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NASANASA UtilizationUtilization ofof thethe InternationalInternational SpaceSpace StationStation andand thethe VisionVision forfor SpaceSpace ExplorationExploration

JulieJulie A.A. Robinson,Robinson, Ph.D.,Ph.D., ISSISS ProgramProgram ScientistScientist (acting)(acting) AIAAAIAA AerospaceAerospace SciencesSciences MeetingMeeting JanuaryJanuary 20072007

TheThe VisionVision forfor SpaceSpace ExplorationExploration

Vision Vision for for Space Space Exploration Exploration On On January January 14, 14, 2004, 2004,
Vision Vision for for Space Space Exploration Exploration On On January January 14, 14, 2004, 2004,

OnOn JanuaryJanuary 14,14, 2004,2004, thethe focusfocus ofof NASANASA researchresearch onon ISSISS waswas fundamentallyfundamentally changedchanged withwith PresidentPresident BushBushss VisionVision forfor U.S.U.S. SpaceSpace ExplorationExploration

ISSISS FocusFocus forfor NASANASA beforebefore ExplorationExploration Vision:Vision: Diverse,Diverse, multimulti--disciplinediscipline researchresearch HumanHuman LifeLife SciencesSciences BiologicalBiological SciencesSciences MaterialsMaterials ScienceScience FluidsFluids ScienceScience CombustionCombustion ScienceScience AndAnd allall otherother sciences!sciences!

TheThe VisionVision forfor SpaceSpace ExplorationExploration

Vision Vision for for Space Space Exploration Exploration On On January January 14, 14, 2004, 2004,
Vision Vision for for Space Space Exploration Exploration On On January January 14, 14, 2004, 2004,

OnOn JanuaryJanuary 14,14, 2004,2004, thethe focusfocus ofof NASANASA researchresearch onon ISSISS waswas fundamentallyfundamentally changedchanged withwith PresidentPresident BushBushss VisionVision forfor U.S.U.S. SpaceSpace ExplorationExploration

NEWNEW ISSISS FocusFocus forfor NASANASA

AstronautAstronaut healthhealth andand countermeasurecountermeasure developmentdevelopment toto protectprotect crewscrews fromfrom thethe spacespace environmentenvironment duringduring longlong durationduration voyagesvoyages TestingTesting researchresearch andand technologytechnology developmentsdevelopments forfor futurefuture explorationexploration missionsmissions DevelopingDeveloping andand validatingvalidating operationaloperational proceduresprocedures forfor longlong--durationduration spacespace missionsmissions

OutlineOutline

Outline Outline Research Research on on Astronaut Astronaut Health Health Research Research and and Technology

ResearchResearch onon AstronautAstronaut HealthHealth ResearchResearch andand TechnologyTechnology DevelopmentDevelopment LearnLearn LessonsLessons fromfrom ISSISS OperationsOperations LifeLife andand PhysicalPhysical SciencesSciences inin MicrogravityMicrogravity

Physical Sciences Sciences in in Microgravity Microgravity Plans Plans AND AND Accomplishments Accomplishments

PlansPlans ANDAND AccomplishmentsAccomplishments

Physical Sciences Sciences in in Microgravity Microgravity Plans Plans AND AND Accomplishments Accomplishments
ISS ISS Medical Medical Project Project

ISSISS MedicalMedical ProjectProject

ISS ISS Medical Medical Project Project

TheThe ChallengeChallenge

20002000 20062006 20092009 20112011 20162016 ISSISS crewedcrewed TodayToday 66--crewcrew AssemblyAssembly
20002000
20062006
20092009
20112011
20162016
ISSISS crewedcrewed
TodayToday
66--crewcrew
AssemblyAssembly

completecomplete

U.S.U.S. ResearchResearch horizonhorizon

completecomplete U.S.U.S. ResearchResearch horizonhorizon ISSISS isis thethe onlyonly longlong -- durationduration

