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Tuesday,July26,2011 #31

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IslamicSocialSystem:
Outline:

Introduction
IslamicModeOfLife
BasisOfIslamicSociety
i)Equality
ii)Fraternity
iii)WeddingBond
iv)WelfareEnvironment
v)ConceptOfResponsibility
RulesAndRegulationsOfIslamicSociety
i)MutualRelationshipOfMembersOfFamily
ii)Relationship
iii)Mosque
iv)RespectedTraditions
v)EducationSystem
vi)LimitsAndLegalCodes

Introduction:

Manisasocialanimal.Hisnatureisalwaysinclinedtolovethatswhyhelikestolive
collectivelywithotherpeople.Heishelplessinthisregardforever.Godhasgivenman
wisdomandintellectonlytolivewithinasociety.Whenamanisbornhealwayslooks
forwardtopeoplewholookafterhim.Whenhecomestoanagehestandsinneedof
necessitiesoflife.Healwaysremainsinneedofsomeoneorsomethingandifhiscutoff
fromallthesethingshewillbetotallyfornothing.

IslamicModeOfLife:

Islamhasitsownstableandfirmmodeoflifewhichhascertainandregulations.Ithasfull
codeforjusticeonequallines.SocietyisanameofunitedpeoplethusIslamneverignores
thebasicrightsofanindividualaswellasofagroup.Islamlooksalltheindividualsand
groupsformsameangle.

Islamisareligionwhichfavourstheseparateidentityofanindividual.Itneverconsidersa
manonlyaspareofanysystembutconsidersanindividualanimportantpartofit.forthe
perfecttrainingofanindividualwithinasocietyIslamprovidesfullchancetofurnishhis
talents:

TheHolyQuransays

Whosodothgooditisforhissoul,andwhosodothwrongitisagainstit.
(Fussilat:46)

Islamlaysgreatemphasisupontheacquisitionofknowledge.TheHolyProphet(PBUH)was
particularlytaughtaQuranicverse:

AndSay,MyLord!Increasemeinknowledge.
(TaHa:114)

AndtheHolyProphet(PBUH)himselfsaid:ItisthedutyofeveryMuslimmanand
womantoacquireknowledge.

Theacquisitionofknowledgeismainlyforreformationofpracticallife.ThatswhyIslamha
stressedforthequestofknowledge.Quraninthisregardopenlysays:

Andthatmanhathonlythatforwhichhemaketheffort.
(AnNajm:39)

IslamseesMuslimUmmahasthecentralUmmahoranUmmahforGod,therefore,every
personisresponsibleforcontinuousstruggleforthesolidarityofreligionandforthesacrifice
ofhislifeforthesakeofthepropagandaofreligion.

TheenvironmentofIslamicsocietyalsoprovidesachanceforthebettermentoftheworld
hereafter.

BasisOfIslamicsociety:

i)Equality:

ThefirstandmostimportantbasisofIslamicsocietyisthatallthehumanbeingsarefrom
samepedigree.AllthemankindisthechildrenofAdam(RA).Brotherhood,colour,countries,
forefathers,language,tribesandothernaturalthingsareonlyforthesakeofintroductionwith
eachother.Buttomakethesedifferencesthebasisofdifferencesbetweeneachotheris
totallywrong.BecauseIslampreachesunityandequalityamongthemankindatalllevels.In
theQuran,itissaid:

Omankind!Lo!Wehavecreatedyoumaleandfemale,andhavemadeyounations
andtribes,sothatyemayknowoneanother.Lo!Thenoblestamongyou,inthe
sightofAllah,isthebestinconduct.Lo!IsknowerandAware.
(AlHujurat:13)

ii)Fraternity:
AlltheMuslimsarebrothersforeachother.Therelationduetoreligionisconsideredtobethe
greatestofall.Quransays:

Thebelieversarenotelsebrothers.
(AlHujurat:10)

AtanotherplaceintheQuranitissaid:

Andholdfast,allofyoutogether,tothecableofAllah,anddonotseparate.

(AlImran:103)

iii)WeddingBond:

Menandwomenaretwodifferentpillarsofasociety.Bothhavetheirowncultand
personality.Bothtakepartinbuildingofsocialsetup.Thereisequalitybetweenmenand
womenonthelegalbasis.Bothhavesamerightsandresponsibilitiesinthisregard.Ina
familystructure,maleisconsideredleaderandsupervisoroftheaffairs.Generallyeveryman
andwomanisjustlikebrotherandsisterandtheyhavenorighttobebutweddingistheonly
waythroughwhichtheygetunitedandshareeachothersproblems.Thisistheverylegal
methodbywhichtheyarevalidforeachother.Heretheylaythebasisofaseparatefamily.

iv)WelfareAtmosphere:

Theatmosphereofthesocietymustbedevelopedonthebasisofwelfare,cooperation,help,
andshareinsorrows,sacrificeandbrotherhood.Whenthepeoplemeettheymustprayfor
eachotherssalvation.Everymanmustwishforhisbrotherhathelikesforhimself.Allthe
evilsmustbeavoided.Cooperationmustberenderedingooddeeds.Quransays:

Helpyeoneanotheruntorighteousnessandpiousduty.Helpnotoneanotherunto
sinandtransgression.
(AlMaida:2)

BethoukindevenasAllahhathbeenkindtothee,andseeknotcorruptioninthe
earth.
(AlQasas:77)

Moreover,theQuransays:

Andspynot,neitherbackbiteoneanother.
(AlHujurat:12)

AlltheseversesmeanthatIslamwantstomakesocietycongenialforeveryone.

v)ConceptOfResponsibility:

Islamgivestheconceptoffulfillingsomeresponsibilitiestopropagategooddeeds,todeter
evildeedsandtohelpeachother.

TheHolyProphet(PBUH)saidthatthemanwholivesamongothersandshowspatienceonthe
misdeedsdonetohimbyothersisbetterthanthemanwhodoesnotliveamongthepeople
andisnotpatientoverexcessesdonetohim.
AftertheseinstructionsIslamhasalsogivenasystemofbasichumanrightsincludingrightsof
brothers,familymembers,relatives,neighbours,commonmen,andminorities.Eventhe
rightsofanimalsandplantsarealsodeterminedinIslamicsystem.

RulesAndRegulationsOfIslamicSociety:

TherearesomerulesandregulationswhichIslamhasauthorizedtodevelopasocietyofthese
arediscussedbrieflyasunder:

i)MutualRelationshipOfMembersOfFamily:

Familyisthefirstandbasicinstitutionofhumansocialtraining.Thatswhytheimportanceof
afamilyinIslamicsocietyisverygreat.FirststepofIslamicsocietyistheformationofwhich
isapureandlegitimaterelationbetweenamanandwoman.Thisrelationmakesaunity
withinitself.

