yfFtL /fv]/ To; a]nf d]/f dgdf lzjfnosf] k|;\un] pynk'yn dRrfPsf] lyof] .
d]/f ;;'/fxn] s'g pd\u / pT;fxsf ;fy pQm lzjfnosf] :yfkgf ug'{ePsf] lyof] xf]nf . t/
bf];|f] k':tfd} pQm lzjfno a]jfl/;] }F x'g k'Uof] . d]/L ;f;"n] lzjfnosf] s'/f u/]kl5 dnfO{ xfd|f]
sf7df8f}F, kf6g, eQmk'/df hxLFtxLF a]jf:tf ul/Psf y'k|} dlGb/xsf] ;Dgf eof] . casf lbgdf
dlGb/ agfpgsf] ;f6f] ag]sf dlGb/sf] lh0ff]{4f/df nfUg' g} ljj]sL sfo{ x'G5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfUof] .
Tolt a]nf jftfj/0f lgs} ef/Lh:tf] ePsf] lyof] . d klg d]/L ;f;";Fu ca k|;\u kl/jt{g
ug]{ ;f]rdf k'u]sL lyPF . t/ d}n] k|Zg} g;f]wL pxfFn] Pp6f dfld{s k|;\u k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] d]/f
klt la/fdL ePsf a]nf pxFfn] eGg'ePsf] lyof] d t ca p7\ltg xf]nf, bfh'efOsf k]6df wd{ x'Fb}g,
t}Fn] /fd|f] Jojxf/ ug"{ . pxfFnfO{ cfgf] clGtd a]nf cfPh:tf] nfu]5 Sof/ To;}n] pxfFn] dnfO{ To;
a]nf eGg'ePsf] lyof], luh] t}Fn] dlt lauf5]{;\ xf]nf, /fd|L 5];\, af7L 5];\, pd]/bf/} klg 5];\,
dflg;n] kmsfpF5g\ xf]nf . d]/f 5f]/f5f]/Ln] b'Vv kfpF5g\ xf]nf . l5=== tkfO{+n] lsg To:tf] g/fd|f]
s'/f ;f]Rg'ePsf] dxfTdf tkfO{+nfO{ lgsf] x'G5, s]xL u/L s'g} tnlatn kl/xfNof] eg] klg daf6
To:tf] e"n sbflk x'g] 5}g eg]/ d}n] d]/f klt;dIf jfrf g} u/]sL lyPF . d]/f kltn] ;f; hfg]
a]nfdf klg d]/f d'vdf 6'n'6'n' x]/]/ j// cfF;' v;fNg'eof] . tkfO{+n] s]xL s'/fsf] klg kL/ gug'{xf];\,
d ;a} Jojxf/ /fd|/L u5'{, d 5f]/f5f]/L x'sf{pF5', ;DklQ csf{n] vfP eg] klg d kfgL vfP/ eP klg
3/Jojxf/ u5'{, daf6 ljZjf;3ft x'g]5}g, e"n x'g]5}g, dxfTdf tkfO{+ :ju{ hfg'xf];\ . s7}a/L d}n]
olt eg]/ pxfFnfO{ labf lbFbf glbFb} pxfFsf] ;f; uof] . d}n] rfxFbf grfxFb} klg d]/L ;f;"n] el/Psf
uxn] k'gM cfgf] dd{ vf]Ng'ePsf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"sf j]bgfn] dnfO{ klg 5f]lk;s]sf] lyof], pxfFn] cfF;'
k'5\g yfn]kl5 d]/f] dg klg lgs} ef/L ePsf] lyof] . To;kl5 xfdLaLrsf] ;do df}g d} lat]sf]
lyof] . To; a]nf dnfO{ d]/L ;f;";Fu c s'/f ug{ dg nfu]g . csf]{ lbgsf nflu yk s]xL k|Zg yfFtL
/fv]/ d klg r'k nfu]sL lyPF .

cfdf xl/dfof -g\u|L lbbL_ klg xfd|} lbbL xf]Og < d}n] cfk"mn] yfxf kfO;s]sf] k|;\u klg
pxfFs} d'v/fljGbaf6 hLjGt kfg{ vf]h]sL lyPF . x'gt d]/L 5f]/L g} xf] pm klg, d}n] g} hGdfPsL eg]
xf]Og, kfn]sL 5f]/L xf] . vf;df pm n6f}nfsL 5f]/L xf] . p;nfO{ d}n] g} dfofn] g\u|L gfpF /fv]sL x'F .
cn] clxn] g\u|L eGof] eg] l/;fpF5] . To;sf xftuf]8f g\u|fh:tf lyP . d]/f] clnk/sL
gftfs'6'Das} 5f]/L xf] Tof] . cfdfafa' afnv}df d/]kl5 cgfy ePsL To;n] lgs} b'Vv kfPsf] yfxf
kfPkl5 d cfk}m d]/f] dfOtL ufFpdf uP/ To;nfO{ lnP/ cfPsL x'F . d}n] lnP/ cfFpbf To;sf] cj:yf
a]xfn lyof] . dlxgf}Fb]lv gg'xfPsf] sf/0f p;sf 6fpsfdf h'd|}h'd|f, z/L/el/ d}nfsf] sTn}sTnf
lyof] . Tolt a]nf g\u|L lh\lu|\u} k/]sL lyO{ . d}n] d]/f 3/df NofP/ tftf]kfgL ttfP/ g'jfO{w'jfO{
u/]kl5 p;nfO{ cfk}m;Fu uf]8fd'lg ;'tfpFg yfn]F . cGg klg eg]hlt vfg gkfPsL g\u|L klxn] af]Ng
klg ;lQmgyL . clg cfFt x/x/ ePsL To; s]6LnfO{ d}n] klg k]6el/ v'jfpg yfn]F . pleg klg
g;Sg] g\u|L kl5 t alnO klg eO{ / dnfO{ g} dgUu] sfd klg ;3fpg yfnL . d]/f] g/]Gb|] / sfG5f]
5f]/f]nfO{ To;}n] x'sf{PsL xf] . d}n] klg cfk"mn] hGdfPsL 5f]/LnfO{ eGbf klg To;nfO{ a9L dfof uy]{+ .
d}n] g\u|LnfO{ a9L dfof u/]F eg]/ d]/L 5f]/Ln] g\u|LnfO{ dg klg k/fpFlbgyL . g\u|L !% jif{ k'u]kl5
d}n] g} d]/L cfdfh"sf] 5f]/f];Fu p;sf] sGofbfg ul/lbPF . plxn] t p;sL ;f;"n] p;nfO{ lgs} b'Vv
lbPsL lyOg\ . pm #)#% jif{ k'Ubfgk'Ub} p;sf kltsf] klg lgwg eof] . To;kl5 p;n] g} b'Vv
kfO{ . t/ clxn] t p;nfO{ b'O6} 5f]/fxn] /fd|f] u/]sf 5g\ eG5] . slxn]sfxLF dnfO{ e]6\g oxfF klg
cfpF5] .
jf:tjdf d]/L ;f;" :jod\df Pp6f tLy{ g} x'g'x'G5 . pbf/tf pxfFsf] k|d'v u'0f xf] eg]
:g]xzLntfdf klg pxfF cu|0fL x'g'x'G5 .

34
d]/L ;f;"sf] ;f]v / ;Lk
d]/L ;f;" Pp6L ;sf/fTds r]tsL wgL x'g'x'G5 . s;}k|ltsf] O{iof{, l/; / 8fxf ug]{ k|j[lQsf]
pxfF lj/f]wL x''g'x'G5 . s;}nfO{ s]xL lbg kfpFbf pxfF dVv kg'{x'G5 . ;fy} 3/df kfx'gf cfpFbf klg
pxfFnfO{ /dfOnf] nfU5 . xfF;v]n ug]{, hg;Dks{ ug{ ?rfpg], uLt ufpg] / gfRg] pxfFsf ljz]if ;f]v
dflgG5g\ . pxfFf/f k|foM uLt ufO/xg] u/]sf] klg d}n] ;'g]sL 5' . pxfF dL7f] :j/ nx/Ldf uLt ufpg]
ug'{x'G5 . pxfFn] ufpg] u/]sf s]xL gd'gf uLt klg dnfO{ Gg} s07 }F ePsf 5g\ . 6'qm] dd{e]bL
uLt pxfFnfO{ slQ cfFp5g\ o;} eGg ;lsGg . t/ uLtsf u]8fdfq} xf]Og efvf;d]t xfn]/ ufpg]
pxfFsf] ;f]v xf] . pxfFnfO{ pxfFsf ;dosf] df?gL, ;FlugL uLt ahfOlbg] xf] eg] Ps7fFpdf a;fpg
;lsGg, lsgeg] tL uLtsf] efsfdf pxfF gfRg yflnxfNg'x'G5 . 5f]/f s~rgh\3fsf] lax]df klg pxfF
w'dwfd} gfRg'eof] . pxfFn] s:tf] gfRg ;s]sf] gAa] jif{ gfl3;s]sL j[4fsf] gfRg] hf];, hfFu/,
pd\u / pT;fx b]v]/ ;a} hgf crDd dfG5g\ . vf; u/]/ pxfFn] u'gu'gfO/xg] k|d'v uLtx oL x'g\M

k6'sL k'mSof] lhp d]/f] ;'Sof] dfofn] u/bf


x] cfdf dnfO{ hGdfof} lsg ;'v}df k/bf <

df}/L x} 3'D5 /;}sf nflu d 3'D5' dfofn]
Psf]xf]/f] dfof s] dnfO{ dfq} bf]xf]/f] ePg .

x] gfgL ltdL t kx]nL kftnL bGt}df nfpg] la/L
cfgf / hLpsf] ;Dxf/ u/] x} cfpb}g hf]jg km]l/ .

x] ;Lt] h;/L la5f]8 u/fOlbof} xfdL b'j}sf] klg
t:t} /fd ltdLnfO{ ule{0fL 5bf Tofunfg\ cjZo} klg .

psfnLdf hfbf hfbf b]p/fnLdf k'U5
g/f]pm g/f]pm sfG5L gfgL skfn ltd|} b'V5 .

bf}/f kmfl6uof] t 5}g k6'sL, 6f]kL k'/fgf] eof]
afx'gsf 5f]/fnfO{ t 5f]/L lbg'eof] zfvf tkfO{+s} /Xof] .

psfnLsf] /ftf] df6f] t?n}sf] y'Dsf]
dfof nfU5 gGb] efOsf] Nsf] nfU5 pGsf] .

af?nf hqf] sDd/ 5}g km;L{ hqf] rfs 5
cfdfafa' h] ;'s} eg"g\ kf]Osf] dfof nfU5 .

cfsf;}sf] 3}nf] d}nf] afbn'n] xf] ls
h]7LeGbf sfG5L /fd|L ufhn'n] xf] ls

;fx|} k|]d u/L a;'nf eg]y] a}u'gL 5g\ tL /fd klg
x] /fIf; t t slt af]Nb5;\ b'jf{Ro as\as\ u/L .

Onfdsf] l;nfd kfsk's] tf]/L t]n cfp5 t'??
;u}sf] ;fyL b]zsf6L uof] dg ?G5 w'?? .

d]/L ;f;"nfO{ w]/} Znf]s / uLtsf 6'qmfx s07fu| 5g\ . lg/If/ pxfFn] oL ;a}h;f] uLtsf
u]8fx pxfFsf klt hok|;fb k|;fO{n] ufpg'ePsf a]nf ;'g]/, sltko rflxF ;Fu;Fu} ufP/ hfGg'ePsf]
xf] . pxfFnfO{ t slt cfpFYof] slt, xfdL b'O{ slxn]sfxLF t /fte/ g} hfuf x'GYof}F . pxfF xfdf]{lgod
ahfP/ uLt ufpg'x'GYof] . pxfF slxn] d'/nL ahfpg'x'GYof] / d ToxL d'/nLsf] efsfdf ufpFy]F . ===d

35
:j:yfgLsf] j|t a:y]F / pxfFrflxF :j:yfgLsf] syf eGg'x'GYof] . pxfFn] h:tf] ldnfP/ :j:yfgLsf] syf
s;}n] eG5g\ h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g . pxfFnfO{ uLt;\uLtsf] rflxF 7"nf] ;f]v lyof] . d]/f 5f]/fx klg
uLt ufpFg vf]H5g\ t/ a'jfrflxFsf] h:tf] unf s;}sf] 5}g pxfFsf 5f]/f g/]Gb|n] uLt ufpFg vf]Hbf
cf]7 n]AofP/ d]/L ;f;" xfF:b} eGg'x'G5 . d]/L ;f;" cfk"mn] klt;Fu latfPsf] ljutsf] k"j{:d[lt d]/f
cufl8 k|:t't ug'{x'G5 .
uLt / gfrs} k|;\udf Pslbg d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof], slxn]sfxLF d]/f a"9fn]
cfOh g tF klg :j/ ld;f eg]/ dnfO{ af]nfpg'x'GYof] / d klg ufpFy]F . xfd|f] h:tf] dfofk|Llt === s]
ug'{ O{Zj/n] g} ;x]gg\ , slt rfF8} hfg'eof] . d klxn] d/]F eg] tFnfO{ af]nfpF5', tF klxn] dl/;\ eg]
dnfO{ af]nf x} eg]/ xfdLn] jfrf klg u/]sf lyof}F . cfk"mn] eg]/ x'Fbf] /x]g5 . pxfF lat]sf] klg krf;
jif{ k'Ug nflu;Sof] . lk|otdsf] lj/x j]bgfsf] nfdf] v'Oo sf9\b} pxfFn] eg]sf sygdf d]/f] efjgf
klg ljXjlnt x'g] uYof{] . of] dg]{ afFRg] eg]sf] klg b}jsf] nLnf dfq} /x]5 . d5'{ eg]/ dl/Fb}g /x]5,
;f; eg]sf] klg 8f]/L xf]Og /x]5, hltv]/ dg nfUof] r6\6 r'F8fpg kfOg] km]l/ klg d]/L ;f;"
dd{e]bL hLjgufyf ;'gfpFb} hfg'x'G5 .
dnfO{ nfU5, dflg;n] hLjg a'g Psn j[4j[4fsf] ;\ut ug}{ kg]{ /x]5 . d]/L ;f;";Fu d
o;/L ;Fu} ga;]sf] eP d}n] ;fob hLjgsf] ;f:jttf g} a'g] lyOgF . o; cy{df dnfO{ d]/L ;f;" d]/f
nflu hLjg1fgsf] dxjk"0f{ k':ts x'g'x'G5 h:tf] nfU5 . ;xof]uL, pksf/L / wfld{s efjgfn]
cf]tk|f]t d]/L ;f;"sf x/]s lqmofsnfksf] Jofjxfl/s / ;}4flGts kIf;Fu d}n] klg k|ToIf ;/f]sf/
ufF:t} cfPsL 5' . pxfFsf x/]s v';Ldf d}n] d]/f] klg v';L hf]8\g k|of; u/]sL 5' . d]/L ;f;"nfO{ c}
klg hLjgk|ltsf] pT;fx ck/Dkf/ 5 . To;}n] pxfFsf cufl8 uLt ahfOlbof] eg] pxfF gfRg
yflnxfNg'x'G5M
sfnf] 7]sL gf/fg sfnL sf7sf]
/ftf] 7]sL bf/sf]
hLjg cfp5 3'Db} lkmb}{
hf]jg Ps af/sf]===

