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Channels

Ferkan Yilmaz and Mohamed-Slim Alouini

Electrical Engineering Program, King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST),

Thuwal, Saudi Arabia.

Email(s): {ferkan.yilmaz, slim.alouini}@kaust.edu.sa

Abstract In this paper, we analyze the fading statistics of a [8], is an important, versatile and generic model. In particular,

generic fading distribution, termed the N-product Generalized the probability density function (PDF) pX (x) of the GG

Nakagami-m (GNM) distribution (N*GNM distribution), con- distribution and the tail properties, (i.e. both limx pX (x)

structed as the product of the power of N statistically independent

and non-identically distributed GNM random variables, for the and limx pX (x)/x) can be modified by its parameters.

purpose of modeling the cascaded fading channels. In particular, Therefore, such power distributions as Diracs delta, exponen-

using the Foxs H function, we derive the probability density func- tial, Gamma and Weibull are special cases of the GG distri-

tion, the cumulative distribution function, the moment generating bution. This great versatility has recently led many authors to

function and the moments of such channels in closed-form. These study the performance of a variety of digital communication

derived results are a convenient tool to statistically model the

cascaded GNM fading channels and to analyze the performance systems over GG channels [9][20]. In addition, it is obvious

of digital communication systems over these kinds of channels. As that the square-root of GG distribution, which we term the

such, generic closed-form expressions for the amount of fading, generalized Nakagami-m (GNM) distribution, is a good model

the outage probability, the capacity, the outage capacity and the of the amplitude of the signal recovered at the receiver. To

average bit error probabilities of digital communications systems the best of our knowledge, the product of the power of

over cascaded GNM fading channels are presented. Numerical

and simulation results, performed to verify the correctness of the GNM distributions has not been studied in order to assess the

proposed formulation, are in perfect agreement. performance of wireless digital communication systems over

cascaded GNM fading channels.

I. I NTRODUCTION This paper introduces the GNM RVs and the product of

their powers not only to model the signal propagation through

The wireless cascaded channel, exploited in wireless mul-

keyholes but also to model the fading statistics in multihop

tihop transmission in which each relay terminal does not

transmission in which each relay terminal does not perform

perform the phase-correction and multiplies the received signal

phase correction but amplifies the received signal with a

from the previous terminal by a constant gain determined by

constant gain. Explicitly, the distribution of the product of

path-loss, is an efficient technology for extending the coverage

the power of N mutually independent and non-identically dis-

with respect to the channel path-loss and increasing the capac-

tributed GNM RVs is studied as a convenient tool for modeling

ity of wireless communications especially in severe multipath

of the cascaded GNM fading channels. In particular, the paper

fading channels. Furthermore, the wireless cascaded channel

uses the Foxs H function to derive the PDF, the cumulative

occurs also when the received signals are engendered by the

distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function

product of a large number of rays reflected via N statistically

(MGF) and the moments in closed-form. As a follow-up, the

independent scatters [1], [2]. For instance, when a nomadic

paper derives performance metrics such as the amount of

transmitter communicates with another nomadic receiver in

fading (AF), the outage probability (OP), the capacity, the

Rayleigh fading channels, the so-called double Rayleigh fad-

outage capacity (OC) and the average bit error probabilities

ing, i.e., multiplication of two Rayleigh fading occurs [1], [3],

(ABEP), over these kinds of channels.

[4]. In addition, the double-Rayleigh fading channels gained

further interest, by being employed as a keyhole channel model The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In Sec-

for multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) communications tion II, the GNM and N *GNM distributions are introduced. In

[1], [5]. The extension to a keyhole Nakagami-m fading for Section III, key results on the statistics for the product of the

space time block codes, i.e., the double-Nakagami-m fading power of mutually independent non-identical GNM RVs are

has been studied in [6]. obtained. In Section IV, the digital communication systems

Moreover, Karagiannidis et.al. studied the distribution of modeled by cascaded fading channels are revisited and after

the product of N mutually independent and non-identically that performance measures such as AF, capacity, OC, and

distributed Nakagami-m random variables (RVs) to model the ABEP of these systems are obtained in Section V. In the last

cascaded Nakagami-m fading channel [7]. In addition, the section, the main results are summarized and some conclusions

generalized Gamma (GG) distribution, introduced by Stacy are drawn.

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II. BACKGROUND AND D EFINITIONS as the N *GNM distribution, where R+ for 1 N .