Hereanewgenerationcomesintobeingwithitmanynewrelationsarealsogenerated.Finally
alltheserelationsspreadovertoformacompletesociety.

ii)OtherRelations:

TherearemuchmoreinthefamilystocktodealwithKithandKinoutsideonesfamily.Islam
wantstoseeallthesetoshareeachotherssorrowsandhappiness.InQurantherearemany
placeswhereemphasisislaidupongoodbehaviourtowardsrelatives.Butitdoesnotmean
thatthereshouldbeencouragementagainstIslamanditstraditions.Islamhasalsoset
hereditaryrulestostrengthenexistingrelations.

iii)Mosque:

MosqueissymbolofunityamongMuslimsanditreflectsthetoneofexistingrelations.Italso
worksasapermanentinstitutionforthesocialtis.ItisonlymosquewhichcanmakeIslamic
socialplansuccessful.

iv)RespectedTraditions:

InanIslamicsocietysacredtraditionsmustbeguardedatallcostsandthepolicymustalso
beframedupontheselinesbecausethisprocessdoesnotbreaklinkwithitspast.Butitisnot
meantforthatnonewtraditionwillbesetup.Fastchangesinroutinelifeautomatically
changetheboringoldtraditions.Thereisnoneedofchangeviarevolutionorrevolt.

v)EducationSystem:

TherealreformationofanIslamicsocietyisonlypossiblethroughitseducationpolicy.
Becausetotransferonestraditionsandknowledgeonemustponderoverthefaultsofones
educationpolicy.EducationisalsooneofthegreatestpillarsofIslamicsociety.

vi)LimitsAndLegalCodes:

Therearemanywaystocopewiththeevilsandsinsofanysocietybutrulesandregulationto
curbevildoersarealsomust.Islamalsohassuchsystemwithproperrulesandregulations.
Theserulesaremadetosavethecitizensfromevildoersandsinners.Islamhasset
particularpenaltiesandpunishmentstodealbadelementswithanironhand.Nooneis
greaterorsmallerintheeyesofIslamiclaw.TheHolyProphetoncesaid,

Ifmydaughterstealssomething,byGodIwillcutherhandstoo.

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JudicialSystemOfIslam
Outline:

TheQuranOnJustice
ConceptOfJusticeInIslam
PrincipleOfJusticeUnderIslam

TheQuranOnJustice:

AccordingtoIslam,GodisSovereign,andHeisMostJust.ManasthevicegerentofAllahis
enjoinedtodojusticeeventhoughitmaybeagainsthimself.AccordingtoIslam,justiceis
nexttopiety.TherearenumerousversesintheHolyQuranenjoiningMuslimstodojustice.
Someoftheseversesarequotedhereunder:

Godcommandsthatwhenyoujudgebetweenmanandman,judgewithjustice.
(AnNisa:58)

AllahhassentdowntheBookintruth,sothatyoumayjudgebetweenmenas
guidedbyGod
(AnNisa:103)

Allahcommandsjustice,thedoingofgoodandliberalitytokithandkin.Heforbids
allshamefuldeeds,injusticeandrebellion.
(AnNahl:90)

WesentdownwithOurApostletheBalanceofJustice,sothatmanmaystandforth
injustice.
(AlHadid:25)

Ifyoujudge,judgeinequitybetweenthemforAllahlovesthosewhojudgein
equity.
(AlMaida:45)

ConceptOfJusticeInIslam:

TheconceptofjusticeinIslamisradicallydifferentfromtheconceptofjusticeunderother
orders.ForGreekconceptofjusticewasthatofremedialjustice.TheRomanconceptof
justicewasthatnaturaljustice,whiletheAngloSaxonconceptofjusticeisthatformaljustice.
InIslam,justiceissymbolisedbybalanceand,thisstandsforabsolutefairness.InIslam,
justiceisnotmerelyaformalfunctionoftheSateitisareligiousobligation.Theconceptof
justiceinIslamaccordinglystandsatahigherpedestalascomparedwiththeconceptof
justiceunderotherorders.

PrincipleOfJusticeUnderIslam:

FromtheversesoftheHolyQuranconcerningjusticequotedabove,wecandeducesome
principleofjusticewhichdistinguishesIslamfromotherorders.Someoftheseprinciplesare
asfollows:

i)Justicemustbesubstantialandnotmerelyformal,whichmeansthatjusticeshouldbedone
notonlyinaccordancewithlaw(i.e.formal),butitshouldbedoneinsuchawaythatit
resultsinabsolutejusticeandcompletefairness(i.e.substantial).

ii)InIslamthedoingofjusticeisnottheconcernofthejudgealonebutitisthe
responsibilityofthecommunityaswell.Everymemberofthecommunityisinvolvedinthe
process.Ifanyinjusticeiscommittedtoanypersonsknowledgehecannotstandapartasa
silentspectatoreventhoughheisnotpersonallyaffected.

iii)JusticeaccordingtotheIslamicconceptdemandsaveryhighsenseofmoralstandard,so
thatpersonhasthecouragetobeawitnesseveagainsthimifhehasdoneanywrong.

iv)AccordingtoIslam,justiceisnexttopiety.Assuchthedoingofjusticeisnotmerelya
legalobligationoramoraldutyitisareligiousimperative.

v)InanIslamicState,justiceistobedoneinthenameofAllahandAllahisfullyawareof
theintentionsofmen.InIslam,therefore,administrationofjusticeisnotbasedmerelyonthe
overtactthemotivebehindsuchactisalsotobetakenintoaccount.

vi)JusticeinIslamisnotblind,itisverymuchenlightened.

vii)Islamstandsforabsoluteequalitybeforelaw,andtheequalapplicationoflaw.InIslam,
nooneenjoysimmunityandnodiscriminationispermissibleintheapplicationofthelaw.
Unlikethesecularconcept,TheKingcandonowrong,theHeadoftheStateinanIslamic
orderisaccountablebeforelawforanywrongthathemayhavedone.

viii)UnderIslam,lawandequity,arenottwodifferentconceptsasintheAngloSaxonlaw.As
suchtherearenoseparatecourtsofequityinIslam,northereanydifferentprinciplesto
governthegrantofequitableremedies.Specificperformanceistheruleandnotanexception
undertheIslamicsystemofjustice.

ix)Inthematterofcriminaljustice,theprincipleadoptedundertheIslamicsystemis
preventiveratherthanprimitive.TheaimoftheIslamicsystemistopreventthecommitting
ofcrimeandnotmerelytopunishtheoffenders.IslamicStateisnotconcernedmerelywith
thepunishmentofoffendersitisunderanobligationtocreateconditionswhichwouldprevent
thecommissionofcrime.InIslam,JusticeisthebasicobligationoftheStateandhas
thereforetobeadministratedfree.NocourtfeescanbeleviedundertheIslamicsystem.

x)IslamdoesnotrecognizetheAngloSaxonconceptthatIgnoranceoflawisnoexcuse.In
anIslamicState,theStatehastoensurethatnooneshouldsufferbecauseoftheignoranceof
law.

xi)UnderIslamicsystem,therecanbenoexploitationorprofessionalizationoftheJudicial
processifalawyerknowsthathisclientisguiltyhecannotpleadhiscase.

xii)Insecularorders,justicelongdrawnouttimeconsumingprocess.AccordingtoIslam,
Justicedelayedisjusticedenied.Islamstandsforspeedyjustice.

xiii)InIslam,thelawsofnaturaljusticeareofspecialsignificance.InIslamnoonecanbe
condemnedorsubjugatedtoanydisabilitywithoutbeingheard.InIslamifanunjustorderhas
beenpassedbyajudgebecauseofanybias,itisthejudgewhoshouldberemovedandnot
merelyhisdecisionasinthesecularorders.

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Thursday,July28,2011 #33

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@Roshanwadhwan

IhavereadyournotesregardingIslamictopics.Fewsuggestionforyouworkareasunder:

Add"subjectsofZakat(MusarfeeneZakat)

Add"conceptoftheDayofjudgementindifferentreligions"(majorreligionsofthe
world)

AsfarasJihaadisconcerned,JihaadincontemporaryscenarioorJihaadvsterrorismis
mostrecentissue.

IjtihaadJustaddlittlemorelike"whoisMujtahid?prerequisiteforMujtahideen,
IjtihaadiinstitutionsintheMuslimWorldandPakistanaswell.

ComparecurrentlawinordersituationincontextofIslamicjudicialsystem.

I'lgivemoresuggestionslateron.

