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Global Mechanical Design Standards GMD1

Table of Contents
6. Locating and Clamping .......................................................................................................................................... 3
6.1 Introduction _______________________________________________________________________ 3
6.2 Locating Selection Criteria ___________________________________________________________ 3
6.2.1 Gage Holes as Primary Locators ......................................................................................................................... 4
6.2.2 Functional Surfaces Used as Primary Locators ................................................................................................ 6
6.2.3 Locating Parts with Product Design Gaps _____________________________________________________ 7
6.3 Standard Locating Holes, Pins and Tolerances __________________________________________ 7
6.4 Undersized Pins to Support Hole to Hole Initiative _______________________________________ 8
6.4.1 Undersized Locating Pin Error Proofing ............................................................................................................. 9
6.4.2 Undersized Pin Clamp Error Proofing (BTM Only) ........................................................................................... 10
6.5 Locating Pin Criteria _______________________________________________________________ 11
6.5.1 Panel Engagement .............................................................................................................................................. 11
6.6 Tool Nominal Locating Pin (TNLP) ___________________________________________________ 11
6.7 Retractable Pins __________________________________________________________________ 13
6.7.1 Retractable Pin Units ______________________________________________________________ 15
6.7.2 Standard Locating Holes, Pins and Tolerances for Retractable Pin Units .................................................... 15
6.7.3 In-Line Pin Attachment ....................................................................................................................................... 15
6.8 Non-Standard Locating Pins Not Preferred ___________________________________________ 16
6.8.1 Non-Standard Retention..................................................................................................................................... 16
6.8.2 Blunt Locator Pin Design ................................................................................................................................... 17
6.9 Typical Adjustable Standard Locator Pin Unit Arrangement ______________________________ 18
6.9.1 Adjustment for Locating Pins ............................................................................................................................ 19
6.9.2 Locator Hole Not Square to Body Grid ............................................................................................................. 20
6.10 Locator Block Sizes and Material ____________________________________________________ 21
6.10.1 Material ....................................................................................................................................................... 21
6.10.2 General Assembly Engineering (GAE) Conditions ................................................................................. 21
6.10.3 Regional Guidelines (other than GMNA) ................................................................................................. 21
6.10.4 Surface Math Data ..................................................................................................................................... 21
6.10.5 Sizes ........................................................................................................................................................... 21
6.11 NAAMS Locator Block Blanks _______________________________________________________ 21
6.12 Locator Block Criteria ______________________________________________________________ 22
6.12.1 Locator Block Deflection .......................................................................................................................... 22
6.12.2 Locator Block Contacting a Single Surface ............................................................................................ 23
6.12.3 Locator Block Contacting Two Surfaces................................................................................................. 26
6.13 Pressure Feet Criteria ______________________________________________________________ 28
6.13.1 Adjustment................................................................................................................................................. 28
6.14 Guidelines for Block Relationships to Trim Edges and Radii _____________________________ 29
6.15 L-Blocks _________________________________________________________________________ 30
6.16 Guidelines for Blocks and Pressure Feet (Legacy Designs Only) __________________________ 30
6.17 Fasteners for Locating Pin Retainers, NC Blocks, and L-Blocks ___________________________ 31

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6.18 Clamp Criteria ____________________________________________________________________ 31


6.18.1 Design Considerations ............................................................................................................................. 31
6.18.2 Clevis Clamps ............................................................................................................................................ 33
6.18.3 Power Clamps............................................................................................................................................ 51
6.19 Clamp Arm Datums ________________________________________________________________ 55
6.20 Pin Clamp and Hook Clamp _________________________________________________________ 56
6.21 Standard Component Examples _____________________________________________________ 59
6.22 Blade Design _____________________________________________________________________ 59
6.23 Rough Locators ___________________________________________________________________ 61
6.24 Elimination of Sharp Corners in Pivot Details __________________________________________ 61
6.25 Calculating Required Cylinder Force of Pivot Units _____________________________________ 62
6.25.1 Information Required to Size a Cylinder ................................................................................................. 63
6.25.2 Assumptions and Considerations ........................................................................................................... 63
6.25.3 Calculating Adjusted Mass (M1) .............................................................................................................. 63
6.25.4 Determining Required Cylinder Force ..................................................................................................... 64
6.26 Air Cylinders _____________________________________________________________________ 64
6.26.1 General Information .................................................................................................................................. 64
6.26.2 Layout Requirements ................................................................................................................................ 65
6.26.3 Rodless Cylinders ..................................................................................................................................... 65
6.26.4 Air Cylinders used for Lifters ................................................................................................................... 66
6.26.5 Types of Cylinder Mounting ..................................................................................................................... 66
6.27 Couplers _________________________________________________________________________ 68
6.27.1 Cylinder Rod End Couplers ...................................................................................................................... 68
6.27.2 Self Aligning Couplers .............................................................................................................................. 68
6.27.3 Rap Couplers ............................................................................................................................................. 69
6.28 Stroke-to-go and Positive Stops Criteria _____________________________________________ 69
6.29 Hydraulic Cylinder Information ______________________________________________________ 70
6.30 Insulation ________________________________________________________________________ 70
6.30.1 Welding Areas ........................................................................................................................................... 70
6.30.2 Material Requirements .............................................................................................................................. 71
6.31 Welding Information _______________________________________________________________ 73
6.32 Loop Area Calculation _____________________________________________________________ 73

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6. Locating and Clamping


6.1 Introduction
This section outlines Locating and Clamping standards. This section describes a variety of locating and
clamping methods with configurations and pictorial examples for Body-in-White tooling. This section also
provides guidelines for selecting the type of locating component and means of attachment. Tooling
coordination and cylinder rules are given along with material, finishing and size requirements.

The Common Datum & Locating Strategy (CDLS) specifies which datums are nominal non adjustable and
which datums are nominal adjustable. For nominal adjustable datums please refer to GMD1 Section 06
Locating and Clamping. For Nominal Non Adjustable tooling please refer to GMD1 Section 05 Locating
and Clamping - Lean. Section 05 provides examples of both pin units and clamp packages that are lean
Nominal Non Adjustable tooling solutions.
6.2 Locating Selection Criteria
The criteria for locating a part is dependent on the type of work a tool is expected to do. Rest fixtures or
holding bucks are used to hold the parts between processes. Parts in this type of application are not
precisely held in location. Part transfer (linear or rotational) must be able to locate and properly position
the part from one station to another with a high degree of repeatability. A weld tool must repeatedly locate
the same part or parts with the same degree of accuracy within a tolerance limit. This will assure that the
finished sub-assemblies will be the same throughout the system. Refer to the MPM (Master Process
Model) or Coordination Drawing (CD) Lead sheet for specific datum location and control direction. Refer to
the examples shown on the following page.

It is preferred to use the most cost effective approach in the design of locator units (i.e. pins, pin retainers,
locator block, pressure foot blanks, shims, spacers and riser brackets).

For all new designs using the global hole tolerance scheme, use NAAMS APQ series locating pins.

When a locating pin is used, a stationary, non-retractable pin shall always be the primary selection.

A stationary pin package is more stable dimensionally, less costly and easier to maintain than a
retractable pin package.

There are instances where a retractable pin package may be required. See this section for further
definition.

The preferred width for NC Locators, L-Blocks and Pin Retainers is 19mm - 20mm. NAAMS NC Locators,
L- Blocks and Pin Retainers are available at 20mm wide with a 8mm dowel hole pattern. Legacy
programs may use NAAMS components with 8mm or larger dowel sizes as required.

A Pressure Foot without a matching NC locator will be identified as either a Locator or Pusher.
If the Pressure Foot is used to locate the part and is positioned by a hard stop, then it becomes
a Locator. This type of locator is normally indexed to the work position before the part is
loaded. Locators are identified in the MDM and ARE Certified.
If the Pressure Foot does not locate against a hard stop and only appliers a force after the part
is loaded, then the Pressure Foot is considered a Pusher. Pushers are not in the MDM and
ARE NOT Certified.

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6.2.1 Gage Holes as Primary Locators


Locating pins are the preferred choice for primary location.

Pins must be oriented parallel to the vector (perpendicular) of the hole.

Pins must be adjustable parallel to bodylines.

Pins used in the weld gun loop area, (consumed between the gun arms or located within the weld
loop), are to be made of Non-Magnetic Stainless Steel (NMSS).

GLOBAL:
The best method of part location supporting the nominal build philosophy is a 3-2-2 locating method
outlined and illustrated as follows:
(3) - Minimum of three locator blocks to establish part plane.
(2) - Round locating pin in a round hole that defines location in four directions (4-way)
perpendicular to the plane previously established (primary pin).
(2) - Round locating pin in a round hole that defines location in four directions (4-way)
perpendicular to the plane previously established (mating pin).

(3)

(3)
(2)

(2)

(3)

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LEGACY:
Legacy programs will use the 3-2-1 method to establish the part location method when a hole and a
slot are present as outlined and illustrated below:
(3) - Minimum of three locator blocks to establish part plane.
(2) - Round locating pin in a round hole that defines location in four directions (4-way)
perpendicular to the plane previously established (primary pin).
(1) Round locating pin in a slot that defines two directions (2-way) of the primary pin.

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6.2.2 Functional Surfaces Used as Primary Locators


Stress Free Build:
The part is located on its primary datums.

1. Secondary locators push the part to the secondary plane

2. The tertiary locators push the part to the tertiary plane

3. The clamps close in the primary plane

The part is now located in all three planes, while maintaining no stress in the panel.

Clearance is a build function. Tool design is nominal.