ISSISS isis thethe onlyonly longlong--durationduration microgravitymicrogravity environmentenvironment forfor studiesstudies ofof healthhealth effects/countermeasureseffects/countermeasures forfor MarsMars transittransit ToTo getget reasonablereasonable numbersnumbers ofof humanhuman subjectssubjects studiesstudies mustmust beginbegin NOWNOW——aboutabout 1/31/3 ofof plannedplanned expeditionsexpeditions areare complete!complete! MostMost utilizationutilization resourcesresources areare limitedlimited duringduring assembly,assembly, andand withwith 33 crewcrew throughthrough 20092009

areare limitedlimited duringduring assembly,assembly, andand withwith 33 crewcrew throughthrough 20092009

ExperimentsExperiments onon ISSISS cancan addressaddress

CountermeasuresCountermeasures && riskrisk reductionreduction

Countermeasures & & risk risk reduction reduction SPACE SPACE SYSTEM SYSTEM Advanced Advanced life life

SPACESPACE SYSTEMSYSTEM

AdvancedAdvanced lifelife supportsupport

ExerciseExercise systemssystems

ClinicalClinical capabilitiescapabilities

RadiationRadiation

DustDust

capabilities capabilities Radiation Radiation Dust Dust HUMAN HUMAN SYSTEM SYSTEM Integrated Integrated physiology
capabilities capabilities Radiation Radiation Dust Dust HUMAN HUMAN SYSTEM SYSTEM Integrated Integrated physiology

HUMANHUMAN SYSTEMSYSTEM

IntegratedIntegrated physiologyphysiology

CardiovascularCardiovascular

BoneBone && MuscleMuscle

NeurovestibularNeurovestibular

FoodFood andand nutritionnutrition

ImmunologyImmunology && infectioninfection

HumanHuman behaviorbehavior && performanceperformance

Completed Completed — — Distribution Distribution of of Loss Loss and and Recovery Recovery of

CompletedCompletedDistributionDistribution ofof LossLoss andand RecoveryRecovery ofof BoneBone inin MicrogravityMicrogravity

Recovery of of Bone Bone in in Microgravity Microgravity Normal bone Osteoporitic bone Images: MRC Research
Recovery of of Bone Bone in in Microgravity Microgravity Normal bone Osteoporitic bone Images: MRC Research

Normal bone

of Bone Bone in in Microgravity Microgravity Normal bone Osteoporitic bone Images: MRC Research Updates Sub-Regional

Osteoporitic bone

in Microgravity Microgravity Normal bone Osteoporitic bone Images: MRC Research Updates Sub-Regional Assessment of Bone

Images: MRC Research Updates

Sub-Regional Assessment of Bone Loss in the Axial Skeleton in Long-Term Spaceflight , PI: Thomas F. Lang, University of California, San Francisco

Thomas F. Lang, Un iversity of California, San Francisco Distribution Distribution of of bone bone loss

DistributionDistribution ofof bonebone lossloss

BoneBone lost:lost: 0.9%/month0.9%/month spine,spine, 1.4%/month1.4%/month inin femoralfemoral neckneck (a(a menopausalmenopausal womanwoman losesloses ~1%~1% perper year)year) InIn thethe hip,hip, trabeculartrabecular (interior)(interior) bonebone isis lostlost atat aa raterate 2.5%/month,2.5%/month, comparedcompared toto 0.5%/month0.5%/month forfor corticalcortical (outer)(outer) bonebone RiskRisk ofof fracturefracture onon returnreturn toto EarthEarth higherhigher thanthan estimatedestimated fromfrom averageaverage bonebone lossloss

11--YearYear PostflightPostflight::

BoneBone hashas substantiallysubstantially recoveredrecovered However,However, volumetricvolumetric corticalcortical bonebone massmass andand bonebone strengthstrength onlyonly partiallypartially recovered;recovered; affectsaffects riskrisk assessmentsassessments

NextNext Steps:Steps:

UpcomingUpcoming studiesstudies ofof biomarkersbiomarkers forfor bonebone resorption,resorption, bisphosphinatebisphosphinate trialstrials

CompletedCompletedQuantitativeQuantitative MeasurementMeasurement ofof ForcesForces forfor ExerciseExercise CountermeasuresCountermeasures

for for Exercise Exercise Countermeasures Countermeasures Bone Bone and and muscle muscle loss loss vs. vs.
for for Exercise Exercise Countermeasures Countermeasures Bone Bone and and muscle muscle loss loss vs. vs.