Regards,
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Thursday,July28,2011 #34

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ForIjtihaadseethisusefullink:

http://www.cssforum.com.pk/csscompu...cthought.html

Regards,
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Thursday,July28,2011 #35

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PoliticalSystemOfIslam:
Outline:

Introduction
WhatIsAnIslamicState?
PurposeOfIslamicState:
BasisOfPoliticalSystemInIslam
MainFeaturesOfIslamicPoliticalSystem
i)SovereigntyOfAllah
ii)KhalifahOfMankind
iii)LegislationByShura
iv)AccountabilityOfAGovernment
v)IndependenceOfJudiciary
vi)EqualityBeforeLaw

Introduction:

ReligionandpoliticsareoneandsameinIslam.Theyareintertwined.Wealreadyknowthat
Islamisacompletesystemoflifeandpoliticsisverymuchapartofourcollectivelife.Just
asIslamteachesushowtosaySalt,observeSaum,payZakatandundertakeHajj,inthe
samewayitalsoteachesushowtorunastate,formagovernment,electcouncillorsand
membersofparliament,maketreatiesandconducttradeandbusiness.

WhatIsAnIslamicState?

TheStateisdefinedbyGarnerinthesewords,Thestate,asaconceptofpoliticalscienceand
publiclaw,isacommunityofpersonsmoreorlessnumerousandpermanentlyoccupyingbya
definiteproportionofterritory,independent,ornearlysoofexternalcontrol,andpossessing
anorganizedgovernmenttowhichthegeneralbodyofinhabitantsrenderhabitualobedience.
WhereasintheIslamicStatesovereigntyrestswithGodwhodelegatespoliticalauthorityto
someselectedperson.HerepubliclawistheQuraniclaw.TheIslamicStatecannotframeany
lawsagainsttheinjunctionsoftheQuranandtheSunnah.IslamicStateisawelfareState.

PurposeOfIslamicState:

ThemainobjectoftheIslamicStateistopromotegoodandstoptheevils.TheMuslims
shouldbeforcedtoactupontheinjunctionsoftheQuranandtheSunnah.TheIslamicstate
guidesitscitizensinallaspectsoflifeincludingreligious.Itshouldpromotegoodandorderso
thatthelawofjusticebyGodmustprevaileverywhere.

BasisOfPoliticalSystemInIslam:

Thepoliticalsystemisbasedontworealities:
i)ThepersonalpositionofAllahvisvisthisuniverse,particularlymen:Heisnotonlytheir
CreatorandSupporterbutalsotheirrealMaster.
ii)ThepersonalpositionofMan:HeisnotonlycreatedandsupportedbyAllah(Sustainerof
alltheworlds)butisalsoHishumbleslaveandHisvicegerentonthisearth.

PrinciplesOfIslamicPoliticalSystem:

TheIslamicPoliticalsystemisbasedonthefollowingprinciples:

i)SovereigntyOfAllah.

Sovereigntymeanssourceofpower.InIslam,Allahisthesourceofallpowersandlaws.

LegislationisnotbutforAllah.Hehascommandedthatyouworshipnotexcept
Him.

(SurahYusuf:40)

Say,Indeed,themattercompletelybelongstoAllah.
(AliImran:154)

ItisAllahwhoknowswhatisgoodandwhatisbadforHisservants.Hissayingisfinal.All
humanbeingsunitedlycannotchangeHislaws.TheQuransays:

Asforthethiefmaleandfemalechopofftheirhands.Itistheirrewardoftheir
actionandexemplarypunishmentfromAllah.AllahisPowerful,Wise.
(AlMaida:38)

AccordingtoIslam,thisorderisunchangeablebyanyparliamentorgovernmentwhichclaims
ittobeanIslamicstate.TherearemanymorelawsintheQuranconcerningourlifeandthose
lawsmustbeputintopracticebyanIslamicstateforthegreatergoodofhumanbeings.

ii)KhalifahOfMankind(VicegerencyOfMan):

ManisthevicegerentortheagentortherepresentativeofAllahonearth.

AnditisHewhohasmadeyousuccessorsupontheearthandhasraisedsomeof
youaboveothersindegrees[ofrank]thatHemaytryyouthroughwhatHehas
givenyou.Indeed,yourLordisswiftinpenaltybutindeed,HeisForgivingand
Merciful.

(AlAnam:165)

Allahisthesovereignandmanishisrepresentative.ManshoulddoasAllahcommandshimto
do.ButhehasachoiceeithertoobeyordisobeyAllahandbecauseofthisfreedomofchoice
hewillbetestedontheDayofJudgement.Inthepoliticalsense,Khalifahmeansthathuman
beingswouldimplementthewillofAllahonearthasHisdeputyoragent.AsAllahsagent
humanbeingswillcarryoutthewillofAllahonHisbehalfasatrust(Amanah).Khalifahisa
trust.Anagentisalwaysexpectedtobehaveashismasterwantshimtobehave.

ThenWemadeyousuccessorsinthelandafterthemsothatWemayobservehow
youwilldo.
(Yunus:14)

iii)LegislationByShura(Consultation):

Islamteachesustorungovernmenttomakedecisionsandlegislationsbytheprocessof
Shura.Shurameanstotakedecisionbyconsultationandparticipation.

Andwhoseaffairis[determinedby]consultationamongthemselves.

(AshShura:38)

ThisisoneofthemostimportantpartsoftheIslamicPoliticalsystem.Thereisnoscopeof
dispositioninIslamicpoliticalsystem.TheQuranandtheSunnahwillbethebasisofall
legislationinIslam.

iv)AccountabilityOfAGovernment:

TheIslamicPoliticalSystemmakestherulerandthegovernmentresponsiblefirstlytoAllah
andthentopeople.Therulerandthegovernmentwillbeelectedbythepeopletoexercise
powerontheirbehalf.Wemustrememberherethatboththerulerandtheruledarethe
KhalifahofAllahandtherulershallhavetoworkforthewelfareofthepeopleaccordingto
theQuranandSunnah.ArulerisaservantofthepeopleofIslam.Bothetherulerandthe
ruledwillappearbeforeAllahandaccountfortheiractionsontheDayofJudgement.The
responsibilityoftherulerisheavierthantheruled.AnordinarycitizeninanIslamicStatehas
therighttoaskanyquestiononanymattertotherulerandthegovernment.

v)IndependenceOfJudiciary:
IntheIslamicPoliticalSystem,thejudiciaryisindependentoftheExecutive.Theheadofthe
Stateoranygovernmentministercouldbecalledtocourtifnecessary.Theywillbetreatedno
differentfromothercitizens.

Oyouwhohavebelieved,bepersistentlystandingfirmforAllah,witnessesin
justice.
(AlMaida:8)

Oyouwhohavebelieved,bepersistentlystandingfirminjustice,witnessesfor
Allah,evenifitbeagainstyourselvesorparentsandrelatives.Whetheroneisrich
orpoor,Allahismoreworthyofboth.
(AnNisa:135)

Indeed,Allahcommandsyoutorendertruststowhomtheyaredueandwhenyou
judgebetweenpeopletojudgewithjustice.
(AnNisa:58)

TherearemanyQuranicinjunctionsaboutjustice.OneofthemainfunctionsoftheIslamic
systemistoensurejusticetoallcitizens.Therulerandthegovernmenthavenorightto
interfereintheprocessofjustice.

vi)EqualityBeforeLaw:

TheIslamicPoliticalSystemensuresequalityofallcitizensbeforethelaw.Islamdoesnot
recognizeanydiscriminationonthebasisoflanguage,colour,territory,sexanddescent.
IslamrecognizesthepreferenceofoneovertheotheronlyonthebasisofTaqwa.Onewho
fearsAllahmostisthenoblestinIslam.