d]/L ;f;" Ps}l5g klg To;} ljgfsfd a:g g;Sg] k|j[lQsL x'g'x'G5 . o; pd]/df klg pxfF
efG;fdf ;d]t k;]/ d}n] s] sfd ;3fpg'k5{ eg]/ cl3 ;g'{x'G5 . km;L{sf d'G6f cyjf ;fuhGo
s'g} xft}n] dfq s]nfpg ldNg] xl/of] t/sf/L pxfFsf cl3 /flvlbof] eg] pxfF s]nfpg pBt x'g'x'G5 .
;fy} k|foM pxfF aftL sflt/xg] ug'{x'G5 .
xfd|f] 3/sf] t];|f] tnfdf d]/L ;f;"sf] a}7s 5 . pxfF cfgf] a}7sdf al;/xg'ePsf a]nf xfd|f]
3/ aflx/L 9f]sfsf] 306L aHof] eg] pxfF rgfvf] eP/ aflx/lt/ cfFvf k'ofpg'x'G5 . Tolt a]nf
d"nb}nf] vf]Ng] sf]xL ToxfF k'Ug ca]/ u/] eg] pxfF cfk}m eof\ cf]n]{/ cfFug gf3]/ ;/f;/ b}nf] p3fg{
k'Ug'x'G5 . o; pd]/df pxfFdf ePsf] Tof] hf];hfFu/ b]Vbf 3/df cfPsf kfx'gf klg 5Ss k5{g\ .
o:tL k'mlt{nL dflg; cfgf] pd]/df s:tL x'g'x'GYof] xf]nf < ;|i6f zfGtf >]i7 -;f+;b_n] xfd|f 3/df
cfPlkR5] af]Ng] jfSo xf] of] . ;fy} ;a}sf] dgdf pAhg] k|Zg klg xf] of] . d t Ps}l5g klg xft
vfnL /fv]/ al:bgy]F, d]/L ;f;" / h]7fh'n] klg d]/f] sfdwGwf / ;Lk b]v]/ dnfO{ c;fWo} ;x|fxgf
uy]{ . hlt;'s} kfx'gf cfP klg ltgnfO{ ksfO{ v'jfpg d cflQGgy]F . To;}n] 5'6\l6;s]sf dfOnf
h]7fh'sf 3/df klg w]/} kfx'gf cfP eg] h]7fh' cfk}m dnfO{ af]nfpg d]/f 3/df cfpg'x'GYof], ;fOFnL,
lxF8lxF8, ltdLn] h:tf] kl/kf7 ug{ d]/f 3/sfn] ;Qm}gg\, OHht /flvb]pm eGg'x'GYof] . clg d klg
cfgf 3/sf] sfd} 5f]8]/ pxfFsf 3/sf] sfd ;3fpg k'Uy]F . d]/L ;f;" ulj{nf] efsfdf cfgf s'/f
;'gfpg'x'GYof] .
xfd|L cfdfnfO{ slxNo} vfnL xft d}n] b]v]s} 5}g, kxf8df klg pxfF c ;a} sfd wGwf ;s]/
lbgel/ u'Gb|L, uh/f / rs]6L a'Gg'x'GYof] . pxfF fkfdf klg ;fx|} v6\g'x'GYof] . 3/leq / v]tLkftL x]g]{
sfd d]/L cfdfsf] g} x'GYof] . g/]Gb|n] af/Daf/ cfgL cfdfsf] ;Lksf] k"j{:d[lt dnfO{ ;'gfpg'x'GYof] .
d]/L ;f;";Fu d]/f] ;Dks{ gx'Gh]n dnfO{ g/]Gb|n] cfgL cfdfsf] cltzof]lQm u/]}F nfUYof] . t/
hlxn]b]lv d]/L ;f;"sf] d;Fu ;fxro{ eof] dnfO{ g/]Gb|f/f cfdfsf] j0f{g ul/Psf] yf]/}h:tf] nfUof] .
cfdf, pd]/df s]s] sfd ug'{x'GYof] < c s'g sfd ug{ cfdfnfO{ w]/} dg kYof]{ < d}n] d]/L
;f;";Fu Pslbg pxfFsf] ;Lk / ;f]vsf af/] hfGg] p2]Zon] of] k|Zg ;f]w]sL lyPF . s] sfd ul/PgF / <
3/ agfpg 9'\uf af]lsPgF ls < wfgsf] aLp af]lsPgF ls < wfg /f]lkPgF ls < wfg uf]l8PgF ls <
kxf8sf a'xf/L ls db];sf uf]? eGg] pvfg} lyPg t 3/df cfOk/]sf h'g;'s} sfd klg a'xf/Ln] g}
ug'{kYof]{ . Psk6s xfkfsf] d]/f] 3/ agfpFbfsf] s'/f ;DG5' . dnfO{ / d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL
ltnkfnfO{ 3/ agfpg] 9'\uf af]sfOPsf] lyof] . To;} a]nf sf]xL kfx'gf 3/df cfOk'u]sf] lyof] .

36
xfdLn] 9'\uf af]s]sf] b]v]/ To; kfx'gfn] oL sf] s]6L x'g\ < eg]/ ;f]w]5g\, oL xfd|f 3/df sfd ug{
/fv]sf s]6L x'g\ . To;} avt d]/f dfOnf h]7fh' j]0f'k|;fb k|;fO{n] hjfkm kmsf{pg'ePsf] lyof] .
clxn]sf sfd ug{ /fv]sf dflg;eGbf klg xfd|f] xfnt g/fd|f] x'GYof] . n'ufkmf6f klg xfdLnfO{
xQkQ xflNbb}gy], t} dnfO{ t dxfhgsL 5f]/L eg]/ 8/n] o;f] n'ufkmf6f klg le/fOlbGy] . t/ d]/L
dfOnL h]7fgL ltnkfsf dfOtL Toltv]/ Tolt x'g]vfg] gePsf x'Fbf pgnfO{ ;fx|} b'Vv lbOPsf]
lyof] . 3/af6 lbPsf sk8fn] pgnfO{ OHht 9fSg klg ufx|f] lyof] . To; avtsf dflg; ck/fwL kf]
x'Gy] t a'of} s7}a/L d]/L dfOnL h]7fgL ;'vsf Ps lbg klg glatfO{ k/nf]s uOg\ . nK6gL
h]7fgL -nK6g b]jLk|;fb k|;fO{sL kTgL ?b|s'df/L k|;fO{_ / d klg v'a} ldNYof}F . nK6gL h]7fgL / d
k|foM 3fF; sf6\g, v/ af]Sg / bfp/f af]Sg ;Fu} hfGYof}F . pxfF klg ;fx}| ;f]L x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"
ca dg k/]sL cfgL h]7fgL osf] ;Dgfn] el/g'ePsf] lyof] .

cfdf, tkfO{+n] ksfPsf vfg]s'/f ;fx|} dL7f x'Gy] eGg'x'G5 lg tkfO{+sf] 5f]/f]n] < d}n] d]/L
;f;"sf] dfgl;stfnfO{ kl/jt{g ug]{ clek|fon] k|;\u km]/]sL lyPF . xf], lg d}n] ksfPsf] vfg]s'/f
dL7f x'Gy] eGy] ;a}n] . 5f]/f5f]/Ln] ;]n/f]6L vfg dg nfUof] eg] eg] d t'?Gt} rfdn lehfP/
l;nf}6fdf n;n;L lk;]/ klg ksfP/ VjfOxfNy]F . d]/L ;f;" cfgf] ;Lkk|;\u ;'gfpg] qmddf
pT;flxt x''g'x'G5 .

cfdf clg df;' klg ksfpg'x'GYof] xf]nf lg < d}n] yk k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . lsg gksfpg' / <
v;Lsf] df;' t ksfpg] g} ePF . d}n] cfk"mn] hGd} gvfPsf] s'v'/fsf] df;' klg 5f]/f5f]/Ln] dL7f] dfGy],
/ s'v'/fsf] df;' klg ksfP/ 5f]/fxnfO{ v'jfPsL 5' . ;Gtfgsf OR5fsf cl3 's]sf] dft[Tjsf]
;\lIfKt ljj/0f d}n] d]/L ;f;"sf d'vaf6 ;'g]sL lyPF . cfdfn] v;Lsf] df;' dfq} vfg'ePsf] 5 <
d]/f] pT;'stf hfu]sf] lyof] . vfg t d}n] sflnhsf] df;' klg vfPsL 5', t/ sflnh ;w}F kfOFb}gYof] .
To;}n] w]/}h;f] v;Lsf] df;' / k/]jf vfGYof}F xfdL . nf]Ug] afFr'Gh]n df5f klg v'a} vfof}F xfdLn] .
ltdLxsf a'jfnfO{ w]/} dg kg]{ ePsfn] pxfF v;]kl5 d}n] df5f r9fPF . pxfFn] ljj/0f ;'gfpg'ePsf]
lyof] . jf:tjdf d d]/L ;f;"sf] ;Lksf af/] ;'Gg pT;'s eP/ k|Zgsf] p7fg u/]sL lyPF t/ clxn]
d]/f] k|Zg g} a/flnP/ cGt} k'Ug nfu]sf] lyof] . To;}n] d}n] ca cfk"mnfO{ d]/L ;f;"sf] ;Lks}
;]/f]km]/f]df kfg]{ lg0f{o u/]sL lyPF .

cfdf, l;nfOa'gfO klg cfpFYof] tkfO{+nfO{ < d}n] k|Zg /f]k]sL lyPF . ;fwf/0f n'ufsk8f
kmf6]sf] l;pg] uy]{+ lg, l;/s 8;gf xfdL cfk}m vfKYof}F . kf]t] ;fl/GYof] . kxf8sf dfG5] xfdLn]
b'gf6k/L gufF;L ;'Vv} lyPg . clg k/fnsf lk/f, uh/f / u'Gb|L d lgs} a'Gy]F . k'm;{t ePkl5 dnfO{
vfnL xft a:g dg nfUb}gYof] . ufpF 8'n]/ gfgfjnL s'/f ub}{ lxF8\g'eGbf a? d 3/d} uh/f / u'Gb|L
a'g]/ lbg latfpg dg k/fpFy]F . xfd|L nK6gL h]7fgL ?b|s'df/L klg uh/f u'Gb|L a'Gg lgSs} l;kfn'
x'g'x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"n] d}n] rfx]sf]eGbf klg w]/} hjfkm lbg'ePsf] lyof] .

To;df klg s]6fs]6L ;fgf x'Gh]n s]n] Eofpg' / . a? ufpFel/sf b"w gk'Ug] s]6fs]6LnfO{ d
cfgf] b"w r';fpFy]F . d]/f 5f]/f5f]/Ln] d]/f] b"w r';]/ ;Sb}gy] . d]/L ;f;"n] lgs} pT;fxL eP/
eGg'ePsf] lyof] . ufpFel/sf b"w gk'u]sf lzz'xnfO{ d]/L ;f;"n] b"w r';fpg'ePsf] k|;\un] dnfO{
jt{dfgdf lzz'xn] cfdfsf] b"w vfg gkfPsf] ;dfrf/;Dd NofOk'ofof] . lxhf]cfh klg d]/L ;f;"n]
ufpFel/sf lzz'xnfO{ b"w r';fPh:t} b"w k|z:t cfpg] cfdfxaf6 b"w vfg gkfPsf lzz'xsf
nflu b"wsf] aGbf]a:t ug]{ nIosf s'/f ;'lgg yfn]sf] 5 . cfdfsf] b"w lzz'sf nflu cd[t;dfg
dflgG5 / :tgkfg ;Ktfx clg :tgkfg Snasf] cjwf/0ff;d]t ;'lgg yfn]sf] s'/f klg dnfO{
;Dgf eof] . b"wfn' cfdfxn] b"w gcfpg] / cfdf c;dod} u'dfpg k'u]sf lzz'xnfO{ d]/L ;f;"n]
h:t} cfgf] b"w v'jfpg'eGbf 7"nf] wd{ s] xf]nf / d]/L ;f;"sf] k/f]ksf/L :jefjk|lt dnfO{ klg
uj{ nfUof] .

d]/L ;f;"sf ;Lksf s'/f ug]{ qmddf ljifoeGbf lgs} 6f9f k'u]F sL eg]/ d cln ;ts{ klg x'Fb}
lyPF . pxfFdf ePsf] snfsfl/tf klg d lgs} pRrsf]l6sf] kfpF5' . pxfFnfO{ gfRg] ufpFg] ;f]v t 5Fb}
5 ;fy;fy} pxfFnfO{ gSsn ug{ -Sofl/s]r/ ug{_ klg v'a} cfpF5 . /]l8of] vf]n]/ ;dfrf/ / uLt ;'Gg'
pxfFsf] lgs} dg kg}{ ;f]v xf] . clg ;dfrf/ ;'g]kl5 To;df s'g} b'3{6gf k/]sf] va/ cfof] eg]
To;sf] kL/df lkl/g klg pxfF kl5 kg'{x'Gg eg] /dfOnf s'/f ;'g]/ /dfpg klg pxfF cl3 ;g'{x'G5 .

37
cfgf dflg;xsf] :jefjcg';f/sf] pkgfd /fVg] snfdf klg pxfF lgs} cl3 x'g'x'G5 . cfg}
5f]/fxsf] klg pxfFn] ljleGg pkgfpF /fVg'ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] JolQm ljz]ifsf] gSsn u/]/ b]vfpFbf
xfdL ;a}nfO{ v'a} dgf]/~hg x'g] u5{ .
d]/L ;f;"sf] dxjk"0f{ ;f]vsf kdf au}Frfsf] lgdf{0f klg Ps xf] . pxfFn] xfkfsf] pxfFsf]
af/Ldf Ps;o Ps k|sf/sf k"mnx /f]Kg'ePsf] lyof] . ;fy} pxfFn] fkfsf] ;fnaf/Ldf /f]k]sf gl/jn,
;'kf/L, cfFk, lnrL, s]/fh:tf kmnxsf] af]6af6 lxhf]cfh ;fgf]ltgf] kl/jf/ kfNg ;lsg] cfocfh{g
g} x'g yfln;s]sf] 5 . pxfFn] nufpg'ePsf] ;fnaf/Lsf] au}Frfdf kfgsf] nx/fb]lv dl/rsf] nx/f;Dd
klg 5g\ .

))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;" / g/]Gb|sf] syf


d}n] ;'?d} n]lv;s]sL 5' d]/L ;f;"sf] syfnfO{ d}n] hLjGt kfg'{kg]{ xf] . To;}n] o; a]nf d
pxfFsf] syfk|lt slt OdfGbf/ / ;xh kdf k|:t't x'g ;S5' eGg] s'/fn] d]/f] k/LIff lnPh:t}
eO/x]5 . cfdf, tkfO{+sf ;ft hgf 5f]/f 5f]/Ldf tkfO{+nfO{ s:sf] dfof a9L nfU5 < k|;\u
kl/jt{g ub}{ d}n] pxfFnfO{ ;f]w]sL lyPF . d]/f] stfstf bf]xf]l/Psf] / clxn] l5lK5kfpFbf] ablnPsf] k|Zg
;'g]kl5 pxfFsf] cg'xf/sf] efj cfsfzdf d8fl/Psf] sfnf] afbn klG5P/ crfgs 3fd nfu]h:t}
ePsf] lyof] . cyf{t\ d]/f] k|Zg ;'g]/ pxfF s]xL d':s'/fpg'eof] . ltdLn] klg s] ;f]w]sL] xf}nL, z/L/sf
;a} c\usf] plQ dfof ePh:t} xf] lg cfk"mn] Hofgsf] afhL nufP/ hGdfPsf ;Gtfg, slt b'Mv
si6 u/]/ x'sf{Psf 5f]/f5f]/L ;a}sf] dfof nfU5 lg ltdLnfO{ klg t cfgf ;a} ;Gtfgsf] plQ g}
dfof nfUb}g / <
d]/L ;f;" o; pd]/df cfOk'Ubf klg lgSs} sl:;P/ s'/f ug'{x'G5 . pxfFsf ;Gtfgsf af/] d}n]
s'/f lgsfNbf To; a]nf lgs} pT;fxL eP/ pxfFn] dnfO{ ;d]t k|Zgsf] e'd/Ldf kfg'{ePsf] lyof] .
To;}n] d}n] km]l/ PskN6 pxfFnfO{ ;f]w]sL lyPF xf]Og cfdf ToxL klg, o;sf] cln w]/} dfof nfU5
eGg] x'Gg / < d}n] klg c} k'/fg} k|Zgdf cl8P/ d]/L ;f;"nfO{ yk k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . d]/f] dfOnf]
5f]/f] kb\d/fh k|;fO{ afx| jif{sf] ePkl5 cf}nf] nfu]/ dof] . Tof] 5f]/f] ;fx}| 1fgL lyof] . p;n] dnfO{
klg w]/} dfof uYof]{ . nK6g h]7fh' b]jLk|;fb k|;fO{n] klg p;sf] a'l4sf] k|z+;f ul//xg'x'GYof] . p;n]
;fg}df w]/} 1fg hfg]sf] lyof] . cfk"m;Fu g/x]/ xf]nf d ToxL 5f]/fnfO{ af/Daf/ ;lD/xG5' . Toltv]/
d]/L ;f;" lgs} b'MvL eP/ af]Ng'ePsf] lyof] . To;f] eP d/]sf] 5f]/f]sf] dfq} dfof nfU5 cfdfnfO{,
afFr]sf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] dfof nfUb}g < cfgf] n]vsLo uGtJo dfq a'g] n]vs eP/ To; avt d}n]
cfdfsf] kL8fn] el/Psf] cfjfh;Fu ;/f]sf/ g/fv]}F+ u/L pxfFs} kL8fdf yk ulxl/g vf]h]sL lyPF .
To;f] xf]Og, afFr]sf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] klg dfof lsg gnfUg' lg t/ Tof] dfOnf] 5f]/f] c;dodf g}
laTof] . Tof] lat]kl5 d lbg/ft /f]O/xGy]F . To;} avt Ps /ft Pp6f ;kgf b]v]F, d]/f] dfOnf] Pp6f
le/sf] 6'Kkfsf] ce/k/]sf] 9'\ufdf cK7]/f] u/L a;]sf] /x]5 . dfOnf lsg o:tf] cK7]/f]df al;;\ <
eg]/ d}n] p;nfO{ ;f]w]5', cfdf, d sxfF hfpmF < d}n] sxLF hfg] af6f] kfOgF p;n] ?~r] cg'xf/
kf/]/ dnfO{ eGof] . n, d]/f a'Odf cfOh . eg]/ d}n] p;nfO{ cfgf] 8F8]Ng'df af]s]F . d}n] To:tf]
;kgf b]v]sf] b; dlxgfdf d]/f] cGt/] 5f]/f]sf kdf g/]Gb| hGDof] . d]/f ;kgfsf lx;fadf d]/f nflu
g/]Gb| g} d]/f] dfOnf] 5f]/f]sf] k'gh{Gd xf] . To;}n] d]/f nflu t of] g/]Gb| g} cfF;' k'5fpg] 5f]/f] xf] .
To;}n] dnfO{ of] g/]Gb|sf] bf]xf]/f] dfof nfU5 . x'g klg o;sf w]/h;f] afgLJoxf]/f klg ToxL d]/f]
dfOnf];Fu} ldN5 . ;f;"n] cfgf] kL8fsf] bxdf rf]kn]/ lgsfn]sf] kL8fn] g} lgy'|Ss leh]sf] cfjfh
dnfO{ ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] .