BoneBone andand musclemuscle lossloss vs.vs. exerciseexercise

countermeasurescountermeasures Results:Results:

 

PreliminaryPreliminary----muchmuch lessless forceforce waswas

experiencedexperienced thanthan wouldwould bebe experiencedexperienced whenwhen exercisingexercising onon Earth.Earth. KneeKnee--jointjoint motionmotion inin spacespace isis reducedreduced

comparedcompared toto thatthat onon Earth,Earth, andand thisthis hashas anan effecteffect onon musclemuscle actionaction DetailedDetailed datadata werewere collectedcollected onon thethe loadsloads acrossacross allall exerciseexercise hardwarehardware settingssettings duringduring ExpeditionsExpeditions 1111 andand 1212

ApplicationApplication toto ExerciseExercise OperationsOperations

Force/boneForce/bone lossloss connectionconnection forfor

determiningdetermining prescriptionsprescriptionsHarness/loadHarness/load devicesdevices

ResistiveResistive exerciseexercise vs.vs. aerobicaerobic exerciseexercise

Foot/Ground Reaction Forces During Space Flight , PI: Peter Cavanagh, The Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH

CompletedCompletedInteractionsInteractions

Completed Completed — — Interactions Interactions Standard Standard mood mood and and interpersonal interpersonal
Completed Completed — — Interactions Interactions Standard Standard mood mood and and interpersonal interpersonal

StandardStandard moodmood andand interpersonalinterpersonal groupgroup climateclimate questionnairesquestionnaires

Results:Results:

 

NoNo evidenceevidence ofof 33 rdrd quarterquarter oror 22 ndnd halfhalf

effectseffects DisplacementDisplacement ofof negativenegative feelingsfeelings

fromfrom thethe crewcrew toto thethe ground,ground, andand fromfrom groundground personnelpersonnel toto outsideoutside supervisorssupervisors DifferencesDifferences betweenbetween AmericansAmericans andand

RussiansRussians andand betweenbetween crewcrew andand groundground SalutogenicSalutogenic effectseffects ofof beingbeing inin spacespace

ApplicationApplication toto OperationsOperations

UseUse ofof measuresmeasures inin upcomingupcoming testtest ofof

crewcrew autonomyautonomy DiscussionDiscussion withinwithin thethe operationsoperations communitycommunity aboutabout phasingphasing effectseffects andand displacementdisplacement

Crewmember and Crew-Ground Interaction During International Space Station Missions , PI: Nick A. Kanas, University of California- San Francisco, CA

During International Space Station Missions , PI: Nick A. Kanas, Univ ersity of California- San Francisco,

OtherOther recentrecent ISSISS humanhuman researchresearch resultsresults withwith keykey applicationsapplications forfor ExplorationExploration missionsmissions

for for Exploration Exploration missions missions Clinical Clinical Medicine Medicine and and Telemedicine:

ClinicalClinical MedicineMedicine andand Telemedicine:Telemedicine:

AdvancedAdvanced

UltrasoundUltrasound

RenalRenal StoneStone PreventionPrevention

ChromosomeChromosome investigationinvestigation andand ongoingongoing radiationradiation monitoringmonitoring

ISSISS MedicalMedical ProjectProject

ISS ISS Medical Medical Project Project ISSMP ISSMP has has been been developed developed to to