Let us consider N 1 mutually independent and non-

N In the following section, statistical metrics such as PDF,

identical GNM RVs {R }=1 , each having PDF1

CDF, MGF and moments of the N *GNM distribution are

m

derived in closed-form using in terms of the Hm,n

2 r 2 p,q [] Foxs

pR (r) = r2 m 1 e ,(1) H function.

(m )

2

1,0 2

= H0,1 r , (2)

(m ) r (m , 1/ ) III. S TATISTICAL C HARACTERISTICS

for 0 r < , where Hm,n p,q [] and () are the Foxs

H function defined in [21, Eq.(8.3.1)]2,3 and the Gamma The statistical properties of the N *GNM distribution are

function defined in [22, Eq.(18.39)], respectively. Moreover, given in what follows:

the parameters m 1/2, > 0 and > 0 are the Theorem 1 (Probability Density Function). The PDF of the

fading figure, the shaping parameter and the average power of RV defined in (6) is given by

the th GNM RV and = (m + 1/ ) / (m ). In what

follows, the shorthand notation R N (m, , ) denotes that KN N,0 z 2

pZ (z) = H0,N (7)

R follows a GNM RV with the fading figure m, the shaping z CN 1 , 2 , . . . , N

parameter and the average power . for 0 z < with the parameters KN and CN are defined

The CDF of R N (m , , ) is defined by PR (r) = as

E [R < r] where E [] denotes expectation. Substituting (2) N

N

1

into PR (r) and using [23, Eq.(4.17)], we get KN = 2 (m ) CN =

(8)

=1 =1

1 1,1 2

(1, 1)

PR (r) = H1,2 r . (3) respectively, while the coefficient pairs of Foxs H function,

(m ) (m , 1/ ), (0, 1)

i.e., ,1 < N are defined as

The MGF of R N (m , , ) is given by MR (s) =

(m , / ) . (9)

E [sR ] for {s} 0. Substituting (2) into MR (s) and

using [23, Eq.(2.12)] with the Legendre duplication formula Proof: See [26].

[24, Eq.(1.2.11)], MR (s) can be derived as

Let us consider some special cases in order to double check

1

1,2 4 (1, 1), (1/2, 1) the validity of Theorem 1. More specifically, for N 1 and

MR (s) = H2,1 (4)

(m ) s2 (m , 1/ ) = 1, using [23, Eq.(2.4.1/3)], (7) simplifies into (1), as

expected. For N = 1, substituting 1 /1 = 2 /2 = =

For = 1/2, normalizing the power m+1

m

N /N = R+ into (7) and using [21, Eq.(8.3.21)] results

and using [21, Eq.(8.3.21)] with the property of Meijers G into

function given in [21, Eq.(8.4.2.6)], (4) simplifies to the MGF N

2

of Gamma RV [25, Eq. (5.15)], as expected. pZ (z) = N N,0

G0,N z 2

m1 , . . . , mN

Consequently, using the derivative properties of the Foxs z (m ) =1

H function [23, Eq.(2.16)],

the kth order moment of R =1

(10)

N (m , , ), i.e., E Rk can be obtained as

where Gm,n [] is the Meijers G-function [21, Eq.(8.3.22)].

( k2 ) p,q

k 1 k Furthermore, it is readily seen that substituting 1 = 2 =

E R = m + (5) = N = 1 and 1 = 2 = = N = R+ into (7)

(m ) 2

and using again [21, Eq.(8.3.21)] results in (10). Therefore,

for k = 0, 1, 2, .... substituting = 1 reduces (10) into the PDF of the product

Definition 1 (The N*GNM distribution). We define the of N mutually independent and non-identically distributed

distribution of the product Z of the power of N mutu- Nakagami-m RVs [7, Eq.(4)], as expected. Furthermore, for

ally independent and non-identically distributed GNM RVs N = 2 with 1 = 2 = 1 and 1 = 2 = 1, by using [27,

R1 , R2 , . . . , RN , i.e., for 1 N , R N (m , , ), Eq.(2.9.19)], (7) simplifies to the expression in Nakagami-m

that is, paper [28, Eq.(90)] as expected,

N 1

m 2

N

Z= R (6) 4z m1 +m2 1

pZ (z) = N Km1 m2 2z

=1
(m )

=1

m1 +m2

=1 (m / ) 2

1 It is noted that the GNM RV is the square root of the GG RV proposed

(11)

by Stacy [8] and GG RV is extensively studied in the literature [9][20].