a'of}, d]/f] t of] bf];|f] hGd xf] lg g/]Gb|n] dnfO{ k6sk6s eg]sf] of] s'/f d}n] gkTofP/
p8fOlbGy]F . g/]Gb|sf] cln 76\6f ug]{ klg afgL ePsfn] d}n] pxfFn] eg]sf] Tof] s'/fnfO{ klg 76\6}df
bh]{sL lyPF . t/ d]/L ;f;"sf d'vaf6 klg ToxL s'/f oyfy{sf kdf cfpFbf d}n] k'gM g/]Gb|n] ljutdf
dnfO{ eg]sf s'/f g} ;lD/x]F . cfdf, tkfO{+n] dfq} g/]Gb|nfO{ dfof ug'{x'G5 ls pxfFn] klg tkfO{+nfO{
dfof ug'{x'G5 < d}n] g/]Gb|sf] cfdfk|ltsf] ;TotYo d]/L ;f;"s} d'vaf6 ;'Gg vf]h]sL lyPF . jf:tjdf
g/]Gb|n] e't'Ss eP/ cfdfnfO{ dfof u/]sf] s'/f d]/f nflu gf}nf] xf]Og . t/ klg d]/L ;f;"s} d'vaf6
d}n] To; s'/fsf] ;xL5fk vf]lh/x]sL lyPF . x'g klg g/]Gb|;Fu kl/ro gx'Gh]n 5f]/fn] klg cfdfnfO{
olt dfof u5{g\ eGg] oyfy{;Fu d]/f] kl/ro lyPg .

38
5f]/fsf] hft cToGt :jfyL{ x'G5 . k|ydtM Tof] hftn] dfof ug{ g} hfGb}g / hfg] klg cfgf]
:jfy{ l;l4df a9L nfnlot x'G5 . h;n] ubf{ lax] u/]kl5 p;n] cfgL :jf:gLnfO{ hlt cfdfafa'nfO{
dfof ub}{g eGg] dnfO{ nfUYof] . t/ g/]Gb|sf] cfgL cfdfk|ltsf] dfofn] ubf{ d}n] k'?if hftk|lts}
cfgf] wf/0ffdf kl/jt{g ug'{k/]sf] 5 .
cfdf 5f]/fsf dfofsf ;Gbe{sf] d]/f] k|Zgdf d]/L ;f;"sf] pQ/ cfPsf] lyof] g/]Gb|n] klg dnfO{
w'dwfd dfof u5{, o;n] ;'?b]lv g} cfdf lrGof] . o;n] clxn];Dd klg laxfg p7\gf;fy d]/f] v'6\6f
g9f]uL kfgL klg vfFb}g . s]6fs]6Lb]lv g} of] d]/f] cf1fsf/L 5f]/f] lyof] . ;f;"n] g/]Gb|sf] dft[elQmsf]
avfg ug'{ klg d]/f nflu gf}nf] s'/f lyPg . lsgeg] g/]Gb|sf d'6'sf x/]s w8\sgdf gf/L hfltk|ltsf]
;Ddfg w8\lsg] u5{ . To;dfly pxfF cfdfsf k/deSt x'g'x'G5 . dnfO{ yfxf 5 pxfFsf] ljZj g}
pxfFsL cfdf x'g'x'G5 . pxfFn] cfgL] cfdfsf af/] n]Vg' klg ePsf] 5 . pxfFn] cfgf s[ltdf cfdfsf]
kmf]6f] klg /fVg'ePsf] 5 / s]xL s[ltx ;;Ddfg cfdfnfO{ g} ;dk{0f klg ug'{ePsf] 5 . l;4fGtdf
dfq pxfFn] cfdfsf] ;]jf ug'{ePsf] xf]Og, Jojxf/df klg pxfF cfdf;Fu lgln{Kt x'g'x'G5 . 3/df a;]sf]
a]nf xf];\ of 3/ aflx/ uPsf] a]nf xf];\ pxfF cfdfsf] x/]s s'/fdf Vofn ul//xg'x'G5 . jf:tjdf pxfF
t cfdfsf] eStsf] klg Pp6f b'n{e gd'gf g} x'g'x'G5 .

cfdf tkfO{+nfO{ klx/f]n] klg lsr]sf] /] xf] < d}n] g/]Gb|af6 ;'g]sf] 36gf d]/L ;f;"s} d'vaf6
;'Gg] dgf;on] km]l/ csf]{ k|Zg klg u/]sL lyPF . xf] t lg oxL g/]Gb| k]6df ;ft dlxgfsf] x'Fbf
eLds'df/L ljli6gL -sfG5f eflgh lbnaxfb'/ lji6sL h]7L kTgL_ / ufFpsf c cfOdfO{;Fu 3/ lnKg]
/ftf]df6f] vGg eg]/ d klg uPsL lyPF . df6f] vGg] 7fFp Gg}Gg} cf]8f/}h:tf] eO;s]sf] lyof] .
df6f] vGb} leq k'u]kl5 crfgs dflyaf6 l9:sf] /]/ dnfO{ k'of] . dh:t} k]6 af]s]sL sfG5L ljli6gL
/ c ;fyLx aflx/ lg:s]5g\ / dnfO{ df6fn] k'of] eg]/ xf/u'xf/ u/]5g\ . ;+of]un] To; lbg d}n]
d]/L cfdfn] lbg'ePsf] /ftf] k'msf{ ePsf] nf5fn] skfn af6]sL lyPF . Tof] nf5fsf] ;fgf] k'msf{] dnfO{
k'/]sf] hldg dfly b]lvPsf] /x]5 . clg ToxL nf5fsf] k'msf{]nfO{ cfwf/ agfP/ df6f] vGg] sfF6f
sf]bfnf]n] vg]/ l;/dfg] e'Fh]nxn] dnfO{ aflx/ lgsfn]5g\ . df6f]sf] l9:sf]n] k'/]kl5sf 36gfsf]
dnfO{ t s]xL xf]; 5}g . To;kl5sf lbgdf d lxF88'n ug{ g;Sg] ePF . t/ cfdf / aRrf b'j} afFr]sf
lyof}F . ufFpsf j}B tyf hfGg];'Gg]n] dnfO{ h8La'6L w]/} v'jfP . To; 38L dnfO{ tGgfdf af]s]/ g}
3/leq / 3/aflx/ u/fOGYof] . To:t} cj:yfdf d}n] g/]Gb|nfO{ hGdfPsL x'F . hGd]kl5 klg d}n] o;nfO{
:ofxf/ ;';f/ s]xL ug{ ;lsgF . s;n] o;nfO{ v'jfof], s;n] ;'tfof] dnfO{ t s]xL klg yfxf 5}g . t/
of] s]6f] ;fx|} ;Gtf]ifL lyof] . o;n] ?g hfg]sf] lyPg . a'of}, To:tf] cj:yfdf klg afFr]/ hlGdg] of]
s]6f] 7"nf] dflg; x'G5 eGy] To; a]nf dflg;x .
g/]Gb|sf] k"j{hGd / uef{j:yfdf x'Fb}sf] syf klg d}n] g/]Gb|af6} ;'lg;s]sL lyPF . t/ k'gM d]/L
;f;"sf d'vaf6 ;f]xL s'/fsf] a]nLlj:tf/ klg kfPkl5 d ca ;f;";Fu g/]Gb|sf afNosfnsf s'/fx
ug]{ dgl:yltdf k'u]F . cfdf, g/]Gb|sf] :jefj ;fgfdf s:tf] lyof] < rsrs] x'g'x'GYof] xf]nf < d]/f
s'/f e'OFdf v:g] laltSs} d]/L ;f;"n] eGg'ePsf] lyof] xf]Og, of] s]6f] ;fg}b]lv 1fgL lyof] . k9\gdf
dg nfpFYof] . 3/df klg dnfO{ sfd ;3fpFYof] . 3/ lnKg], a9fg]{, ufO{a:t' r/fpg hfg], afv|f x]g]{,
3fF; sf6]/ Nofpg], /f]kfOFsf a]nf afp;] ug]{, ufFpsf] d]nfkftdf kd{ nufpg] OToflb 3/ Jojxf/df h]
hlt sfd kYof]{ p;n] ;a} sfd v';L eP/ uYof]{ . d}n] nfPcx|fPsf] s'g} sfd klg g/]Gb|n] slxNo}
;lQmgF, ulb{gF / x'Fb}g eg]g . km]l/ vfgkfgdf klg pm ;Gtf]ifL lyof] . vfg] dfdnfdf klg p;n]
slxNo} dL7f]gdL7f] eg]g . h] lbP klg p;n] s'k's'k' vfGYof] . ef]s nfUof] eg]/ klg p;n] slxNo}
eg]g . p;nfO{ cfk}mn] a']/ vfg lbg'kYof]{ . o;sf] k]6 rflxF d]/f c 5f]/fxsf] eGbf cln 7"nf]
lyof] . To;}n] cnfO{ eGbf o;nfO{ vfg]s'/fsf] cln a9L g} efu nfpg'kYof]{] . g/]nfO{ b"wrflxF
c;fWo} dL7f] nfUYof] . lgs} 7"nf] x'Gh]n o;n] t/sf/L;Fu eft vfPsf] lyPg . pm ;fgfdf df;' vfg
klg Tolt dg ub}{gYof] . h:tf] / h]sf] eP klg p;nfO{ b"w lbP k'luxfNYof] . ufO{e}F;L yfs]sf a]nf
o;sL lbbLn] afv|fsf] b"w b'x]/ eP klg o;nfO{ b"w 6'6fOg . d]/L 5f]/L gL/f / eb} xl/dfofn] g/]Gb|sf]
lzz'sfndf 7"nf] nufgL u/]sf 5g\ . To;}n] xl/dfofnfO{ p;n] ;w}F sfG5L lbbL eGb} cfPsf] 5 .
xl/dfofnfO{ xfkf]n] g\u|L eg]/ lrGy] . ToxL d]/L eb} g\u|Ln] ;fgfdf g/]Gb|sf] k|foM ;Dk"0f{ g}
x]/rfx u/L .

g/]Gb| ;fg}b]lv uLt ufFpYof], sljtf n]VYof] . pm ufpF7fpFsf s]6fs]6L e]nf kf/]/ lxF8\Yof] .
rf/kfFr sIff k9\bf p;n] a/af]6] afn :sfp6 vf]n]sf] lyof] . Tolt a]nf pgLxsf] sfd :s'n hfg]
af6f] ;kmf kfg]{ / gfrufg ug]{ x'GYof] . g/]Gb|n] rf/ sIff k9]kl5 :s'nsf] 5'l6\65'l6\6df 3/ 5]psf]
lzjfnodf w'n]:s'n vf]NYof] . To; w'n]:s'ndf p;n] 3/3/af6 s]6fs]6L NofP/ g]kfnL 7"nf] j0f{dfnf
k9fpFYof] . tLdWo] l/s'6] cyf{t\ 5qdfg ofS;f]sf 5f]/fx 8Da/ ofS;f] / s[i0fkfn ofS;f] tyf

39
s0f{axfb'/ lai6sf 5f]/f5f]/L clg sfOFnf] kf7ssf gflt OGb| kf7s klg d]/f 5f]/fsf ljBfyL{ lyP .
d]/L ;f;"n] g/]Gb|sf afNosfnsf] sfdsf] yk ;Dgf ub}{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;";Fu s'/f ub}{ hfFbf g/]Gb|sf ;xofqLxsf] klg dnfO{ s'/f sf]6fpg dg nfUof] . clg
d]/f] k|Zgsf] pQ/df d]/L ;f;" af]Ng'ePsf] lyof] ;fgfdf g/]Gb| la56\6} /fd|f] lyof] . g/]Gb|]nfO{ t d}n]
dnf{sL eg]/ 8/n] o;nfO{ g/fd|f] gfd /flvlbg'k5{ eg]/ ;a}n] o;nfO{ ef]6] eGg" eg]sL lyPF .
kl5;Dd d klg g/]nfO{ ef]6] g} eGy]F . o;sf bfh' / lbbLxn] klg o;nfO{ ef]6] eGy] . g/]Gb| / d]/L
sfG5L b]p/fgL dx]Zj/f -d}gf_ sL 5f]/L d~h' -df]xgd~h/L_ Gg} ;Fu;Fu}sf x'g\ . d}gfn] d]/f] 5f]/f]
g/]Gb|nfO{ x'sf{pgrflxF 7"nf] d2t u/L . ;fg" cyjf k'gd -dfOnf h]7fh' j]0f'k|;fb k|;fO{sL 5f]/L_ /
g/]Gb| klg ;fgfdf ;fx|} ldNy] . pgLx klg Psfsf{;Fu 5'6\6b}gy] . xfkfdf al;Gh]n g/]Gb|sf
;fyLxdf xl/k|;fb ;\u|f}nf, /Tgaxfb'/ lji6 / z]/axfb'/ g]jf/ ldNg] ;fyL lyP . kxf8 / db];df
rflxF p;sf] ldNg] ;fyL bdoGtL -1fg' k|;fO{_ lyO{ . g/]Gb|nfO{ dfof ug]{ / ;flxTodf nfUg ;xof]u
k'ofpg] k|Xnfbs'df/ k|;fO{ klg xf] . k|Xnfb xfd|f] 7"nf 3/] h]7fh' nLnfw/ k|;fO{sf] gflt xf] / pm
clxn] k//fi6 dGqfnodf pk;lrj 5 . g/]Gb|sf] ;w}Fel/ Psgf;n] ldNg] ;fyLrflxF eLid k|;fO{ xf] .
eLid p;sf] elthf] eP tfklg pgLx Pscsf{df ;'Vvb'Vvsf ;fyL x'g\ . pgLx c} /ysf b'O6f
kf\u|f hltSs} 5g\ . eLidrflxF clxn] k'ln;sf] 7"n} xflsd 5 .
d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ hlxn]b]lv lrg] dnfO{ Oiof{ nfu'Gh]n pxfFn] g/]Gb|sf] aofg ug'{x'G5 . To;}n]
d]/L ;f;"sf d'vaf6} g/]Gb|sf ljifodf s]xL gsf/fTds hjfkm vf]Hg' klg d]/f] nIo x'Fg] uYof]{ . cfdf
g/]Gb|n] cfdfsf] OR5f ljk/Lt cfgf] hft aflx/sL s]6LnfO{ l;Gb'/ xfn]sf] 36gfn] t cfdfnfO{
x'g;Dd kL/ kof] xf]nf lg xf]Og / < To; a]nf eg] d]/L ;f;"sf] cg'xf/df efj lau]|sf] :jk vf]Hb}
lyof] d]/f] dfg; . t/ pxfFsf d'xf/df To:tf] s]xL b]vf k/]g . p;sf] OR5fcg';f/ lax] uof] . dnfO{
e]6fpg s]6L fkf klg k'ofof] . d}n] ;s]sf] a'xf/Lsf] :jfut;Tsf/ klg u/]F . hft gldn]kl5 d}n]
p;n] ksfPsf] eft vfOgF . t/ cGt/hft eg]/ d}n] p;nfO{ g/fd|f] klg ul/gF . ca 5f]/f]nfO{ dg
k/]kl5 xfdLn] g/fd|f] klg lsg ug'{kof] / < olQ xf] Tof] a'xf/L x'Gh]n d sf7df8f}Fdf cfP/ Tolt
a;]sL lyOgF . d]/L ;f;" cfgf 5f]/f a'xf/Lsf] k|z+;fdf nfUbf cg'xf/ g} pHofnf] kfg'{x'G5 .
cfdf, clg kl5 pgLxsf] kf/kfr's] x'Fbf tkfO{+nfO{ b'Vv nfu]g < lsg kf/kfr's] u/] xf]nfg\
h:tf] nfu]g < d}n] g/]Gb|sf] syf vf]tNg vf]h]sL lyPF . pgLxsf] lhGbuL pgLxsf] v';L, d}n] s]
eGg' / < ldn]/ a;]sf eP /fd|f] x'GYof] . Psk6s hf]/]sf] ;DaGw 6'lqmPsf] /fd|f] xf]Og . t/ pgLxsf]
} u8f w]/} x'GYof] . uPsf] hf]jg au]sf] kfgL kms]{/ cfpFb}g eG5g\ e}uf] ca To;sf s'/f klg
lsg ug]{ / p;sf] ef]u lyPg lxF8L . dl0fh:tf] gflt 5f]l8lbPsL 5 To:sf] klg enf] g} xf];\ .