ISSMPISSMP hashas beenbeen developeddeveloped toto maximizemaximize thethe utilizationutilization ofof ISSISS toto obtainobtain solutionssolutions toto thethe humanhuman healthhealth andand performanceperformance problemsproblems andand thethe associatedassociated missionmission risksrisks ofof explorationexploration classclass missionsmissions CompleteComplete programmaticprogrammatic reviewreview withwith medicalmedical operationsoperations (space(space medicine/flightmedicine/flight surgeons)surgeons) toto identify:identify:

surgeons) surgeons) to to identify: identify: Evidence Evidence base base on on risks risks Gap Gap

EvidenceEvidence basebase onon risksrisks GapGap analysisanalysis

RapidRapid implementationimplementation ofof keykey studiesstudies toto optimizeoptimize humanhuman researchresearch returnreturn

optimize human human research research return return First First two two of of these these implement

FirstFirst twotwo ofof thesethese implementimplementeded viavia fastfast tracktrack duringduring 20062006 OngoingOngoing processprocess toto identifyidentify andand devdevelopelop thethe mostmost criticalcritical studiestudiess

process to to identify identify and and dev dev elop elop the the most most critical

NowNow Begun:Begun:

NutritionNutrition && PhysiologicalPhysiological StatusStatus

& & Physiological Physiological Status Status Nutrition Status A ssessment, PI: Scott Smith, NASA Johnson
& & Physiological Physiological Status Status Nutrition Status A ssessment, PI: Scott Smith, NASA Johnson
& & Physiological Physiological Status Status Nutrition Status A ssessment, PI: Scott Smith, NASA Johnson

Nutrition Status Assessment, PI: Scott Smith, NASA Johnson Space Center

MedicalMedical RequirementRequirement observationsobservations ClinicalClinical NutritionNutrition AssessmentAssessment

(MR016L)(MR016L)

Results:Results:

 

BodyBody weight,weight, totaltotal bonebone mineralmineral

content,content, andand bonebone mineralmineral densitydensity decreaseddecreased duringduring flight.flight. AntioxidantAntioxidant capacitycapacity decreaseddecreased

duringduring flight,flight, leadingleading toto increasedincreased susceptibilitysusceptibility toto geneticgenetic damagedamage fromfrom radiation.radiation. VitaminVitamin DD concentrationconcentration inin crewcrew bonebone waswas decreased,decreased, andand bonebone resorptionresorption increased,increased, byby longlong exposureexposure toto microgravity.microgravity.

NewNew InIn--flightflight StudyStudy (the(the mostmost comprehensivecomprehensive toto date):date):

BiomarkersBiomarkers forfor bonebone lossloss processprocess

StressStress hormoneshormones

OxidativeOxidative StressStress

BB--vitaminvitamin statusstatus

MELFIMELFI--8080°°CC freezerfreezer capabilitycapability onon ISSISS

MELFI MELFI — — - - 80 80 ° ° C C freezer freezer capability capability
MELFI MELFI — — - - 80 80 ° ° C C freezer freezer capability capability
MELFI MELFI — — - - 80 80 ° ° C C freezer freezer capability capability

InIn progress:progress:

VitaminVitamin andand DrugDrug StabilityStability

Vitamin Vitamin and and Drug Drug Stability Stability Analysis Analysis of of returned returned foods foods
Vitamin Vitamin and and Drug Drug Stability Stability Analysis Analysis of of returned returned foods foods

AnalysisAnalysis ofof returnedreturned foodsfoods andand drugsdrugs fromfrom ISSISS Results:Results:

SomeSome pharmaceuticalspharmaceuticals andand vitaminsvitamins areare significantlysignificantly degradeddegraded inin spacespace

AntibioticsAntibiotics AntihistaminiesAntihistaminies VitaminVitamin DD

NewNew InIn--flightflight Study:Study:

Vitamin D D New New In In - - flight flight Study: Study: Controlled Controlled exposur