2 Using [22, Eq.(8.3.22)], the Foxs H function can be represented in terms

where Kn () is the nth order modified Bessel function of

of the Meijers G function [22, Eq.(8.2.1)] which is a built-in function in the the second kind [22, Eq.(18.16)]. For m1 = m2 = 1, (11)

most popular mathematical software packages such as MATHEMATICA. simplifies into the so-called double Rayleigh fading model [3].

3 In Appendix A of this paper, authors give an efficient implementation of

the Foxs H function in MATHEMATICA. Theorem 2 (Cumulative Distribution Function). The CDF of

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the RV defined in (6) is given by

2

KN N,1 z (1, 1)

PZ (z) = H (12)

2 1,N +1 CN 1 , 2 , . . . , N , (0, 1)

with both KN and CN and the coefficients , 1 N are

defined in (8), and (9), respectively.

Proof: See [26].

For N = 1 and = 1, (12) reduces into (3), as expected.

For N 1 and 1 /1 = 2 /2 = = N /N = R+ ,

using [21, Eq.(8.3.21)], (12) simplifies to (a)

2

KN N,1 z 1

PZ (z) = G m , m , . . . , m , 0

. (13)

2 1,N +1 CN 1 2 N

and 1 = 2 = = N = R+ into (12) and using again

[21, Eq.(8.3.21)] results into (13). As expected, substituting (b)

= 1 into (12) results the CDF of the product of Nakagami-

m RVs [7, Eq.(7)], i.e., Fig. 1. Propagation scenarios for cascaded fading channels: (a) cascaded

2

1 N,1 z 1 fading channels created by keyholes, (b) cascaded fading channels created by

PZ (z) = N G1,N +1 . amplify-and-relay terminals.

CN m1 , m2 , . . . , mN , 0

(m )

=1

(14)

Furthermore, for N = 2, m1 = m2 = 1 and 1 = 2 = 1, and (i.e., the source terminal S and the destination terminal D)

using [27, Eq.(2.9.14)] that (12) simplifies to the well-known are separated and surrounded by many stationary and moving

CDF for the so-called double-Rayleigh fading [29, Eq.(3)]. objects such that the signal transmitted by the source terminal

can propagate to the receiver only through an electromag-

Theorem 3 (Moments-Generating Function). The MGF of the

netically small aperture(s), i.e., keyhole(s) among obstacles.

RV defined in (6) is given by

The obstacles can be modeled as a wide metal screen with

KN N,2 4 (1, 1), (1/2, 1) a small keyhole punctured through it, separating the two

MZ (s) = H (15)

2 2,N CN s2 1 , 2 , . . . , N regions consisting of the source terminal S and the destination

with both KN and CN and the coefficients , 1 N are terminal D, respectively. There is only one way for the radio

defined in (8), and (9), respectively. signals to propagate is to pass through this keyhole, i.e.,

this electromagnetically small aperture. In this instance, the

Proof: See [26]. keyhole behaves like a source terminal to the next keyholes [1],

When N = 1 and = 1, (15) simplifies to (4) as expected. and as shown in Fig. 1(a), the overall communication channel

Furthermore, when N 1, 1 = 2 = . . . = N = 1 and can be, eventually, considered as a cascaded fading channel

1 = 2 = . . . = N = 1, (15) becomes the MGF of the [1], [4].

product of Nakagami-m RVs [7, Eq.(3)], as expected. Let us consider another digital communication system oper-

Theorem 4 (Moments). The kth moment of the RV defined in ating over an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel,

(6),k N is given by in which the source terminal S and the destination terminal

D are too far apart for a single link within the sight of power

N m + k k

k 2 2 constraints and channel fading effects, and however, they are

E Z = (16) connected using multiple wireless links arranged in an end-

(m )

=1 to-end configuration. As such, and as shown in Fig. 1(b),

where = (m + 1/ )/ (m ). these terminals relay the information signal only from the

previous one to the next, acting as non-regenerative relays.

Proof: See [26].