d]/f tLg bh{g gfltgfltgfdf dnfO{ ;a}eGbf dfof s~rgh\3fsf] g} nfU5 . pm klg d;Fu
x'?Ss} x'G5 . 3/df a;]sf] a]nf ;fFdf d]/f uf]8fdf lrNnf] gnufO{ pm ;'t]sf] dnfO{ yfxf 5}g .
laxfg d]/f] v'6\6f g9f]uL pm klg kfgL vfFb}g . d]/L ;f;" lgSs}a]/;Dd klg cfgf] gflt
s~rgh\3fs} k|z+;fdf 8'Ag'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;"sf] cToGt} dg kg]{ gflt s~rgh\3fsf] ljifodf pxfF aofg ul//xg dg
k/fpg'x'G5 . To;} qmddf pxfFn] Ps lbg s~rgh\3fsf] ljifodf klg lvk nufpg'eof] d]/f] gflt
s~rgh\3fn] Pd=P:;L= k|yd >]0fLdf kf; uof] . d]/f] gfltn] clxn] dxf/fhu~h SofDk;sf] -lzIf0f
c:ktfn_df k|fWofkg ug{ yfNof] . s~rgh\3feGbf enfbdL dfG5] d}n] b]v]sf] 5}g . cfk"mn] ;s]sf]
a]nf ;a}sf] ho lrtfpFg] / s;}sf] afwfla/f]w gug]{ p;sf] :jefj 5 . p;nfO{ ;a}n] dfof u5{g\ .
nj/fhf eGg] jL/]Gb|axfb'/ zfx t d]/f] gflt eGg] lalQs} e't'Ss} x'g'x'G5 . d]/f] gfltn] blIf0f ef/t
sGofs'df/L a:g] Pg\=uf]kfnfs[i0ffg\ / k'tnLjfO{sL 5f]/L lk|of;Fu lax] uof] . r]GgfO{df k9\bfk9\b}
gfltn] lk|of;Fu dg a;fP5 . clg xfdL ;a}sf] ;xdltdf gfltn] @)^% ;fn a}zfv $ ut] blIf0f
ef/tsf] r]GgfO{df lax] uof] . gfltsf] lax] u/fpg g/]Gb| sf7df8f}Faf6 Totf uPsf] lyof] . lk|ofn] klg
Pd=P:;L= g} kf; u/]sL 5 . lk|ofn] klg dnfO{ ;fx|} dfof u5]{ . pm k|foM d;Fu g} 6fFl:;/x]sL x'G5] .
p;n] x/]s laxfg p7]/ g/]Gb|sf] a'afsf] kmf]6f] 9f]U5] / To;kl5 d]/f] v'6\6f 9f]U5] . lk|ofsf afa'cfdf
klg oxfF cfP/ Ps xKtf a;]sf 5g\ . lk|ofsf afa'cfdf klg c;n /x]5g\ . kfgL vfg' d"nsf] 5f]/L
Nofpg' s"nsf] eg]h:t} 5] d]/L gfltgL a'xf/L klg .

cfdfnfO{ g/]Gb|;Fu s'g} / s]xL u'gf;f] 5}g cfdf < d c} d]/L ;f;";Fu g/]Gb|sf af/]df
vf]tNg] pkqmdd} lyPF . s] u'gf;f] x'g' / o:tf] d]/f] eQm 5f]/f];Fu < oxfF x]/ g === cfdfn] af]Ng
5f]8]/ cfk"mn] nufO/fv]sf uxgflt/ nlIft ug'{eof] . ===dnfO{ oL ;a} uxgf g/]Gb|n] g} xflnlbPsf]
xf] . o;n] k'/:sf/ kfPkl5 / p;sf lstfasf] k};f kfPlkR5] ToxL k};fn] dnfO{ oL uxgf
sdfOlbPsf] xf] . o;n] sdfpg yfn]kl5 dnfO{ cfgf;'sL k};fsf] klg b'Vv ePsf] 5}g . ;a} b'Vv

40
ladf/ x]g{] / d]/f] ufx|f] ;fFu'/f] x]g]{ klg oxL 5f]/f] xf] . dnfO{ ls t o;}sf afa' lhpFbf] x'Fbf ;'v lyof],
ls t o;} 5f]/fsf sf/0fn] ;'v 5 . ;f;"n] g/]Gb|sf af/]df Ps}zAb klg ljk/Lt gaf]Nbf klg Tolt
a]nf dnfO{ s;f]s;f] c;lhnf] ePsf] lyof] .
g/]Gb|sf af/] d]/L ;f;"af6 s]xL g s]xL t c;Gt'li6 klg JoQm xf];\ eGg] klg d]/f] rfxgf
lyof] . cfdf, xh'/x cfdf5f]/faLr oltljlw dfofk|]d lyof] eg] xh'/nfO{ 5f]8]/ xh'/sf] g/]Gb| 5f]/f]
sf7df8f}F g} lsg cfpg'k/]sf] t < k9\gsf nflu egf}F eg] fkfdf klg :s'n sn]hx gePsf
xf]Ogg\ . xh'/s} ;fydf a;]/ pxfFn] fkfd} k9\bf klg t x'GYof] lg d ;f;"af6 g/]Gb|sf af/] c}
klg gsf/fTds pQ/s} ck]Iffdf lyPF . xf] lg ltdLn] l7s} eGof}, g/]Gb|nfO{ d;Fu / dnfO{ g/]Gb|;Fu
5'l6\6g klg dg kb}{gYof] . t/ To; a]nf fkfdf k'ln; s'6\g] / dfG5] s6'jf cfGbf]ng rn]sf] lyof] .
d]/L lbbLsf 5f]/f lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6L;Fu nfu]/ g/]Gb| klg To;} cfGbf]ngdf nfUg yfNof] . p;n] klg
af6f] 9'sL9'sL e]6] hlt k'ln; s'6\g yfNof] . pm lbgel/ /ftel/ 3/ cfpg klg 5f]8\of] . clg s'ga]nf
k'ln;n] kqm]/ o;nfO{ vdf 'G8fpF5g\ eGg] kL/n] d]/f] 7"nf] 5f]/f] lji0f'eSt, o;sf lbbL legfh' -
gLns[i0f l;6f}nf / gL/f l;6f}nf_;Fu ;Nnfx u/]/ o;nfO{ /ftf/ft d}n] sf7df8f}F eufpg'k/]sf] xf] .
d}n] g/]Gb|nfO{ sxfF /x/n] sf7df8f}F k7fPsL x'F / o;;Fu 5'l6\6P/ a:bf d ;w}F /f]P/ a:y]F fkfdf
klg . d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f] rfxgf ljk/Lt g\ g/]Gb|s} lj/xufg kf] ;'gfpg'ePsf] lyof] . ;du|df d]/L
;f;"sf] g/]Gb|k|ltsf] cyfx :g]xwf/fl;jfo d}n] c s]xL klg kfpg ;lsgF . To;}n] g/]Gb|sf] ;x|fxgf
u/]/ d]/L ;f;" yfSg] 5fF6 gb]v]kl5 d}n] g/]Gb|sf k|;\uaf6 d]/L ;f;"nfO{ cGt} df]8\g] nIo lnPF .

d}n] Ps lbg km]l/ d]/L ;f;";Fu Pp6f lh1fzf klg /fv]sL lyPF bL3{/fh bfh'nfO{ t xh'/s}
g/]Gb| 5f]/fn] kxn u/]/ /fli6o k~rfotsf] ;b:o agfPsf] eGg] d}n] ;'g]sL lyPF lg d]/f k|Zg
;Fu;Fu} d]/L ;f;"sf pQ/ jif{g yflnxfn] g/]Gb|rflxF bL3{/fhsf] eSt 5 . p;n] d]/f]eGbf a9L
bL3{/fhsf] ;]jf klg u/]sf] 5 . t/ af]sfsf] d'vdf s'leG8f] k;]g . e"kfndfgl;+x sfsL{n] >L % nfO{
hfx]/ u/]/ p;nfO{ dfggLo agfPsf] eg]/ klxn]klxn] pm cfk}m eGYof] . To; a]nf sfsL{nfO{ d]/f]
k"j{hGdsf] afa' eGg] klg d]/f] bL3{/fh 5f]/f] g} xf] . km]l/ pm bf]xf]ofP/ csf]{rf]l6 klg /fli6o
k~rfotsf] ;b:o eof] . g/]Gb|s} hf]8n] d km]l/ klg dfggLo ePF eg]/ p;}n] dnfO{ eGYof] . kl5
p;}n] sfsL{nfO{ klg l5Ml5M / b'/b'/ ub}{ y'St} lxF8]sf] klg oxL cfFvfn] b]Vof] . p;n] cfgf] eSt efO
g/]Gb|nfO{ klg zq' 7fGg yfNof] . d]/f] sfG5f efO ;'a]bf/ vu]Zj/ pk|]tLn] t eGYof] bL3{/fh efGhf
h:tf] kf]rf] dfG5] s;/L b'O{b'O{ rf]l6 dfggLo eP bL3{/fhsL :jf:gL ;fg'afaf k|;fO{nfO{ klg
g/]Gb|n] g} cg]s u/]/ Pd\=P=kf; u/fof], ;fg'afaf eGg]nfO{ cg]s a'l4 k'ofP/ s[lif ljsf; a}\sdf
clws[tdf 3';fpg] klg g/]Gb| g} xf] . ltgLxsf 5f]/f5f]/L l6:6f / sf\u8fnfO{ klg g/]Gb|n] g}
x'sf{Olbof] . t/ cfh ltgLxn] g/]Gb|sf] u'gsf] abnf g/]Gb|s} v]bf] vg]/} eP klg ltb}{5g\ . d]/L
;f;"sf cfgf 5f]/fa'xf/L ;Gbe{sf tL gdL7f s'/fn] d klg /Gylg/x]sL lyPF . clg km]l/ To;} a]nf
d]/f d'vaf6 of6\6} Pp6f s'/f of] g/]Gb|sf] 3/af/L d}n] hf]l8lbPsf] eg]/ ;fg'afaf efph"n]
eGg'x'G5 /] lg t < d]/f] s'/f ;'g]/ d]/L ;f;" PSsf;L r8\lsFb} af]Ng'eof] s7}a/L Tof] a'xf/L dfOt
uP/ ef]sn] sfDb} 3/ cfpFyL . p;sf dfOtL g\uf 5g\ eg]/ t dnfO{ lax] u/]s} ;fn bL3{/fhn]
eGYof] . xfdLnfO{ a'xf/Lx c;n rflxPsf lyP wgL a'xf/L xfdLn] vf]h]sf lyPgf}F . t/ Tof] a'xf/L
h'g uf]?sf] l; 5}g p;sf] gfd tLv] eP/ lg:sL . ToxL a'xf/Lsf kf/fdf nfu]/ @)$) ;fnlt/}
d]/f] 5f]/f] bL3{/fhn] kGw| xhf/ ?lkofF sa'n]sf] af6f];d]t g/]Gb|nfO{ tL; xhf/ ?lkofFdf a]Rof] . p;s}
l5d]sL s]zjaxfb'/ >]i7 / g/]Gb| eP/ gLnsfF8f / gnn] af/]/ bL3{/fhsf] 36\6]s'nf]sf] 3/;Fu
hf]l8Psf] blIf0fkl6\6sf] af6f] hf]ufOlbPsf lyP . ToxL af6f] a]r]/ g/]Gb|n] rf/ cfgf hUuf t kfof] t/
pm;Fu To; hUufafkt bL3{/fhn] rngrNtLeGbf bf]Aa/ k};f lnof] . Tolt a]nf g/]Gb|s} 3/df
b'uf{k|;fb ;'Aaf / d[ugf/fo0f dxh{gsf ;fd' bL3{/fhn] g/]Gb||;Fu Tof] k};f lnof] . Tolt dfq} sxfF xf] /
bL3{/fhn] To; af6f]sf ;f]bf/ r08Lk|;fb >]i7 -u[x dGqfnosf k"j{;lrj_ nfO{ ;d]t yfx} glbO{
Totfkl6\6 hUuf x'g] cxnfO{ klg g/]Gb|nfO{ a]lr;s]]s} af6f] a]lr/Xof] . olt x'FbfxF'b} klg g/] r'k g}
nflu/Xof] . bfh'eSt xf] d]/f] g/] 5f]/f] ck/fwL xf] d]/f] bL3]{ 5f]/f] bL3{/fhsf] a'l4 ePsf] eP
36\6]s'nf]sf] hUuf aLr}df lrl/GYof] lg bL3{/fhn] g/]Gb|nfO{ klxnfklxnf h] klg efO t]/f] cfwL,
d]/f] cfwL eGYof] . t/ p;n] g/]nfO{ kG5fP/ 36\6]s'nfsf] Gg} b'O{ /f]kgL hUuf :jf:gLsf gfFpdf
/fVof] . d]/f] g/] 5f]/f] bfh'sf] cf1fsf/L ePsf] kmfObf bL3{/fh / ;fg'afafn] p7fP . bL3{/fhsf]
;a}yf]s ug]{ g/]Gb| g} t lyof] . pgLxsf] lax] u/fpg]b]lv 3/ agfpg] sfd;d]tdf g/]Gb|n] d'6'
k'm6fP/ ;3fPsf] lyof] . /fdnId0f eP/ a;]sf d]/f 5f]/fx ;fg'afaf eGg]n] /fd / /fj0f kf/]/}
5f8L .
cfdf bL3{/fh bfO ;w}F g} To:t} xf] t < eGb} d}n] c} d]/L ;f;"af6 c klg s]xL s'/f
hfGg rfx]sL lyPF . bL3{/fhn] dnfO{ rf/wfd klg k'ofof] . To; 5f]/fn] dnfO{ dfof klg uYof]{ .

41
g/]Gb| / ltdLnfO{ d}n] dfof u/]F, ltdLx;Fu a;]F eg]/ p;sL :jf:gLn] p;nfO{ pdfn]sL xf] . Tof]
cfOdfO{ cfk"meGbf 7"nf] sf]xL 5}g eG5] . p;sf afa'n] p;nfO{ g'xfP/, ;]tf] w/f] km]/]/, ef]sf] k]6
a;]/, cfFug 89fP/ sGofbfg lbPsf] xf] eG5] . ltdLrflxF kf]On cfPsL cfOdfO{ xf} eg]/ pm ;w}F
eG5] . dnfO{ dfq xf]Og pm ;a}lt/ ltd|f] / g/]Gb|sf] lj/f]wdf dfOs k'mSt} lxF8\5] . ltdLxsf s'/f
lgSn]kl5 pm cl/\ufnn] lrn] }F u/L plk|mG5] . p;n] p;sf] nf]Ug]nfO{ klg ltdLxsf] lj/f]wdf
3/L3/L v'6\6f nufOlbG5] . clg d]/f] Tof] bL3{/fh 5f]/f]sf] a'l4 w]/} eP/ cfk"mn] hf]8]sf] sf7df8f}Fsf]
hUuf klg bfh'efOsf cfFvfaf6 58\sfpFg :jf:gLsf gfpFdf /fv]sf] 5 . ca :jf:gLsf gfpFdf cfgf]
cfh{g ;a} /fv]kl5 ls p;n] cfgf] ;Dk"0f{ h]yf dfof dfg'{kof], x}g eg] :jf:gLsf] sdf/f] x'g
kl/uf] . s'/f olQ xf] . o:tf] syf d]/f] bL3{/fh 5f]/f]sf] dfq} xf]Og lg lxhf]cfhsf w]/} a'l4 ePsf
b'lgofFsf w]/} 5f]/fxsf] syf o:t} 5 . bfh'efOnfO{ ;DklQn] dfg{ eg]/ :jf:gLsf gfpFdf ;DklQ
n'sfpg vf]Hbf cfk}m vf8ndf k/]sf 5g\ . s7}a/L d]/f] 5f]/f] bL3{/fh h]7fh'af/] d}n] rfx]eGbf klg
a9L hfgsf/L d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ lbg'ePsf] lyof] .