Omankind,indeedWehavecreatedyoufrommaleandfemaleandmadeyou
peoplesandtribesthatyoumayknowoneanother.Indeed,themostnobleofyouin
thesightofAllahisthemostrighteousofyou.Indeed,AllahisKnowingand
Acquainted.
(AlHujurat:13)

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Friday,July29,2011 #36

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@DearRoshanyourworkisperfect,butonlyifyouaddtherefferncesofhadiths.toukeya
baathe:)
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Quote:

OriginallyPostedbyRoshanwadhwani

PoliticalSystemOfIslam:
Outline:

Introduction
WhatIsAnIslamicState?
PurposeOfIslamicState:
BasisOfPoliticalSystemInIslam
MainFeaturesOfIslamicPoliticalSystem
i)SovereigntyOfAllah
ii)KhalifahOfMankind
iii)LegislationByShura
iv)AccountabilityOfAGovernment
v)IndependenceOfJudiciary
vi)EqualityBeforeLaw

Introduction:

ReligionandpoliticsareoneandsameinIslam.Theyareintertwined.Wealready
knowthatIslamisacompletesystemoflifeandpoliticsisverymuchapartofour
collectivelife.JustasIslamteachesushowtosaySalt,(itmustbesalawat)observe
Saum(havingfast),payZakatandundertakeHajj,inthesamewayitalsoteaches
ushowtorunastate,formagovernment,electcouncillorsandmembersof
parliament,maketreatiesandconducttradeandbusiness.

WhatIsAnIslamicState?

TheStateisdefinedbyGarnerinthesewords,Thestate,asaconceptofpolitical
scienceandpubliclaw,isacommunityofpersonsmoreorlessnumerousand
permanentlyoccupyingbyadefiniteproportionofterritory,independent,ornearlyso
ofexternalcontrol,andpossessinganorganizedgovernmenttowhichthegeneral
bodyofinhabitantsrenderhabitualobedience.WhereasintheIslamicState
sovereigntyrestswithGodwhodelegatespoliticalauthoritytosomeselectedperson.
HerepubliclawistheQuraniclaw.TheIslamicStatecannotframeanylawsagainst
theinjunctionsoftheQuranandtheSunnah.IslamicStateisawelfareState.

PurposeOfIslamicState:

ThemainobjectoftheIslamicStateistopromotegoodandstoptheevils.The
MuslimsshouldbeforcedtoactupontheinjunctionsoftheQuranandtheSunnah.The
Islamicstateguidesitscitizensinallaspectsoflifeincludingreligious.Itshould
promotegoodandordersothatthelawofjusticebyGodmustprevaileverywhere.

BasisOfPoliticalSystemInIslam:

Thepoliticalsystemisbasedontworealities:
i)ThepersonalpositionofAllahvisvisthisuniverse,particularlymen:Heisnot
onlytheirCreatorandSupporterbutalsotheirrealMaster.
ii)ThepersonalpositionofMan:HeisnotonlycreatedandsupportedbyAllah
(Sustainerofalltheworlds)butisalsoHishumbleslaveandHisvicegerentonthis
earth.
PrinciplesOfIslamicPoliticalSystem:

TheIslamicPoliticalsystemisbasedonthefollowingprinciples:

i)SovereigntyOfAllah.

Sovereigntymeanssourceofpower.InIslam,Allahisthesourceofallpowersand
laws.

LegislationisnotbutforAllah.Hehascommandedthatyouworshipnot
exceptHim.

(SurahYusuf:40)

Say,Indeed,themattercompletelybelongstoAllah.

(AliImran:154)

ItisAllahwhoknowswhatisgoodandwhatisbadforHisservants.Hissayingis
final.AllhumanbeingsunitedlycannotchangeHislaws.TheQuransays:

Asforthethiefmaleandfemalechopofftheirhands.Itistheirrewardof
theiractionandexemplarypunishmentfromAllah.AllahisPowerful,Wise.
(AlMaida:38)

AccordingtoIslam,thisorderisunchangeablebyanyparliamentorgovernmentwhich
claimsittobeanIslamicstate.TherearemanymorelawsintheQuranconcerning
ourlifeandthoselawsmustbeputintopracticebyanIslamicstateforthegreater
goodofhumanbeings.

ii)KhalifahOfMankind(VicegerencyOfMan):

ManisthevicegerentortheagentortherepresentativeofAllahonearth.

AnditisHewhohasmadeyousuccessorsupontheearthandhasraised
someofyouaboveothersindegrees[ofrank]thatHemaytryyouthrough
whatHehasgivenyou.Indeed,yourLordisswiftinpenaltybutindeed,He
isForgivingandMerciful.

(AlAnam:165)

Allahisthesovereignandmanishisrepresentative.ManshoulddoasAllah
commandshimtodo.ButhehasachoiceeithertoobeyordisobeyAllahandbecause
ofthisfreedomofchoicehewillbetestedontheDayofJudgement.Inthepolitical
sense,KhalifahmeansthathumanbeingswouldimplementthewillofAllahonearth
asHisdeputyoragent.AsAllahsagenthumanbeingswillcarryoutthewillofAllah
onHisbehalfasatrust(Amanah).Khalifahisatrust.Anagentisalwaysexpectedto
behaveashismasterwantshimtobehave.

ThenWemadeyousuccessorsinthelandafterthemsothatWemay
observehowyouwilldo.
(Yunus:14)

iii)LegislationByShura(Consultation):

Islamteachesustorungovernmenttomakedecisionsandlegislationsbytheprocess
ofShura.Shurameanstotakedecisionbyconsultationandparticipation.
Andwhoseaffairis[determinedby]consultationamongthemselves.

(AshShura:38)

ThisisoneofthemostimportantpartsoftheIslamicPoliticalsystem.Thereisno
scopeofdispositioninIslamicpoliticalsystem.TheQuranandtheSunnahwillbethe
basisofalllegislationinIslam.

iv)AccountabilityOfAGovernment:

TheIslamicPoliticalSystemmakestherulerandthegovernmentresponsiblefirstlyto
Allahandthentopeople.Therulerandthegovernmentwillbeelectedbythepeople
toexercisepowerontheirbehalf.Wemustrememberherethatboththerulerandthe
ruledaretheKhalifahofAllahandtherulershallhavetoworkforthewelfareofthe
peopleaccordingtotheQuranandSunnah.ArulerisaservantofthepeopleofIslam.
BothetherulerandtheruledwillappearbeforeAllahandaccountfortheiractionson
theDayofJudgement.Theresponsibilityoftherulerisheavierthantheruled.An
ordinarycitizeninanIslamicStatehastherighttoaskanyquestiononanymatterto
therulerandthegovernment.

v)IndependenceOfJudiciary:

IntheIslamicPoliticalSystem,thejudiciaryisindependentoftheExecutive.Thehead
oftheStateoranygovernmentministercouldbecalledtocourtifnecessary.They
willbetreatednodifferentfromothercitizens.

Oyouwhohavebelieved,bepersistentlystandingfirmforAllah,witnesses
injustice.
(AlMaida:8)

Oyouwhohavebelieved,bepersistentlystandingfirminjustice,witnesses
forAllah,evenifitbeagainstyourselvesorparentsandrelatives.Whether
oneisrichorpoor,Allahismoreworthyofboth.
(AnNisa:135)

Indeed,Allahcommandsyoutorendertruststowhomtheyaredueand
whenyoujudgebetweenpeopletojudgewithjustice.
(AnNisa:58)

TherearemanyQuranicinjunctionsaboutjustice.Oneofthemainfunctionsofthe
Islamicsystemistoensurejusticetoallcitizens.Therulerandthegovernmenthave
norighttointerfereintheprocessofjustice.

vi)EqualityBeforeLaw:

TheIslamicPoliticalSystemensuresequalityofallcitizensbeforethelaw.Islamdoes
notrecognizeanydiscriminationonthebasisoflanguage,colour,territory,sexand
descent.Islamrecognizesthepreferenceofoneovertheotheronlyonthebasisof
Taqwa.OnewhofearsAllahmostisthenoblestinIslam.