Clearly, without performing phase correction but multiplying

the received signal from the previous terminal by a constant

IV. C ASCADED FADING C HANNEL M ODELS gain determined by path-loss, all relay terminals concurrently

Fig. 1 shows some real-word scenarios for cascaded fading receive and transmit to the next in the same frequency band. In

channels. In this situation, the source terminal S and the this sense, the overall communication can also be considered

destination terminal D communicate with each other, through to occur over a cascaded fading channel [4].

keyholes4 or relay terminals [1], [2]. If these two terminals Eventually, at the end of whole chain of transmissions in

4 Source and destination terminals, surrounded by obstacles, can communi-

both propagation scenarios explained above, i.e., by keyholes

cate only though a small aperture about the size of wavelength of the carrier or relay terminals, if the source terminal S transmits the signal

frequency. s (t), then the received signal at the destination terminal D at

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the destination terminal D can be given as

N

where the RV Y is defined as Y =

=1

N

N

N

rD (t) = s (t) h g1 + n0, (t) hk gk1 (17) Corollary 1 (Probability Density Function). The PDF of the

=1 =1 k=+1 instantaneous SNR is given by

N

with g0 = 1, where g ,1 N is the scattering cross- KN N,0

section factor [1] for the propagation through the th keyhole p () = H (23)

2 0,N 1 , 2 , . . . , N

or the gain of the th relay terminal in the transmission. =1

n0, (t),1 N is an AWGN with one sided power where KN is defined in (8) and the coefficients of Foxs H

spectral density, N0 . Furthermore, the channel coefficients function, i.e., , 1 < N are given as

h ,1 N , including the effect of multiple scattering,

1

and therefore, are assumed to be the sum of complex Gaussian m , . (24)

fading h can be represented by

noises. Each complex channel

h = ei , where i = 1, and both the amplitude and Proof: See [26].

the phase are assumed mutual independent. Assuming that,

the receiver at the destination terminal D perfectly estimates Corollary 2 (Cumulative Distribution Function). The CDF of

N

the phase and the amplitude of the N -product fading =1 h . the instantaneous SNR is given by

N

However, it has no capability to estimate the amplitude and

KN N,1 (1, 1)

phase of each fading one by one. Then, the instantaneous end- P () = H

to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), i.e., the instantaneous SNR 2 1,N +1 1 , 2 , . . . , N , (0, 1)

=1

at destination terminal D, can be readily represented as the (25)

product of the fading of the channels, i.e., where, for 1 N , is defined in (24).

N

end = (18)

NT Corollary 3 (MomentsGeneratingFunction). The MGF of the

=1

where the total noise NT is given in terms of the gains gk ,1 instantaneous SNR is given by

k N (i.e., the gain of scattering cross-section factors for KN N,1 1

N

(1, 1)

keyholes or the gain of relay terminals) as follows M (s) = H , (26)

2 1,N s 1 , 2 , . . . , N

=1

N

N

NT = N0 k gk1 (19) where, for 1 N , is defined in (24).

=1 k=+1

Proof: See [26].

where = E 2 is the average power of the fading in the Note that for N = 1, (26) is reduced to the MGF of the

th channel in the cascaded fading channel. generalized Gamma distribution [16, 11], i.e.,

In the next section, using (18), the performance measures

1

1,1 (1, 1)

such as AF, OP, capacity, OC and ABEP for digital com- M (s) = H1,1 , (27)

munications systems operating over such fading channels are (m) s (m, 1/)

obtained in closed-form. as expected, where substituting = 1 and using [27, Eq.

(2.9.6)] results into the previously known MGF

of the

Gamma

m

V. P ERFORMANCE A NALYSIS distribution [25, Eq. (1.22)], i.e., M (s) = 1 +

ms .

Using (18), the instantaneous SNR at the destination termi-

nal D is given by Corollary 4 (Moments). The kth moment of the instantaneous

Es 2 SNR is given by

N

= (20) k

NT

k N

(m + k/ )

=1

E = . (28)

where Es is the average energy of the transmitted symbols (m )

=1

and NT is the power of the total noise, given in (19), that the

Proof: See [26].

destination terminal D is subjected to. Moreover, the channel

N

fading { }=1 are distributed as GNM RVs defined in (1) or In what follows, using the expressions given in Corollaries

(2). Then, the average SNR, i.e., E [] is obtained as 1,2,3 and 4, the AF, OP, capacity, OC and ABEP performance

expressions of digital communications systems operating over

Es

2 Es

N N

a cascaded fading channels is given in closed-forms, and their

= E = (21) analytical simplicity and accuracy are checked by simulations.