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6.2.3 Locating Parts with Product Design Gaps


Product engineering occasionally designs product interfaces with design gaps. Occasionally
tooling must be designed to locate on these features. When this occurs, reference Appendix D1 on
how to create tool designs that support the Product Engineering design gap strategy.

6.3 Standard Locating Holes, Pins and Tolerances


When selecting a standard locating pin, first look at the product for hole size. New product will have
locating holes sized 0.1 over nominal and the appropriate pin will be a NAAMS APQ Series as shown
below.

Locating Pin:
Hole Hole Pin Pin Tolerance NAAMS
Size Tolerance Size (h6) Code
8.1 +0.1/-0.0 8 +0.000/-0.009 APQ081-086
10.1 +0.11-0.0 10 +0.000/-0.009 APQ101-108
13.1 +0.11-0.0 13 +0.000/-0.011 APQ131-138
16.1 +0.11-0.0 16 +0.000/-0.011 APQ161-168
18.1 +0.11-0.0 18 +0.000/-0.012 APQ181-188
20.1 +0.11-0.0 20 +0.000/-0.013 APQ201-208
25.1 +0.11-0.0 25 +0.000/-0.013 APQ251-258
30.1 +0.11-0.0 30 +0.000/-0.013 APQ301-308
35.1 +0.11-0.0 35 +0.000/-0.014 APQ351-358
40.1 +0.11-0.0 40 +0.000/-0.016 APQ401-408

6.3.1 Minimum Product requirements for 6 Way Locators


The MDM will identify holes in panels with 3 axis of control. This would require a 6 way locator in
the tool design. There are minimum product design requirements that ensure the quality of the
vehicle when a 6 way datum is identified. Two common tooling approaches used to meet this
requirement are:
a) Locating Pin with an external clamp
b) Pin Clamp

The separate locating pin and external clamp provide the greatest product flexibility, but is the more
costly solution compared to a pin clamp. A 30.0mm round embossment (tangent to tangent) is the
minimum requirement for the separate pin and clamp solution. This should be 6 way locators with
a hole diameter of 10.1mm or smaller.

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30mm
Dia. 5.0 mm Radius Locating Pin for a 10
1.0 mm clearance btw pin and pres
6.5 mm pressure foot patch on each
1.5 mm of clearance between press
along the hypotenuse
Minimum Requirement for a 10.1m
30mm flat for 6 way locating pin

12.5 mm
12.5 mm
6.5 mm

5 mm
13.46 mm
+1.5mm
= 15.0mm

25 mm
Pin Retainer

When space is available, a pin clamp should be used to reduce the overall cost to GM. The
minimum product diameter size is 13.1mm for a pin clamp. For this locating hole size, the round
embossment requirement increases to 34.0mm. The embossment size increase with the size of
the hole for pin clamps. Verify the embossment requirement from the selected Pin Clamp Supplier.
Allow for 2.0mm of radial clearance between the pin clamp collar to any product features.

6.4 Undersized Pins to Support Hole to Hole Initiative


There are currently three undersized pins that are referenced in the Common Datum Locating Strategy
(CDLS) that support the hole-to-hole concept. The undersized pin diameters are 24.8mm, 34.8mm, and
39.8mm. These pins are 0.3mm undersized rather than the standard 0.1mm. Refer to the CDLS
standard templates for specific usage on undersized pins.

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6.4.1 Undersized Locating Pin Error Proofing


The under sized pin diameters cannot be differentiated by visual inspection. The pin itself controls
the error proofing for undersized stationary pins. The undersized pin has a smaller diameter, which
requires a bushing to fit into an existing nominal pin retainer. The bushing on the smaller diameter
seat is the visual identification for error proofing for these pins. The method used for mechanical
error proofing is illustrated below:

Undersized Pins
bushing
standard washer size A
M8 fastener
standard retainer
and / or standard shot pin component

Nominal Pins (Not Shown)


bushing no bushing
standard washer size B
M10 fastener
washer size A standard retainer
and / or standard shot pin component

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6.4.2 Undersized Pin Clamp Error Proofing (BTM Only)


BTM added a unique mechanical locating feature to differentiate between a nominal and undersized
pin clamps. The error proofing is having a unique dowel location for each application. This unique
dowel location will not allow the nominal pin collar to be assembled on an undersized pin body and
vise versa. Additionally, the pin sizes are also labeled on the outer diameter of the pin locator
flange. The illustration below demonstrates the BTM error proofing features:

Nominal Pin Clamp Locator Undersize Pin Clamp Locator

Primary Locator Undersize


Acceptor Hole Locator
and Dowel Acceptor Hole
and Dowel

Sizes
Sizes
40.0, 35.0, 30.0,
25.0, 20.0 etc 39.8, 34.8, 29.8,
24.8, 19.8, etc

Pin Clamps

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6.5 Locating Pin Criteria


The following information regarding locating pins is to be used for the ISO tolerance product holes ONLY
(e.g. Hole size 16.1H6 = Pin Size 16.0h6).

For legacy product not utilizing Global die and pin sizes, see GMD1 Section 34 for legacy tooling
components (e.g. Hole size 16.0 = Pin Size 15.72).
6.5.1 Panel Engagement
Panel engagement should be as close as possible to the minimum value to avoid panel bind.

Tangent on Pin

2mm-4mm Panel
Engagement

6.6 Tool Nominal Locating Pin (TNLP)


For a given BIW part, it is the use of multiple round datum locating holes with round locating pins to
position and hold sheet metal parts during checking and assembly. The Hole-to-Hole (H2H) strategy is
one part of a total quality system that drives discipline throughout the Stamping and Assembly process,
yielding improved quality in the single parts, assemblies, and complete Body-in-White stations.

The tool design deliverable shall designate the Tool Nominal Locating Pin (TNLP) on the assembly
drawing and/or Process Planner. The TNLP of a tool is typically identified as the locating pin with NO
spacers. The TNLP shall be physically identified on the weld tool to ensure proper set- up and certification
of fixtures. The TNLP can also be considered a Primary Locator for a particular part or sub-assembly. The
TNLP shall be identified in tool design and pass information back to Processing.

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TNLP Examples:

Nominal Non Adjustable TNLP (Preferred Solution)

TNLP using standard L Blocks and Pin Retainers with NO Grind Spacers or Shims

L-BLOCK

MOUNTING
SURFACE
OR BLADE

NAAMS APQ205
LOCATING PIN (REF)

LOCATING PIN
RETAINER

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6.7 Retractable Pins


Stationary pins are always the first choice for locating parts. However, under certain conditions it
may be necessary to incorporate provisions for a retractable non-rotating locating pin unit.

If a retractable non-rotating locating pin unit is required, then the preferred solution should be an In-line
locating unit followed by a side-by-side solution. The side loading on the retractable pin unit will determine
the engineering solution for each application. The figure below shows graphically the retractable pin
hierarchy. Please refer to the regional commercial component list for the approved supplier.

Stationary Pin Example Linear Retractable Pin Example Side-By-Side Retractable Pin
st nd rd
1 choice 2 Alternative 3 Alternative

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Examples of conditions where a retractable pin package may be required:

1) Multiple pins where pin centerlines are not


parallel ~ i.e. sub-assembly tool where
multiple parts require precision location on
different planes. Retract only the pin that
does not conflict with conditions #2 & #3.

2) Pin centerline not parallel to direction of


automatic load/unload. Robotic
load/unload do not require retractable pins
unless condition #1 or #3 exists.

3) Retractable pins may be required to


overcome a hole binding condition that
could cause product damage using a
stationary pin. In this instance, it is highly
advisable to back up the part so as pin
retracts the part is supported. Opposing
clamps may cause part to bind on pin.
This condition is shown as an example
only. Ideal situation is to clamp over pin
back up, thereby avoiding binding
conditions.

For strokes greater than 50mm, a commercial pin package is preferred. The commercial pin package
does not require any additional guides. They can also be ordered with a rap coupler to help retract them
from a binded hole.

For make pin units with a stroke greater than 50mm, an external pin guide may be required. The GM
Manufacturing Engineer must approve application of additional guides.

If a commercial unit cannot be used and a retractable pin package must be designed, use a slide
arrangement. See GMD1 Section 10.

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6.7.1 Retractable Pin Units


The Commercial Component Application Buy-off form must be filled out for any nonstandard
retractable pin unit application (download from BIW Forms Library).
6.7.2 Standard Locating Holes, Pins and Tolerances for Retractable Pin Units
The following pins are for use with Retractable Units for Product Using ISO Tolerance Gage Holes

Retractable Locating Pin:


Hol
Hole Pin Pin Tolerance NAAMS
e
Tolerance Size (h6) Code
Size

8.1 +0.1/-0.0 8 +0.000/-0.009 APQ081R-088R

10.1 +0.11-0.0 10 +0.000/-0.009 APQ101R-108R

13.1 +0.11-0.0 13 +0.000/-0.011 APQ131R-138R

16.1 +0.11-0.0 16 +0.000/-0.011 APQ161R-168R

18.1 +0.11-0.0 18 +0.000/-0.012 APQ181R-188R

20.1 +0.11-0.0 20 +0.000/-0.013 APQ201R-208R

25.1 +0.11-0.0 25 +0.000/-0.013 APQ251R-258R

30.1 +0.11-0.0 30 +0.000/-0.013 APQ301R-308R

35.1 +0.11-0.0 35 +0.000/-0.014 APQ351R-358R

40.1 +0.11-0.0 40 +0.000/-0.016 APQ401R-408R

6.7.3 In-Line Pin Attachment


Shown below is a correct method of attaching a standard pin to a pin unit. The shoulder fastener
draws the pin shank tight against the pin unit inside diameter eliminating movement.

