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Unit 10 Going to the post office to mail pictures
Dialogue

Xuéyǒu : Qǐng wèn, Rénměi zài ma ? 学友:请问,人美在吗? Xueyou: Excuse me, is Renmei in? Rénměi de shìyǒu : Zài, qǐng jìn, tā zhèngzài děng zhe nǐ ne ? 人美的室友:在,请进,她正在等着你呢. Renmei's roomate: Yes, please come in, she is waiting for you. Xuéyǒu : Xièxie. 学友:谢谢。 Xueyou: Thank you. Rénměi : Xuéyǒu, kuài lái kàn zhè xiē zhàopiàan, wǒ xiǎng jì gěi wǒ de bàba māma hé péngyoumen. 人美:学友,快来看这些照片,我想寄给我的爸爸妈妈和朋友们。 Renmei: Xueyou, come on in and look at these pictures, I want to mail some to my parents and friends. Xuéyǒu : Ā, zhème duō de zhàopiàn, wǒ yào rènzhēn de kàn yi kàn. 学友:啊,这麽多的照片,我要认真地看一看。 Xueyou: Wow, so many pictures, I want to look at them carefully. Shì a, zhè xiē zhàopiàn, yǒu de shì zài Běijīng dàxué xiàoyuán nèi zhào de, yǒu de shì zài gōngyuán lǐ zhào de. Wǒ xiǎng xuǎn yì xiē hǎo de jì gěi tāmen, ràng tāmen duō liǎojiě liǎojiě Běijīng. 人美:是啊,这些照片,有的是在北京大学校园内照的,有的是在公园里照的。我 想选一些好的寄给他们,让他们多了解了解北京。 Renmei: Yea, some of these pictures were taken in Beijing University, some of them in parks. I want to choose some good ones and mail (the pictures to) them, to let them know more about Beijing. Xuéyǒu : Zhè ge zhúyi bú cuò. Wǒ yě yīnggāi jì yì xiē zhàopiàn gěi wǒ bàba māma hé péngyoumen. 学友:这个主意不错。 我也应该寄一些照片给我爸爸妈妈和朋友们。 Xueyou: That's a good idea. I should mail some pictures to my parents and Rénměi :

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friends too. Rénměi : Xuéyǒu, nǐ kàn zhè zhāng shì Xiāngshān, mǎn shān de hóngyè, zhēn měi. Zhè zhāng shì wǒmen zài Běi Dà de xiào ménkǒou, nǐ shǒu lǐ hái ná zhe gāng mǎi lái de Běijīng dìtú ne. 人美:学友,你看这张是香山,满山的红叶,真美。这张是我们在北大的 校门口,你手里还拿着刚买来的北京地图呢。 Renmei: Xueyou, look, this one is Fragrant Hill. A full hill of red leaves, so beautiful. This one is at the entrance to Beijing University. You were holding a map of Beijing that you just bought. Xuéyǒu : Xiànzài wǒ hái shì suíshēn dài zhe dìtú, wèile bù mí lù. 学友:现在我还是随身带着地图,为了不迷路。 Xueyou: Now I still carry the map with me, in order not to get lost. Rénměi : Hǎo le, jiù jì zhè xiē zhàopiàn ba. Xiànzài wǒmen yìqǐ qù yóujú ba. 人美:好了,就寄这些照片吧。 现在我们一起去邮局吧。 Renmei: All right, let's mail these pictures. Now Let's go to the post office.

(Zài yǒujú lǐ, Rénměi zài jì xìn, Xuéyǒu zài mǎi míngxìnpiàn.) (在邮局里, 人美在寄信,学友在买明信片。) (In the post office, Renmei is mailing a letter, Xueyou is buying post cards) Rénměi : Nin hao, wo xiang ji yi feng xin dao Meiguo. 人美:您好,我想寄一封信到美国。 Renmei: Hello, I want to mail a letter to the U.S. Yíngyèyuán Jiǎ : Qǐng zài èr hào chuāngkǒu pái duì děng zhe. 营业员甲:请在二号窗口排队等着。 Clerk A: Please stand in the queue at Window 2. (Zài èr hào chuāngkǒu.) (在二号窗口。) (At Window 2) Rénměi : Wǒ yào jì yì fēng guójìi hángkōng xìn. 人美:我要寄一封国际航空信。 Renmei: I want to send an international letter. Yíngyèyuán yǐ : Nǐ xūyào xiān mǎi yí ge guójì xìnfēng, tián hǎo dìzhǐ hòu zài gěi wǒ.