NT NT

=1 =1

A. Amount of Fading (AF)

= N Y (22)

The AF is defined in [25, Eq.(1.27)] as the ratio of the

=1 variance to the square average of the instantaneous SNR, i.e.,

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Then, the average channel capacity C can be obtained aver-

0

10

10

1

Outage Probability Performance (OP)

C = W log2 (1 + ) p () d. (32)

10

2

0

For the cascaded fading channels, the PDF of is obtained in

10

3

(23). Substituting (23) into (32) and using [23, Eq.(2.4.3/1)]

and [27, Eq.(2.8.12)], the average capacity C can be readily

10

4

obtained in a closed-form for the cascaded GNM fading

channels as

N

5

10

1 (0, 1), (1, 1)

N=1, m=1.5, =1.15 C = DN H2,N +2

N +2,1

,

10

6 N=2, m=1.5, = 1.25 1 , 2 , . . . , N , (0, 1), (0, 1)

N=2 m=1.5, =1 =1

N=3, m=1.75, =2.75 (33)

N=4, m=1.75, =2.75

N

1

where the parameter DN is defined as DN = log(2) W

7

(m ) .

10

30 25 20 15 10 5 0 5

Normalized Outage Threshold, th /

=1

Note that for the shape parameters 1 = 2 = . . . = N = 1,

Fig. 2. OP performance as a function of the normalized outage threshold using [21, Eq.(8.3.21)], (33) simplifies to

th /, i.e., analysis of Eq.(31), where {1, 2, . . . , N }, m = m and N

= . W

1 0, 1

log(2) N +2,1

C = N G2,N +2 m

m1 , m2 , . . . , mN , 0, 0

(m ) =1

AF E 2 /E2 [] 1. Then, using (28), the AF can be =1

(34)

easily derived as

which is the average capacity of the cascaded Nakagami-m

N

(m + 2/ ) (m ) fading channels. For N = 1 and = 1, (33) reduces to the

AF = 2 1, (29) well-known capacity of the Nakagami-m fading channels [30,

=1

(m + 1/ )

Eq.(3)],

N

where as readily seen, when the fading figures {m }=1 and/or W

3,1 m 0, 1

C = G2,3 (35)

m, 0, 0

N

{ }=1 increase(s), the AF decreases as expected. log (2) (m)

as expected.Moreover, for 1 = 2 = . . . = N = 1 and

B. Outage Probability Performance (OP) m1 = m2 = . . . = mN = 1, (33) simplifies to

The OP is defined as the probability that the instantaneous

W

+2,1 1

N

0, 1

error rate exceeds a specified value or equivalently that the C = GN

2,N +2 m , (36)

instantaneous SNR falls below a certain specified threshold log (2) 1, . . . , 1, 0, 0

=1

th , i.e., N times

th

which is the capacity of the cascaded Rayleigh fading chan-

Pout P r [0 < th ] = p (r) dr (30)

0 nels. Using [27, Eq. (2.1.7)] and [21, Eq. (8.4.11.3)], then

where p (r) is the PDF of obtained in (23). In other words, recalling the relation between the first order En integral E1 (x)

Pout is the CDF of the RV evaluated at th . Then, Pout is and exponential integral Ei(x) such as E1 (x) = Ei(x), and

straightforwardly given by for N = 1 (36) reduces to the average capacity of the well-

known Rayleigh fading channels [31, Eq.(5)], [32, Eq. (25)].

Pout = P (th ) (31) As seen in Fig. 3, C improves with an increase of fading

N N

figures {m }=1 and shape parameters { }=1 , as expected.

where P () is given in (25).

In Fig. 2, by using (31) as a function for the normalized

outage threshold th / , Pout is depicted N = 1, 2, 4 using D. Outage Capacity (OC)

different fading figures m and shape parameters such that The OC is another important statistical measure to quantify

N N

{m = m}=1 and { = }=1 . Clearly, for a fixed value of the spectral efficiency in fading channels, which is defined as

N , Pout decreases as m or increases because increasing m the probability that the instantaneous capacity, C falls below

decreases the fading severity and increasing skews the PDF a certain specified threshold Cth , i.e.,

of the fading around the average power . Cth

Cout = P r (0 C < Cth ) = pC (c) dc, (37)

0

C. Capacity

where pC (c) is the PDF of the instantaneous capacity C

Considering a signals transmission of bandwidth W over defined in Section V-C. With the aid of [33, Eq.(5.1)], the