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6.8 Non-Standard Locating Pins Not Preferred


6.8.1 Non-Standard Retention
In cases where you must locate a round a pin or there is no access beneath the pin for a fastener,
then it may be necessary to use the design shown below for pin retention

Note: See section 6.17 for


fastener requirements.

Modify a standard NAAMS pin to provide an undercut around the full diameter of the pilot shank as
shown. Providing an undercut as shown, allows rotation of pin in the plant if wear is evident.

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6.8.2 Blunt Locator Pin Design


The blunt design is for restricted areas only and requires the GM Manufacturing Engineers
approval.

Make pins per NAAMS specifications except as shown.

Show the following information on detail drawing:

Material: 8620 steel See TcAE for these drawing specifications.


Hardness: 58-62 RC to a depth of 0.5 - 2.0 after grinding. See TcAE for these drawing
specifications.

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6.9 Typical Adjustable Standard Locator Pin Unit Arrangement


Bodylines are to be shown on the detail drawing sheets of the locator unit only. Shown below are all the
details that would be illustrated within a typical locating pin unit. Refer to the local regions Statement of
Requirement, SOR, and bid packages for any regional specific criteria.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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6.9.1 Adjustment for Locating Pins

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

2-WAY:
One plane (2-way) of adjustment is required for a slot that is oriented square to body.

NAAMS
NAAMS STD APQ205
Fitting Spacer Locating Pin
(REF)

Direction of
Adjustment

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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6.9.2 Locator Hole Not Square to Body Grid


Locating pins used in gage slots not oriented square to body require at least 2-planes (4-way) of
adjustment.

Example: A round pin should be used in a slot as shown below utilizing a standard pin retainer. Do
not use flat or diamond pins.

NAAMS
Locating Pin

NAAMS STD
Fitting Spacer

NAAMS STD
Fitting Spacer

Direction of
Adjustment Direction of
Adjustment

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind
spacer.

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6.10 Locator Block Sizes and Material


6.10.1 Material
Locator blocks shall be made of specified material within the NAAMS website.

For Closure Panels, Urethane Rollers are the preferred method to support the outer skin. The
rollers increase the contact surface which reduces/eliminates dings in the sheet metal. Deviation
from Urethane Rollers in any closure panel designs requires approval from the GM Zone Engineer.

Urethane blocks are the preferred method when the potential exists for marring a Class A surface
(i.e. manual load/unload, non-precision conveyors, etc.). Urethane with a Shore A 50-85 hardness
is recommended. The Urethane hardness must be called out in the Bill of Material for that detail. If
a Urethane locator requires tapping, a threaded / doweled insert from an approved source must be
used. For mounting, see GMD1 Section 4.

Locators used in the weld field are to be made of non-magnetic stainless steel (NMSS).
6.10.2 General Assembly Engineering (GAE) Conditions
The following are exceptions for General Assembly Engineering (GAE) using Ultra High Molecular
Weight (UHMW) / polymer:
Nest Blocks for delivery / transport racks that contact Class A painted surfaces shall be
constructed using urethane with a Shore A hardness of 60-85
Nest Blocks (V-blocks) for panel build and delivery carriers shall be constructed using urethane
with a Shore A hardness of 85
6.10.3 Regional Guidelines (other than GMNA)
Regions other than North America shall follow guidelines above but, refer to the equivalency
material chart in Section 1, Global Regional Metric Stock Specifications.
6.10.4 Surface Math Data
The design source shall be responsible for providing the construction source with a solid model of
the NC detail that is trimmed to the panel. The construction source will use this model for their build
requirements.
6.10.5 Sizes
The standard block size can range from 18.90mm to 20mm. This range allows the construction
source to provide the blocks at the leanest cost. Any deviation from standard block size requires
approval from the GM Manufacturing Engineer.

6.11 NAAMS Locator Block Blanks


Refer to the NAAMS website for ordering information and drawings for designs using NC blocks that are
19 - 20mm in width.
The NX Manufacturing Engineering (ME) Library includes NAAMS components created using parts
families. Please contact your NX coordinator for access to this library.
Legacy programs may use NAAMS locator block with 8mm or larger dowels as required.

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6.12 Locator Block Criteria


6.12.1 Locator Block Deflection
In addition to the 3-slot/hole construction spacers, 4 or 5 slot/hole versions are also available.

Shown below is an example of when one of these sizes may be required.

PREFERRED METHOD NON-PREFERRED METHOD

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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6.12.2 Locator Block Contacting a Single Surface


Example of a Single Surface Contact:

One-Directional Set-up:
When contacting a single angle surface or a compound surface where either angle of the part
contact surface are 15 degrees or less, only one plane of adjustment is required for setup as
illustrated below. Position the datum on the dowel hole that has the most accessibility (see
illustration).

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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Two-Directional Set-up:
When contacting a compound surface where one angle of the part contact surface is less than 15
degrees and the other angle is greater than 15 degrees, two planes of adjustment are required for
setup as illustrated below.

Note: See section 6.17 for


fastener requirements.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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Three-Directional Set-up:
When contacting a compound surface where both angles of the contact surface are greater than 15
degrees, three planes of adjustment are required for setup as illustrated below.

Note: See section 6.17 for


fastener requirements.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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6.12.3 Locator Block Contacting Two Surfaces


Two-Directional Set-up:
If the locator contacts two part surfaces and both part surfaces are less than 15 degrees from body
grid then two planes of adjustment are required for setup as illustrated below:

Note: See section 6.17 for


fastener requirements.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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Three-Directional Set-up:
When contacting two surfaces and one or both of the surfaces is greater than 15 degrees in the
opposite direction of the two-way adjustment, three directions of adjustment are required for setup as
illustrated below.

Note: See section 6.17 for


fastener requirements.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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6.13 Pressure Feet Criteria


Pressure feet are details mounted to a clamp arm and are used to seat the part accurately to the locator
block. Pressure feet are to be the same width and material as the mating locator block. All pressure feet
that are 19 - 20mm in width may refer to the NAAMS web site for ordering information and drawings.
Legacy programs may use NAAMS locator block with 8mm or larger dowels as required.
All pressure feet are to be machined to math data, but do not require certification. Do not dimension flat
surfaces.
Pressure feet require two fasteners for a single contact surface. Pressure feet require two dowels and a
0
single fastener when the contact patch is greater than 15 or there are multiple contact surfaces.
If the part needs to be clamped securely to the locator block, design the clamp unit to provide a minimum
of 445 Newtons (100 lbf) clamp force at the contact surface.

6.13.1 Adjustment
Single Angle:
When contacting a non-compound single surface at angles less than 45, provide adjustment in one
direction as shown.

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

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Dual Angle:
When contacting two surfaces, provide adjustment in two directions as shown. L-blocks are used to
provide adjustment in two directions.

Direction of Adjustment

Direction of Adjustment

Legacy locating criteria requires 5.0mm standard shim pack and 5.0mm grind spacer.

6.14 Guidelines for Block Relationships to Trim Edges and Radii


Following are typical conditions encountered while designing NC Locator Blocks and Pressure Feet.

Begin with standard 20mm square block, only machining reliefs as required.

Below is an example of a Flat Panel (no relief)

2 MM FROM
TRIM EDGE
(MIN)

Below is an example of a Hat Section (no relief)

2 MM FROM
TRIM EDGE
(MIN)

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Relieve blocks only to achieve required trim edge and radii clearances shown.
Typical conditions when only locator (pressure foot with a hard stop) is used with no NC block for back-up.
Below is an example of a Hem Flange:

2 MM FROM
2 MM FROM
TRIM EDGE (MIN)
TRIM EDGE (MIN)
2 MM BEHIND BREAK 2 MM BEYOND
LINE TANGENT (MIN) BREAK LINE
TANGENT (MIN)

2 MM FROM 2 MM FROM 2 MM FROM 2 MM FROM


TANGENT (MIN) TANGENT (MIN) TRIM EDGE (MIN) TANGENT (MIN)

2 MM FROM
TANGENT (MIN)
2 MM FROM
TANGENT (MIN)

6.15 L-Blocks
L-Blocks are used in conjunction with locator blocks and/or pressure feet to provide additional planes of
adjustment when required.

All blocks that are 19 - 20mm in width may refer to the NAAMS web site for ordering information and
drawings. Legacy programs may use NAAMS locator block with 8mm or larger dowels as required.

6.16 Guidelines for Blocks and Pressure Feet (Legacy Designs Only)
Use only NAAMS standard shims and construction spacers.

Use the following combination of shims to acquire the 5.00mm stack up:

(2) - 0.25mm
(3) - 0.50mm
(1) - 1.00mm
(1) - 2.00mm
5.00mm

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Design shims in an attitude that will accommodate easy access. Design shim packs so they will not fall
out due to gravity.

Pressure foot design will incorporate 5mm construction spacer in addition to a 5mm shim pack, for each
plane of adjustment.

Locator block design will incorporate 5mm construction spacer in addition to 5mm shim pack for each
plane of adjustment.

6.17 Fasteners for Locating Pin Retainers, NC Blocks, and L-Blocks


Two 8mm dowels and one M8 fastener will be used on NC blocks, and L-Blocks. If the locator block
exceeds 200mm from the primary attachment, the fastening requirement will be two 8mm dowels and two
M8 fasteners. A minimum of two 8mm dowels and two M8 fasteners will be used on locating pin retainers
and associated L-Blocks.