:jf:gL dflg;sf] s'l6n k|j[lQsf af/]df Pp6L :jf:gL dflg;s} d'vaf6 d ;'lg/x]sL lyPF .
oxfFlg/ Pp6f lj/x rNg] ;\ud ePsf] lyof], Pp6L gsf/fTds k|j[lQsL :jf:gL dflg; dk|lt s'l6n
ePsf] k|;\u b]jL:jkf d]/L ;f;" cyf{t\ :jf:gLdflg;af6} d cfk}m :jf:gLdflg; ;'lg/x]sL lyPF .
oxfF /dfpg] s'/f klg lyPg, lsgeg] ;+;f/sf b'O{ hftdWo] Ps hft cfOdfO{sf] lgs[i7 k|j[lQk|lt
;f]xL hftsL cfOdfO{n] g} v';L x'g] ;jfn} klg lyPg . o;} k|;\udf Ps k6s fkfdf x'g'ePsf d]/f
h]7f h]7fh' lji0f'eQm k|;fO{sf] g/]Gb|;Fusf] 6]lnkmf]g jftf{sf] dnfO{ ;Dgf ePsf] lyof] . e}uf] efO
tF klg bL3{/fhsf s'/f gu/\, t}Fn] p;sf] ljifodf / p;n] t]/f ljifodf g/fd|f] s'/f u/]sf] dnfO{ dg
kb}{gF . cfgf bfh'efOsf g/fd|f s'/f 3/aflx/ ug'{ klg x'Fb}gYof] . Pp6f s'/frflxF s] xf] eg] bL3{/fh
eGg] dflg; :jod\df v/fa xf]Og, t/ p;nfO{ p;sL :jf:gLn] lhlt;sL . nf]Ug]:jf:gLdf To:t}
x'G5 . b'O{dWo] Pp6fn] csf{nfO{ lht]sf] x'G5 . h:n] lhT5 pgLxaLrdf lhTg]s} babaf sfod x'g'
klg cgf}7f] xf]Og . To;}n] bL3{/fh;Fu t}Fn] lrQ b'vfpg' Joy{ 5 . g/]Gb|n] pxfFsf ;fOFnf bfh'
bL3{/fh k|;fO{n] cfk'mk|lt s6'tf /fv]/ cgu{n s'/f aSb} lxF8]sf] k|;\u af/] u/]sf] u'gf;f]sf] d]/f h]7f
h]7fh'af6 cfPsf] k|ltpQ/ lyof] of] . jf:tjdf d]/f h]7f h]7fh' cToGt} enfbdL x'g'x'G5 . pxfFn]
cfgf efOxaf/] plQs} :g]xefj /fVg'x'G5 . pxfF sf7df8f}Fdf xfd|f 3/df cfPlkR5] eGg'x'G5 x]/
ltdLx b'j}sf] klxnf] 3/ eTSof] . ca bf];|f] 3/rflxF alnof] kf/ . 5f]/f5f]/Lsf] eljio lgdf{0f u/ .
d]/f h]7f h]7fh'n] dfq xf]Og d]/L h]7L h]7fgL efuL/yf k|;fO{n] klg xfd|f] kl/jf/k|lt /fd|f] Jojxf/
ug'{ePsf] 5 . d]/L h]7L efph"n] t dnfO{ cfdfn] h:t} dfof ug'{x'G5 . d ;fgf] x'Fbf pxfFn] dnfO{
g'xfOlbg], d]/f v'6\6f wf]Olbg] / v'6\6fdf lrNnf] nufOlbg], skfn sf]/Laf6L ul/lbg], u'Go" rf]nL
nufOlbg] ug'{ePsf] klg dnfO{ ;Dgf 5 . kl5, d fkfsf] zlgZr/] xfO:s'n k9\bf klg d]/f] kfng
kf]if0f ug{sf ;fy} d]/f ;a} n'ufkmf6f d]/L h]7L efph"n] g} wf]Olbg'x'GYof] . pxfFn] clxn];Dd klg
dnfO{ k'qt'No Jojxf/ ub}{ cfpg'ePsf] 5 . g/]Gb|n] dnfO{ d]/L h]7L h]7fgLsf ;Gbe{df eGg'ePsf]
s'/f klg d}n] To; avt ;D]F . x'g klg d]/L h]7L h]7fgLsf] cg'xf/ h:tf] pHofnf] 5 dg klg
Tolts} ;\nf] kfOG5 . pxfFn] ;f;"nfO{ klg cToGt} dfof ug'{x'G5 . @)^% ;fnsf] cf/Desf] s'/f xf]
d]/L h]7L h]7fgL efuL/yf k|;fO{ xfd|f] 3/df cfPsf] avt d]/L ;f;"n] pxfFnfO{ eGg'eof] 7"nL ca
dnfO{ fkf n}hf . dnfO{ 3/sf] Gof;|f] nfUof] . To; avt d]/L h]7fgL lbbLn] cfgL ;f;";dIf
k|To'Q/ lbg'ePsf] lyof] cfdf xfdL v]tL ls;fg u/L a:g]n] eGbf otf OlGb/fn] cfdfsf] w]/} ;]jf
u/]sL l5g\ . OlGb/f h:tf] a'xf/L 5f8]/ cfdfn] st} hfg'x'Fb}g . o:tL ;]jf ;';f/ ug]{ a'xf/L kfpg'
cfdfsf] efUo xf] . To;kl5 cfdfn] d]/L h]7fgLnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] cF d OlGb/fnfO{ 5f8]/ sxLF
hfGg . ca o; 3/af6 kO6 nufP klg d r6k6fpFlbg .

Ps lbg d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ ;f]w]F cfdf clg xfd|f] s] bf]if xf] To:tf], xfdL;Fu xh'/ a;]sf] klg
xfd|f bL3{/fh h]7fh'n] ;xg g;Sg'ePsf] < d}n] ;a}s'/f a']/ klg ga']}F u/L pxfFs} d'vn]
;a}s'/f ;'Gg vf]h]sL lyPF . cfdf xfdLn] lax] u/]sf]df s]xL uNtL ePsf] t 5}g < d}n] klg df}sfdf
cfdfsf d'vaf6 oyfy{ a'g] p2]Zon] of] k|Zg ;f]w]sL lyPF . ltdLxsf] klxnf] lax] e\u x'g'eg]sf]
/fd|f] s'/frflxF xf]Og, To;f] x'gx' 'Fb}gYof] . gx'g'eof], ca ltdLxsf] of] lax]rflxF lalu|g'x'Fb}g . ltdLn]
klg 5f]/f]nfO{ dfof ug'{k5{ . oL 5f]/LxnfO{ klg g/]Gb|n] slxNo} 7"nf] :j/df klg gaf]Ng", x]/ afa"
dfp NofPkl5 af5faf5L klg kl5kl5 nfluxfN5g\ . logLxn] cfgf] efUo vfG5g\, t}Fn] s]xL
ug'{kb}{g . of] ;+jfb d]/L ;f;"n] g/]Gb| / d]/f] ljjfxkl5 d]/f 5f]/Lx uLtf~hln, lgs]ltsf,
cg's[ltsf / 5f]/f] s~rgh\3fsf k|;\udf cfgf] 5f]/f] g/]Gb|nfO{ / dnfO{ ;DfpFb} eGg'ePsf]
lyof] . d]/f] bL3{/fh 5f]/f]n] lsg o:tf] efF8e}nf] u/]sf] xf] d}n] k6Ss} a']sL 5}g . o:tf] 36gf

42
ltdLxs} dfq ePsf] xf] / < O{Zj/sf kfnfb]lv g} o:tf] x'Fb} cfPsf] xf] . bL3{/fhsf klg 5f]/f5f]/L
5g\ ef]ln s;nfO{ s] k5{ cfh} s;n] eGg ;S5 / < d t eG5' 5f]/f5f]/L x'g] dflg;n] csf{nfO{ o:tf]
/ p:tf] eGg' g} x'Fb}g . ltdLxsf] v]bf] lsg u/]sf] xf]nf bL3{/fhn] . t/ h;n] hlt v]bf] u/] klg
ltdLxn] bx|f] eP/ v'6\6f 6]Sg", oL 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{ /fd|f] ug"{, O{Zj/n] ltdLxnfO{ x]5{g\ . bfh'efO
eg]sf o:t} 8fOnf x'G5g\ . p;sf 3/df d klg al;gF . To; 3/df sf]xL cl8Fb}gg\ . d ltdLx;Fu
a:tf pgLxn] ;xg ;s]sf 5}gg\ . ltgLxsf] 6fpsfdf l/;afx]s c s]xL 5}g .

d :jod\ d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f 5f]/Lxk|lt b]vfpg'ePsf] jfT;Nok|lt crDd}df k/]sL 5' . To;
hdfgfsL d]/L ;f;"n] d}n] cs{} kltaf6 hGdfPsf 5f]/LxnfO{ dfof u/]sf] b]v]/ dnfO{ ;'?;'?df t
;kgf kf] b]Vb} 5' ls h:tf] nfUYof] . d]/L ;f;"sf] dfofs} sf/0f d]/f 5f]/Lx klg pxfFnfO{ w'dwfd
dfof u5{g\ . oxfFlg/ k'/ftg o'udf hlGdP/ klg cTofw'lgs ljrf/wf/fn] cf]tk|f]t d]/L ;f;"sf]
dxfgtfsf] j0f{g d zAbn] ug{ ;lQmgF . d}n] s'/fsfgLsf qmddf g/]Gb|sf] / d]/f] lax]sf] k|;\sf s'/f
u/]kl5 klg d]/L ;f;"sf cg'xf/df s'g} ljiffb 5}g, pxfF t c} xfFl;/xg'ePsf] lyof] .

g/]Gb| / ltdLn] lax] u/]sf] s'/fdf d]/f] bL3{/fh 5f]/fnfO{ vlkg;Sg'ePsf] 5 eg]/ csf]{ Ps
lbg d]/L ;f;"n] km]l/ d'v kmf]g'{eof] . dnfO{ klg o;} ljifodf cfdf;Fu c} s'/f ug'{lyof] . xf] t lg
cfdf, bL3{/fh bfOn] t xfd|f lj?4df b; jif{b]lv Psgf;n] kqklqsfdf kmf]x/ s'/f n]lv/xg'ePsf] 5
lg xfdLn] lax] u/]sf] 7Ls xf] t < d}n] klg ;f;"nfO{ oxL k|Zg bfxf]ofP/ u/]sL lyPF . s] sf]
xf]Og < ltdL g]kfnsL 5f]/L, g/]Gb| k|;fO{sf] 5f]/f] . c ;fFRrf] s'/f ug]{ xf] eg] ltd|f] klxn]sf] kf]O;Fu
xfd|f] h'7f] g} nfUb}g . To;f] t ltd|f] klxn]sf] kf]O stfstf 'lSsP/ gft} nfUg] k|;fO{ g} ePsf] eP
klg clxn]sf] hdfgfdf kfOg] sfg'gcg';f/ cbfntaf6 5f]8kq u/]sf] kf]O;Fu ltd|f] s] sf] gftf x'G5
/ < of] ;a} cfg} b]j/nfO{ gLr b]vfpg bL3{/fhsL w]/} k9]n]v]sL :jf:gLsf] v]n xf] . of] ;a}
:jf:gLsf kf/fdf nfu]/ bL3{/fhn] cQf] yfk]sf] dfq} xf] . ltdL;Fu ;DaGw ljR5]b ePsf] k'?if /
g/]Gb|;Fu ;DaGw ljR5]b ePsL :qLnfO{ bL3{/fh / p;sL :jf:gL ;fg'afaf c} af]sLaf]sL lxF8\5g\
/] . bL3{/fhsf] 5f]/f sf\u8fsf] lax]df klg ltgLxn] dnfO{ af]nfPgg\ t/ ;DaGw laR5]b eO;s]sf
tL b'j}nfO{ af]nfP/ gf6s b]vfPsf] lyof] /] . efOsf] l/; ubf{ub}{ bL3{/fh dl/r}F rfp/L kl/;Sof] .
5f]/fsf] dfof t nfU5, t/ s] ug'{ To;sf] a]xf]/f lau|]sf] 5 . ca t pm a"9f] klg eof], To;sf] a'l4sf]
l; pd|b}g .

cfdf fkf a:tf g/]Gb|af6 s]s] ;xof]u x'GYof] < g/]Gb| / d]/f] lax]sf] k|;\udf d]/L
;f;"af6 :ki6 hjfkm kfO;s]kl5 d}n] g/]Gb| / d]/L ;f;"sf aLrsf] ;DaGwnfO{ yk k|sfz kfg]{ p2]Zo
lnPsL lyPF . P;=Pn=;L= kf; u/]kl5 d]/f] g/] 5f]/fn] hflu/ vfFb} k9f] . p;n] To;} a]nfb]lv dnfO{
;s]sf] vr{ lbg yfn]sf] lyof] . kl5 /fgL P]Zjo{sf] 5]pdf a;]/ klg p;n] sfd uof] . To;kl5 rflxF
p;n] dnfO{ / d]/L 5f]/L gL/fnfO{ dlxgf ;'? x'g] laltSs} k};f k7fOlbGYof] . To;f] t bL3{/fhn] klg
x/]s dlxgf dnfO{ / d]/L 5f]/L gL/fnfO{ vr{ k7fOlbGYof] . t/ g/]Gb|;Fu xfdL ldNof}F eg]/ bL3{/fhn]
d]/L 5f]/L / dnfO{ dlxgfaf/L lbg] k};f klg vf]:of] .

d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f h]7fh' bL3{/fh k|;fO{nfO{ v'a} dfof klg ug'{x'G5 . To; a]xf]/fsf] pbfx/0fsf
nflu @)^% ;fnsf] dftftLy{ cf}F;Llt/ dnfO{ kms{g dg nfu]sf] 5 . ;f] lbg cyf{t\ j}zfv @# ut]
;f]daf/ laxfg} # ah] p7]/ pxfF 3/sf] a/G8fdf al;/xg'ePsf] lyof] . cfdf /flt g} lsg aflx/
cfP/ a:g'ePsf] < cfgL cfdf;dIf To; a]nf g/]Gb|n] ;jfn /fVg'ePsf] lyof] . Tolt a]nf cfdfsf]
pQ/ klg d}n] ;'lg/x]sL lyPF cfh dftftLy{cf}F;L xf] lg d]/f] bL3]{ 5f]/f] dnfO{ e]6\g cfpF5 . lbpF;f]
To;sL :jf:gLn] l9lDsg lbGg . jf:tjdf d]/L ;f;"n] lbgel/ dfq xf]Og To; lbg /flt !! ah];Dd
klg 3/sf] a/G8fdf g} cfgf] 5f]/fsf] af6f] x]/]/ a:g'ePsf] lyof] . cfdfsf] dfof 5f]/f5f]/Ldfly,
5f]/f5f]/Lsf] dfof 9'\ufd'9fdfly eGg] ;"lQmsf] ;Totfn] To; /ft d]/f] d'6'sf] sfkdf gdL7f] kL8f
eO/Xof] . t/ To;} a]nf d}n] g/]Gb|n] n]v]sf] / zflGt/fd /fO{sf] ;\uLtdf zflGt/fd /fO{ / /f]zg
u'?n] ufPsf] Pp6f uLt ;D]/ klg cfk"mnfO{ Totflt/ kmsf{pg sf]l;; ul//x]sL lyPF

cfdf eGg] ;fu/ x'g\ ;w} :jR5 x'g]


5f]/f5f]/L leqleq} dfq cfk"m x'g]

cfdf>Lsf] ;]jf ug{ efUo rflxG5
cfsfzh:tf] v'Ng ;Stf cfdf kfOG5 .