AWGN channel, the Shannon capacity is defined as C () OC Cout can be given in terms of the CDF of (25) as follows

W log2 (1 + ), where is the received instantaneous SNR. Cout = P 2Cth /W 1 . Then, the OC of the cascaded GNM

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1

10

values for specific modulations. For instance, a = 1 is for

BPSK and 1/2 for BFSK, and b = 1 is for noncoherent BFSK

/W

Normalized Capacity (Spectral Efficiency), C

given by

PE = PE () p () d, (39)

0

be readily written as

0

N

(1 b, 1), (1, 1)

10

1/ (b) 1

PE = N N,2

H2,N +1

a

1 , . . . , N , (0, 1)

N=3, m=1, =1.25

N=3, m=2.5, =1.25

2 (m ) =1

N=3, m=2.5, =2 =1

N=4, m=2.5, =2 (40)

10

0

10

1

for the cascaded GNM fading channels. To check the analytical

Average SNR, accuracy, let us consider some special cases of (40). Using

Fig. 3. Normalized capacity C /W of the cascaded GNM fading channels [21, Eq.(8.3.22)], (32) reduces to [7, Eq.(22)] for b = 1/2,

with respect to average SNR, th /,i.e., analysis of Eq.(33), where and using [27, Eq.(2.1.1)] to [7, Eq.(23)] for b = 1. Moreover,

{1, 2, . . . , N }, m = m and = . when N = 1, (32) simplifies to the well-known ABEP of

0

binary digital modulation schemes in generalized Gamma

10

N=1, m=1.5, =1.25 fading channels [14, Eq.(10)], i.e.,

N=2, m=1.5, =1.25

N=2, m=1.5, =1 1

1,2 (1 b, 1), (1, 1)

1

PE = H

10

N=3, m=1.75 =2.75

. (41)

N=4, m=1.75, =2.75

N=4, m=1.75, =2.5

2 (b) (m) 2,2 a (m, 1/) , (0, 1)

2

10

In the special case when = 1, (33) becomes the more familiar

out

Outage Capacity, C

3

10

(see [25, Eq.(8.106)], for example), i.e., using [27, Eq.(2.9.1)],

4

[27, Eq.(2.9.16)] and [21, Eq.(6.7)], we get

10

b m

a

(m + b) m

PE =

m + a 2 (b) (m + 1) m + a

5

10

m

2 F1 1, m + b; m + 1; (42)

6

10

m + a

10

7

5 4 3 2 1 0

where 2 F1 [, ; ; ] is the Gaussian hypergeometric function

10 10 10 10 10 10

Normalized Outage Threshold, Cth /W defined in [21, Eq.(7.2.1.1)]. Furthermore, for the special case

m = = 1, (41) further simplifies to

Fig. 4. Outage capacity of the cascaded GNM fading channels with respect b

to the normalized capacity threshold Cth /W , i.e., analysis of Eq.(38), where 1 a

average power = 2dB and {1, 2, . . . , N }, m = m and = .

PE = 1 . (43)

2 m + a

The analytical simplicity and accuracy of (40) is checked by

fading channels is readily obtained as

simulations for the noncoherent BFSK (NCFSK)/ differentially

2Cth /W 1

N coherent BPSK (DPSK) and coherent BPSK/BFSK in Fig. 5.

KN N,1 (1, 1)

Cout = H As seen in Fig. 5, when the fading figure increases, then the

2 1,N +1 1 , . . . , N

=1 ABEP decreases since increasing the fading figure decreases

(38)

the fading severity of the channels. Furthermore, as the shape

In order to double check the validity of (30), Cout is depicted

parameter increases the PDF of the fading becomes skewed

in Fig. 4 for the balanced cascaded GNM fading channels

around the average power, which implies that the ABEP

[i.e., m = m, = and = for = 1, 2, . . . , N with

decreases.

respect to the thresholds, Cth . As seen in Fig. 4, simulation

and numerical results are in perfect agreement.

VI. C ONCLUSION

E. Average Bit Error Probability (ABEP) The distribution for the product of the power of N statisti-

The instantaneous bit error probabilities (BEP), conditioned cally independent (but not necessarily identically distributed)

on the instantaneous SNR , in an AWGN channel may be GNM RVs, referred to N* GNM, was introduced and analyzed.

written in compact form as [25, Eq.(8.100)] PE () = (b,a)

2(b) , Important statistical measures such as PDF, CDF, MGF and

where (, ) is the complementary incomplete Gamma func- moments are obtained in closed-form using the Foxs H func-

tion [22, Eq.(18.48)]. The parameters a and b take specific tion. These results are used to evaluate the OP, capacity, OC

978-1-4244-4148-8/09/$25.00 2009

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE "GLOBECOM" 2009 proceedings.