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营业员乙:你需要先买一个国际信封,填好地址後再给我。 Clerk B: You need to buy an international envelope first. to me after writing down the address. Give it

Rénměi : Wǒ zìjǐ dài zhe xìnfēng, érqiě yǐjīng xiě hǎo dìzhǐ le. 人美:我自己带着信封,而且已经写好地址了。 Renmei: I have an envelop with me, and I have already written down the address. Yíngyèyuán yǐ : Ràng wǒ kàn yí xiàr. Hěn hǎo, méi wèntí. 营业员乙:让我看一下儿。 很好,没问题。 Clerk B: Let me take a look. Ok, no problem.

Rénměi : Qǐng wèn, dào Měiguo xūyào duōshǎo tiān ? 人美:请问,到美国需要多少天? Renmei: Would you tell me how long will it take to get to the U.S. ? Yíngyèyuán yǐ: Hángkōng xìn tōngcháng xūyào shí dào shíwǔ tiān. Rúguǒ shì tèkuài zhuāndì, jiù huì kuài de duō. Dàgài xūyào sān dào wǔ tiān. Dànshì, yóufèi hěn guì. 营业员乙:航空信通常需要十到十五天。 如果是特快专递,就会快得多。 大概 需要三到五天。 但是,邮费很贵。

Clerk B: By airmail it takes ten to fifteen days. If it is express mail, it will be much faster. It is about three to five days. However, it (express mail) is quite expensive. Rénměi : Jiù jì hángkōng xìn ba. 人美:就寄航空信吧。 Renmei: Then I will send it by airmail. Yíngyèyuán yǐ: Yóufèi shì shíwǔ yuán. 营业员乙:邮费是十五元。 Clerk B: The postage is fifteen Yuan.

Rénměi: Gěi nín shíwǔ yuán. Xièxie! 人美:给您十五元。 谢谢! Renmei: Here is fifteen Yuan. Thanks! Xuéyǒu : Xiǎojiě, wǒ xiǎng mǎi yì xiē míngxìnpiàn.

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学友:小姐,我想买一些明信片。 Xueyou: Miss, I would like to buy some postcards. Yíngyèyuán bǐng: Zhèlǐ yǒu hěn duō zhǒnglèi, yǒu fēngjǐng de, yǒu rénwù de, hái yǒu dòngwu de, nǐ xǐhuan nǎ yi zhǒng? 营业员丙:这里有很多种类,有风景的,有人物的,还有动物的,你喜欢哪一种? Clerk C: There are many kinds of postcards here. We have landscapes, persons, and animals, which do you like? Xuéyŏu: Gè măi yí tào ba, sòng gĕi wŏ de Mĕiguó péngyou. Wŏ xīwàng tāmen gèng duō de liăojiĕ Zhōngguó. 学友:各买一套吧,送给我的美国朋友。 我希望他们更多地了解中国。 Xueyou: One set each, please. I want to give them to my American friends. I hope that they will learn more about China. Yíngyèyuán Bĭng: Sān tào yígòng sānshí zhāng, wŏ xiăng nĭ de yídìng huì xĭhuan de. 营业员丙:三套一共三十张,我想你的朋友们一定会喜欢的。 Clerk C: Here are three sets, thirty cards total. will definitely like them. Xuéyŏu: péngyoumen

I think your friends

Shùnbiàn wèn yí xiàr, rúguŏ wŏ yào qŭ bāoguŏ, xūyào shénme shŏuxù? 学友:顺便问一下儿,如果我要取包裹,需要什麽手续? Xueyou: By the way, if I want to pick up a package, what should I do? Yíngyèyuán Bĭng: Nĭ xūyào dài zhe bāoguŏ dān hé nĭ de shēnfèn zhèngjiàn. 营业员丙:你需要带着包裹单和你的身份证件。 Clerk C: You need to bring the package notice and your identification. Xuéyŏu: Wŏ zhīdào le. Fēicháng gănxiè! 学友:我知道了。 非常感谢 Xueyou: I see. Thank you very much!