ControlledControlled exposurexposuree ofof foodfood andand pharmaceuticalspharmaceuticals toto spaceflightspaceflight FourFour identicalidentical samplesample kitskits (containing(containing pharmaceuticals,pharmaceuticals, food,food, dosimeterdosimeter andand aa temperaturetemperature sensor)sensor) willwill bebe transportedtransported toto ISSISS StoredStored forfor 0,0, 6,6, 12,12, andand 1818 monthsmonths andand returnedreturned forfor analysisanalysis IdenticalIdentical kitkit inin OrbitalOrbital EnvironmentalEnvironmental SimulatorSimulator

analysis analysis Identical Identical kit kit in in Orbital Orbital Environmental Environmental Simulator Simulator
analysis analysis Identical Identical kit kit in in Orbital Orbital Environmental Environmental Simulator Simulator
analysis analysis Identical Identical kit kit in in Orbital Orbital Environmental Environmental Simulator Simulator

Stability of Pharmacotherapeutic and Nutritional Compounds , PI: Scott Smith and Lakshmi Putcha, NASA Johnson Space Center

NowNow Begun:Begun:

SleepSleep--WakeWake ActigraphyActigraphy

Begun: Sleep Sleep - - Wake Wake Actigraphy Actigraphy Phase Advance Phase Delay day =8 7
Begun: Sleep Sleep - - Wake Wake Actigraphy Actigraphy Phase Advance Phase Delay day =8 7
Phase Advance Phase Delay day =8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 1
Phase Advance
Phase Delay
day
=8
7
6
5
4
3
2
1
1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
=8
STS 108
RS EVA #5 Prep
RS EVA #5 & Prep
(+10:30)
RS EVA #5
Closeout
RS EVA #6
RS EVA #6
Closeout
RS EVA #5 Closeout RS EVA #6 RS EVA #6 Closeout Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure

Sleep-Wake Actigraphy and Light Exposure During Spaceflight-Long , PI: Charles A. Czeisler, Harvard Medical School

SlamSlam ShiftingShiftingonon ISSISS usedused toto alignalign communicationscommunications withwith groundground sitessites forfor EVA,EVA, dockingsdockings

Results:Results:

 

CrewmembersCrewmembers gogo throughthrough significantsignificant

shiftsshifts inin sleepsleep toto meetmeet operationaloperational requirementsrequirementssometimessometimes equivalentequivalent toto multiplemultiple transoceanictransoceanic flightsflights perper monthmonth AuditoryAuditory andand lightlight environmentsenvironments onon

ISSISS cancan alsoalso impactimpact sleepsleep ShortShort durationduration (Shuttle)(Shuttle) crewmemberscrewmembers experienceexperience significantsignificant disruptiondisruption inin sleepsleep patternspatterns thatthat wouldwould bebe expectedexpected toto prproduceoduce decrementsdecrements toto performanceperformance

NewNew InIn--flightflight Study:Study:

AutomaticAutomatic measurementmeasurement ofof sleepsleep patternspatterns AutomaticAutomatic measurementmeasurement ofof lightlight exposureexposure SleepSleep logginglogging capturescaptures subjectivesubjective elementselements

light light exposure exposure Sleep Sleep logging logging captures captures subjective subjective elements elements
light light exposure exposure Sleep Sleep logging logging captures captures subjective subjective elements elements

NearNear TermTerm HumanHuman ResearchResearch onon ISSISS

Term Term Human Human Research Research on on ISS ISS Physiology Physiology in in Microgravity Microgravity
Term Term Human Human Research Research on on ISS ISS Physiology Physiology in in Microgravity Microgravity