43
d]/L ;f;"sf] a;fO;/fO
dflg; ;fdflhs k|f0fL xf] . d]/L ;f;" klg o;} ;dfhsL k|f0fL x'g'sf] tfTko{ pxfFsf] PSnf]
;\3if{df klg o;} ;dfhsf s]xL JolQmxsf] dxjk"0f{ ;xof]u /x]sf] 5 eGg] s'/f d}n] g/]Gb|af6
yfxf kfO;s]s} s'/f lyof] . t/ o; s'/fnfO{ d d]/L ;f;"s} d'vaf6 klg ;'Gg rfxGy]F . cfdf tkfO+{
kxf8af6 db]; g'{eof], To; a]nfsf] fkfsf] ;fnaf/L lgs} cgsG6f/ 7fpF lyof], ToxfF tkfO{+nfO{
;xof]u ug]{ sf]xL lyPgg\ < d}n] pxfFsf] d'vaf6} s[t1tfsf njhx lgsfNg] p2]Zon] g} of] k|Zg
;f]w]sL lyPF . d]/f] k|Zg ;'g]/ pxfF s]xLa]/ lgs} df}g x'g'eof] . Ps}l5g ulx/f] ;f]rdf k'u] h;/L Tolt
a]nf pxfFn] Psflt/ dfq} x]l//xg'eof] .
d]/f] 5f]/f] g/]Gb| d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eStnfO{ k5\ofP/ klxn] g} db]; cfof] . To;kl5 g/]n]
cfdf tkfO{+ljgf d a:g ;lsgF eg]/ dnfO{ tf/Gtf/ lr7L n]Vof] . clg g/]s} dfofn] d d]/f] sfG5f]
5f]/f] r]k]/ db]; /]F . ;fnaf/Ldf d d]/f b'O{ hgf 5f]/f g/]Gb| / u\uf;Fu lyPF . PSnL cfOdfO{n]
v]tLkftL u/]/ a;]sf] b]v]/ dnfO{ ToxfFaf6 v]b\g] lgotn] Psk6s Pshgf ToxLFsf] :yfgLo dflg;n]
b; xn uf]? lnP/ d]/f] v]t hf]Tg cfof] . d}n] klg gf\uf] v's'/L xftdf lnP/ x]/f}F t d]/f] v]t s:n]
hf]Tbf] /x]5 eg]/ pgLxsf ;fd'Gg] uPF . d]/f] /f}b|k b]v]/ tL uf]? / uf]? gfg]{ dflg;x stf efu]
s]xL kQf] ePg . To:tf] la/fgf] 7fFpdf klg d]/f nflu ;xof]u ug]{ s]xL dflg;x klg lyP . Tolt
a]nf d]/f efO aln/fh Ogfdn] dnfO{ lgs} e/y]u u/]sf lyP . kxf8b]lvs} pgL;Fu xfd|f] dfOtL
;fOgf] lyof] . fkfdf al;Gh]n d bz}Fdf ;a} 5f]/f5f]/L lnP/ 6Lsf nufpg pgsf 3/df klg hfGy]F .
pgL ltxf/df d]/f xftsf] efO6Lsf yfKg d]/f 3/df cfpFy] . o;afx]s c a]nf klg d]/f] ce/ke/
pg}n] x]l/lbGy] . dnfO{ pgsf] ;xof]usf] To; a]nf lgs} g} e/f];f lyof] . To:t} kl5 d]/f] sfG5f] 5f]/f]
u\ufsf] ToxLFsf :yfgLo xl/ /fgf du/;Fu d}n] ldt nfOlbPsL lyPF . xl/ /fgfsf kl/jf/n] klg
dnfO{ lgs} ;xof]u u/]sf x'g\ . xl/ t kl5 zlgZr/] ufpF ljsf; ;ldltsf] cWoIf klg ePsf lyP .
hut / OlGb/fsf a'jf 7f8f du/ / d]3jL/ /fO{n] klg dnfO{ ;fx|} ;xof]u u/] . To:tf ;boL /
;xof]uL dflg; gePsf eP d ;fnaf/Ldf l6Sg klg ;Sy]F h:tf] nfUb}g . d]/L ;f;' lgs} pT;fxsf
;fydf s[t1tfsf] ;Unf] :jk kl:s/xg'ePsf] lyof] . d]/L ;f;"sf ;xof]uL xftxdf rf/ j0f{ 5lQ;
hftsf dflg;xsf] ;"rL kfpFbf dnfO{ xfd|f] g]kfnL /fli6o Pstfsf] ;Da4{g ePsf] dx;"; eof] .
d]/L lbbLsf 5f]/f lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6Lsf] klg ;fnaf/Ldf 3/hUuf lyof] . pgLxsf] hUuf w]/}
lyof] . lzjsf] 3/ klg ;fnaf/Lsf] ;a}eGbf /fd|f] 3/df bl/Yof] . To; 3/df kmnk"mnsf au}Frf klg
w'dwfd lyP . db];df kfpg ;lsg] ;a} kmnk"mn lzjk|;fbsf af/Ldf kfOGYof] . pgLxsf] 3/rflxF
/fhdfu{lt/ ePsfn] ToxfF hfg cfpg Gg} cfwf 3G6feGbf a9L g} nfUYof] . To;}n] Totflt/ hfg d
k|foM EofpFlbgy]F . clg dnfO{ e]6\g k|foM x/]s lbg lzjk|;fb g} xfd|f] 3/ cfpFYof] . ;fnaf/Lsf]
a;fOFsf qmdsf] ;'?;'?df lzjn] dnfO{ lgs} ;xof]u u/]sf] xf] . ;fnaf/Ldf p;n] dnfO{ lg:tf] eft
vfg slxNo} lbPg . d]/f b'x'gf ufO{e}F;L yfSg] lalQs} p;}n] NofP/ b'x'gf afFlwlbGYof] . s7}a/L
sDo'lg:6 eP/ lgs} b'Vv kfof] To;n] . lzjk|;fbnfO{ 3f]8f agfP/ lgs} dflg; 7"nf g]tf eP . d]/f]
h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eSt / lzjk|;fb v'a} ldNy] . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/fn] fkfsf sDo'lg:6nfO{ ;+/If0f lbg]
uYof]{ . To;}n] lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6Lxsf] af; klg d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/fsf] 3/df x'g] uYof]{ . lzjk|;fb
lzjfsf]6L GofojfbL klg lyof] . p;n] s;}nfO{ cGofo klg u/]g . s;}nfO{ cGofo kof] eg] p;n]
h'n'; p7fOxfNYof] . fkfdf lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6L eg]kl5 zf]ifsxsf] ;ftf] hfGYof] . t/ g]kfndf
ax'bn cfP kl5 d}gfnLx klg dGqL eP t/ ;a}n] u'? dfg]sf] lzjk|;fbn] kl5;Dd klg g]kfn k:g
kfPsf] lyPg . To:tf] dxfg\ dfG5] eg] s'g} kb gkfO{ dof] . d]/L lbbLsf] 5f]/f] lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6L /
alxgLsf] 5f]/f] /fdgfy bfxfn eg]sf fkf lhNnfdf g} ulgPsf /fhgLltsf dfG5] lyP . /fdgfynfO{
klg ;'vfgLsf] h\undf nu]/ k'ln;n] uf]nL xfg] . /fdgfy bfxfn / lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6Lk|ltsf]
:g]xdf d]/L ;f;"sf] ux leHg nfu]sf] lyof] . dnfO{ klg /fdgfy / lzjk|;fbsf] ;fgf] syfn] lgs}
nfdf] /fhg}lts lj;\ultk"0f{sf 36gfxsf] ;Dgf u/fPsf] lyof] .
d}n] klg xfd|f] ;dfhdf jf:tljs Tofu, ;dk{0f ug]{ / ljlzi6 of]Uotf ePsf JolQmx
lzjk|;fb lzjfsf]6Lxh:t} eP/ lhpFb} d/]sf] klg b]v]sL 5' . csf{lt/ of]Uotf, Tofu, ;dk{0fljxLg
JolQmx /ftf/ft kf6L{sf] G8f cf]8]/ 7"nf g]tf sxlnP/ kb / k};fsf] y'k|f]df 9nLdnL u/]sf] klg
b]v]sL 5' . o:tf lj;\ultx x]g'{ / Rj Rj ug'{l;jfo clxn]sf] o'udf xfdLn] ug]{ s]xL klg
gePsf] d dx;'; ub{5' .
cfdf xfd|f 7"NbfO klg sDo'lg:6 x'g'x'GYof] < d]/f] h]7f h]7fh' lji0f'eQm k|;fO{ sDo'lg:6
ePsf] s'/flt/ cfslif{t eP/ d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf] dgdf afFlwPsf

44
s'/f l/7\7f] gla/fO{ d;Fu km]l/ vf]Ng'eof] d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eSt ;fg}b]lv sDo'lg:6df nfUof] .
p;n] @)!^ ;fndf cf7/fO{ ;qmflGtsf] cfg} 3/df g]kfn sDo'lgi6 kf6L{sf] G8f uf8]sf] lyof] .
Tof] G8f @)!& ;fn k'; ! ut] k'ln;n] lnP/ uP . Toltv]/ d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] ToxfF g]kfn sDo'lg:6
kf6L{sf] ;lrj g} lyof] . pm fkf /]kl5 km]/L ;lqmo eof] . @)$& ;fnlt/ xf]nf, xfd|f] ;fnaf/Lsf]
:s'nsf] d}bfgdf cfP/ nK6g h]7fh' b]jLk|;fb k|;fO{sf 5f]/f d]/f elthf ;Ls] k|;fO{n] efif0f u/]sf
lyP . Tolt a]nf d]/f elthfn] ToxLF 5]pdf a;]sf] d]/f] h]7f 5f]/fnfO{ b]vfpFb} s] eg]F eg] xfd|f]
kl/jf/df ;a}eGbf 7"nf / wgL d]/f sfsf lhh' k|;fO{ klg Ps x'g'x'GYof] . t/ cfh d sf\u|]; 5' /
lhh' sfsfsf 5f]/f, d]/f efO lji0f'eSt k|;fO{rflxF sDo'lg:6 5g\ .
d]/L ;f;"sf hLjgsf tLtfdL7f k|;\u dnfO{ w]/} yfxf eO;s]sf] lyof] . d}n] yfxf gkfPsf
pxfFsf c s'/f hfGg] / ;'Gg] d]/f] pT;'stf lyof] . To;}n] pxfFl;t yk s'/f ug]{ d]/f] dg;fo lyof] .
cfdf xh'/n] fkfsf] hUufrflxF s;/L lsGg'ePsf] xf] < kxf8df /f;f]af;f] ePsL d]/L ;f;" s;/L
db]; g'{eof] xf]nf eGg] pT;'stf ePsfn] d}n] of] k|Zg u/]sL lyPF . To; a]nf kxf8df ;'v;Fu
a;]sf dflg;x kxf8 5f]8]/ lxF8\g vf]Hb}gy] . xfd|f kxf8df b'Vv kfPsf bfh'efOx ;'?d} db];
/]sf lyP / pgLxn] db];df k|z:t hUuf hldgx hf]8]sf lyP . klxn] t db];df cf}nf] nfu]/
dl/G5 eg]/ kxf8df ;'v kfpg] dflg;x sxfF db]; g{ dgk/fpFy] / < xfdLnfO{ klg kxf8df ;'v}
lyof] . To;}n] db];df b'Vv kfOG5, cf}nf] nfu]/ dl/Pnf eg]/ db]; g{ ufx|f] nfUYof] . t/ qmdzM
xfd|f w]/}h;f] cfkmGtx db]; g{ yfn] . d]/f dfOtL klg db]; l/;s]sf lyP . xfd|f 3/kl6\6sf
w]/}h;f] bfh'efOx klg kxf8 5f]8]/ db]; cf]ln{;s]sf lyP . d]/f 5f]/fx klg ca db]; g} hfg'k5{
eGg] ;f]rdf k'u]sf lyP . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eQmn] g} klxn] db]; cf]n{g] /x/ uof] . fkfsf]
zlgZr/]df cfP/ p;n] xfkf kmf]6f] :6'l8of] vf]Nof] . Tolt a]nf fkfdf klg pm gfdL eof] . TofxfF
p;n] k};f klg sdfpg yfNof] . p;sf] ToxL k];f d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/tn] ;dfof] .
d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eQmn] kxf8sf hUuf a]Rg dnfO{ fkfaf6 a/fa/ lr7L n]lv/Xof] . To;}n]
d}n] klg kxf8sf s]xL v]t a]r]/ p;}sf xftdf k};f /flvlbPF . d}n] Toltv]/ d]/f dfvfd'Gb|f /
k]jfk};f;d]t ;a} xfn]/ ;fnaf/Lsf] hUuf lsGg vr{ h'6fPsL lyPF . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f lji0f'eStn]
sdfPsf] wg;d]t ykyfk u/]/ xfdLn] d;nf lwdfn;Fu ;fnaf/Lsf] hUuf lsg]sf xf}F . s'g} a]nf
d;nf lwdfn ;fnaf/Ldf ;a}eGbf a9L hUuf x'g] lhDbf/ lyP /] . s7}a/f hUuf a]Rbfa]Rb} d;nf
lwdfn / pgsf 5f]/f bf]dg lwdfnn] ;fnaf/Lsf v]tx?df xnf] hf]Tb} klg lxF8] . pgLxn] d]/} v]t
klg hf]t] .
klxn]sf] hUufwgL d;nf lwdfnn] kl5 cfk}mn] hUuf a]r]sf] dflg;sf] 3/df klg xnf] hf]t]sf]
s'/fn] dnfO{ lgs} lk/f]Nof] . o:tf] 36gf d}n] klxn] klg k9];'g]sL x'F . vf; u/]/ t/fO{sf cflbjf;L
yf, lwdfn, ;tf/, /fhj+zLxn] cfgf] ckf/ hUufhldg sf}8Lsf] df]ndf a]r]/ ef]het]/df
wg;Dklt ;s]sf] d}n] klg b]v]sL 5' . To:tf hldGbf/x kl5 cfg} hUufhldgdf xnL ePsf]
kL8fhGo 36gf klg t/fO{sf nflu gf}nf] xf]Og .
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;" c:ktfn egf{