Reading
学友和小丁到北京大学学习汉语已经一个多月了。 一个星期天的上午, 学友到小丁的宿舍看她。 小丁正在整理照片。 她的桌子上放着很多照 片。 有的是从美国带来的旧照片,有的是在北京照的新照片。

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前几天,学友刚刚和小丁一起去邮局, 寄了一些他们在北京照的新照 片给小丁的爸爸﹑妈妈。 学友看着从美国带来的照片,有些是他们两 个人和王老师一起照的, 还有一些是他们学校的风景照。

学友对小丁说:“你看,这些照片里有王老师,还有我们的学校, 我 们选一些寄给王老师的太太吧。 她看了一定会很喜欢。” 小丁高兴地 说:“对,这真是个好主意。 我这儿有王老师在北京的家的地址。 不 过,我听说,中国人写信封的方法跟我们美国人不太一样。 我们打电 话问一下儿林老师吧。”

於是,小丁给林老师打电话。 林老师告诉小丁,写中文信封和写英文 信封是不一样。 写中文信封的时候,信封的中间应该写着收信人的 地址。 收信人的地址下边应该写着收信人的姓名。 信封的右下角应 该写着寄信人的地址和姓名。 林老师还告诉小丁, 王老师的太太住 在北京,寄信的时候应该寄本市信。 小丁和学友按照林老师电话里 说的, 写好了信封。 他们知道, 中国的邮局星期六,星期天也营 业, 所以,他们现在就去邮局寄信给王老师的太太。

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Zěnyàng Xiě Zhōngwén Xìnfēng?

Xuéyǒu hé Xiǎo Dīng dào Běijīng dàxué xuéxí

Hànyǔ yǐjīng yí ge

duō yuè le. Yí ge xīngqītiān de shàngwǔ, Xuéyǒu dào Xiǎo Dīng de sùshè kàn tā. Xiǎo Dīng zhèngzài zhěnglǐ zhàopiàn. Tā de zhuōzi shang fàng zhe hěn duō zhàopiàn. Yǒu de shì cóng Měiguo dài lái de jiù zhàopiàn, yǒu de shì zài Běijīng zhào de xīn

zhàopiàn. Qián jǐ tiān, Xuéyǒu gānggāng hé Xiǎo Dīng

yìqǐ qù yóujú, jì

le yì xiē tāmen zài Běijīng zhào de xīn zhàopiàn gěi Xiǎo Dīng de bàba māma. Xuéyǒu kàn zhe cóng Měiguo dài lái de zhàopiàn, zhào de,

yǒu xiē shì tāmen liǎng ge rén hé Wáng lǎoshī yìqǐ hái yǒu yì xiē shì tāmen xuéxiào de fēngjǐng zhào. Xuéyǒu duì Xiǎo Dīng shuō: “Nǐ kàn, zhè xiē

zhàopiàn lǐ yǒu Wáng Wáng

lǎoshī, hái yǒu wǒmen de xuéxiào, wǒmen xuǎn yì xiē jì gěi

lǎoshī de tàitai ba. Tā kàn le yídìng huìi hěn xǐhuan.” Xiǎo Dīng gāoxing de shuō:”Duì, zhè zhēn shì ge hǎo zhúyi. Wǒ zhèr yǒu Búguò, wǒ tīngshuō,

Wáng lǎoshī zài Běijīng de jiā de dìzhǐ.

Zhōngguo rén xiě xìnfēng de fāngfǎ gēn wǒmen Měiguo rén bù tài yíyang. Wǒmen dǎ diànhuà wèn yí xiàr Lín lǎoshī ba.” Yúshì, Xiǎo Dīng gěi Lín lǎoshī dǎ diànhuà. Lín lǎoshī gàosu Xiǎo Dīng, xiě Zhōngwén xìnfēng hé xiě Yīngwén xìnfēng shì bù yíyàng.

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Xiě Zhōngwén xìnfēng deshíhou, xìnfēng de zhōngjiān yīnggāi shì xiě zhe shōu xìn rén de dìzhǐ. Shōu xìn ren de dìzhǐ xià yīnggāi de xìngmíng. Xìnfēng de yòu xià jiǎo yīnggāi Lín lǎoshī hái gàosu Xiǎo

xiě zhe shōu xìn ren

xiě zhe jì xìn rén de dìzhǐ hé xìngmíng.

