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Cascaded and Parallel Form solution for digital filters design

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Matlab Simulink

Digital Filter Structures

Filter Design and Frequency Mapping

Lester Liu

In this section, we are exploring a variety of digital filter structures, such as, direct form,

cascade form and parallel form. Given a system transfer function, it can be represented and

implemented in these forms.

0.44z 1 + 0.362z 2 + 0.02z 3

H(z) =

1 + 0.4z 1 + 0.18z 2 0.2z 3

By using MATLAB zplane function, we can get pole-zero plot of H(z).

1

Direct Form

As we learned from lecture, there are several ways to represent the system transfer function

in direct form. In this section, we will show direct form and its corresponding transposed

structure. Referring to Mitra, page 421, the equivalent structures can be generated by the

transpose operation,

By using simulink, we show that these two direct form are equivalent.

2

Cascade Form

By using MATLAB roots function, we can find poles and zeros.

H(z) = (1)

(1 + 0.8z 1 + 0.5z 2 )(1 0.4z 1 )

(0.44 + 0.362z 1 + 0.02z 2 ) z 1

= 1 2

(2)

(1 + 0.8z + 0.5z ) (1 0.4z 1 )

By using simulink, we show that the cascade form is equal to the direct form result.

3

Parallel Form

In this section, we will show the methods for constructing the parallel form using the partial

fraction. In MATLAB, we can use residuez function to do partial fraction. Therefore, we

can get the partial fraction,

0.25 0.25 0.6

H(z) = 0.1 + 1

+ 1

+ (3)

1 + (0.4 j0.5831)z 1 + (0.4 + j0.5831)z 1 0.4z 1

0.5 0.2z 1 0.6

= 0.1 + + (4)

1 + 0.8z 1 + 0.5z 2 1 0.4z 1

By using simulink, we show that the parallel form is equal to previous results.

4

Filter Design

In this section, we are exploring the Filter Design using windows method. In practice, if we

want to design an ideal filter, IIR filter is needed. However, IIR filter is not feasible and ,

therefore, we need to truncate the IIR filter by applying window functions. First, we will

design an ideal IIR low pass filter and then applying different types of window functions.

We will see the relations between different windows.

We need to design a length 17, lowpass TypeI linear phase FIR filter with pass band cut off

frequency wp = 0.4 and stop band cut off frequency wp = 0.6. In this case, we can design

the FIR filter by using fir1 function is MATLAB with given filter order, cut off frequency

and window type.

First, we know pass band and stop band cut off frequencies, we can say the cut off fre-

quency is,

wp + ws

wc = = 0.5

2

Second, given the length of the window N = 2M + 1, three types of window functions are,

Rectangular 1 M n M

Triangular(Bartlett) 1 M|n|

+1 M n M

Hamming 0.54 + 0.46cos( n

M) M n M

5

Third, referring to Mitra, page 532, the ideal lowpass filter is

jw 1, || c

HLP (e ) =

0, c < ||

sin(wc n)

hLP [n] = , < n <

n

For this problem, we will get the windowed FIR filter by

LP [n] = hLP [n] w[n]

h

By using fir1 function, we can do everything as we described above. Hence, we can design

the lowpass type I linear phase FIR filter by typing

b=fir1(16,0.5,ones(1,17))

9 11 13 15

+ 0.3313z 0.1104z + 0.0663z 0.0473z (6)

6

Figure 7: Impulse Response and Magnitude Response of Rectangular Window Method

By using fir1 function, we can design the lowpass type I linear phase FIR filter with trian-

gular window by typing

b=fir1(16,0.5,bartlett(17))

+ 0.2899z 9 0.069z 11 + 0.0248z 13 0.0059z 15 (8)

7

Figure 9: Impulse Response and Magnitude Response of Triangular Window Method

By using fir1 function, we can design the lowpass type I linear phase FIR filter with ham-

ming window by typing

b=fir1(16,0.5,hamming(17))

+ 0.3077z 9 0.0761z 11 + 0.0232z 13 0.0052z 15 (10)

8

Figure 11: Impulse Response and Magnitude Response of Hamming Window Method

Finally, we can see the magnitude response of these three window methods,

9

Frequency Mapping

In this section, we will explore the mapping method from low pass filter to high pass filter.

Now, we use FIR filters in previous section,

9 11 13 15

+ 0.3077z 0.0761z + 0.0232z 0.0052z (12)

+ 0.5009(n 8) + 0.3077(n 9) 0.0761(n 11) (14)

+ 0.0232(n 13) 0.0052(n 15) (15)

X

Hham (z) = hham (n)(z)n

n=

9 11 13 15

0.3077z + 0.0761z 0.0232z + 0.0052z (17)

10

Figure 14: Impulse Response and Magnitude Response of Hham (z)

addition, we can also observe that the impulse responses has same amplitude but different

sign.

X

Hham (z) = hham (n)(z)n (18)

n=

X

= hham (n)(1)n z n (19)

n=

X

= (1)n hham (n)z n (20)

n=

(21)

Therefore, we can verify that given a low pass filter we can obtain a high pass filter by

11

Different types of Linear Phase Filters

Suppose we want to design a high pass filter with stop band cut off frequency ws = 0.3

and pass band cut off frequency wp = 0.6. We can use all the method we learned above

to design the high pass filter.

First Step: As we know the cut off frequencies are ws = 0.3 and wp = 0.6, we can

find wc = 0.45.

Second Step: We need to start with a low pass filter which has cut off frequency

wc = 0.55. (While using the frequency mapping method, it is equal to shift the

frequency domain by .) Using the window method to get a FIR low pass filter.

Third Step: Obtaining the high pass filter by applying the function,

Therefore, we use fir1 function to design the length 7 low pass FIR filter.

lp=fir1(6,0.55,hamming(7))

+ 0.2449(n 4) + 0.0154(n 5) 0.0077(n 6) (23)

+ 0.2449(n 4) 0.0154(n 5) 0.0077(n 6) (25)

12

Using Simulink, we can simulate this system,

13

In addition, we can obtain a type II linear phase FIR filter by cascading a system H(z) =

1 + z 1 .

14

In addition, we can obtain a type III linear phase FIR filter by cascading a system H(z) =

(1 z 1 )(1 + z 1 ) with the high pass filter.

Figure 23: Pole Zero Plot of Type III Band Pass System

15

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