PhysiologyPhysiology inin MicrogravityMicrogravity Bone resorption (Nutrition Status Assessment, Bisphosphenates) Stress reactivation of viruses (Epstein-Barr, Latent Virus) Clinical risks from immune system changes in space, and a flight- compatible immune monitoring strategy (Integrated Immune) Cardiovascular (Oxygen uptake assessment, Dysrhythmia, CCISS, Cardiac) PhysiologyPhysiology inin Microgravity:Microgravity: AdaptationAdaptation toto GravityGravity ChangesChanges Mitigate post-flight locomotor dysfunction (Mobility) Prevent post-flight orthostatic intolerance (Midodrine) Space motion sickness drug uptake study (PMZ) BehaviorBehavior andand PerformancePerformance Evaluate the most important factors for coping with isolation and long duration space flight (Journals) Whether sleep-wake cycles are disrupted on long-duration flight as they are during short-duration space flight (Sleep)

flight as they are during short-duration space flight (Sleep) All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station
flight as they are during short-duration space flight (Sleep) All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station

All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station

Technology Technology Development Development

TechnologyTechnology DevelopmentDevelopment

Technology Technology Development Development

CompletedCompleted andand ForthcomingForthcomingSmokeSmoke DetectionDetection andand AerosolAerosol MeasurementMeasurement

Detection and and Aerosol Aerosol Measurement Measurement Current Current Smoke Smoke Detectors, Detectors, adapted
Detection and and Aerosol Aerosol Measurement Measurement Current Current Smoke Smoke Detectors, Detectors, adapted

CurrentCurrent SmokeSmoke Detectors,Detectors, adaptedadapted fromfrom 11 gg

 

Shuttle:Shuttle: IonizationIonization smokesmoke detectorsdetectors (<1(<1

micron)micron) ISS:ISS: PhotoelectricPhotoelectric smokesmoke detectorsdetectors

(>0.6(>0.6 microns)microns) Orion:Orion: upcomingupcoming designdesign decisiondecision

DustDust andand AerosolAerosol FeasibilityFeasibility TestTest (DAFT)(DAFT)CompletedCompleted

 

ProvedProved thethe accuracyaccuracy ofof COTSCOTS dustdust andand

particleparticle counterscounters forfor useuse inin futurefuture experimentsexperiments DocumentedDocumented thethe excellentexcellent performanceperformance ofof thethe ISSISS HEPAHEPA filtrationfiltration systemsystem

NextNext Step:Step: SmokeSmoke andand AerosolAerosol MeasurementMeasurement ExperimentExperiment

QuantifyQuantify smokesmoke particulateparticulate andand aerosolaerosol

componentscomponents fromfrom onon--orbitorbit combustioncombustion CompareCompare thethe performanceperformance ofof existingexisting

smokesmoke detectiondetection systemssystems GuideGuide futurefuture designdesign decisionsdecisions

Dust and Aerosol Feasibility Test (DAFT) and Smoke and Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME) PI: David Urban, NASA Glenn Research Center

CompletedCompleted andand OngoingOngoingMaterialsMaterials InvestigationsInvestigations forfor thethe SpaceSpace EnvironmentEnvironment

for for the the Space Space Environment Environment External External Exposure Exposure to to the the
for for the the Space Space Environment Environment External External Exposure Exposure to to the the
for for the the Space Space Environment Environment External External Exposure Exposure to to the the

ExternalExternal ExposureExposure toto thethe spacespace environmentenvironment

 

Radiation,Radiation, atomicatomic oxygen,oxygen, micrometeoroids,micrometeoroids,

temperature,temperature, vacuumvacuum ImportanceImportance forfor satellitsatelliteses ofof allall typestypes andand humanhuman spaceflightspaceflight

MISSEMISSE 1/21/2 SpentSpent 44 yearsyears exposedexposed

 

TestedTested 400400 materialsmaterials

OpticalOptical changeschanges inin thermalthermal controlcontrol materialsmaterials

MechanismsMechanisms ofof atomicatomic oxygenoxygen degradationdegradation ofof multilayermultilayer materialsmaterials

MISSEMISSE 55

 

TestTest performanceperformance ofof advancedadvanced generationgeneration

solarsolar cellscells withwith amateuramateur satellitesatellite communicationcommunication TestedTested 200200 materialsmaterials