Dīng, Wáng lǎoshī de tàitai zhù zài Běijīng, jì xìn deshíhou yīngāi jì běn shì xìn. Xiǎo Dīng hí Xuéyǒu ànzhào Lín lǎoshī diànhuà lǐ shuō de, xiě hǎo le xìnfēng. Tāmen zhīdao, Zhōngguo de yóujú yě yíngyè, suǒyǐ, tāmen xiànzài jiù qù

xīngqīngliù, xīngqīngtiān

yóujú jì xìn gěi Wáng lǎoshī de tàitai.

It has been over a month since Xueyou and Xiaoding arrived in Beijing

University to study Chinese.

One Sunday morning, Xueyou went to

Xiaoding's dorm to see her.

Xiaoding was putting her pictures in

order.

There were many pictures on her desk.

Some were old pictures

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brought from the U.S., some were new pictures taken in Beijing.

Just

a few days ago, Xueyou went to the post office with Xiaoding and sent

some new pictures they took in Beijing to Xiaoding's mom and dad.

Xueyou was looking at the pictures brought from the U.S.

Some were

pictures they took with Teacher Wang, some others were scenic pictures

of their school.

Xueyou said to Xiaoding:"Look, these pictures have

Teacher Wang in them, and also our school.

Let's select some and mail

them to Teacher Wang's wife.

She will definitely like them when

she sees them."

Xiaoding said gladly:"Right. This is a great idea.

I have Teacher Wang's home address in Beijing with me.

However, I heard

that the way Chinese address envelopes is different from the way we

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Americans do.

Let's call Teacher Lin and ask."

Then, Xiaoding called Teacher Lin. Teacher Lin told Xiaoding, addressing

a Chinese envelope is different from addressing an English envelope.

When writing a Chinese envelope, (one) should write the address of the

receiver in the middle of the envelope.

Under the receiver's address,

(one) should write the name of the receiver.

On the right bottom of the

envelope, (one) should write the address and the name of the sender.

Teacher Lin also told Xiaoding that Teacher Wang's wife lives in Beijing;

when (Xiaoding and Xueyou) send the letter, (they) should send it by

local mail.

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Xiaoding and Xueyou wrote the envelope according to what Teacher Lin said

on the phone.

They knew that post office in China opens on Saturdays and

Sundays.

Therefore, they went to the post office to send the letter to

Teacher Wang's wife right away.

Grammar

1. The Continuous Aspect of an Action--the Use of 着 The aspect particle 着 is placed after the verb in a sentence to indicate the continuation of an action. can be a person or a place. The subject of the sentence

The sentence pattern is as follows:

S+V+ 着 +O

(1.) The pattern is used to describe the continous aspect of an action by a person/people or the continous aspect of a state about a person/people.

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For example: 1.)人美在宿舍等着学友呢。 Renmei is waiting for Xueyou in the dorm. 2.)学友看着人美在北京照的新照片。 Xueyou is looking at the new pictures Renmei took in Beijing. 3.)王老师喝着从中国带来的龙井茶。 Teacher Wang is drinking the Longjing tea (he) brought from China.

(2.) The pattern is also used to describe the continous aspect of an action or the continous aspect of a state effecting a place.

For example: 1.)小丁的桌子上放着很多照片。 Many pictures are placed on Xiaoding's desk. 2.)信封上写着小丁爸爸的名字。 Xiaoding's father's name is written down on the envelope. 3.)这间宿舍住着两个美国留学生。 Two American students live in this dorm.

(3.) In sentences with series of verbal structures, the aspect particle

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is placed after the first verb to describe the state or manner in

which the second action is carried out.

For example: 1.)小丁拿着一张照片问林老师:“您的这张照片是在北大图书馆照的吗?” Xiaoding asked Teacher Lin while holding a picture: "Is this picture of you taken in the Beijing University Library?" 2.)开开穿着一件蓝衣服去幼儿园(yo4u e2r yua2n, kindergarten)。 Kaikai is wearing blue clothes to go to the kindergarten. 3.)世海拿着一本中文语法书去王老师那儿问问题。 Shihai is carrying a Chinese grammar book to go to Teacher Wang's place and ask questions.

