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Transportation for Gen.

George Washington’s Headquarters and Guard
1778, 1780, 1781, and 1782
John U. Rees
1778 Campaign
Commander-in-Chief’s baggage
7 baggage wagons, 28 wagon horses
Staff baggage
13 baggage wagons, 52 wagon horses

Numbers and apportionment of vehicles and horses based on 30 May 1778 Valley Forge
wagon return, including an allotment of two field pieces to each brigade, for which see, “General
Return of Waggons &ca. with the Army,” Valley Forge, 30 May 1778, Chaloner and White
Mss., box 6, folder 3, Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Two horses have been
allocated for each army baggage wagon, and four horses to every artillery ammunition wagon.
Wagon allotment for the two Maryland brigades is conjectural, based on the known allotment for
other brigades. The artillery wagon allotment is conjectural based on the number of divisions and
the artillery wagons listed on the 30 May return. Twenty–nine field pieces are listed in the 30
May Valley Forge return. Four cannon were absent with Brig. Gen. William Smallwood’s two
Maryland brigades at Wilmington, Delaware, plus artillery wagon support. Two pieces were also
absent with Brig. Gen. William Maxwell’s New Jersey brigade in their home state. That gives a
total of thirty-five cannon with the main army’s brigades, both present with General Washington
and absent in New Jersey.
Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry, based on the 30 May
1778 return and other documents:
(NOTE: Of the vehicles and horses listed on the 30 May 1778 return, 265 wagons and 1,183 horses were
property of the United States; 43 wagons and 189 horses were private property.)

“’Reach Coryels ferry. Encamp on the Pennsylvania side.’: The March from Valley Forge to
Monmouth Courthouse, 18 to 28 June 1778”
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133301501/“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-
Pennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-
June-1778
Endnotes:
http://www.scribd.com/doc/133293312/Endnotes-“Reach-Coryels-ferry-Encamp-on-the-
Pennsylvania-side-”-The-March-from-Valley-Forge-to-Monmouth-Courthouse-18-to-28-
June-1778
Contents
1. “We struck our tents and loaded our baggage.”: Leaving Valley Forge
2. Progress, June 18, 1778.
3. Progress, June 19, 1778.
4. “Crost the dilliware pushed on about 5 milds …”: June 20, 1778: Progress and a River Crossing
5. “4 Wagons & Horses, and 1000 Men at a Try.”: The Mechanics of Ferrying an Army
6. “Halt on the first strong ground after passing the Delaware ...”: June 20th River Crossing
7. “The number of boats … will render the passage of the troops very expeditious.”:
June 21st Ferry Operation
8. “The Troops are passing the River … and are mostly over.”: June 22d Crossing
9. “The Army will march off …”: June 22d and 23d, Camp at Amwell Meeting
10. “Just after we halted we sent out a large detachment …”: Camp and Council: Hopewell
Township, 23 to 24 June
11. “Giving the Enemy a stroke is a very desireable event …”: Advancing to Englishtown,
24 to 28 June
Progress, June 25, 1778.
Progress, June 26, 1778.
Progress, June 27, 1778.
Forward to Battle, June 28, 1778.
12. “Our advanced Corps … took post in the evening on the Monmouth Road …”:
Movements of Continental Detachments Followng the British, 24 to 28 June 1778
The Advance Force: Scott’s, Wayne’s, Lafayette’s, and Lee’s Detachments.
Daily Movements of Detachments Later Incorporated into Lee’s Advanced Corps.
13. Echoes of 1778, Three Years After.
Addendum
1. Driving Directions, Continental Army Route from Valley Forge to Englishtown
2. Day by Day Recap of Route
3. The Road to Hopewell.
4. The Bungtown Road Controversy.
5. Weather During the Monmouth Campaign
6. Selected Accounts of the March from Valley Forge to Englishtown
a. Fifteen-year-old Sally Wister
b. Surgeon Samuel Adams, 3rd Continental Artillery
c. Henry Dearborn, lt. colonel, 3rd New Hampshire Regiment
d. Captain Paul Brigham, 8th Connecticut Regiment
e. Sergeant Ebenezer Wild, 1st Massachusetts Regiment
f. Sgt. Jeremiah Greenman, 2d Rhode Island Regiment
g. Dr. James McHenry, assistant secretary to General Washington
7. List of Related works by the author on military material culture and the Continental Army
Endnotes contain:
1. Army General and Brigade Orders, June 1778.
a. Orders Regulating the Army on the March from Valley Forge.
b. Orders Issued During the Movement from Valley Forge to Englishtown.
2. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army to 22 June 1778
3. Washington’s army vehicle allotment for the march to Coryell’s Ferry,
4. Wheeled Transportation (a primer on the vehicles and artillery on the road to
Monmouth, including twenty-one illustrations)
5. Division and Brigade Composition for Washington’s Main Army after 22 June 1778

1780 Campaign
"Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp Tappan –
27th September 1780"
Commander in Chiefs Baggage (Wagon Conductor, Alexander McCullock)
16 enlisted waggoners, 8 close covered wagons, 7 open wagons, 60 wagon horses, 1 riding horse, 1 saddle,
60 blind bridles, 6 collars, 60 pair hames*, 60 pair traces, 60 back bands, 30 belly bands, 30 “britch” bands**,
15 pair breast chains, 15 pair tongue chains, 15 pair stretchers, 15 pair double trees, 7 wagon covers, 4 water
buckets, 6 tar pots, 60 halters, 60 slips[?], 15 lock chains, 16 feed bags, 6 feed troughs, 6 leading lines.