NextNext Step:Step: MISSEMISSE 3/43/4 onon orbit,orbit, andand 6A/6B6A/6B plannedplanned 20072007

IncludesIncludes sealsseals forfor OrionOrion advancedadvanced dockingdocking andand berthingberthing systemsystem (with(with andand withoutwithout removableremovable cover,cover, andand withwith/without/without aa metallicmetallic coating)coating)

Materials on the ISS Experiment , PIs: William Kinard, NASA Langley Research Center (MISSE 1/2, 3/4, 6A/6B); Robert Walters, Naval research Laboratory (MISSE-5)

NearNear TermTerm TechnologyTechnology ResearchResearch onon ISSISS

Technology Technology Research Research on on ISS ISS Environmental Environmental Control Control ANITA
Technology Technology Research Research on on ISS ISS Environmental Environmental Control Control ANITA

EnvironmentalEnvironmental ControlControl ANITA (Analyzing Interferometer for Ambient Air) eNOSE (Electronic Nose) VCAM (Vehicle Cabin Air Monitor) FluidFluid FlowsFlows Capillary Flow Experiment (Vane gap applications to propellant tank design) HeatHeat TransferTransfer Microheater Array Boiling Experiment Nucleate Pool Boiling Experiment SpacecraftSpacecraft MaterialsMaterials && SystemsSystems Elastic memory composites for hinges (EMCH) Rigidized structure assembly (RIGEX) Formation flying, guidance, and navigation (SPHERES) Picosatellites (STP-H2-MEPSI, ANDE, RAFT) MicrofluidicMicrofluidic AnalysisAnalysis Lab-on-a-chip Technologies (LOCAD-PTS)

Analysis Analysis Lab-on-a-chip Technologies (LOCAD-PTS) All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station
Analysis Analysis Lab-on-a-chip Technologies (LOCAD-PTS) All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station

All studies at http://exploration.nasa.gov/programs/station

Lessons Lessons Learned Learned from from ISS ISS Operations Operations

LessonsLessons LearnedLearned fromfrom ISSISS OperationsOperations

Lessons Lessons Learned Learned from from ISS ISS Operations Operations

ExampleExampleEnvironmentalEnvironmental MonitoringMonitoring

— — Environmental Environmental Monitoring Monitoring Environmental Environmental monitoring monitoring is is
— — Environmental Environmental Monitoring Monitoring Environmental Environmental monitoring monitoring is is

EnvironmentalEnvironmental monitoringmonitoring isis performedperformed

operationallyoperationally toto insureinsure thethe healthhealth ofof thethe spacecraftspacecraft andand crewcrew WaterWater systemsystem results:results:

 

1212 bacterialbacterial strainsstrains cultured,cultured, metmet safesafe drinkingdrinking waterwater standardsstandards BiocideBiocide treatmentstreatments andand otherother preventativepreventative measuresmeasures areare workingworking

AirAir qualityquality results:results:

 

HEPAHEPA filtersfilters areare effectiveeffective inin controllingcontrolling tracetrace

contaminantscontaminants PerformancePerformance andand repairrepair ofof VolatileVolatile OrganicsOrganics

AnalyzerAnalyzer LessonsLessons learnedlearned frfromom regenerationregeneration ofof MetoxMetox cannisterscannistersdisruptiondisruption ofof airflowsairflows andand temporarytemporary formaldehydeformaldehyde accumulationsaccumulations

JustJust begun:begun: SWABSWAB investigationinvestigation

90%90% ofof microbesmicrobes cannotcannot bebe culturedcultured LegionellaLegionella,, CryptosporidiumCryptosporidium,, dustdust mites,mites, endotoxinsendotoxins ModernModern geneticgenetic approachesapproaches toto followfollow changeschanges inin microbialmicrobial communitiescommunities onon ISSISS Surfaces,Surfaces, Air,Air, WaterWater

changes in in microbial microbial communities communities on on ISS ISS Surfaces, Surfaces, Air, Air, Water
changes in in microbial microbial communities communities on on ISS ISS Surfaces, Surfaces, Air, Air, Water
changes in in microbial microbial communities communities on on ISS ISS Surfaces, Surfaces, Air, Air, Water