(4.) When a verb is followed by the aspect particle 着 to indicate the continuation of an action of a state, the verb does not take complements.

For example: 小丁和学友坐着听王老师说话。 Xiaoding and Xueyou are sitting there listening to Teacher Wang talk. It is incorrect to add a complement to the sentence in the following way:

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*小丁和学友坐着听王老师说话二十分钟。

(5.) The differences between the continuous aspect of an action using the particle 着 and the progressive aspect of an action using the particle 正在/正/在.

a. The continuous aspect of an action usually implies that the action is in progress, and therefore, the particles 正在, 正, or 在 and the word 呢 are often used with the particle 着.

For example: 1.)学友的手里正拿着北京地图呢。 Xueyou's hand is holding a map of Beijing. 2.)学友来看林老师的时候,外边正下着雨呢。 When Xueyou came to see Teacher Lin, it was raining outside.

b. The continuous aspect of an action emphasizes and describes the static aspect of an action or a state, and the aspect particle 着 is placed after the verb (or the first verb in sentences with series of verbal structures). As to the progressive aspect of an action, it emphasizes

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the active aspect of an action, and the aspect particles 正在, 正, or 在 are placed before the verb.

For example: 1.)学友正在拿中国地图。 Xueyou is holding a map of China (right this moment). 2.)学友拿着中国地图。 Xueyou has been holding a map of China.

(6.) The negative and interrogative forms of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action.

a. The negation form of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action is to add the negative 没有 before the verb (or the first verb in sentences with series of verbal structures) and take the particle 着 out of the sentence. S (people/place) + 没有 + V + O or S + 没有 + V1 + O1 + V2 + O2 The patterns should be:

For example: 1.)王老师没有喝从北京带来的龙井茶。

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Teacher Wang didn't drink the Longjing tea (he) brought from Beijing. 2.)开开没有穿蓝衣服去幼儿园。 Kaikai didn't wear blue clothes to the kingdergarten. 3.)外边没有下雨。 It didn't rain outside.

b. The interrogative form of the patterns that indicate the continuous aspect of an action is to add the question word 吗 or the negative 没有 at the end of the affirmative sentences. The patterns should be:

S (about people/people) + V + 着 + O + 吗/没有? or S + V1 + 着 + O1 + V2 + O2 + 吗/没有?

For example: 1.)这间宿舍住着两个美国留学生吗? Do two American students live in this dorm? 2.)学友拿着中文语法书去图书馆没有?

Did Xueyou go to the library holding a Chinese grammar book? 3.)小丁的桌子上放着她爸爸、妈妈的照片吗? Is the picture of her mom and dad placed on Xiaoding's desk?

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2. The Use of the Structural Particle 地 (1.) Bisyllabic or polysyllabic adjective are often used together with the structural particle 地, as an adverbial modifier, to modify the verb in a sentence. Sometimes, the structural particle 地 is omitted.

The pattern should be: S + Bisyllabic/polysyllabic Adj. + 地 + V + O

For example: 1.)就要期末(qi1mo4, end of the semester, final)考试了。 我要认真(地)复习 课文。 The final exam is soon. I want to review the lesson carefully. 2.)小丁高兴地说:“这是个好主意。” Xiaoding said gladly:"That is a good idea." 3.)在北京大学,小丁和学友都努力(地)学习中文。 In Beijing University, Xiaoding and Xueyou are both studying Chinese with great effort.

(2.) The differences between adverbial modifier structure using 地 and the complement of degree structure using 得.

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a. Structurally, for the adverbial modifier structure using 地, the adjective + 地 structure is placed before the verb. For the complement

of degree structure using 得, the 得 + adjective structure is placed after the verb.

For example: 1.)学友认真地看小丁的照片。 Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully. 2.)学友看小丁的照片看得很认真。 Xueyou is looking at Xiaoding's pictures carefully.

b. Both the complement of degree structure and the adverbial modifier structure can be used when describing a present action.