cToGt sd{7 dlxnfsf kdf hLjg ofkg ug'{ePsL d]/L ;f;"sf] cfTdan lgs} alnof] 5 .
To;f] t c};Dd klg xfd|f] g]kfnsf sltko kxf8lt/ / ufFplt/ ;'Ts]/L x'Fbf c:ktfn hfg] k|rng
5}g . h;n] ubf{ k|;"lt cj:yfdf cfdf / aRrfsf] c;dodf g} d[To' x'g] 36gf klg xfd|f] b]zdf c}
klg k|z:t kfOG5 . clxn]sf] o:tf] cj:yf 5 eg] d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf ;ft hgf 5f]/f5f]/Lsf]
hfohGdsf ;Gbe{df c:ktfnsf] d'v b]Vg] s'/} lyPg . To;}n] Ps bzscl3 eb|k'/ c:ktfndf tLg
lbg a;]afx]s pxfFn] c:ktfn egf{ x'g'k/]sf] lyPg .
ljlwn] n]v]sf] s'/f eP/} 5f]8\5 eg] }F d]/L ;f;"n] klg km]l/ bf]xf]ofP/ c:ktfn egf{ x'g} kg]{
n]vfGt /x]5 . h;n] ubf{ @)^@ ;fn h]7 @& ut] z'qmaf/sf lbg pxfFnfO{ cr]tfj:yfdf
sf7df8f}Fl:yt e[s'6Ld08ksf] df]8]n c:ktfn egf{ ul/Psf] lyof] . Tolt a]nf g/]Gb| cfgL cfdfsf
af/] bb{gfs j]bgfsf cj:yfdf x'g'x'GYof] .
cfdf tkfO{+nfO{ klxnf]rf]l6 c:ktfn egf{ x'Fbf s:tf] nfUof] < d]/L ;f;"sf] cg'e"lt ;\u|x
ug]{ qmddf d}n] of] pkqmd klg /r]sL lyPF . s:tf] nfUg' lg c:ktfn egf{ ePsf] dnfO{ yfxf g}
5}g, yfxf kfpFbf d la/fgf] 7fFpdf ;'lt/x]sL lyPF . d]/f] 6fpsf] b'lv/x]sf] lyof] . d cfgf] 3/afx]s
cfSsn'Ssn dfq} csf{sf 3/df ;'t]sL lyPF . To;}n] To; a]nf dnfO{ s:tf] cK7f/f] nfu]/ slQv]/
3/ hfg'h:tf] ePsf] lyof] . x'g t d klxnf]rf]l6 c:ktfndf egf{ ePsL t eb|k'/df xf] lg . d]/L
45
;f;"n] ;D]/ dnfO{ hfgsf/L lbg'ePsf] lyof] . clg lsg lg cfdf To; a]nf s] ladf/ nfu]sf]
lyof] < d}n] s]xL s'/f yfxf kfP klg ;du| hfgsf/Lsf nflu d]/L ;f;";dIf ljgd|tfsf ;fy k|Zg
u/]sL lyPF . s] x'g' lg gfsaf6 /ut uP/ Gg} l;l4PsL lg d To; a]nf d]/f] fkfsf] ;fnaf/L
3/df lyPF . d]/f] gfsaf6 crfgs /ut hfg yfNof] . s]xL a]/d} /utsf] cfxfn eof], 3/kl/jf/df
sf]sf]xf]nf] dlRrof] . d]/f] h]7f] 5f]/f] lji0f'eQm / sfG5f] 5f]/f] u\uf /utsf] cfxfn b]Vgf;fy a]xf];
eOxfn] . clg dnfO{ d]/L h]7L a'xf/L efuL/yfn] 7]nfuf8fdf xfn]/ latf{df]8df NofO{ . ToxfF NofPkl5
sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/t/fh;d]t eP/ xtf/xtf/ dnfO{ eb|k'/ c:ktfndf k'ofP . clg ef]lnkN6
sf7df8f}Faf6 bL3{/fh, g/]Gb| / ltdL fkf cfof} . d To; a]nf tLg /ft c:ktfndf a;]F . csf]{ lbg
g/]Gb| / ltdL dnfO{ ?F3]/ /ftel/ c:ktfnd} a;]sf xf]Ogf} < ;f;"n] k"j{:d[ltdf k'u]/ klg jt{dfgdf
d;Fu ;xdlt lng vf]Hb} d]/f cg'xf/df x]g{'eof] . d}n] klg 6fpsf] xNnfP/ pxfFsf] k"j{:d[ltdf
cfk"mnfO{ ld;fOlbPF . s7}a/L d]/f] g/]Gb| 5f]/f] d clnslt la/fdL x'gf;fy cfdfnfO{ s]xL x'G5 ls
eg]/ slt cflQG5 . To:tf] va/ ;'g]kl5 pm hxfF eP klg s'b]/ deP 7fFpdf cfOxfN5 .
d]/L ;f;"n] cfk"m To; ;do fkfdf ladf/L k/]sf] a]xf]/fnfO{ c} plwGb} dnfO{ eGg'ePsf]
lyof] To; a]nf d la/fdL x'Fbf d]/L sfOFnL a'xf/L kfn] klg d]/f] w'dwfd ;]jf u/]sL 5] . d]/f] /ut
To;n] cFh'nLdf klg yfkL, /utn] ;/f]a/ n'ufkmf6f klg wf]OkvfnL u/L . d}n] klg cfk"m lgsf]
ePkl5 cfk"mn] nufO/x]sf] Pp6f ;'gsf] cf}F7L p;sf cf}Fnfdf nufOlbPF . cfk"mnfO{ ;]jf ug]{
a'xf/LnfO{ cfk"mn] klg s]xL lbg ;s]sf] ;Gt'li6sf efj Toltv]/ pxfFsf cg'xf/df kf]lvPsf lyP .
clg cfdf fkfd} lgsf] x'g'eof] t < d}n] pxfFsf] :d[ltsf] k/LIf0f x]t' dfq} of] k|Zg u/]sL lyPF .
ltdL xfdL;Fu} sf7df8f}F cfPsL xf]Ogf}F < pxfFn] d'';'d; ' ' xfF;]/ dnfO{ hjfkm lbg'ePsf] lyof] .
k|ltpQ/df d klg d':s'/fPsL lyPF .
d]/L ;f;"nfO{ 5f]/fxn] cf}ifwL u/]/ lgsf] kf/]sf] a]xf]/fsf] uj{ ePsf] d}n] dx;'; u/]sL lyPF .
t/ klg d}n] pxfFnfO{ o;af/] s]xL ;f]w]sL lyPF . To; a]nfsf] k|;\unfO{ pxfFn] k"0f{lj/fd nufpFg
vf]Hb} eGg'ePsf] lyof] sf7df8f}Fsf] 7"n} 8fS6/nfO{ 5f]/fxn] hFrfP/ vf]O s]s] cf}ifwL u/] / d]/f] Tof]
ladf/ clxn];Dd aN]sf] 5}g . To;f] eP cfdf b'O{k6s c:ktfn egf{ x'g'eof] xf]Og < sf7df8f}Fdf
la/fdL kbf{ t lgs} b'Vv eof] xf]nf xf]Og < d}n] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ glhssf] ljut lt/ tfGg vf]h]sL
lyPF . o;kfln la/fdL k/]sf] t dnfO{ w]/} ;Dgf 5}g . t/ c:ktfndf d}n] yfxf kfPsL lyPF . d]/L
efGhL kDkmf l;6f}nfsL sfG5L 5f]/L 8f=ljhofsf b'nxf 8f= j;Gt kGtn] d]/f] ck|];g u/]sf /x]5g\ .
pgn] dnfO{ lgs} dfof u/]/ cf}ifwL u/] . g/]Gb| / ltdLn] d]/f] cf}ifwL gu/]sf] eP t d To; a]n} dy]{+ .
gfltx s~rgh\3f / ch'{g l;6f}nf clg gfltgL cg's[ltsfn] ;d]t d]/f] lgs} :ofxf/ u/] . Tof]
tfGt' / s~rgh\3fsf] bfbf eGg] dfwj g]kfnn] klg c:ktfndf lgs} ;3fPsf] ;DG5' d . To;
a]nf d]/f] sfOFnf] 5f]/f] e/t/fh, a'xf/L kf, gflt /fh' / gfltgLx /f]zg / /rgf klg c:ktfndf
dnfO{ x]g{ cfPsf lyP . dnfO{ x]g{ ToxfF kDkmf efGhLb]lv d]/L h]7L lbbL kf k|;fO{sf] gflt j]g'k|;fb
k|;fO{;Dd cfP . dnfO{ c:ktfnd} e]6\g w]/} Oi6ldq cfP . t/ d]/f] ;fOFnf] 5f]/f] bL3{/fh / p;sL
:jf:gLnfO{ d}n] b]lvgF . pgLxsL 5f]/L l6:6f / 5f]/f] sf\u8fnfO{ klg d}n] b]lvgF . To; a]nfsf]
c:ktfn a;]sf] If0fsf] k|;\u klg s]nfP/ d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof] .
d]/L ;f;"n] :jf:Yo nfe ug'{ePkl5 pxfFnfO{ xfdLn] df]8]n c:ktfnaf6 3/ Nofof}F . To;kl5
pxfFnfO{ c:ktfn nfg'k/]sf] 5}g . pxfFdf /x]sf /f]ux ljifosf 8fS6/;Fusf] ;Nnfxadf]lhd lgoldt
kdf cf}ifwL ;]jg u/fO/x]sf 5f}F . pxfFnfO{ laxfga]n'sf lUnlh8, laxfg dN6L le6fldg / Pdnf]8 /
a]n'sf l/8flhg v'jfpgsf] ;fy} a'8]sf]6 OGx]n/ ;]jg u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 . ;fy} x/]s dlxgfdf
dw'd]xsf] k/LIf0f klg u/fpg] ul/Psf] 5 .
d]/L ;f;" vfg] s'/fdf cToGt} ;+oldt klg x'g'x'G5 . cfk"mnfO{ 8fS6/n] gvfg' eg]sf] s'/f
vfgsf nflu pxfF lh4L ug'{x'Gg . s]xL s'/f] s;}n] vfg lbof] eg] klg of] d}n] vfg x'g] ls gx'g]
eg]/ klxn] 7x/ ug'{x'G5 . pxfFsf] ;+oldt hLjgz}nL s} sf/0f klg Gg} gAa] jif{sf] pd]/df
dl:tisdf /ut hd]/ zNolqmof ubf{ klg pxfFnfO{ l56\6} :jf:Yo nfe u/fpg ;lsof] . pxfFsf]
zNolqmof ug]{ Go'/f] ;h{g 8f= j;Gt kGt klg pxfFsf] k|ultaf6 lgs} v';L x'g'ePsf] 5 .
))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))

d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgz}nL


d]/L ;f;"sf] b}lgsL klg /dfOnf] 5 . laxfg p7]/ :gfg ug'{, k"hfhk ug'{ pxfFsf] lgTosd{ xf] .
pxfF laxfg ;w}+ t'n;Lkq vfg'x'G5 / ;ft ah];Dddf lrofvfhf vfO;Sg'x'G5 . vfhfsf kdf pxfFn]
46
k|foM sg{Kn]S; vfg] ug'{x'G5 . To;kl5 b; ah]leqdf pxfFn] eft vfO;Sg'x'G5 . vfgfdf pxfFnfO{ bxL
clgjfo{ rflxG5 . ;fy} lbpF;f] Ps ah] pxfFn] kmnk"mn vfg] ug'{x'G5 / b'O{ ah] k]ml/ lrof vfg'x'G5 .
To;kl5 rf/ ah] pxfFn] k'gM lrofvfhf vfg'x'G5 . pxfFsf nflu a]n'sf & ah]leqdf ;fFsf] vfgf
7Ls kfl/;Sg'k5{ . pxfFsf] ;fFsf] vfgfdf b'O{j6f ;'Vvf /f]6L, t/sf/L / b"w x'g] u5{ . pxfF h];'s}
vfg'kbf{ klg x/]s k6s vfg]s'/f O{Zj/sf] gfddf r9fpg] ug'{x'G5 .
d]/L ;f;" /flt k|foM P3f/ ah];Dddf lgbfpg'x'G5 / laxfg ^ ah]leqdf pl7;Sg'x'G5 . vfgf
vfO;s]kl5 x/]s lbg lbpF;f] pxfF k|foM b'O{ 3G6f hlt ;'Tg] ug'{x'G5 .
kfFr km'6 prfO / aofnL; lsnf]u|fd tf}nsf sf/0f d]/L ;f;"sf] z/L/ km"nsf] y'Fuf }+ 5l/tf]
5 . Go"gtd tf}ns} sf/0f x'g'k5{ clwsf+z k|f}9 :jf:gL dflg;nfO{ x'g] 3'F8fsf] x8\8L lvOg] /f]u
pxfFnfO{ 5}g . To;}n] j[4fj:yfdf klg tLg tn] eof tndfly ug'{ d]/L ;f;"sf nflu ;xhlqmof
ePsf] 5 .
xl/of] /\ Hofb} dg k/fpg] d]/L ;f;"nfO{ sn]hL /sf n'ufkmf6f klg dg k5{g\ . dnfO{ k"mn
/ 3fF;sf] c;fWo} nf]e nfU5 d]/L ;f;"nfO{ d}n] cfk"m;Fu} lnP/ lxF8s ] f a]nf csf{sf 3/ s/];fdf
k'mn]sf k"mn klg l6Kg pBQ pxfFn] dnfO{ eGg'ePsf] lyof], eujfg\nfO{ k"hf ug{ t xf] lg . csf{sf]
au}Frfsf] k"mn Rjf6Rjf6L l6k]sf] dnfO{ rflxF dg kb}{g . eujfg\sf] gfpF u/]/ csf{n] /f]k]sf :ofxf/]sf
k"mn l6k]/ ltgsf] lrQ b'vfpFbf lgsf] x'G5 h:tf] dnfO{ nfUb}g / eujfg\ klg To:tf] sd{ ug]{ cfgf
eQm;Fu k|;Gg x'G5g\ h:tf] klg dnfO{ nfUb}g . t/ d]/f] JolQmut wf/0ff d}n] d]/L ;f;"sf] ?lrdf
nfb\g' klg ePg, To;}n] pxfFn] To;/L k"mn l6Kbf d r'k nfu]/ x]5'{ dfq, s]xL af]lNbgF .
krf; jif{ k'Ubfgk'Ub} ;Dk"0f{ bfFtx u'dfO;Sg'ePsL d]/L ;f;"nfO{ 6\6 x]bf{ pxfFsf bfFt
5}gg\h:tf] nfUb}g . /fd|/L ksfP/ vfglbFbf ;fdfGo vfglkgdf pxfFnfO{ s'g} c;'ljwf klg 5}g . d]/L
5f]/L gL/fn] d]/f] bfFt agfpg latf{df]8df a}gf klg lbPsL lyO{{ . t/ kl5 dnfO{ To:tf] gSsnL bfFt
nufpg dg g} nfu]g, l3g nfUof] . a? a}gf klg vfcf];\ eg]/ d}n] t bfFt nfpg g} dflggF . lsg
rflxof] To:tf] bfFt < dnfO{ vfg vfFrf] 5}g 76\of}nL kf/fn] pxfFn] eGg'ePsf] lyof] .
vfglkgdf v;Lsf] df;' dg k/fpg'x'g] d]/L ;f;"n] @)^$ ;fnsf] bz}Fsf] 36:yfkgfkl5 df;'
vfg crfgs 5f]8\g'ePsf] 5 . pxfF vfgkfgdf a8f] ;Gtf]ifL x'g'x'G5 . s'g} ;Dk|bfodf nfu]/ lxhf]
:jfb lnO{lnO{ df;' vfg] df+;fxf/Ln] clxn] df;' / df+;fxf/LnfO{ 3[0ff u/]sf] pxfF dg k/fpg'x'Gg .
s7}a/L lxhf] vfPsf] df;'sf s];|f bfFtdf c8\s]sf]n] To;}sf] :jfb cfO/x]sf] x'G5, clxn] l5Ml5M
b'/b'/ u5{g\ . dl/Gh]n xfF:t} d]/L ;f;"n] Ps k6s eGg'ePsf] lyof] . a'of}, xfdL b'O{ hf]O{kf]O b'O{
wfgL{ df5f tf/]/ /fVYof}F / b'O{tLg lbg;Dd vfGYof}F . ltdLxsf a'jfnfO{ df5f v'a dL7f] nfUYof] .
d]/L ;f;"n] d]/f ;;'/f;Fusf] hLjgsfndf tf/]sf] df5f v'a} dL7f] dfg]/ vfg] u/]sf]df d]/f ;;'/fsf]
b]xfj;fgkl5 pxfFsf gfpFdf df5f g} r9fpg'ePsfn] pxfF df5f vfg'x'Gg . cfk"mnfO{ v'a dL7f] nfUg]
s'/f eujfg\nfO{ r9fof] eg] csf]{ hGddf klg vfg kfOG5 eGg] ljZjf;df pxfFn] ?vs6x/ / cdnf
klg eujfg\nfO{ r9fpg'ePsfn] vfg'x'Gg .
xfd|L cfdf sxfF o:tL x'g'x'GYof] / < cToGt s7f]/ cg'zf;g lyof] pxfFsf] . cfdfsf cufl8
ljgfsfd xfdLn] To;} pleg' klg x'Fb}gYof] ;f;"sL Psdfq 5f]/L gL/f l;6f}nf eGg'x'G5 . xf] t lg
xfdL rf]6k6s nfu]/ 3/ cfof}F eg] klg cfdfn] klxn] xfdLnfO{ lk6\g'x'GYof] clg dfq} cf}ifwLd"nf]
ug'{x'GYof] . h'g;'s} s'/fn] klg rf]6 lnP/ uof] eg] cfdfn] To;nfO{ ufFpdf u8f u/]/ cfPsf] g}
eG7fGg'x'GYof] / xfdLnfO{ g} ;hfo ug'{x'GYof] . d}n] To;} 8/af6 hf]lug w]/} k6s cfgf ;;fgf
rf]6k6sx / 7"nf rf]6k6s cfdf;Fu n'sfPsf] klg 5' . lbbLsf s'/fnfO{ k'li6 ub}{ g/]Gb|n]
yKg'ePsf] lyof] . xf] ;flNbbL t xfd|f k'mk'xdWo] cToGt} s8f dflgg'x'GYof] . ;flNbbL Goflos /
lgeL{s x'g'ePsfn] xfd|f 3/df klg ;a}hgf ;flNbbL eg]kl5 8/fpFy] . a'jf klg sltko s'/fdf lg0f{o
ug'{kbf{ ;flNbbLnfO{ ;f]Wg'k5{ eGg'x'GYof] . xfdL s]6fs]6Lsf] t ;flNbbL;Fu ;ftf] g} hfGYof] . t/
cfjZostfcg';f/ pxfFn] xfdLnfO{ vr{ar{ klg lbO/xg'x'GYof] k"j{:d[ltdf k'u]/ d]/L ;f;"sf ebf 8f=
/fdk|;fb pk|]tLn] xfF:b} eGg'ePsf] lyof] / 8f= pk|]tLsf s'/fdf pxfFsL kTgL nIdL pk|]tLn] ;f/
ldnfpg'ePsf] lyof] . t/ cfgf] lgod sfg'gdf hlt;'s} s8f eP klg ;flNbbLn] dfof klg w'dwfd
ug'{x'GYof] . pxfFn] ;s]sf] d2t klg xfdLnfO{ ug'{x'GYof] . pxfFsf 3/df hfFbf klg dL7f]dl;gf] vfg
kfOGYof] . To;}n] afNosfndf pxfFsf] 3/ xfd|f nflu lk|o lyof] . d]/L ;f;"sf csf{ ebf hok|;fb
o"s]sf s'/f ;'g]/ d]/L ;f;"sf cg'xf/df uj{sf] efj b]vf k/]sf] lyof] . d]/L ;flNbbLn] d}n] b'Vv
kfPsf a]nf dnfO{ d]/L cfdfn] hlQs} dfof ug'{ePsf] 5 . dnfO{ ;a}n] x]nf ubf{ klg d]/L ;flNbbLn]
dnfO{ ;]Sg'x'GYof] eg]/ cfdfsf csf{ ebf rGb|k|;fb pk]|tLn] klg aofg lbg'ePsf] 5 .

d]/L ;f;" cfgf 5f]/f5f]/L hf]ufpg], x'sf{pg] / k9fpg] sfddf ;w}F bQlrQ /xg'eof] . Tolt
a]nfsf] pxfFsf] Tof] d]xgtsf sf/0f pxfFsf ;a} 5f]/fn] km:6fpg] df}sf kfP . d 5f]/f5f]/LnfO{