10

0

! " #!!

{{a1 , A1 } , . . . , {an , An }} , an+1 , An+1, . . . , ap , Ap

! " #!!

{{b1 , B1 } , . . . , {bm , Bm }} , bm+1 , Bm+1 , . . . , bq , Bq

1

10

where m,n,p and q are integers such that 0 m q and 0 n p, while

Average Bit Error Probabilities, PE

2

10

z is the specific value that FoxH is evaluated.*)

evaltol = OptionValue[FoxHFractionTolerance];

3

10 evalprec = OptionValue[FoxHWorkingPrecision] + 10;

value = {}; A = B = {{}, {}}; ra = N[a]; rb = N[b];

4

Rmin = Infinity; Rmax = Infinity;

10

(*Rationalize the coefficients in order to use Legendre duplication formula*)

5

10 rb[[All, All, 2]] = Rationalize[#, evaltol]&/@b[[All, All, 2]];

N=1, m=1.5, =1.25

(*Find K factor which is the least common multiple of rationalized coefficients*)

N=2, m=1.5, =1.25

6 N=2, m=1.5, =1 K = Apply[LCM, Flatten[{Denominator[#]&/@ra[[All, All, 2]],

10

N=3, m=1.75 =2.75

N=4, m=1.75, =2.75 Denominator[#]&/@rb[[All, All, 2]]}]];

N=4, m=1.75, =2.5 (*Find the coefficient and the input value according to the K factor*)

7

10

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 G = K; Z = Power[z, K];

Average Power (SNR), (*Compute the upper Alpha coefficients*)

Fig. 5. BPSK performance over cascaded GNM fading channels, i.e., analysis

Z = ZPower[L, L];

of Eq.(40), where {1, 2, . . . , N }, m = m and = .

G = GSqrt[Power[L, 1 2ra[[1, n, 1]]]/Power[2, L 1]];

A[[1]] = FlattenAt[{A[[1]], 1 + ra[[1, n, 1]]/L Range[1, L]/L},

{{1}, {2}}], {n, 1, Length[ra[[1]]]}];

and ABEP of digital communication systems over cascaded (*Compute the upper Alpha Mellin function*)

fading channels. The obtained closed form expressions were Pa = Function[u, Product[

verified by computer simulations. Results show that numerical SetAccuracy[Gamma[1 a[[1, n, 1]] ua[[1, n, 2]]],

evalprec], {n, 1, Length[a[[1]]]}]];

and simulation results are in perfect agreement.

(*Compute the lower Alpha coefficients*)

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Z = ZPower[L, L];

G = G/Sqrt[Power[L, 2ra[[2, n, 1]] 1]/Power[2, L 1]];

This work was supported in part by Qatar National Research

A[[2]] = FlattenAt[{A[[2]], ra[[2, n, 1]]/L + Range[0, L 1]/L},

Fund (A member of Qatar Foundation) and in part by King {{1}, {2}}], {n, 1, Length[ra[[2]]]}];

Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST). (*Compute the lower Alpha Mellin function*)

Qa = Function[u, Product[

evalprec], {n, 1, Length[a[[2]]]}]];

A MATHEMATICA P ROGRAM FOR THE E VALUATION

(*Compute the upper Beta coefficients*)

OF THE F OX S H F UNCTION

Do[L = rb[[1, n, 2]]K;

The following MATHEMATICAprogram is given as a Z = Z/Power[L, L];

simple and efficient software implementation for evaluating G = GSqrt[Power[L, 2rb[[1, n, 1]] 1]/Power[2, L 1]];

B[[1]] = FlattenAt[{B[[1]], rb[[1, n, 1]]/L + Range[0, L 1]/L},

the Foxs H function (FOXH). With this implementation, {{1}, {2}}], {n, 1, Length[rb[[1]]]}];

Foxs H function can be computed accurately and fast. (*Compute the upper Beta Mellin function*)

(* *************************** * Pb = Function[u, Product[SetAccuracy[Gamma[b[[1, n, 1]] + ub[[1, n, 2]]],