Staff Baggage
11 enlisted waggoners, 1 tumbrel, 20 close covered wagons, 2 open wagons, 82 wagon horses, 79 blind
bridles, 79 collars, 79 pair hames*, 78 pair traces, 60 back bands, 60 belly bands, 40 “britch” bands**, 25
cruppers, 1 cart saddle, 1 quoiler***, 20 pair breast chains, 20 pair tongue chains, 19 pair stretchers, 20 pair
double trees, 1 wagon covers, 4 water buckets, 8 tar pots, 79 halters, 18 lock chains, 15 feed bags, 16 leading
lines.
"Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp Tappan – 27th
September 1780," Miscellaneous Numbered Records (The Manuscript File) in the War Department
Collection of Revolutionary War Records 1775-1790's, National Archives Microfilm Publication
M859, Record Group 93 (Washington, D.C., 1971), reel 94, no. 27335.

Resource File: Examples of Continental Army Camp Equipage and Vehicle Returns, 1775-1781
(John U. Rees) http://www.scribd.com/doc/223095304/Resource-File-Examples-of-
Continental-Army-Camp-Equipage-and-Vehicle-Returns-1776-1781-John-U-Rees
Contents
1. Clothing and Equipment Lost at Bunker Hill, 17 June 1775 (including a discussion of
“snapsacks”)
2. Cooking and Other Equipment in Brig. Gen. John Sullivan’s Brigade, 24 March 1776
3. Main Army: Return of Arms and Accoutrements issued from 1 April to 1 August 1777
4. Return of Camp Equipage Delivered to the Army during the 1777 Campaign
5. Partial List of Stores Captured on the British Ship Symmetry, Wilmington, Delaware, January
1778
6. Camp Equipage in the 1st Pennsylvania Brigade, Valley Forge, 3 June 1778
7. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in The Brigades at West Point & Constitution
Island," 1 August 1779: North Carolina, 4th Massachusetts, and Paterson’s (Massachusetts)
Brigades
8. "A Return of Quarter-Master-General's Stores in the Second Pennsylvania Brigade ... at Camp
West Point," 4 August 1779
9. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores for Maj. Gen. John Sullivan’s Army, Tioga, 21 August 1779.
10. Return of Clothing and Camp Equipment in Maj. Gen. Arthur St. Clair’s Pennsylvania
Division in the Hudson Highlands, 1 October 1779.
11. Return of Quartermaster’s Stores in the 1st Connecticut Brigade (Including Brigadier
General and Staff), Hudson Highlands, 25 May 1781
12. "Return of Waggons, Horses … &c the property of the United States Army – Camp Tappan –
27th September 1780"
13. "Return of all Public Property in the Quarter Masters Department with the Southern Army"
14. Two Returns of Horse and Wagons with the Pennsylvania Line in Virginia, 12 June and 27
November 1781
Appendices:
1. Overview of Wheeled Transportation.
2. Material Culture Articles Related to Items on the Equipment Returns
1781 Campaign

“Commander in chief family & guard”: four marquees, one horseman’s tent, twenty common
tents, and ninety double knapsacks.
"Estimate of Tents & Knapsacks for the Main Army 1781," target 4, volume 103, Numbered
Record Books Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and
Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records (National Archives
Microfilm Publication M853, reel 29) Record Group 93, NA.

"Proposed distribution of waggons for the campaign 1781"
“Commander in chief, family & guard”: eight “4 horse close covered waggons,” one “2 horse close
covered waggon,” and six “4 ox teams.”
Timothy Pickering, "Proposed distribution of waggons for the campaign 1781," target 4, volume
103, Numbered Record Books Concerning Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement
Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department Collection of Revolutionary War Records (National
Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 29) Record Group 93, NA.

1782 Campaign

“An Estimate of Officers baggage wagons with the main army for the campaign 1782”
“For the Commander in Chief, family & guard”: eight “4-horse close-covered wagons,” six “4-
horse [illegible word] covered wagons ,” and one 2-horse ditto.”

Timothy Pickering, “An Estimate of Officers baggage wagons with the main army for the
campaign 1782,” 15 February 1782, target 4, volume 103, Numbered Record Books Concerning
Military Operations and Service, Pay and Settlement Accounts, and Supplies in the War Department
Collection of Revolutionary War Records (National Archives Microfilm Publication M853, reel 29)
Record Group 93, NA.