Omankind,indeedWehavecreatedyoufrommaleandfemaleandmade
youpeoplesandtribesthatyoumayknowoneanother.Indeed,themost
nobleofyouinthesightofAllahisthemostrighteousofyou.Indeed,Allah
isKnowingandAcquainted.
(AlHujurat:13)

roshandoexplainfollowingpointsinthesamesystemsitwillsaveyourtime
1:dutiesofruler
2:rightofcitizensinislamicstate
3:rightofminoritieshasalreadyexplainedinthepreviouspage.

Quote:

OriginallyPostedbyRoshanwadhwani

IslamicSocialSystem:
Outline:

Introduction
IslamicModeOfLife
BasisOfIslamicSociety
i)Equality
ii)Fraternity
iii)WeddingBond
iv)WelfareEnvironment
v)ConceptOfResponsibility
RulesAndRegulationsOfIslamicSociety
i)MutualRelationshipOfMembersOfFamily
ii)Relationship
iii)Mosque
iv)RespectedTraditions
v)EducationSystem
vi)LimitsAndLegalCodes

Introduction:

Manisasocialanimal.Hisnatureisalwaysinclinedtolovethatswhyhelikestolive
collectivelywithotherpeople.Heishelplessinthisregardforever.Godhasgiven
manwisdomandintellectonlytolivewithinasociety.Whenamanisbornhealways
looksforwardtopeoplewholookafterhim.Whenhecomestoanagehestandsin
needofnecessitiesoflife.Healwaysremainsinneedofsomeoneorsomethingandif
hiscutofffromallthesethingshewillbetotallyfornothing.

IslamicModeOfLife:

Islamhasitsownstableandfirmmodeoflifewhichhascertainandregulations.It
hasfullcodeforjusticeonequallines.SocietyisanameofunitedpeoplethusIslam
neverignoresthebasicrightsofanindividualaswellasofagroup.Islamlooksall
theindividualsandgroupsformsameangle.

Islamisareligionwhichfavourstheseparateidentityofanindividual.Itnever
considersamanonlyaspareofanysystembutconsidersanindividualanimportant
partofit.fortheperfecttrainingofanindividualwithinasocietyIslamprovidesfull
chancetofurnishhistalents:

TheHolyQuransays

Whosodothgooditisforhissoul,andwhosodothwrongitisagainstit.
(Fussilat:46)

Islamlaysgreatemphasisupontheacquisitionofknowledge.TheHolyProphet
(PBUH)wasparticularlytaughtaQuranicverse:

AndSay,MyLord!Increasemeinknowledge.
(TaHa:114)

AndtheHolyProphet(PBUH)himselfsaid:ItisthedutyofeveryMuslimmanand
womantoacquireknowledge.
Theacquisitionofknowledgeismainlyforreformationofpracticallife.Thatswhy
Islamhastressedforthequestofknowledge.Quraninthisregardopenlysays:

Andthatmanhathonlythatforwhichhemaketheffort.
(AnNajm:39)

IslamseesMuslimUmmahasthecentralUmmahoranUmmahforGod,therefore,
everypersonisresponsibleforcontinuousstruggleforthesolidarityofreligionandfor
thesacrificeofhislifeforthesakeofthepropagandaofreligion.

TheenvironmentofIslamicsocietyalsoprovidesachanceforthebettermentofthe
worldhereafter.

BasisOfIslamicsociety:

i)Equality:

ThefirstandmostimportantbasisofIslamicsocietyisthatallthehumanbeingsare
fromsamepedigree.AllthemankindisthechildrenofAdam(RA).Brotherhood,
colour,countries,forefathers,language,tribesandothernaturalthingsareonlyfor
thesakeofintroductionwitheachother.Buttomakethesedifferencesthebasisof
differencesbetweeneachotheristotallywrong.BecauseIslampreachesunityand
equalityamongthemankindatalllevels.IntheQuran,itissaid:

Omankind!Lo!Wehavecreatedyoumaleandfemale,andhavemadeyou
nationsandtribes,sothatyemayknowoneanother.Lo!Thenoblestamong
you,inthesightofAllah,isthebestinconduct.Lo!IsknowerandAware.
(AlHujurat:13)

ii)Fraternity:

AlltheMuslimsarebrothersforeachother.Therelationduetoreligionisconsidered
tobethegreatestofall.Quransays:

Thebelieversarenotelsebrothers.
(AlHujurat:10)

AtanotherplaceintheQuranitissaid:

Andholdfast,allofyoutogether,tothecableofAllah,anddonotseparate.

(AlImran:103)

iii)WeddingBond:

Menandwomenaretwodifferentpillarsofasociety.Bothhavetheirowncultand
personality.Bothtakepartinbuildingofsocialsetup.Thereisequalitybetweenmen
andwomenonthelegalbasis.Bothhavesamerightsandresponsibilitiesinthis
regard.Inafamilystructure,maleisconsideredleaderandsupervisoroftheaffairs.
Generallyeverymanandwomanisjustlikebrotherandsisterandtheyhavenoright
tobebutweddingistheonlywaythroughwhichtheygetunitedandshareeach
othersproblems.Thisistheverylegalmethodbywhichtheyarevalidforeachother.
Heretheylaythebasisofaseparatefamily.

iv)WelfareAtmosphere:

Theatmosphereofthesocietymustbedevelopedonthebasisofwelfare,
cooperation,help,andshareinsorrows,sacrificeandbrotherhood.Whenthepeople
meettheymustprayforeachotherssalvation.Everymanmustwishforhisbrother
hathelikesforhimself.Alltheevilsmustbeavoided.Cooperationmustberendered
ingooddeeds.Quransays:

Helpyeoneanotheruntorighteousnessandpiousduty.Helpnotone
anotheruntosinandtransgression.
(AlMaida:2)

BethoukindevenasAllahhathbeenkindtothee,andseeknotcorruption
intheearth.
(AlQasas:77)

Moreover,theQuransays:

Andspynot,neitherbackbiteoneanother.
(AlHujurat:12)

AlltheseversesmeanthatIslamwantstomakesocietycongenialforeveryone.

v)ConceptOfResponsibility:

Islamgivestheconceptoffulfillingsomeresponsibilitiestopropagategooddeeds,to
deterevildeedsandtohelpeachother.

TheHolyProphet(PBUH)saidthatthemanwholivesamongothersandshows
patienceonthemisdeedsdonetohimbyothersisbetterthanthemanwhodoesnot
liveamongthepeopleandisnotpatientoverexcessesdonetohim.

AftertheseinstructionsIslamhasalsogivenasystemofbasichumanrightsincluding
rightsofbrothers,familymembers,relatives,neighbours,commonmen,and
minorities.EventherightsofanimalsandplantsarealsodeterminedinIslamic
system.

RulesAndRegulationsOfIslamicSociety:

TherearesomerulesandregulationswhichIslamhasauthorizedtodevelopasociety
ofthesearediscussedbrieflyasunder:

i)MutualRelationshipOfMembersOfFamily:

Familyisthefirstandbasicinstitutionofhumansocialtraining.Thatswhythe
importanceofafamilyinIslamicsocietyisverygreat.FirststepofIslamicsocietyis
theformationofwhichisapureandlegitimaterelationbetweenamanandwoman.
Thisrelationmakesaunitywithinitself.