(2) 8mm Dowels (2) M8 Fasteners


`

6.18 Clamp Criteria


6.18.1 Design Considerations
The purpose of a clamp at a part locating point is to assure that the part(s) is held against the
locator throughout the manufacturing operation. Each Body-in-White tool design homeroom should
design global clamp units that permit the maximum part and welding content within each operation
by the most cost effective means possible. Subsequent regions following the homeroom lead must
carryover their clamp unit designs to acquire valuable lessons learned. Failure to carryover the
homeroom design is only permissible by the Global Body Manufacturing Engineering Staff (GBMES)
regional representative presenting the business case deviation at the GBMES meeting.

There are two acceptable clamp styles, Open Clevis and Power Clamps. The open clevis style
clamp unit utilizes a separate cylinder with custom details for the clamp arm and blade. NC-
surfaces for the open clevis style clamp can be bolt on blocks or machined in the arm and blade
details. The power clamp unit has an enclosed cylinder and an integral arm. The integral arm can
mount on either side of the clamp body or as a wish bone configuration. Both arms have bolt-on
NC blocks.

Either example above is not the single correct solution to apply across all weld tools; rather it can be
one or a combination of both styles. THE SPECIFIC CLAMP APPLICATION DRIVES THE CLAMP
STYLE SELECTION. A few examples are illustrated below:

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The standard clamp unit shall be designed to provide 445 N +/- 10% (100 lbf.) of force at the part
clamping point for most applications. Part stack-up or tooling application may generate the need to
alter the standard clamp package / force. Larger metal stack-ups may drive a higher clamp force
and smaller metal stack-ups may require less force.

Applications that should be considered as requiring greater clamp force includes thicker stamped
parts (single parts that are greater than 2.5mm thick), large metal stack-ups, (greater than 4.0mm),
three part metal stack-up and applications that involve high strength steel parts. In these
applications, consider designing the clamp unit to provide two to four times more clamp force (890 to
1780N / 200 to 400 lbs.). Forces that oppose the clamp force such as, the weight of the part, lifting
forces due to pushers, weld gun and piercing equalizing forces, etc., shall be considered when
assessing the clamping application.

Applications that should be considered for a clamp force less than 445N (100 lb f) include two sheet
metal part stack-up less than 1.7mm thick. The reduction in clamp force yields a cost effective tool
that allows for maximum weld density.

The clamp unit shall be constructed with blade and riser type mounting. To contribute in minimizing
the overall size of each tool the blade style design should be used to extend or cantilever the clamp
unit beyond the footprint of the base. Each of the typical types of clamp units can be designed in this
fashion.

The locator block is typically attached by way of two dowels and one fastener. A two dowel, two
fastener hole pattern should be used when the locator exceeds 200mm. To enable the shim-less
nominal build philosophy a 5.0mm solid spacer shall be included between the locator and the
locator-mounting surface.

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Pressure-foot (Fingers) details shall be designed as separate bolt-on, non-integral, details of the
clamp arm. The open clevis pressure foot clamp shall be mounted with no spacer or shims.
However, if an open clevis pressure foot requires a hard stop, then a 5.0mm shim pack under the
pressure foot must be included with this design. When a hard stop is used in the design, the
pressure foot is secured by a single fastener and two 8mm dowels. The 5.0mm shim pack is
utilized to assure proper adjustment of the gap between the locator and finger. Refer to the local
regions Statement of Requirement, SOR, and bid packages for any regional specific criteria.

6.18.2 Clevis Clamps


The primary components of the clevis clamp include clamp arm, blade, cylinder, angle riser, locator
block, and finger. Clevis clamps shall typically be designed with the center of the clamp cylinder, the
center of the locator, and the center of the clamp arm on a common line. However, it is acceptable
to offset the clamp point from the clamp cylinder to allow for improved access for welding and part
load and unload.

The clamp arm shall be welded construction including a 20.0mm thick arm with an integral pivot to
accommodate a 19.50mm wide clevis. The female portion of the clevis shall always be part of the
arm. The male portion of the clevis shall always be part of the blade.

The clevis clamp cylinder shall be the round body design typically with front clevis attachment and
magnetic sensing switch attachment rod. Rear clevis mounting can be utilized for special situations.
The cylinder shall have built-in adjustable speed (flow) controls and cushions at retracted end of the
stroke.

The cylinder shall be attached by way of a 19.00mm thick blade locally machined to fit the 19.50mm
clevis-mounting lug. The clevis cylinder shall be ordered with the cylinder manufacturers standard
clevis pin assembly and rod clevis assembly that include a non-lube bearing to accommodate the
clevis pin of the cylinder.

The 19.00mm thick blade shall also act as the mounting surface for the locator. One typical method
of attachment for the blade is that the blade be mounted to the tool base or frame with a NAAMS
angle riser. Units that are excessively tall, (greater than 600mm) shall incorporate the blade as a
custom weldment with mounting pad and vertical ribs to reduce deflection.

Clevis clamp cylinders are available in multiple bore sizes. The three recommended bore sizes for
GM Global BIW Tool Designs are: 40mm, 50mm, and 63mm. These cylinders are available in both
a locking and non-locking version. The locking cylinders are required for all EOAT applications.
The locking cylinders are shipped to the build facility without the lock engaged for tool assembly.
The cylinder must be altered to allow the rod lock to perform properly when there is air loss during
normal production. Appendix C1 contains the instructions for the SMC locking cylinder. Please
provide to the build facility prior to tool construction.

There are two recommend strokes for these three bore sizes are 100mm and 150mm. However,
50mm and 75mm strokes are available when necessary for a lean design. The correct bore and
stroke for any cylinder is based upon the desired clamp opening and the minimum clamp pressure
of 445 N.

Use the suppliers setup table for pedestal mount option as a guideline for cylinder mounting design.

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The illustrations below are that of a SMC cylinder:

Safety Concern:
Consider the movement of the
cylinder body throughout the
entire stroke of the cylinder.
Allow sufficient clearance in
design to avoid hard
interferences and potential pinch
points when valve for cylinder is
manually actuated.
PINCH POINT!
MAINTAIN
30.0mm
MINIMUM
CLEARANCE

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6.18.2.1 Clevis Clamp Applications


Improved Weld Access Clevis clamps allow for increased part and weld density within
each tool. This can enable the reduction in the overall quantity of tools.

Less Weight In certain applications, (geo-pallets, moving mass applications, vertical


slides, and end effectors), the weight of the tool is a high priority. The typical open clevis
unit weighs less than the typical power clamp unit.

6.18.2.2 Clevis Clamp Force Calculation Examples


When the specific clamp application drives the selection of an open clevis style clamp, use
the following criteria and examples to aid the tool design:

1. Design for 5.5 bar (80psi) line pressure


2. Clamp pressure min. 445 Newtons (100 lbf)

F1 = Actuating Force of Cylinder


L1 = Distance from cylinder clevis to clamp arm pivot
F2 = Clamping Force 445N (100lbf)
L2 = Distance from clamp arm pivot to center of pressure foot/locator
Formula:

F1L1 F2L2 OR L2 F1L1


F2

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50mm Bore Cylinder Force Calculation


2 2
F1 (50mm Bore Cylinder) = r (5.5 bar) = (3.14) x (25mm) x (5.5bar)
2
= (3.14) x (25mm) x (550,000 Pa)
2 2
Cylinder Area F1 = (3.14) x (25mm) x (1m/1000mm) x (550,000Pa)
Calculation F1 = (3.14) x (343.75 N)
F1 = 1079 N = (243 lbf ) = Actuating Force of Cylinder
Now that F1 is calculated, (1079N), and knowing that the Clamping Force, F 2, must have a
minimum clamping force value of 445N (100lbf)

Then F1 / F2 = 1079 N / 445 N = 2.4 (Force Ratio)

The Force Ratio of (2.4) can be used for 50mm bore cylinders to calculate the relationship between
the distance from cylinder clevis to clamp arm pivot, L1, and the distance from clamp arm pivot to
the center of the pressure foot/locator, L2. The Force Ratio to guarantee a minimum of 445N of
clamping force for a 50mm bore cylinder is shown below:

Then L2 F1L1
F2

L2 2.4 L1

The table shown below illustrates the acceptable distances from clamp arm pivot to the center of the
pressure foot, L2 , when the distance between the cylinder clevis to clamp arm pivot, L 1, is given to
be 75mm.

Distance Cylinder to Pivot L1 (mm)

This form displays the Clevis 75.0


Clamp force created based on
Clevis Clamp Cylinder Bore (mm)
the distance entered between
the cylinder and pivot and the
50.0
cylinder bore entered.
Calculated Cylinder force F1 (N)

Arm Length L2 1079


(mm from pivot point) Clevis Clamp Force F2 (N)
100 809
125 647
150 539
175 462
THESE ARM
200 404
LENGTHS DO NOT
225 360
MEET THE 445 N
250 323 CLAMP FORCE
275 294 REQUIREMENTS.
300 270

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63mm Bore Cylinder Force Calculation:


2 2
F1 (63mm Bore Cylinder) = r (5.5 bar) = (3.14) x (31.5mm) x (5.5bar)
2
= (3.14) x (31.5mm) x (550,000 Pa)
2 2
F1 = (3.14) x (31.5mm) x (1m/1000mm) x (550,000Pa)
Cylinder Area
F1 = (3.14) x (545.74 N)
Calculation
F1 = 1714 N = (386 lbf ) = Actuating Force of Cylinder

Now that F1 is calculated, (1714 N), and knowing that the Clamping Force, F 2, must have a
minimum clamping force value of 445N (100lbf)

Then F1 / F2 = 1714 N / 445 N = 3.8 (Force Ratio)

The Force Ratio of (3.8) can be used for 63mm bore cylinders to calculate the relationship between
the distance from cylinder clevis to clamp arm pivot, L1, and the distance from clamp arm pivot to the
center of pressure foot/locator, L2. The Force Ratio to guarantee a minimum of 445N of clamping
force for a 63mm bore cylinder is shown below:

Then L2 F1L1
F2

L2 3.8 L1

The Table shown below illustrates the acceptable distances from clamp arm pivot to the center of
the pressure foot, L2 , when the distance between the cylinder clevis to clamp arm pivot, L 1, is given
to be 100mm.