Surface, Water and Air Biocharacterization - A Comprehensive Characterization of Microorganisms and Allergens in Spacecraft Environment , PI: Duane L. Pierson, NASA Johnson Space Center

MicrogravityMicrogravity

Microgravity Microgravity
Microgravity Microgravity

LifeLife andand PhysicalPhysical SciencesSciences inin Microgravity:Microgravity:

ExamplesExamples CompletedCompleted andand OngoingOngoing

Examples Completed Completed and and Ongoing Ongoing Root Root Phototropism Phototropism ( ( Tropi Tropi )

RootRoot PhototropismPhototropism ((TropiTropi))

Root Root Phototropism Phototropism ( ( Tropi Tropi ) ) Binary Binary Colloidal Colloidal Alloy Alloy
Root Root Phototropism Phototropism ( ( Tropi Tropi ) ) Binary Binary Colloidal Colloidal Alloy Alloy

BinaryBinary ColloidalColloidal AlloyAlloy ModelsModels ofof CriticalCritical PointPoint BehaviorBehavior ((BCATBCAT--33))

Point Point Behavior Behavior ( ( BCAT BCAT - - 3 3 ) ) InSpace InSpace

InSpaceInSpace ((MagnetorheologicalMagnetorheological FluidsFluids))

Behavior Behavior ( ( BCAT BCAT - - 3 3 ) ) InSpace InSpace ( (
1 . 1 . Complete Complete assembly assembly of of the the ISS ISS 2

1.1. CompleteComplete assemblyassembly ofof thethe ISSISS

2.2. DevelopDevelop OrionOrion (Crew(Crew ExplorationExploration Vehicle)Vehicle)

Summary:Summary:

NASANASA ISSISS ResearchResearch

Summary: Summary: NASA NASA ISS ISS Research Research Recognize Recognize that, that, in in the the

RecognizeRecognize that,that, inin thethe nearnear term,term, completioncompletion ofof ISSISS limitslimits thethe amountamount ofof researchresearch thatthat cancan bebe completedcompleted (budget,(budget, upmassupmass,, crewtimecrewtime))

ShuttleShuttle retirementretirement inin 20102010 PreparationPreparation forfor 66--personperson crewcrew byby 20092009

Continue,Continue, withwith limitedlimited budget,budget, toto conductconduct highhigh prioritypriority ISSISS researchresearch thatthat

priority priority ISS ISS research research that that Supports Supports the the Exploration Exploration Vis

SupportsSupports thethe ExplorationExploration VisVisionion TakesTakes maximummaximum advantageadvantage ofof facilities/opportunitiesfacilities/opportunities providedprovided byby ISSISS

facilities/opportunities provided provided by by ISS ISS Partner Partner researchers researchers in in

PartnerPartner researchersresearchers inin internationalinternational teamsteams toto investigateinvestigate areasareas ofof mutualmutual interestinterest FocusFocus onon ISSISS utilizationutilization onceonce assemblyassembly isis completecomplete

ExpectExpect significantsignificant (two(two-- toto threethree--fold)fold) increaseincrease inin U.S.U.S. crewtimecrewtime forfor researchresearch withwith 66--personperson crewcrew

increase in in U.S. U.S. crewtime crewtime for for research research with with 6 6 -
Lunar Humans to Mars Outpost Lunar ISS & Sortie CEV
Lunar
Humans to
Mars
Outpost
Lunar
ISS &
Sortie
CEV
Lunar Humans to Mars Outpost Lunar ISS & Sortie CEV
Lunar Humans to Mars Outpost Lunar ISS & Sortie CEV