* FoxH Implementation Starts evalprec], {n, 1, Length[b[[1]]]}]];

(*Compute the lower Beta coefficients*)

* *************************** *)

Do[L = rb[[2, n, 2]]K;

Clear[FoxH];

Z = Z/Power[L, L];

(*FoxH Error Messages*)

G = G/Sqrt[Power[L, 1 2rb[[2, n, 1]]]/Power[2, L 1]];

FoxH::NegativeTol = "The tolerance argument is not greater than zero.";

B[[2]] = FlattenAt[{B[[2]], 1 + rb[[2, n, 1]]/L Range[1, L]/L}, {{1}, {2}}],

FoxH::InconsistentCoeffs = "The coefficients are inconsistent.";

{n, 1, Length[rb[[2]]]}];

(*FoxH Options*)

(*Compute the lower Beta Mellin function*)

FoxHDefaultFractionTolerance = 0.001;

Qb = Function[u, Product[SetAccuracy[Gamma[1 b[[2, n, 1]] ub[[2, n, 2]]],

FoxHDefaultDuplicationLimit = 50;

evalprec], {n, 1, Length[b[[2]]]}]];

FoxHDefaultWorkingPrecision = $MachinePrecision;

(*Numerical value check*)

Options[FoxH] = {

A = N[A]; B = N[B]; G = N[G]; Z = N[Z];

FoxHFractionTolerance FoxHDefaultFractionTolerance,

(*Compute the overall Mellin function*)

FoxHDuplicationLimit FoxHDefaultDuplicationLimit,

FoxHWorkingPrecision FoxHDefaultWorkingPrecision}; M = Function[u, Pa[u]Pb[u]/Qa[u]/Qb[u]];

(*FoxH Function Module*) (*Compute the FoxH function*)

FoxHFractionTolerance FoxHDefaultFractionTolerance, If[T OptionValue[FoxHDuplicationLimit],

FoxHDuplicationLimit FoxHDefaultDuplicationLimit, Print["Computing by Meijers G Function"];

FoxHWorkingPrecision FoxHDefaultWorkingPrecision}]]:=Module[ value = GMeijerG[A, B, Z],

{evaltol,evalprec,ra,rb,s,I,K,L,M,Pa,Pb,Qa,Qb,n,Z, Print["Computing by Contour Integration"];

G,R,A,B,T,Rmax,Rmin,value}, {Rmin, Rmax} = {Max[Min[b[[1, All, 1]]/b[[1, All, 2]]], Infinity],

(* The parameters a and b are such coefficient sequences of FoxH Min[Min[1 a[[1, All, 1]]/a[[1, All, 2]]], Infinity]};

If[Rmin == Infinity, Rmin = Rmax 2];

function that they are defined as

978-1-4244-4148-8/09/$25.00 2009

This full text paper was peer reviewed at the direction of IEEE Communications Society subject matter experts for publication in the IEEE "GLOBECOM" 2009 proceedings.

If[Rmax == Infinity, Rmax = Rmin + 2]; [17] N. C. Sagias, P. T. Mathiopoulos, P. S. Bithas, and G. K. Karagiannidis,

If[Rmin==Rmax, Message[FoxH::InconsistentCoeffs]]; On the distribution of the sum of generalized Gamma variates and ap-

R = SetAccuracy[Mean[{Rmax, Rmin}], evalprec]; plications to satellite digital communications, in IEEE 2nd International

Z = SetAccuracy[z, evalprec]; Symposium on Wireless Communication Systems - Siena, Italy, Sep. 5-7

I = SetAccuracy[Sqrt[1], evalprec]; 2005, pp. 785789.

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WorkingPrecision OptionValue[FoxHWorkingPrecision]],

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value = Indeterminate;

[19] N. C. Sagias, G. K. Karagiannidis, P. T. Mathiopoulos, and T. A. Tsiftsis,

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generalized Gamma fading channels, IEEE Transactions on Wireless

];

Communications, vol. 5, no. 10, pp. 29672975, Oct. 2006.

Return[value];

[20] P. S. Bithas, N. C. Sagias, and T. A. Tsiftsis, Performance analysis

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channels, IET Communications, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 174178, Jan. 2008.

[21] A. P. Prudnikov, Y. A. Brychkov, and O. I. Marichev, Integral and

R EFERENCES Series: Volume 3, More Special Functions. CRC Press Inc., 1990.

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