Distance Cylinder to Pivot L1


This form displays the (mm)
Clevis Clamp force 100
created based on the
distance entered
between the cylinder and Clevis Clamp Cylinder Bore (mm)
pivot and the cylinder
bore entered. 63.0

Calculated Cylinder force F1 (N)

1714
Arm Length L2
(mm from pivot point) Clevis Clamp Force (N)

100 1714
125 1371
150 1143
175 979
200 857
225 762
250 686
275 623
300 571

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6.18.2.3 Clevis Clamp Hard Stops


The hard stop for the clamp arm, when required, is attached on the centerline of the blade.
A hard stop for the clamp-closed position shall always be utilized for the following
applications:
Clamping across an open section
Clamping on an exterior panel show surface
When the clamp finger has no back-up (Locator)
If a slip plane is required
Excessive clamp arm length, greater than 200mm from pivot to part contact point
Part surface is on an angle greater than 15 degrees relative to the axis of the clamp
pivot
Clamping in two directions

When a hard stop is required, the associated pressure foot must be precisely located using
dowels in the clamp arms.

A hard stop is not required on clevis clamps in applications of clamping non-show surfaces.
However, in the situation of excessively long arms a hard stop should be considered to
minimize the amount of miss-match between the locator and finger. A clamp arm length is
considered excessive if greater than 200mm from pivot point to part contact point.

6.18.2.4 Clevis Clamp Bearings / Bushings


Graphically below are the standard tolerances for a Clevis Clamp example. This typical
construction provides the necessary tolerances for building this type of clamp unit.

Typical
Typi cal Pin
Pi n // B
Bearing
eari ng / / Blade
e Stack-up

Arm Blade
0.004 to 0.035 Press Fit
Keeper
Plate

Bearing

11.994 12.018 18.018


12.018
11.983 12.000 18.000
12.000 Blade
Arm Hole Pin Pin Bearing ID
Tolerance H7 Tolerance H7
Tolerance H7 Tolerance - g6

Bearing ID
0.006 to 0.035 Clear

18.035
18.022
Bearing OD
Tolerance p6

**0.006 to 0.035 Clear

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Thrust Washer Requirement:


Clevis clamp units that are mounted on an angle greater than 45 degrees to gravity shall
incorporate thrust washers to minimize wear on the arm and blade. In this case, the
moveable arm width is reduced to accommodate the thickness of the thrust washers.

60

Thrust Washer
Required (red)

Gravity

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Examples of a Clevis Clamp Section Clamp Arm and Blade Pivot with Thrust Washer

. Arm

Lubo Bearing

Blade

Thrust Washers

Standard Section A-A


Clamp

Gravity

Thrust Washer
Required (red)

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6.18.2.5 Clevis Clamp Typical Components

Example of a Clevis Clamp No Hard Stop / No Slip Plane

THRUST WASHER (As Required)


Part # MTLW 1224
Purchase Component
Welker Bearing Company

CLAMP FORCE:
445 N (100 lbf.) MIN. AT
PART CONTACT POINT

PRESSURE FOOT: METRIC SHAFT ASSEMBLY


NO SHIM OR FITTING 12M(g6 Tol.) X 50M X M
SPACERS REQUIRED
TWO FASTENERS REQUIRED
NO DOWELS
BEARING:
PART # S01115012018019
(tolerance 12H7 & 18p6)
PURCHASED COMPONENT
LOCATOR: LUBO Industries, Inc.
5.0mm SOLID SPACER (or equivalent)
NO SHIM REQUIRED
ONE FASTENER, TWO DOWELS PREFERED
TWO FASTENERS, TWO DOWELS SMC CLAMP CYLINDER:
OPTIONAL FOR EXCESSIVE LENGTH. EXAMPLE ORDER NUMBER:
#CKP1B50TF-100Y-P74SE-
X1840 (19.5mm CLEVIS
WIDTH, 50mm BORE, 100mm
STROKE, G-PORT, WITH (2)
ALL FASTENERS REED SWITCHES).
GRADE 10.9 INCLUDES 200MM LONG
HEX HEAD FASTENERS PREFERED SWITCH CORD WITH M12
THREADED CONNECTOR
SOCKET HEAD CAP FASTENERS
ON EACH SWITCH.
OPTIONAL WHEN ACCESSIBILITY
REQUIRES ADDITIONAL
DEEMS NECESSARY.
Y-CORD ORDERED ON
CONTROLS BOM.

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Example of an Exploded View of Clevis Style Clamp Components

BEARING:
PART # LBB1215 (OR EQUIVALENT)
PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC.

BEARING:
PART # S01115012018019
(TOLERANCE 12H7 &18p6)
PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC.

METRIC SHAFT ASSEMBLY


12M(g6 TOL.) X 50M X M
FOLLOW DIMENSIONS SHOWN
ON TYPICAL PIN / BEARING /
BLADE STACK-UP FIGURE IN
6.18.2.4 FOR HOUSING BORE IN
ARM AND BLADE FOR BEARING SMC CLAMP CYLINDER:
AND PIN MOUNTING EXAMPLE ORDER NUMBER:
CLEARANCES. CKP1B50TF-100Y-P74SE-X1840
(19.5mm CLEVIS WIDTH, 50mm
BORE, 100mm STROKE, G-
PORT, WITH (2) REED
SWITCHES).
INCLUDES 200mm LONG
SWITCH CORD WITH M12
THREADED CONNECTOR ON
EACH SWITCH.
REQUIRES ADDITIONAL Y-CORD
ORDERED ON CONTROLES
BOM.

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Example of a Clevis Style Clamp Load / Unload Clearance

Attention must be paid to distance from Clamp Arm Pivot for Part Load/Unload

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Example of an Open Clevis Clamp with Hard Stop

CLAMP FORCE: Thrust Washer (as required)


445 N (100 lbf) MIN. AT Part #MTLW 1224
PART CONTACT POINT Purchase Component
Welker Bearing Company

PRESSURE FOOT: METRIC SHAFT ASSEMBLY


HARD STOPS REQUIRES A 12M(g6 Tol.) X 50M X M
SHIM PACK UNDER THE
PRESSURE FOOT
ONE FASTENERS REQUIRED
TWO DOWELS.

BEARING:
PART # S01115012018019
LOCATOR: (tolerance 12H7 & 18p6)
5.0mm SOLID SPACER PURCHASED COMPONENT
NO SHIM REQUIRED. LUBO Industries, Inc.
ONE FASTENER, TWO DOWELS PREFERED
TWO FASTENERS & TWO DOWELS
OPTIONAL FOR EXCESSIVE LENGTH.

HARD STOP
(LOCATING BLOCK)
Part #CVTB19 SMC CLAMP CYLINDER:
PURCHASE COMPONENT EXAMPLE ORDER NUMBER:
MISUMI # CKP1B50TF-100Y-P74SE-
X1840 (19.5mm CLEVIS
WIDTH, 50mm BORE, 100mm
STROKE, G-PORT, WITH (2)
REED SWITCHES).
INCLUDES 200MM LONG
SWITCH CORD WITH M12
THREADED CONNECTOR
ON EACH SWITCH.
REQUIRES ADDITIONAL
Y-CORD ORDERED ON
CONTROLS BOM.
.

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Example of an Exploded View of Clevis Style Clamp Components Hard Stop


BEARING:
PART # LBB1215 (OR EQUIVALENT)
PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC.

BEARING:
PART # S01115012018019
(TOLERANCE 12H7 &18p6)
PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC.

METRIC SHAFT ASSEMBLY


12M(g6 TOL.) X 50M X M

FOLLOW DIMENSIONS SHOWN


ON TYPICAL PIN / BEARING /
BLADE STACK-UP FIGURE IN
6.18.2.4 FOR HOUSING BOARE
IN ARM AND BLADE FOR SMC CLAMP CYLINDER:
BEARING AND PIN MOUNTING EXAMPLE ORDER NUMBER:
CLEARANCES. CKP1B50TF-100Y-P74SE-X1840
(19.5mm CLEVIS WIDTH, 50mm
BORE, 100mm STROKE, G-
PORT, WITH (2) REED
SWITCHES).
INCLUDES 200mm LONG
SWITCH CORD WITH M12
THREADED CONNECTOR ON
EACH SWITCH.
REQUIRES ADDITIONAL Y-CORD
ORDERED ON CONTROLES
BOM.

Typical Clamp Construction:

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Standard Clearance between the Arm and the Blade


for all Clamp Example

Below is the required clearance between the Open Clevis Clamp Arm and the blade. This
clearance must be maintained regardless of the starting stock size or the clamp application
(tooling or end effectors). The material for the arm must be a Hot Rolled Steel. the
common callout is A36. This material is more conducive to welding.

The standard commercial components are also identified in the section below (bearing and
shaft).

NOTE: Arm design should maximize the amount of overlap between the arm detail and
pivot plate to allow for greater stability of the pivot plate during the manufacturing process.