For example: 1.)她很大声(da4she1ng, loudly)地朗读(la3ngdu2, read)中文。 = 她朗读中文 朗读得很大声。 She reads Chinese very loudly. 2.)世海吃午饭吃得很快。 = 世海很快地吃完午饭。 Shihai eats his lunch very fast.

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c. The complement of degree structure is often used when describing an action that has already taken place or an action occurs frequently or habitually.

For example: 1.) 昨天我复习中文复习得很认真。(也可以说“昨天我很认真地复习中文。”) Yesterday I reviewed Chinese very carefylly. 2.) 我吃饭吃得很快,我姐姐吃饭吃得很慢。 I eat fast; my older sister eats slowly.

d. The adverbial modifier structure can be used when describing an action that has not yet happened.

For example: 1.) 明天我要认真地复习中文。(不能说“明天我要复习中文复习得很认真。”) Tomorrow I want to review Chinese carefully. 2.) 我希望我的朋友们会更多地了解中国。 (不能说“我希望我的朋友们会 了解中国了解得很多。”) I hope that my friends will know China more.

e.

Generally, the complement of degree structure emphasizes the

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result of an accomplished action, whereas the adverbial modifier structure emphasizes the manner or attitude in which the subject takes or is going to take an action.

For example: 1.)上个学期, 他学习学得不努力,所以他考试考得不太好。 Last semester, he didn't study hard, so he did not do well in the exam. 2.)这个学期,他应该努力(地)学习。 This semester, he should study hard.

3. The Structure 有的...有的... The pronoun 有的 means "some". It is used as an adjective modifier The pronoun 有的 may occur

in the structure "有的 + N ...有的 + N ...".

for once, twice or three times in a sentence, depending on the context. The noun modified by 有的 can be left out if the noun has appeared earlier in the sentence.

For example: 1.)在美国,有的人喜欢吃美国菜, 有的人喜欢吃中国菜, 有的人喜欢吃日本菜。 In the U.S., some people like to eat American food, some like to eat Chinese food, some like to eat Japanese food.

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2.)在图书馆里,有的学生在看书,有的(学生)在用电脑。 In the library, some students are reading books, some are using computers. 3.)北京大学有很多外国留学生。 有的是美国人,有的是日本人,有的是欧洲人。 There are many foreign students in Beijing Unversity. Americans, some are Japanese, some are Europeans. Some are

4. The Structure 有些...还有一些... The structure 有些...还有一些... means "some...(still) some others...". The use of which is very similar to the structure 有的...有的.... The only difference is that by using 些, the structure 有些...还有一些... emphasizes plurality.

For example: 1.)小丁从美国带来了一些照片。 有些是小丁和学友跟王老师一起照的, 还有一些 是他们学校的照片。 Xiaoding brought some pictures from the U.S. Some were pictures that

Xiaoding and Xueyou took with Teacher Wang, some others were pictures of their school. 2.)昨天我去书店买了很多中文书。 有些是中文小说,还有一些是中文语法书和 词典。

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I went to the bookstore and bought many Chinese books yesterday. were Chinese novels, some others were Chinese grammar books and dictionaries.

Some

3.)小丁认识很多中国朋友。 有些是北京大学的学生,还有一些是在公司或者国家 机关(guo2jia1ji1gua1n, the government agencies)工作的年轻人。 Xiaoding knew many Chinese friends. Some were students of Beijing

University, some others were young people working in corporations or government agencies.

5. The Structure 跟/和...(不)一样 The structure 跟/和...一样 means "the same as...". The negative form The

of it, the structure 跟/和...不一样 means "not the same as...".

structure 跟/和...(不)一样 is used when the speaker wants to talk about the same characteristic/situation that applies to two different people/ things. The basic pattern is:

S1 + 跟/和 + S2 + (不)一样 Note: the first subject of a sentence using the structure 跟/和...一样 can be a noun, a simple noun phrase or a complex noun phrase modified by an attributive clause. The second subject of the sentence can be of the

similar structure as that of the subject; it can also be simply a noun, or a simple noun phrase.