Hereanewgenerationcomesintobeingwithitmanynewrelationsarealso
generated.Finallyalltheserelationsspreadovertoformacompletesociety.

ii)OtherRelations:

TherearemuchmoreinthefamilystocktodealwithKithandKinoutsideones
family.Islamwantstoseeallthesetoshareeachotherssorrowsandhappiness.In
Qurantherearemanyplaceswhereemphasisislaidupongoodbehaviourtowards
relatives.ButitdoesnotmeanthatthereshouldbeencouragementagainstIslamand
itstraditions.Islamhasalsosethereditaryrulestostrengthenexistingrelations.

iii)Mosque:

MosqueissymbolofunityamongMuslimsanditreflectsthetoneofexistingrelations.
Italsoworksasapermanentinstitutionforthesocialtis.Itisonlymosquewhichcan
makeIslamicsocialplansuccessful.

iv)RespectedTraditions:

InanIslamicsocietysacredtraditionsmustbeguardedatallcostsandthepolicy
mustalsobeframedupontheselinesbecausethisprocessdoesnotbreaklinkwithits
past.Butitisnotmeantforthatnonewtraditionwillbesetup.Fastchangesin
routinelifeautomaticallychangetheboringoldtraditions.Thereisnoneedofchange
viarevolutionorrevolt.

v)EducationSystem:

TherealreformationofanIslamicsocietyisonlypossiblethroughitseducationpolicy.
Becausetotransferonestraditionsandknowledgeonemustponderoverthefaultsof
oneseducationpolicy.EducationisalsooneofthegreatestpillarsofIslamicsociety.

vi)LimitsAndLegalCodes:

Therearemanywaystocopewiththeevilsandsinsofanysocietybutrulesand
regulationtocurbevildoersarealsomust.Islamalsohassuchsystemwithproper
rulesandregulations.Theserulesaremadetosavethecitizensfromevildoersand
sinners.Islamhassetparticularpenaltiesandpunishmentstodealbadelementswith
anironhand.NooneisgreaterorsmallerintheeyesofIslamiclaw.TheHoly
Prophetoncesaid,

Ifmydaughterstealssomething,byGodIwillcutherhandstoo.

roshaninRulesandRegulationsofislamicsoceityyoudidn`texplainindetailhowtheyare
helpfulinmentainingsocialorder.
__________________
GEOtoaiseksabtumharaha,MAROtoaisajaisetmharakuchbhinhi.

Mazadetihanzindagikithokerinunko,jinhenNAAMEKHUDAlekarsanbhaljaneykiadatho.
LasteditedbyInerrantInamorataSaturday,December27,2014at08:24AM.Reason:chainposts

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Roshanwadhwani(Friday,July29,2011)

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Quote:

OriginallyPostedbySYEDASABAHAT
roshandoexplainfollowingpointsinthesamesystemsitwillsaveyourtime
1:dutiesofruler
2:rightofcitizensinislamicstate
3:rightofminoritieshasalreadyexplainedinthepreviouspage.

Quote:

OriginallyPostedbySYEDASABAHAT
roshaninRulesandRegulationsofislamicsoceityyoudidn`texplainindetailhow
theyarehelpfulinmentainingsocialorder.
thanxalotdearSyedaSabahat. .yai'lladdthesepointsinrelatedtopics.....ifyou
havematerialinsoftcopyrelatedtothesetopicsdosharewithmehereorsendme
onmyidsoasicudenrichthesenotesfurhter...i'lbealwaysindebtedtoyou.

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RightsOfTheCitizensInAnIslamicState

1.TheSecurityofLifeandProperty

IntheaddresswhichtheProphetdeliveredontheoccasionofthe
FarewellHajj,hesaid:"Yourlivesandpropertiesareforbiddentoone
anothertillyoumeetyourLordontheDayofResurrection."

GodAlmightyhaslaiddownintheHolyQuran:"Anyonewhokillsa
believerdeliberatelywillreceiveashisreward(asentence)tolivein
Hellforever.Godwillbeangrywithhimandcursehim,andprepare
dreadfultormentforhim"(4:93).

TheProphethasalsosaidaboutthe
dhimmis(thenonMuslimcitizensoftheMuslimState):"Onewhokills
amanundercovenant(i.e.adhimmi)willnotevensmellthefragrance
ofParadise"(alBukhariandAbuDawud).
Islamprohibitshomicidebut
allowsonlyoneexception,thatthekillingisdoneinthedueprocessof
lawwhichtheQuranreferstoasbialhaqq(withthetruth).Therefore
amancanbekilledonlywhenthelawdemandsit,anditisobvious
thatonlyacourtoflawcandecidewhethertheexecutionisbeing
carriedoutwithjusticeorwithoutjustification.Incaseofwaror
insurrectionajustandrighteousgovernmentalone,whichfollowsthe
Shari'ahortheIslamicLaw,candecidewhetherawarisjustorunjust,
whethertakingofalifeisjustifiedornotandwhetherapersonisa
rebelornotandwhocanbesentencedtodeathasapunishment.

Theseweightydecisionscannotbeleftinthehandsofacourtwhichhas
becomeheedlesstoGodandisundertheinfluenceoftheadministra
tion.Ajudiciarylikethismaymiscarryjustice.Norcanthecrimesof
statebejustifiedontheauthorityoftheHolyQuranorTraditions
(hadith)whenthestatemurdersitscitizensopenlyandsecretlywithout
anyhesitationorontheslightestpretext,becausetheyareopposedto
itsunjustpoliciesandactionsorcriticizeitforitsmisdeed,andalso
providesprotectiontoitshiredassassinswhohavebeenguiltyofthe
heinouscrimeofmurderofaninnocentpersonresultinginthefact,
thatneitherthepolicetakeanyactionagainstsuchcriminalsnorcan
anyprooforwitnessesagainstthesecriminalsbeproducedinthecourts
oflaw.Theveryexistenceofsuchagovernmentisacrimeandnoneof
thekillingscarriedoutbythemcanbecalled"executionforthesakeof
justice"inthephraseologyoftheHolyQuran.
Alongwithsecurityoflife,Islamhaswithequalclarityand
definitenessconferredtherightofsecurityofownershipofproperty,as
mentionedearlierwithreferencetotheaddressoftheFarewellHajj.On
theotherhand,theHolyQurangoessofarastodeclarethatthetaking
ofpeople'spossessionsorpropertyiscompletelyprohibitedunlessthey
areacquiredbylawfulmeansaspermittedintheLawsofGod.The
LawofGodcategoricallydeclares"Donotdevouroneanother'swealth
byfalseandillegalmeans"(2:188).

2.TheProtectionofHonour

Thesecondimportantrightistherightofthecitizenstothe
protectionoftheirhonour.Intheaddressdeliveredontheoccasionof
theFarewellHajj,towhichIhavereferredearlier,theProphetdidnot
onlyprohibitthelifeandpropertyoftheMuslimstooneanother,but
alsoanyencroachmentupontheirhonour,respectandchastitywere
forbiddentooneanother.TheHolyQuranclearlylaysdown:
(a)"Youwhobelieve,donotletone(setof)peoplemakefunof
anotherset.
(b)Donotdefameoneanother.
(c)Donotinsultbyusingnicknames.
(d)Anddonotbackbiteorspeakillofoneanother"(49:1112).