5 mm
Max

PURCHASED COMPONENT:

MASTERLINE METRIC SHAFT


PURCHASED COMPONENT ASSEMBLY,
BEARING: PART # 12M X 50M X M
(TOLERANCE g6 OR EQUIVALENT
PART # S01115012018019 50mm LONG, TG&P SHAFT)
(TOLERANCE 12H7 &18p6)

PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC. 12.00mm PIN

0.075mm Clearance
(EACH SIDE)

0.15mm OVERALL

SECTION A -A

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Standard Tooling - Open Clevis Clamp Arm and Blade Section

Metric Stock English Stock


(20mm) (3/4)

19.00mm 19.05mm (3/4) STOCK


A36 (HRS) A36 (HRS)

12mm STOCK 12.7mm (1/2) STOCK


A36 (HRS) A36 (HRS)

19.00mm +0.5 / - 0.08 19.05mm +0.5 / - 0.08


ARM Opening ARM Opening

Weld Ears to Clamp Arm. Weld Ears to Clamp Arm.


Maintain specified Tolerance Maintain specified Tolerance

18.85mm +/- 0.025 18.90mm +/- 0.025


Blanchard Grind Blanchard Grind

* NOTE: DETAIL AS BLANCHARD GRIND ENTIRE


PLATE FOR NON-WELDED BLADE DETAILS

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End Effector Tooling - Open Clevis Clamp Arm and Blade Section

Metric Stock English Stock


(16mm) (5/8)

16mm STOCK 15.875mm (5/8) STOCK


A36 (HRS) A36 (HRS)

12mm STOCK 12.7mm (1/2) STOCK


A36 (HRS) A36 (HRS)

16.00mm +0.5 / - 0.08 15.875mm +0.5 / - 0.08


ARM Opening ARM Opening

Weld Ears to Clamp Arm. Weld Ears to Clamp Arm.


Maintain specified Tolerance Maintain specified
Tolerance

15.85mm +/- 0.025 15.725mm +/- 0.025


Blanchard Grind Blanchard Grind

* NOTE: DETAIL AS BLANCHARD GRIND ENTIRE


PLATE FOR NON-WELDED BLADE DETAILS

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Example of a Clevis Clamp Section Cylinder Clevis and Clamp Arm

See Above for Dimension

CYLINDER CLEVIS

19.50 CLEVIS
PURCHASED COMPONENT
BEARING:

PART # LBB1215
(OR EQUIVALENT)

PURCHASED COMPONENT
LUBO INDUSTIRES, INC.

SECTION B-B

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Example of a Clevis Clamp Section Blade and Clamp Arm Hard Stop

ARM WIDTH TO BE 18.900.08 CENT.


PRE-FINISHED STOCK

25.00

MISUMI HARD STOP


*NOTE: DETAIL AS CVTB19
BLANCHARD GRIND
ENTIRE PLATE FOR
NON-WELDED BLADE
4.80
DETAILS

0.50mm CLEARANCE
BOTH SIDES

* 18.90 0.025 CENT.


PRE-FINISHED STOCK
BLANCHARD GRIND

SECTION C-C

6.18.2.6 Clevis Clamp Stroke-to-Go


The cylinder stroke is sized with stroke-to-go in the clamp-closed direction. The amount
of over-travel shall be a minimum of 3mm. External adjustable through-wall sensing
switches attached to a switch-rod purchased with the cylinder shall be the method of
indicating the cylinder positions. The Switch Application guideline defines when a switch is
required.

To allow for proper function and placement of the switches the piston of the cylinder must
travel at least 50mm, not including the stroke to go, between open and closed positions.

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6.18.2.7 Clevis Clamp Flow Control


Standard open clevis clamp cylinders are equipped with adjustable built-in flow controls.
Ordering an additional flow control is not necessary.

Internal Flow Control

Standard open clevis locking style clamp cylinders do not come equipped with built-in
flow controls. Locking style clamp cylinders are typically ordered on end of arm tooling
applications. Actuation of the clamp cylinder is not conducive to panel damage therefore;
flow controls are not typically required. When applications dictate, i.e. clamping on a show
surface, order an in-line style flow control for these types of cylinders.

6.18.3 Power Clamps


All power clamps shall meet CC-002 Power Clamp Specification.

All power clamps shall be selected from the program specific approved ACCS-1 / ME NACCL
located on GM Supply Power. The wishbone arm is the preferred configuration for a power clamp
unit. The only acceptable alternative is a single arm mounted on either side of the clamp body as
required. Avoid welding or otherwise altering a standard arm. If a clamp arm is to be modified by
welding, it should be done in such a manner as to prevent weld current from passing through the
clamp linkage bushings/bearings.

Specify the correct cylinder port position for installing fittings and hoses when ordering clamps.
Select the port position for fittings based upon clearance condition, adjacent units, and maintenance
accessibility. Power clamp suppliers shall approve design clearances and access to the clamp.

IMPORTANT: Power clamps must be described individually for ordering on the Bill of Material
(BOM). The clamps must be identified for L.H. and R.H. usage on the BOM.

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6.18.3.1 Design Guidelines


The pivot point of the clamp should be as close to the locating point as feasible (preferably
within 200mm). However, accessibility to the part must be considered when designing the
clamp application.

GM approved power clamps do not have internal flow controls that limit air flow. Therefore,
all power clamps shall be ordered with external flow controls. All approved power clamps
have an internal fixed hard stop to set the position of the clamp arm in the clamped
position. Clamp position is verified by means of an internal switch cartridge. The specific
switch manufacturer, (Allen Bradley, Pepper & Fuchs, Turck, etc..,), is identified at the end
of the clamp order string. The Switch Application guideline defines when a switch is
required.

Power Clamp examples:

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6.18.3.2 Applications
0
Clamp Arm Openings greater 90 - Part clamping requiring a clamp arm rotation greater
than 90 degrees between the open and closed position should select the power clamp for
this application. The typical clevis style clamp is limited to a 90-degree opening unless
additional linkages are part of the design. The additional linkages will drive cost and
complexity into the tool where a single power clamp can be utilized. Power clamps come
standard with up to with a standard 135-degree opening maximum. Arm style and
mounting position may restrict maximum opening.

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Greater Clamp Force Some part clamping applications require greater clamping force.
Applications that should be considered as requiring greater clamp force includes thicker
stamped parts (single parts that are greater than 2.5mm thick), large metal stack-ups,
(greater than 4.0mm) and applications that involve high strength steel parts. Commercial
power clamps can generate more clamp force and offer more design clearance when
compared to an equivalent bore clevis clamp depending on the distances from the pivot.
For example, the typical 63.0mm bore equivalent commercial power clamp generates
approximately the same force as an 80mm bore clevis clamp with the cylinder 80mm from
the pivot.

Slip Plane / Two Surface Contact Clamping on a show surface or on two unique
surfaces with an open clevis clamp drives an external hard stop to stop the clamp swing at
the work position. Power clamps have internal fixed hard stops that position the clamp
arm in the closed position and may be the better solution in this application. External hard
stops in conjunction with commercial power clamps shall not be used at any time. Internal
switches read this position. External hard stops will not improve the arm position and not
allow the internal switch to read the closed position.

6.18.3.3 Illustrating Pneumatic Clamps on Layouts


Show clamp and flow controls as part of the design. Allocate adequate space to adjust,
install, and remove valves, switches, wires, and hoses for preventative maintenance
purposes.

6.18.3.4 Flow Controls


Flow controls are required for all pneumatic power clamps. Order flow controls at each end
of the pneumatic power clamp cylinder.

6.18.3.5 Ordering Information


Power clamps must be identified by bore, opening angle, right hand or left hand usage,
port position, etc. Clamp arms are ordered separately from the clamp body on the BOM.
The clamp supplier will ship the clamp with the specified arm attached, or detached in the
same package to the tool builder.

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6.19 Clamp Arm Datums


The first choice is always NAAMS standard clamp arms for power clamp units. These arms are pre-
machined and reduce tool build time. When a standard clamp arm has to be altered, the datums
(X, Y, Z) illustrated below will be used for dimensioning/machining setup.

If using a blank arm for modification, the arm must be machined while attached to the clamp to maintain
the dimensional relationship of these two components.

NOTE: Dimensions for hub drive features vary according to manufacturer.

THIS DATUM PLANE IS


DETERMINED BY THE
SIDE THAT THE CLAMP
IS MOUNTED

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6.20 Pin Clamp and Hook Clamp


Pin clamps are used to locate and clamp sheet metal panels and assemblies. Pin clamps are available
with one or two fingers. Hook clamps are used to clamp assemblies and not to locate parts/assemblies
because of the lack of a pin in this unit. Hook clamps have one finger only.

Pin clamps and hook clamps are generally used in Underbody clamping applications. In this application
the pin clamp or hook clamp eliminate the need for an excessively long clevis style or power clamp arm.
These clamps also have a greater clamping force compared to the same size power clamp.

Pin clamps and hook clamps can be used in robotic transfer applications. However, the application should
be reviewed to determine if the unit might require a locking mechanism in case of loss of power. If
required, a locking mechanism may be a special item with some manufacturers. Clamps with a locking
mechanism may be considered special by some manufacturers and may have a longer lead-time.
Contact manufactures to obtain the latest pin sizes available.

The CC-101 specification has criteria required for pneumatic pin clamps and hook clamps. The ECC-101
specification has criteria required for electric pin clamps and hook clamps. Contact the GM Manufacturing
Engineer for copies of these manuals.

The General Motors CC-101 and ECC-101 outlines provisions for features, performance, reliability, and
maintainability.