47
lk6\g]eGbf klg wfg xfNg] af]/fdf xfn]/ d'v afFw]/ e'OFdf n8fOlbGy]F . To;f] u/]kl5 logLxsf] klg
cf8 dg]{ cfk"mn] klg sfd ug{ kfOg] x'GYof] . d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf] ;hfosf] tl/sf xfdL ;a} a;]sf
7fFpdf k|:t't ug'{ePsf] lyof] . pxFfsf s'/fn] To; a]nfsf] jftfj/0f g} /dfOnf] ePsf] lyof] . pxfFsf
s'/f ;'g] kl5 5f]/f] s~rgh\3f / 5f]/L cg's[ltsf klg k]6 ldrLldrL xfF:y] . a'afnfO{ klg ;fgfdf
To;f] ug'{ePsf] lyof] t dftf < d]/L sfG5L 5f]/L cg's[ltsfn] gkTofP h;/L ;f]w]sL lyO{ . xf] To;}
ug'{x'GYof] cfdfn]] t/ a'of} Psk6s af]/fdf kl;;s]kl5 r]tafaf sf;L eOGYof] clg cfdfnfO{ b'Vv
lbg] sfd / vf;} abdf;L klg ul/Fb}gYof] cfdfsf] ;f6f] of] hjfkm g/]Gb|n] lbg'ePsf] lyof] . 5f]/fsf]
hjfkmsf] k|ltlqmofdf cfdf eg] p;} u/L

d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgz}nL lgSs} nf]enfUbf] b]lvG5 . k|ydtM pxfF cToGt} hfu?s x'g'x'G5 .
pxfFsf nflu cN5Lkgf cToGt} 6f8fsf] ljifo dflgG5 . pxfFnfO{ e]6\g cfpg] cfkmGt;Fu pxfF w]/} g}
v'n]/ k|:t't x'g'x'G5 . o;} kl/k]|Iodf cfdf, tkfO{+nfO{ 3/df e]6\g klg t ;a}hgf cfpFy] xf]nf lg
x}g < d}n] d]/L ;f;"af6} cfkmGtxaf/]sf] hfgsf/L lng vf]h]sL lyPF . d]/f k|Zg;Fu} sf] cfpg' / of]
k/b]zsf] 7fFpdf dnfO{ e]6\g Ps}l5g pxfFn] cfgf] cg'xf/df ljiffbsf] efj klg Nofpg'ePsf] lyof] .
fkfdf eP t cfgf gftf s'6'Da ;a} cfpg] lyP lg t/ of] sf7df8f}Fsf] 7fFpdf d]/f sf] g} kf] 5g\
/ ltdLx ;Fu} eOxfNof} dgsf] dd{ n'sfpg vf]h]/ t'?Gt} pxfFsf d'xf/sf ljiffbsf /]vfx
x/fPsf lyP . To;}n] To; a]nf s]xL xfF:g vf]Hb} pxfFn] cfgf] dgsf efsf ;\lIfKtd} eGg'ePsf]
lyof] . dnfO{ e]6\g cfpg] dfG5]dWo] d]/f 5f]/f elthf / ebfx g} w]/} 5g\ . d]/f h]7f] 5f]/f] / h]7L
a'xf/L Psfw ;fndf dnfO{ e]6g\ fkfaf6 cfpF5g\ . d]/f] h]7f 5f]/f]sf ;a} 5f]/f5f]/Lx klg dnfO{
e]6\g cfpF5g\ . d]/f] csf]{ 5f]/f] e/tsf kl/jf/} dnfO{ e]6\g a/fa/} cfpF5g\ / d klg slxn]sfxLF
pgLxsf 3/ :joDe"df a:g] u/L g} hfg] u5'{ . d]/f] ebf 8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL / p;sL >LdtL
nIdLsf] t s'/} gu/] klg x'G5 . lsgeg] pgLxn] k|foM x/]s lbg d]/f] vf]hLlgtL u/]s} x'G5g\ . d]/f
ebfx hok|;fb o"s] / rGb|f, rGb|k|;fb / d]gsf clg d]/f dtfg] bfh' lji0f'k|;fb pk|]tLsf] 5f]/f]]
u\ufk|;fb pk|]tL / pgsL b'nxL l8NnLdfof dnfO{ e]6\g xfd|f 3/df cfO/xG5g\ . dnfO{ d]/f
bfh'efOn] eGbf klg d]/f ebf eb}xn] c lrh u5{g\ . clxn] d]/f s'g} bfh'efO hLljt 5}gg\ t/
d]/f ebfxn] dnfO{ ;w}F dfof u/]sf 5g\ . d]/f] h]7f bfh' lji0f'nfn pk|]tLsf 5f]/f O{Zj/L, dfOnf
bfh' kz'kltgfy pk|]tLsf 5f]/fx rGb|k|;fb / ;'efif clg sfG5f efO ;'a]bf/ vu]Zj/ pk|]tLsf
5f]/fx? hok|;fb o"s], k|f=8f=/fdk|;fb pk|]tL, ;fu/ pk|]tL / b]j]Gb| pk|]tLn] dnfO{ c;fWo g} dfof
u5{g\ . pgLxsf] dfofn] d}n] bfh'efO g} la;]{sL 5' . ;fdfGotof dfOtL eg]kl5 r]nLa]6Ln] x'?Ss}
ug]{ k|j[lQdf d]/L ;f;" klg c5'tf] x'g'x'Gg . pxfF klg dfOtLsf] v'a} jvfg ug'{x'G5 . To;}n] dfOtLsf]
bf];|f] k':tf;Fu klg TolQs} dfofn' x'g'x'G5 pxfF . pxfFsf] dfOtLk|]d s} k|;\udf 8f=/fdk|;fb
pk|]tLf/f cfgf] r]nLa]6Lk|ltsf] bfloTj lgjf{x ug]{ qmddf pxfFsf] sf7df8f}Fsf] xflQuf}8fl:yt
lgjf;:yfgdf a]nfavt xfdL ;kl/jf/ cfdlGqt x'G5f}F .
d]/L ;f;" cfgf] hLjgz}nLnfO{ c} uxg agfpgsf] >]o cfgL dfOnL h]7fgL ltnfkfnfO{
klg lbg'x'G5 . pxfF cfgL dfOnL h]7fgLsf] 3/L3/L aofg ul//xg'x'G5 . Tof] s'nk|;fbsL cfdfn] Ps}
lbg ;'v gkfO{ dl/g\ . Tof] s'nk|;fb / d]/f] sfG5f] 5f]/f] u\uf ;Fu}sf x'g\ . To;}n] To;nfO{ e]6\bf
dnfO{ d]/} sfG5fnfO{ e]6]h:tf] /dfOnf] nfU5 . dnfO{ d]/L h]7fgLsf 5f]/f a'xf/Lx /Tg / kfj{tL,
b]js[i0f / zfGtf, /fds[i0f / d~h' clg s'nk|;fb / hofsf] klg dfof nfU5 . b]js[i0f lat]sf] a]nf d
w]/} /f]PF .
d]/L ;f;"af/] ljz]if rf;f] /fVg]dWo]df d]/f h]7fh' vg'k\?b] /fdafa" k|;fO{ zLif{:y x'g'x'G5 .
pxfFn] k|foM kmf]g u/]/ d]/L ;f;"sf] ;Grf]lj;Grf] ;f]Wg'x'G5 / ;do;dodf xfd|f 3/df cfP/ klg d]/L
;f;";Fu enfs';f/L ug'{x'G5 . o:t} d]/L ;f;"sf] vf]hLlgtL u/]/ gyfSg]dWo] d]/f csf{ h]7fh' k|fWofks
8f= eLid/fh k|;fO{sf] gfpF klg cu|k\lQmdf cfpF5 . pxfF / ;'eb|f lbbL xfd|f 3/df ;a}eGbf w]/}
cfpg'x'G5 / cfdfsf] :jf:Yosf ljifodf lgu|fgL /fVg'x'G5 . o;} kl/j]zdf d]/L ;f;" a/fa/ eLid bfO
/ ;'eb|f lbbLsf ljifodf s'/f klg ul//xg'x'G5 . To;} k|;\udf pxfF k]ml/ eGg'x'G5 t]haxfb'/,
u0f]zaxfb'/ / pgsL kTgL dfofb]jL, gGbs'df/ / ;Ltf/fd klg dnfO{ e]6\g cfO/x] . pgLx ;a}n]
d]/f] ;f]wLvf]hL ul//xG5g\ . xfd|f l5d]sd} 3/ ePsf d]/f elthf lzjs'df/ k|;fO{ klg of] af6f] lxF8\bf
d]/f] 3/df kl;/xG5g\ . d]/f gflt gu]Gb| kf7s klg a]nfavt dnfO{ e]6\g cfO/xg] u5{g\ .
d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgdf k|efj kfg]{dWo] pxfFsL sfG5L b]j/fgL dx]Zj/f / efGhL kDkmf g} kg'{x'G5 .
To;} kl/k|]Iodf pxfF eGg'x'G5 d]/L kDkmf efGhL / pgsf 5f]/f vu]Gb| l;6f}nf dnfO{ e]6\g a/fa/
cfO/xG5g\ . kDkmf efGhL cd]l/sf klg uOg\ / ToxfFaf6 pgn] dnfO{ ;D]/ n'ufkmf6f klg
NofOlbPsL lyOg\ . To;f] t kxf8 xfkfb]lv sfG5f eflgh hok|;fb d}gfnL / fkf uf/fd'lg a:g]

48
dfOnf h]7fh'sf] h]7f] 5f]/f] /Tg / p;sL kTgL kfj{tL klg dnfO{ e]6\g cfPsf 5g\ . d]/L ;fOFnL
cfdfh"sL sfOFnL 5f]/L xl/snf uu{ r'8fn lxhf]cfh b]jLcfdf ePsL 5g\ . k'/fgf] afg]Zj/df pgsf]
b]jLyfg g} 5 . tL efGhL afNosfnb]lv g} cln ljnIf0fsL lyOg\ . k9\gn]Vg klg l56\6} cfpFYof]
pgnfO{ . pgn] wd{sd{sf lstfax klg n]v]sL l5g\ . pgn] dnfO{ @)^@ ;fndf k'/fgf]
afg]Zj/l:yt pg}sf] dlGb/df 7"nf] ;df/f]x u/]/ bf];Nnf cf]8fpFb} clegGbg klg ul/g\ . To;} u/L
dnfO{ e]6\g d]/L 5f]/L gL/f klg fkfaf6 cfO/xG5] . xfkf u}/LufpFsL xfd|L 5f]/L s[i0fs'df/L klg
dnfO{ e]6\g cfpF5] . fkfdf t elth nId0f k|;fO{ / pgsL wd{kTgL ltnsk|ef / lji6]gL 7"nL -
kb\dfb]jL yklnof_ klg dnfO{ e]6\g cfO/xGy] . 7"nLn] kxf8df klg dnfO{ dfof uyL{ / fkfdf klg
p;n] dnfO{ w]/} ;3fO{ . sfOFnf eflgh s[i0faxfb'/ lji6sf] 5f]/f /fd" -k|]d/fh lji6_n] kxf8df klg
dnfO{ ;xof]u uy]{, db];df klg dnfO{ e]6\g cfO/xGy] / sf7df8f}Fdf klg cfO/xG5g\ . lar/f ue]{
6'x'/f] /fd" afNosfnd} p;sL cfdf klg :ju{ uOg\ . /fd"nfO{ xfdLn] g} x'sf{Psf lyof}F . d]/L ;f;"
cfk"mnfO{ s;}n] e]6\g cfpFbf cToGt} pT;flxt x'g'x'G5 . d]/L ;f;"sL alxgLHjfOF ;fljqf / g/xl/
k|;fO{ klg a]nfdf}sf xfd|f 3/df cfpg'x'G5 . ;fy} kxf8 xfkfsf x]8;/ u0f]zaxfb'/ /fO{ / pxfFsL
kTgL ljBf /fO{ klg d]/L ;f;"nfO{ e]6\g xfd|f 3/df a/fa/ cfpg'x'G5 . cfgf gftfs'6'Da e]6\g cfP
eg] d]/L ;f;" ltgLxnfO{ k'ofpg xfd|f] 3/af6 clnk/ af6f];Dd k'u]/ cfFvfn] pgLx uPsf]
b]v'Gh]n;Dd x]l//xg dgk/fpg'x'G5 . labfaf/L x'Fbf klg k|To]s k6s efjljef]/ x'g] pxfFsf] df}lns
:jefj 5 .
d]/L ;f;"sf] hLjgk4ltnfO{ pxfFsf] ;sf/fTds lzi6frf/n] c dfly p7fPsf] kfOG5 . pxfFsf
hLjgdf h] hlt b'Vvsf If0f 36] tfklg tL a]xf]/fnfO{ pxfF uf}0f dfGg'x'G5 . 3/df cfpg] clwsf+z
pxfFsf cfkmGtnfO{ klg pxfF hLjg afFRg] snf l;sfP/ g} k7fpg'x'G5 .

d]/L ;f;"n] cfgf] 5f]/f] g/]Gb|k|lt uj{ ug{ slxNo} 5f8\g'ePg . pxfF 3/L3/L eGg'x'G5 d]/f]
5f]/f] g/]Gb| gePsf] eP d]/f]] j[4f>ds} jf; x'g]rflxF kSsf /x]5 . xf] d]/f ;a} 5f]/fxn] pGglt g}
u/]sf 5g\ . ;a}sf] cfcfgf 3/af/ 5g\ . t/ d]/f nflu t oxL g/]Gb|] g} eof] .

d]/L ;f;"n] dnfO{ ;w}F dfof ug'{eof] . sfd ljz]ifn] d pxFfsf] 5fofFdf k/]F eg] klg pxfF dnfO{
OlGb/f vf]O eg]/ vf]h]sf] vf]Ho} ug'{x'G5 . pxfF dnfO{ a/fa/ eGg'x'G5 ltdL hxfF uP klg dnfO{
klg n}hfpm x} OlGb/f d]/L ;f;"sf] efjgf a']/ ;do;dodf pxfFnfO{ xfdL 7fpF7fpF 8'nfpF5f}F .
xfd|f x/]s ;flxlTos sfo{qmddf pxfFnfO{ klg xfdL;Fu} lnP/ hfG5f}F . To:tf] ;ef;df/f]xdf k'u]/
cfpFbf pxfF ;fx|} v';L x'g'x'G5 . vf; u/]/ d}n] efif0f u/]sf] cyjf sfo{qmd ;~rfng u/]sf] s'/fn]
pxfF cToGt} uj{sf] cg'e"lt ug'{x'G5 . Tolt a]nf cfk"m a;]sf] s';L{ 5]psf dfG5]nfO{ sf]6fpFb} pxfF
eGg'x'G5 of] clxn] af]Ng] cfOdfO{ OlGb/f d]/L a'xf/L xf] .
d]/L ;f;'nfO{ hg;Dks{ ug{ / lxF88'n ug{ klg ;fx|} OR5f 5 . pxfFsf] sfof j[4 eP klg dg
cToGt phf{zLn 5 . pxfFdf OR5f / rfxgfsf] hLjGttf b]v]kl5 dflg;sf] z/L/ dfq} a"9f] x'G5 dg
;w}F tGg]/L x'G5 eGg] plQm d af/Daf/ ;Dg] u5'{ . To;}n] xfdL klg d]/L ;f;"sf] dgcg';f/sf]
sfd ug{ ;w} bQlrQ /xG5f}F . oyf;Dej pxfFnfO{ v';L /fVg] k|oTgdf g} xfdL nfluk/]sf klg x'G5f}F .

cfOdfO{n] s]xL ug{ ;Q}mgg\ / < OlGb/f t 5f]/L eP/ hGd]sL dfq xf] . p;n] 5f]/fn] eGbf w]/}
ug{ ;S5] . pm g]kfn ;/sf/sf] ;Nnfxsf/;d]t ePsL dfG5] xf] . p;n] sdfPsf] OHht t k|;fO{sf]
klg xf] lg d]/L ;f;"n] g/]Gb|;Fu s'/f u/]sf a]nf d]/f sfgdf o:tf jfSo k/]kl5 d yk k|]l/t x'G5' .
d]/L ;f;"sf dk|ltsf o:tf dxfjf0fLnfO{ d}n] ;Fufn]/ /fv]sL 5' . lhGbuLsf cK7\of/f lbgxdf klg
;fx; lbg] o:tf jf0fL g} d]/f] hLjgsf] phf{;|f]t klg x'g\ . d]/L ;f;" d]/f nflu s?0ff / k|]/0ffsL
;\ud x'g'x'G5 . b]jL:jkf pxfFsf] ;fxro{n] dnfO{ d]/f] hLjgdf clu a9\g] yk hfu/0f k}bf u/]sf]
5.
d]/L ;f;";Fusf] ;xjf;n] dnfO{ hLjgsf] kf7 a'g l;sfof] . x/]s dflg;n] k"0f{ hLjg
latfpFbf ef]Ug} kg]{ j[4fj:yfsf af/]df dnfO{ cGt/bodf g} dx;'; u/fof] . cToGt dd{k"0f{sf] /
si6s/ j[4fj:yfnfO{ kfl/jfl/s rfxgfn] ;'vb\ agfpg klg ;lsFbf] /x]5 eGg] 1fg klg dnfO{
lbnfof] .

49