ThisisthelawofIslamfortheprotectionofhonourwhichis
indeedmuchsuperiortoandbetterthantheWesternLawofDefama
tion.
AccordingtotheIslamicLawifitisprovedthatsomeonehas
attackedthehonourofanotherperson,thenirrespectiveofthefact
whetherornotthevictimisabletoprovehimselfarespectableand
honourablepersontheculpritwillinanycasegethisduepunishment.
ButtheinterestingfactabouttheWesternLawofDefamationisthat
thepersonwhofilessuitfordefamationhasfirsttoprovethatheisa
manofhonourandpublicesteemandduringtheinterrogationheis
subjectedtothescurrilousattacks,accusationsandinnuendoesofthe
defencecounciltosuchanextentthatheearnsmoredisgracethanthe
attackonhisreputationagainstwhichhehadknockedthedoorofthe
courtoflaw.

Ontopofithehasalsotoproducesuchwitnessesas
wouldtestifyinthecourtthatduetothedefamatoryaccusationsof
theculprit,theaccusedstandsdisgracedintheireyes.GoodGracious!
whatasubtlepointoflaw,andwhatanadherencetothespiritofLaw!
HowcanthisunfairandunjustlawbecomparedtotheDivinelaw?
Islamdeclaredblasphemyasacrimeirrespectiveofthefactwhetherthe
accusedisamanofhonourornot,andwhetherthewordsusedfor
blasphemyhaveactuallydisgracedthevictimandharmedhisreputation
intheeyesofthepublicornot.AccordingtotheIslamicLawthemere
proofofthefactthattheaccusedsaidthingswhichaccordingto
commonsensecouldhavedamagedthereputationandhonourofthe
plaintiff,isenoughfortheaccusedtobedeclaredguiltyofdefamation.

3.TheSanctityandSecurityofPrivateLife

Islamrecognizestherightofeverycitizenofitsstatethatthere
shouldbenoundueinterferenceorencroachmentontheprivacyofhis
life.TheHolyQuranhaslaiddowntheinjunction:"Donotspyon
oneanother"(49:12)."Donotenteranyhousesexceptyourown
homesunlessyouaresureoftheiroccupants'consent"(24:27).

TheProphethasgonetotheextentofinstructinghisfollowersthataman
shouldnotenterevenhisownhousesuddenlyorsurreptitiously.He
shouldsomehoworotherinformorindicatetothedwellersofthe
housethatheisenteringthehouse,sothathemaynotseehismother,
sisterordaughterinaconditioninwhichtheywouldnotliketobe
seen,norwouldhehimselfliketoseetheminthatcondition.
Peering
intothehousesofotherpeoplehasalsobeenstrictlyprohibited,so
muchsothatthereisthesayingoftheProphetthatifamanfinds
anotherpersonsecretlypeeringintohishouse,andheblindshiseyeor
eyesasapunishmentthenhecannotbecalledtoquestionnorwillhe
beliabletoprosecution.
TheProphethasevenprohibitedpeoplefrom
readingthelettersofothers,somuchsothatifamanisreadinghis
letterandanothermancastssidelongglancesatitandtriestoreadit,
hisconductbecomesreprehensible.
Thisisthesanctityofprivacythat
Islamgrantstoindividuals.Ontheotherhandinthemoderncivilized
worldwefindthatnotonlythelettersofotherpeoplearereadand
theircorrespondencecensored,buteventheirphotostatcopiesare
retainedforfutureuseorblackmail.Evenbuggingdevicesaresecretly
fixedinthehousesofthepeoplesothatonecanhearandtapefroma
distancetheconversationtakingplacebehindcloseddoors.Inother
wordsitmeansthatthereisnosuchthingasprivacyandtoallpractical
purposestheprivatelifeofanindividualdoesnotexist.

Thisespionageonthelifeoftheindividualcannotbejustifiedon
moralgroundsbythegovernmentsayingthatitisnecessarytoknow
thesecretsofthedangerouspersons.Though,toallintentsand
purposes,thebasisofthispolicyisthefearandsuspicionwithwhich
moderngovernmentslookattheircitizenswhoareintelligentand
dissatisfiedwiththeofficialpoliciesofthegovernment.
Thisisexactly
whatIslamhascalledastherootcauseofmischiefinpolitics.The
injunctionoftheProphetis:"Whentherulerbeginstosearchforthe
causesofdissatisfactionamongsthispeople,hespoilsthem"(Abu
Dawud).

TheAmirMu'awiyahhassaidthathehimselfheardthe
Prophetsaying:"Ifyoutrytofindoutthesecretsofthepeople,then
youwilldefinitelyspoilthemoratleastyouwillbringthemtothe
vergeofruin."Themeaningofthephrase'spoilthem'isthatwhen
spies(C.I.D.orF.B.I.agents)arespreadallaroundthecountrytofind
outtheaffairsofmen,thenthepeoplebegintolookatoneanotherwith
suspicion,somuchsothatpeopleareafraidoftalkingfreelyintheir
houseslestsomewordshouldescapefromthelipsoftheirwivesand
childrenwhichmayputtheminembarrassingsituations.

Inthismanner
itbecomesdifficultforacommoncitizentospeakfreely,eveninhis
ownhouseandsocietybeginstosufferfromastateofgeneraldistrust
andsuspicion.

4.TheSecurityofPersonalFreedom

Islamhasalsolaiddowntheprinciplethatnocitizencanbe
imprisonedunlesshisguilthasbeenprovedinanopencourt.Toarrest
amanonlyonthebasisofsuspicionandtothrowhimintoaprison
withoutpropercourtproceedingsandwithoutprovidinghimareason
ableopportunitytoproducehisdefenceisnotpermissibleinIslam.
Itis
relatedinthehadiththatoncetheProphetwasdeliveringalecturein
themosque,whenamanroseduringthelectureandsaid:"OProphet
ofGod,forwhatcrimehavemyneighboursbeenarrested?"The
Prophetheardthequestionandcontinuedhisspeech.Themanrose
onceagainandrepeatedthesamequestion.TheProphetagaindidnot
answerandcontinuedhisspeech.Themanroseforathirdtimeand
repeatedthesamequestion.ThentheProphetorderedthattheman's
neighboursbereleased.ThereasonwhytheProphethadkeptquiet
whenthequestionwasrepeatedtwiceearlierwasthatthepoliceofficer
waspresentinthemosqueandiftherewereproperreasonsforthe
arrestoftheneighboursofthisman,hewouldhavegotuptoexplain
hisposition.Sincethepoliceofficergavenoreasonsforthesearrests
theProphetorderedthatthearrestedpersonsshouldbereleased.The
policeofficerwasawareoftheIslamiclawandthereforehedidnot
getuptosay:"theadministrationisawareofthechargesagainstthe
arrestedmen,buttheycannotbedisclosedinpublic.IftheProphet
wouldinquireabouttheirguiltincameraIwouldenlightenhim."

If
thepoliceofficerhadmadesuchastatement,hewouldhavebeendis
missedthenandthere.Thefactthatthepoliceofficerdidnotgiveany
reasonsforthearrestsintheopencourtwassufficientreasonforthe
Prophettogiveimmediateordersforthereleaseofthearrestedmen.

TheinjunctionoftheHolyQuranisveryclearonthispoint."When
everyoujudgebetweenpeople,youshouldjudgewith(asenseof)
justice"(4:58).
AndtheProphethasalsobeenaskedbyGod:"Ihave
beenorderedtodispensejusticebetweenyou."

Thiswasthereason
whytheCaliph'Umarsaid:"InIslamnoonecanbeimprisonedexcept
inpursuanceofjustice."