Within the CC-101 and ECC-101 specifications, are the mechanical and the operational requirements and
guidelines to follow for locator block sizes and their relationship to pin sizes. In addition, there are X, Y,
Z dimensions to follow when designing in these units. The X, Y, Z dimensions are shown in the
NAAMS catalog as well as in the CC-101 and ECC-101 specifications. These dimensions were
established by the Auto Steel Partnership to allow any suppliers unit to be used without having to redesign
in order to fit another unit in. The supplier is to furnish a unit and the necessary brackets to arrive at the
X, Y, Z dimensions.

The CC-101 and ECC-101 specification includes dimensions to follow to design pin clamps or hook
clamps mounted on C Flex Units. The supplier is to furnish a unit and the necessary brackets to arrive at
the X, Y, Z dimensions.

The CC-101 and ECC-101 specification shows clearance paths (outlines) to follow when designing. The
clearance paths allow for interchangeability of suppliers units as well as replacing cartridge switches.

Pin clamps and hook clamps shall have the ability to clamp around the hole on flat panels as well as
panels with upturned flanges.

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The examples below show the various types of applications and their relationship to the clamping units.
Alternatives based upon certain manufactures units.

Pin Clamp on up-turned flange Pin Clamp on flat area next to an up-turned flange

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Use the same size locator block (back-up) for hook clamps as would be used if a pin were going to be
locating the panel. Example: If the hook clamp is going to be clamping through a 25mm hole, use a
locator block with a diameter of 55mm.

Design clearance (envelope) to allow access to unit.

The X, Y, Z dimensions are to a standard NAAMS riser bracket hole pattern. The manufacturer
shall provide any necessary bracket(s) mounted to their unit to provide for a common mounting pattern.

95.00 mm 35.00 mm
"X" "Y"
70.00 mm TOP OF PART
REST BLOCK

35.00 mm

140.00 mm
35.00 mm
"Z"

440.00 mm CLAMP MOUNTING


SURFACE (NAAMS) 8F7
70.00 mm
(2) HOLES *

75.00 mm M10 x 1.5


MAX. 120.00 mm OR
~

11.0 DIA.
ACCESS AREA FOR: (4) HOLES *
- ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS 170.00 mm
- MANUAL PUSH BUTTONS 150.00 mm
* "NAAMS" RISER
- VISUAL FOR LED LIGHTS
BRACKET HOLES
- MANUAL RELEASE

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6.21 Standard Component Examples


NAAMS Standard components are in integral aspect of our designs. These components are cost effective
and reduce the lead-time required to design and build our tools. The Web Site for all of the commercially
available NAAMS components is: http://www.naamsstandards.org. The group that pertains to GMD1
can be found in NAAMS Global Standards Components Assembly.

6.22 Blade Design


Blades are required for both the open clevis style clamps and power clamps. A blade allows the NC
locator to be mounted or machined at a specific datum location. Depending on the clamp style, the blade
must accept either a locating component or have the locating surface machined into the detail. Refer to
the examples of blades below.

All Blades shall have tapped holes for mounting to the riser. The hole pattern must match the NAAMS
pattern to accommodate by NAAMS risers or unique design weldments. The riser shall have clearance
holes that allow the hex head fasteners to secure the blade to the riser.

Maximum load figures are based on maximum bracket deflection of 0.13mm.

Follow the guidelines below for blade design.

NAAMS LOCATOR
BLOCK

NAAMS STD
FITTING SPACER

CLEVIS CLAMP BLADE WITH NAAMS LOCATOR

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For single surface angular clamping, the centerline of the clamp pivot should be positioned on a plane
that is created by the surface being clamped (as shown by the blue line). The maximum deviation from
the standard is 15 off normal to the pivot location (as shown by the green lines).

The clamp size and blade thickness from the chart below applies to this application

Clamp Size: Blade Thickness - T .03:


50mm Bore (Light Duty) 20.00mm
63mm Bore (Medium Duty) 20.00mm
90mm Bore (Heavy Duty) 25.00mm

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6.23 Rough Locators


Body part rough locators are provided to assist manual part loading to the tool.

The following are general guidelines for rough locators:

It is not required to finish cold/hot rolled steel for rough locator mounting.
Use NAAMS standard rough locators when possible.
If possible, do not place rough locators in positions that force the operator to lift and load, or
unload the part over the rough locators.
Rough locators must be designed with slots for ease of adjustment.
Rough locators should have minimal part contact so that the operator can load the part to work
location with ease. Excessive part contact may cause difficult part loading and unloading.
Rough locators must never touch the part when it is nested or controlled by the primary tool
locators.
If the rough locator requires a unique design, use the design parameters for the standard
NAAMS rough locator as a guide.

6.24 Elimination of Sharp Corners in Pivot Details


To reduce downtime and production failures, all sharp corners shown in circle 1, are not allowed. Designs
will incorporate a generous radius for support, as shown in circle 2. Do not leave sharp edges at such
break points. See further in this section for details.

1 2

Pivot Bracket, detail MA190831R shown

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6.25 Calculating Required Cylinder Force of Pivot Units


For any cylinder application, the GM Manufacturing Engineer shall work with the supplier to complete the
Commercial Component Application Buy-off Form (download from BIW Forms Library).

Commercial dumps and slides are available which state the maximum load that each unit can move. The
calculation below only pertains to cylinders used in make dumps or slides. Refer to manufacturers
specifications for size, payload, range, etc. When designing a make dump or slide, refer to the drawing
below for nomenclature used for the calculations below.

The calculations and examples shown on the following pages are used to determine cylinder size and
force required to move a mass M about a pivot point.

This picture is shown below solely for the purpose of demonstration of values.

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6.25.1 Information Required to Size a Cylinder


See the drawing on the previous page for the following examples.
A = Length of arm from centerline of cylinder rod end clevis to pivot point (lever arm).
B = Length of arm from pivot point to a point considered to be the optimum work position.
C = Angle created by lever arm and cylinder centerline in work position.
D = Distance from centerline of pivot point to centerline of shock.
M = Mass (total weight) to be moved.

These values are used to determine:


F = Cylinder force from manufacturers chart.
F1= Adjusted cylinder force required to move adjusted mass (M1).
6.25.2 Assumptions and Considerations
To simplify calculating cylinder force using line pressures given in PSI (lbs/in) and material weights
given in units of lbs./in, the following calculations will use these values. Use the value
1 kg = 2.2 lbs. to convert results to metric.

5.5 bar (80 psi) line pressure used for this example. Consult the GM Manufacturing Engineer for
actual requirements.

A lever arm to work arm (A/B) ratio of 2:1 is the most desirable ratio. (A/B) ratios between 1:1 and
1:2 are acceptable. However, (A/B) ratios above 1:2 must be discussed with the GM Manufacturing
Engineer.

When sizing a cylinder, if the force required falls between two cylinder bore sizes, round to the next
bore size after calculating cylinder force required.

To determine the value of C, divide the stroke of the cylinder about a line from the centerline of
pivot unit, perpendicular to the mid stroke of the centerline of the cylinder to achieve one leg of
angle C.
6.25.3 Calculating Adjusted Mass (M1)
When moving a mass (M) using a lever, the force needed to move mass (M) is determined by the
ratio A/B and will be referred to as adjusted mass (M1).

1. Ratio (R) = lever arm (A) divided by work arm (B) = A/B
2. Mass (M) = total weight of rotating assembly + 25%. The 25% is the safety factor used in
this example.
3. Adjusted mass (M1) = M/R

Example of Adjusted Mass (M1) Calculation


A = 200mm
B = 100mm
Mass (M) = 250 lbs. +25% (Safety Factor)
M = 312.5 lbs.
R = A/B = 200/100 = 2
M1 = M/R = 312.5 lbs./2 = 156.25 lbs.

Convert M1 to metric for the following calculations.


M1 = 156.25 lbs. 2.2 = 71 kg.

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6.25.4 Determining Required Cylinder Force


Each cylinder manufacturer provides a push - pull chart that denotes cylinder force produced by
bore size, line pressure and whether extend (push) or retract (pull) is your work direction.

Match adjusted mass (M1) to cylinder force using line pressure of 5.5 bar (80 psi) to determine
cylinder bore size used in calculating adjusted cylinder force (F1). If M1 falls between two bore
sizes, use the larger of the bore sizes.
6.26 Air Cylinders
6.26.1 General Information
The following information pertains to general air cylinder usage on all tools. Use of air cylinders that
are an integral part of welding guns, commercial clamps, or special equipment will have their own
criteria.

Use only approved air cylinders, flow controls, and proximity switches.

Design criteria for cylinder usage include the following items:


Select cylinder with bore and stroke adequate for its function assuming air pressure of
80psi (5.5 BAR).
These values are based upon 80% of plant designated air supply.
Use NAAMS positive stops.
With positive stops, do not bottom out the cylinder stroke, allow stroke-to-go, to permit
stop adjustments.
Clevis centerline and cylinder pivot centerline (Trunnion or Rear mount) must be parallel to
avoid cylinder seal damage.

It is preferred to use the following:


Cylinders of the non-lubricated type.
Cylinder stroke in 25mm increments.
Rod Diameter of 25mm (Common in 50mm and 63mm bore cylinders). If stroke exceeds
300mm or load exceeds manufacturers recommendations, use an oversized diameter rod.
Cylinders with adjustable cushions at both ends.
Flow controls at both ports
Use cylindicator switches for no stroke to go position.
Use external proximity switches to indicate the position of the object being moved by the
pneumatic cylinder.
Use approved rod end clevis.