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For example: 1.)美国人说的英文跟英国人不太一样。 或者:美国人说的英文跟英国人说的英文不太一样。 The English spoken by Americans is different from the one spoken by the British. 2.)中国人写信封的方法跟美国人不一样。 The way Chinese write letters is different from the one the Americans do. 3.)我的中文书跟我朋友的中文书一样。 My Chinese book is the same as that of my friend's.
Speech Pattern

1. The Continuous Aspect of an Action--the Use of 着 1.)小丁的爸爸、妈妈看着小丁从北京寄来的信和照片,心里很高兴。 While looking at the letter and the pictures that Xiaoding sent from Beijing, Xiaoding's mom and dad felt very happy. 2.)昨天,我去看我的好朋友的时候,她正吃着她妈妈给她做的点心呢。 Yesterday, when I went to see my good friend, she was eating the pastries made by her mom. 3.)我哥哥的桌子上放着他和他的女朋友的照片。 The picture of my brother and his girlfriend is placed on his desk.

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4.)我的中国朋友喜欢听着美国流行歌曲整理房间。 My Chinese friend likes to put things into order while listening to American pop songs. 5.)你喜欢看着电视做作业吗? Do you like to do your homework while watching TV? 6.)这是我爸爸的汉语词典。 屝页上(fe1iye4, title page)写着我爸爸的名字。 This is my dad's Chinese dictionary. My dad's name is written down on the title page.

2. The Use of the Structural Particle 地 1.)我离开中国来美国留学的那一天, 我妹妹难过地哭了。 The day I left China to come to study in the U.S., my younger sister cried. 2.)林老师的口语课很有意思。 每堂课上, 同学们都很认真地听讲(ti1ngjia3ng, listen to the lecture), 做练习。 Teacher Lin's conversation class is very interesting. In every class,

students listen to the lecture very carefully, and do exercises. 3.)他的爸爸、妈妈为了让他能上有名的大学, 非常辛苦地工作。 His father and mother work very hard so that he can go to a famous university. 4.)我的中文口语不太好。 明年,我要去中国, 好好地练习我的口语。

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My Chinese speaking is not very good. China, and practice my speaking hard.

Next year, I want to go to

5.)这本书能帮助你更好地了解中国文化。 This book can help you understand Chinese culture better. 6.)学友告诉小丁明天林老师跟他们一起去长城玩。 小丁高兴地说: “太好了。” Xueyou told Xiaoding that tomorrow Teacher Lin will go with them to the Great Wall. Xiaoding said happily:"That's great."

3. The Structure 有的...有的... 1.)北大的学生都很喜欢锻练。 每天下午,有的学生跑步,有的打球,有的游泳。 Students in Beijing University like to do exercises a lot. Every

afternoon, some students go running, some play balls, some go swimming. 2.)我有很多音乐 CD。 有的是美国流行音乐,有的是欧洲古典音乐,有的中国 民间音乐。 I have a lot of music CDs. Some are American pop music, some are

European classical music, some are Chinese folk music. 3.)在美国的大学里,有的学生住学生宿舍,有的住自己租(zu1, rent)房子,有的 住在爸爸、妈妈的家里。 In American universities, some students live in the students' dorm, some live in a house rented by themselves, some live in their mom's and dad's house.

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4.)大学毕业以後,有的人开始工作,有的人上研究所。 After college graduation, some people start to work, some go to graduate school.

4. The Structure 有些...还有一些... 1.)去纽约的火车上,有些人是去纽约玩儿的,有些人是去工作的, 还有一些人是 去办事(ba4n shi4, to do business)的。 On the train to New York, some people go to New York for fun, some go for work, still others go for business. 2.)她今年夏天买了很多衣服。 有些是上课穿的, 有些是在家里穿的,还有一些 是出去玩儿穿的。 She bought many clothes this summer. home, still others are for outings. 3.)健身房里锻练的人很多。 有些人在跑步机上跑步, 有些人在练习举重, 还有 一些人在跳健美操。 There are many people doing exercises in the gym. Some people are Some are for class, some are for

running on the running machine, some are practising weight lifting, still others are doing aerobics.

5. The Structure 跟/和...(不)一样 1.)北京的气候跟上海的不太一样。

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The weather in Beijing is not the same as in Shanghai. 2.)他写的字跟他爸爸的字一样漂亮。 The characters he writes are as beautiful as the characters his father writes. 3.)他的中文跟他的英文一样好。 His Chinese is as good as his English. 4.)我今天吃的午饭跟昨天吃的一样。 The lunch I had today is the same as what I had yesterday.