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6.26.2 Layout Requirements


Design layouts should include the following information:

All cylinders will have bore, stroke, and stroke-to-go (including zero) noted on the layout
drawing at the cylinder outline.
Show outline of flow controls and proximity switches when used. In phantom, show
clearance area required to remove flow controls, switches, and hoses for maintenance.
Show centerlines only for air hoses and electrical wiring for clearance and accessibility
considerations in congested areas.
Illustrate any movement of pivoting cylinders to determine clearance conditions.

Cylinder installations must provide for maintenance accessibility to:


Flow controls
Proximity switches
Trunnion block
Clevis assembly
Cushion adjustment
Hose attachment / fitting removal
6.26.3 Rodless Cylinders
General usage is for long stroke applications with limited room.

For any rodless cylinder application, the GM Manufacturing Engineer shall work with the supplier to
complete the Commercial Component Application Buy-off Form (download from BIW Forms
Library).

The use of this type of cylinder requires prior approval from the GM Manufacturing Engineer.

Consult approved manufacturers when considering the use of these cylinders.

Consider linear guiding (external) for most applications.

Cylinders that contain built-in guide rails on both sides of the sealing slot shall not be used.
REASON: Cylinder expansion under pressure may cause binding.

Mount cylinder with the carriage mounting bracket facing down to minimize contamination
entering the cylinder.

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6.26.4 Air Cylinders used for Lifters


When pneumatic cylinders are used as lifters, establish the weight to be lifted as two times the
estimated weight. This will provide a safety factor for plant air pressure variation from nominal as
well as permitting possible add on features that could increase load being lifted. In addition,
cylinders under load may drift as the air compresses unless sufficient force is provided.

When using single cylinders, anti-rotation features are required in tool design.

DO NOT use multiple cylinders moving in tandem.


6.26.5 Types of Cylinder Mounting
Choice of style is driven by application.

Intermediate Trunnion:
The Intermediate Trunnion mount is more expensive than a rear clevis mount. The intermediate
trunnion provides space savings in length over clevis assembly but the mount is wider.

When an intermediate trunnion mount is not suitable, a cap or head mount trunnion for pivoting and
straight-line cylinders is an option.

Note the following items:

1. The cylinder movement at the cap end must be checked for up/down clearance conditions.
2. Cylinder movement is created by the rod clevis moving through the travel arc (Point A to
Point B), rotating on a Pivot Point C.
3. Cylinder trunnion C/L Pivot Point D should be on a line through Points A and B if the
design permits.
4. Clevis centerline and trunnion centerline must be parallel.

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Straight Line Indexing:


When using a cylinder for straight line indexing, the following guidelines must be used to avoid
cylinder seal failure due to misalignment.

Trunnion Mount (Intermediate Trunnion Preferred):


A fixed rod end clevis is preferred when using a trunnion-mounted cylinder.

Clevis centerline and trunnion centerline must be parallel.

Solid Mount (Foot Mount - Preferred):


When using a solid mounted cylinder, use a self-aligning rod end coupler to reduce cylinder gland
seal wear and leakage caused by side load and binding. See this section for coupler information.

Front Flange Mount (Not Preferred):


There shall be limited usage for this application. This application requires approval from the GM
Manufacturing Engineer before usage.

Cap or Head Trunnion Mount:


A cap or head trunnion mounts are optional for pivoting.

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Rear Clevis (Non-Preferred)


The Rear Clevis mount is an economical choice for pivoting motions and limited straight-line
motions.

6.27 Couplers
6.27.1 Cylinder Rod End Couplers
For any cylinder rod end couplers application, the GM Manufacturing Engineer shall work with the
supplier to complete the Commercial Component Application Buy-off Form (download from BIW
Forms Library).

Base mounted cylinders will use self-aligning rod end couplers to provide for possible cylinder
misalignment.

Self-aligning coupling threads, which attach to the receiving detail, (not the cylinder side), must be
verified by the design activity, to ensure proper thread attributes exist on all receiving details.

6.27.2 Self Aligning Couplers


A self-aligning rod end coupler will compensate for the following:

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6.27.3 Rap Couplers


If the application requires a RAP action to free a potential binding condition (commonly used in pin
retract units), use a rap coupler. This coupler will compensate for angular misalignment of 1.

6.28 Stroke-to-go and Positive Stops Criteria


Provide an adjustable, positive stop at the end of cylinder strokes (extended or retracted) when:
Cylinder stroke must position a unit at a specific location.
The weight being moved, and the velocity/distance traveled would generate excessive stopping
stress on the cylinder end caps.

If positive stops are used, the proximity switch operating range must be considered at the end of the
stroke.

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6.29 Hydraulic Cylinder Information


AVOID THE USE OF HYDRAULIC POWER FOR TOOLING.

For any hydraulic cylinder application, the GM Manufacturing Engineer shall work with the supplier to
complete the Commercial Component Application Buy-off Form (download from BIW Forms Library).

Exceptions must have prior approval.

Do not use cylindicator proximity switches internally on hydraulic cylinders. All switches for motion control
of the hydraulic cylinder shall be external adjustable proximity switches.

The switches shall read the position of the object being moved, not the position of the cylinder rod. Do not
use mechanical limit switches without approval from the GM Manufacturing Engineer.

Hydraulic forces shall be calculated at 500 PSI unless otherwise informed. With hydraulic cylinders,
consider use of shock absorbers because of high cylinder forces and heavy loads being moved.

All hydraulic cylinders will provide for a 3.0mm adjustment at the clevis assembly with a positive
adjustable stop. The return stroke will bottom out at the cylinder end.

Allow 0.0 mm TO GO in piston travel.

Use ISO 1179-1 threads for all hydraulic system threaded joints.

Provide access to flow control valves.


6.30 Insulation
6.30.1 Welding Areas
Design source shall verify whether the welding robot is internally insulated. If the welding robot is not
internally insulated, insulation of end of arm tooling is required.

Approved weld guns are internally insulated; therefore, tooling used in conjunction with approved
weld guns does not require insulation except for the following:
1. Tooling in the loop area of a weld gun. Make every attempt to avoid this situation.
2. C-Flex units used in a welding environment (See GMD1 Section 14 for details).

Nut welding equipment or series welding with a copper back up generally require insulating.
Consult with the GM Manufacturing Engineer to determine correct insulation method.

See this section for Insulation Material.

Following is an example of an instance where insulation may be required.

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6.30.2 Material Requirements


Insulated washers, insulation pads, and insulated bushings are made of laminated Phenolic linen
base LE grade.

Commercially available stock of 1/8 thickness is usable within this tolerance range.

For sizes and ordering information see following pages.

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XX designates bushing length in millimeters.

See GM approved vendor list for approved source.

Insulated Bushings (Dowel)


FSD Number: Dowel + .076 + .127 Drill Diameter
Pin I.D.: O.D.: Required for
Diameter: Bushing:
FSD-41404-51-XX 6 6 9 9
FSD-41404-52-XX 8 8 11 11
FSD-41404-53-XX 10 10 13 13
FSD-41404-54-XX 12 12 15 15

NOTE: After bushing is installed, ream to F7 tolerance.

Insulated Bushings (Fastener)


FSD Number: Screw + .076 + .127 Drill Diameter
Diameter: I.D.: O.D.: Required for
Bushing:
FSD-41404-51-XX M5 6 9 9
FSD-41404-52-XX M6 8 11 11
FSD-41404-53-XX M8 10 13 13
FSD-41404-54-XX M10 12 15 15
FSD-41404-55-XX M12 14 17 17

Insulated Washers
FSD Number: Screw + .076 + .127
Diameter: I.D.: O.D.:
FSD-41405-51 M6 or 1/4 7 20
FSD-41405-52 M8 or 5/16 8 24
FSD-41405-53 M10 or 3/8 10 29
FSD-41405-54 M12 or 1/2 13 35

Insulating Bushings for Welding Cables


Part Number: Screw Diameter: I.D.: O.D.: Bushing Length:
WG-9052-51 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 1.68
WG-9052-52 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 1.88
WG-9052-53 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.00
WG-9052-54 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.25
WG-9052-55 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.38
WG-9052-56 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.62
WG-9052-57 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.88
WG-9052-58 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 2.56
WG-9052-59 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 1.50
WG-9052-60 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 0.44
WG-9052-61 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 0.68
WG-9052-62 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 1.00
WG-9052-63 or 12mm 0.53 or 13.5mm 0.62 or 15.75mm 3.68

Locating and Clamping


Revision Level: 13.1 Page 72 of 73
Section 6
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Global Mechanical Design Standards GMD1

6.31 Welding Information


Weld gun information is found in the following documents:

GMD1 Section 12 of this manual


WG-001 (Weld Gun Performance Standards) located on GM Supply Power
6.32 Loop Area Calculation
Loop area is the area bounded by current carrying members from transformer lug through centerline of
cable to weld gun electrodes and arm and back to the transformer.

Make every attempt to keep loop area free of steel details. If steel details fall within the loop area, they
require insulation or must be made from non-magnetic stainless steel. Both of these methods are costly
and must be avoided.

Loop area calculations do not require the use of precision geometric equations. Use scaled dimensions of
area segments to arrive at a total.

Loop area measurements are required for the following reasons:


To avoid exceeding the capacity of the transformer in supplying current to the weld spot.
To keep loop areas of transformers within specified tolerances.

Minimize use of cable adapters because they add resistance to the loop, resulting in loss of weld current.

Locating and Clamping


Revision Level: 13.1 Page 73 of 73
Section 6
See Web Site for latest revisions.