6. The conjunction 而且 "and also" 1.)人美自己带着信封去邮局,而且已经写好地址了。 Renmei took her own envelope to the post office, and also had written down the address (on it). 2.)今年夏天的天气很热,而且不下雨。 It is very hot this summer, and also, it hasn't been raining. 3.)北京是中国的政治经济中心,而且也是中国的文化中心。 Beijing is the political and economic center of China, and also, it is the cultural center of China. 4.)学习历史是为了了解过去,而且也是为了指导未来。 Studying history is to understand the past, and also, it is to guide the future.

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7. The conjunction 但是 "but" 1.)寄特快专递很快,但是邮费很贵。 It is very fast to send (a letter) by express mail; but the postage is very expensive. 2.)学习历史很有意思,但是学得好不容易。 Studing history is very interesting; but it is not easy to learn it well. 3.)美国的邮局跟中国的邮局一样方便, 但是, 美国的邮局星期六、星期天不 开门。 The post office in the U.S. is as convenient as the one in China. However, the post office in the U.S. does not open on Saturdays and Sundays. 4.)这家中国餐馆作的菜很地道,但是很贵。 The dishes made in this Chinese restaurant are very authentic; but they are very expensive.

8. The adverb 顺便 "incidentally, in passing, (do sth) in addition to what one is already doing, without much extra effort" 1.)顺便问一下儿, 取包裹需要什麽手续? By the way, may I ask what procedures are needed for claiming a packet? 2.)今天我去邮局寄信的时候,顺便买了几张明信片。

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When I went to the post office to mail a letter today, I bought some postcards while I was there. 3.)昨天学友去林老师那儿问问题,顺便借了一本中文语法书。 Yesterday, Xueyou went to Teacher Lin's place to ask some questions while he was there. He borrowed a Chinese grammar book by chance. 4.)去年他来美国的时候,顺便去加拿大玩了一个星期。 Last year when he came to the U.S., he went to Canada for a week while there.

9. The conjunction 於是 "so; then; hence" 1.)小丁听说中国人写信封的方法跟美国人不太一样。 於是, 她给林老师打电话, 问林老师怎麽写中文信封。 Xiaoding heard that the way Chinese address envelopes is kind of different from the Americans. Hence, she called Teacher Lin and asked

him how to address a Chinese envelope. 2.)学友和人美都很想更多地了解中国文化。 於是,他们利用暑假去北京学中文。 Both Xueyou and Renmei would like to know more about Chinese culture. Hence, they took advantage of the summer break to go to Beijing and study Chinese. 3.)刘老师告诉学友, 去北大医院检查身体不需要打电话约时间。 於是, 学友

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直接去北大医院找负责体检的李大夫。 Teacher Liu told Xueyou that to go to the Beijing University Hospital to have a physical exam, (he) doesn't need to make a phone call to schedule an appointment. Hence, Xueyou went to the Beijing University

Hospital directly to see Dr. Li, who is in charge of physical exam. 4.)人美的中国朋友们告诉她, 北京香山的红叶在秋天的时候最美。 於是, 人美 跟她的男朋友学友这个星期六要去香山玩。 Renmei's Chinese friends told her, the red leaves of the Fragrant Hill in Beijing are the most beautiful in the Fall. Hence, Renmei and her

boyfriend Xueyou are going to the Fragrant Hill this Saturday.

10.The preposition 按照 "according to" 1.)小丁和学友按照林老师电话里说的,写好了信封。 Xiaoding and Xueyou addressed the envelope according to what Teacher Lin said on the phone. 2.)小丁按照王老师给他们的电话号码,给王老师的太太打电话。 Using the phone number that Teacher Wang gave them, Xiaoding and Xueyou called Teacher Wang's wife. 3.)学友按照刘老师说的, 直接去北大医院找李大夫体检。 Xueyou went to the Beijing University Hospital directly to look for Dr. Li for a physical exam as Teacher Liu had said to do.

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4.)人美按照大夫给她开的药方(ya4ofa1ng, prescription), 买了一些中药。 Renmei bought some Chinese medicine in accordance with the prescription given by the doctor.

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