Thewordsusedhereclearlyindicatethat
justicemeansdueprocessoflaw.Whathasbeenprohibitedand
condemnedisthatamanbearrestedandimprisonedwithoutproofof
hisguiltinanopencourtandwithoutprovidinghimanopportunity
todefendhimselfagainstthosecharges.
IftheGovernmentsuspects
thataparticularindividualhascommittedacrimeorheislikelyto
commitanoffenceinthenearfuturethentheyshouldgivereasonsfor
theirsuspicionbeforeacourtoflawandtheculpritorthesuspect
shouldbeallowedtoproducehisdefenceinanopencourt,sothatthe
courtmaydecidewhetherthesuspicionagainsthimisbasedonsound
groundsornotandifthereisgoodreasonforsuspicion,thenheshould
beinformedofhowlonghewillbeinpreventivedetention.
This
decisionshouldbetakenunderallcircumstancesinanopencourt,so
thatthepublicmayhearthechargesbroughtbythegovernment,as
wellasthedefencemadebytheaccusedandseethatthedueprocessof
lawisbeingappliedtohimandheisnotbeingvictimized.

ThecorrectmethodofdealingwithsuchcasesinIslamis
exemplifiedinthefamousdecisionoftheProphetwhichtookplace
beforetheconquestofMakkah.
TheProphetwasmakingpreparations
fortheattackonMakkah,whenoneofhisCompanions,HatibibnAbi
Balta'ahsentaletterthroughawomantotheauthoritiesinMakkah
informingthemabouttheimpendingattack.TheProphetcameto
knowofthisthroughaDivineinspiration.Heordered'AliandZubayr:
"GoquicklyontheroutetoMakkah,atsuchandsuchaplace,youwill
findawomancarryingaletter.Recovertheletterfromherandbringit
tome."SotheywentandfoundthewomanexactlywheretheProphet
hadsaid.Theyrecoveredtheletterfromherandbroughtittothe
Prophet.Thiswasindeedaclearcaseoftreachery.
Toinformthe
enemyaboutasecretofanarmyandthattooatthetimeofawarisa
veryseriousoffencetantamounttotreachery.Infactonecannotthink
ofamoreseriouscrimeduringwarthangivingoutamilitarysecretto
one'senemy.Whatcouldhavebeenamoresuitablecaseforasecret
hearingamilitarysecrethadbeenbetrayedandcommonsense
demandedthatheshouldbetriedincamera.
ButtheProphet
summonedHatibtotheopencourtoftheMosqueoftheProphetand
inthepresenceofhundredsofpeopleaskedhimtoexplainhisposition
withregardtohisletteraddressedtotheleadersofQurayshwhichhad
beeninterceptedonitsway.
Theaccusedsaid:"OGod'sMessenger
(mayGod'sblessingsbeonyou)IhavenotrevoltedagainstIslam,nor
haveIdonethiswiththeintentionofbetrayingamilitarysecret.The
truthofthematteristhatmywifeandchildrenarelivinginMakkah
andIdonothavemytribetoprotectthemthere.Ihadwrittenthis
lettersothattheleadersofQurayshmaybeindebtedtomeandmay
protectmywifeandchildrenoutofgratitude."'Umarroseandrespect
fullysubmitted:"OProphet,pleasepermitmetoputthistraitortothe
sword."TheProphetreplied:"Heisoneofthosepeoplewhohad
participatedintheBattleofBadr,andtheexplanationhehas
advancedinhisdefencewouldseemtobecorrect."

LetuslookatthisdecisionoftheProphetinperspective.Itwasa
clearcaseoftreacheryandbetrayalofmilitarysecrets.ButtheProphet
acquittedHatibontwocounts.Firstly,thathispastrecordswerevery
cleanandshowedthathecouldnothavebetrayedthecauseofIslam,
sinceontheoccasionoftheBattleofBadrwhentherewereheavyodds
againsttheMuslims,hehadriskedhislifeforthem.Secondly,his
familywasinfactindangeratMakkah.Therefore,ifhehadshown
somehumanweaknessforhischildrenandwrittenthisletter,thenthis
punishmentwasquitesufficientforhimthathissecretoffencewas
divulgedinpublicandhehadbeendisgracedandhumiliatedintheeyes
ofthebelievers.GodhasreferredtothisoffenceofHatibintheHoly
Quranbutdidnotproposeanypunishmentforhimexceptrebuke
andadmonition.

TheattitudeandactivitiesoftheKharijisinthedaysofthe
Caliph'AliarewellknowntothestudentsofMuslimhistory.They
usedtoabusetheCaliphopenly,andthreatenhimwithmurder.But
whenevertheywerearrestedfortheseoffences,'Aliwouldsetthem
freeandtellhisofficers"Aslongastheydonotactuallyperpetrate
offencesagainsttheState,themereuseofabusivelanguageorthe
threatofuseofforcearenotsuchoffencesforwhichtheycanbe
imprisoned."TheimamAbuHanifahhasrecordedthefollowingsaying
oftheCaliph'Ali(A):"Aslongastheydonotsetoutonarmed
rebellion,theCaliphoftheFaithfulwillnotinterferewiththem."On
anotheroccasion'Aliwasdeliveringalectureinthemosquewhenthe
Kharijisraisedtheirspecialsloganthere.'Alisaid:"Wewillnotdeny
youtherighttocometothemosquestoworshipGod,norwillwestop
togiveyoursharefromthewealthoftheState,aslongasyouarewith
us(andsupportusinourwarswiththeunbelievers)andweshallnever
takemilitaryactionagainstyouaslongasyoudonotfightwithus."
Onecanvisualizetheoppositionwhich'Aliwasfacingmoreviolent
andvituperativeoppositioncannotevenbeimaginedinapresentday
democraticStatebutthefreedomthathehadallowedtotheopposi
tionwassuchthatnogovernmenthaseverbeenabletogivetoits
opposition.Hedidnotarresteventhosewhothreatenedhimwith
murdernordidheimprisonthem.

5.TheRighttoProtestAgainstTyranny

AmongsttherightsthatIslamhasconferredonhumanbeingsis
therighttoprotestagainstgovernment'styranny.Referringtoitthe
Quransays:"Goddoesnotloveeviltalkinpublicunlessitisbysome
onewhohasbeeninjuredthereby"(4:148).
ThismeansthatGod
stronglydisapprovesofabusivelanguageorstrongwordsofcondemna
tion,butthepersonwhohasbeenthevictimofinjusticeortyranny,
Godgiveshimtherighttoopenlyprotestagainsttheinjurythathas
beendonetohim.Thisrightisnotlimitedonlytoindividuals.The
wordsoftheversearegeneral.Thereforeifanindividualoragroupof
peopleorapartyusurpspower,andafterassumingthereinsof
authoritybeginstotyrannizeindividualsorgroupsofmenortheentire
populationofthecountry,thentoraisethevoiceofprotestagainstit
openlyistheGodgivenrightofmanandnoonehastheauthorityto
usurpordenythisright.Ifanyonetriestousurpthisrightofcitizens
thenherebelsagainstGod.ThetalismanofSection1444mayprotect
suchatyrantinthisworld,butitcannotsavehimfromthehellfirein
theHereafter.

6.FreedomofExpression

Islamgivestherightoffreedomofthoughtandexpressiontoall
citizensoftheIslamicStateontheconditionthatitshouldbeused
forthepropagationofvirtueandtruthandnotforspreadingeviland
wickedness.ThisIslamicconceptoffreedomofexpressionismuch
superiortotheconceptprevalentintheWest.Undernocircumstances
wouldIslamallowevilandwickednesstobepropagated.Italsodoes
notgiveanybodytherighttouseabusiveoroffensivelanguageinthe
nameofcriticism.
Therighttofreedomofexpressionforthesakeof
propagatingvirtueandrighteousnessisnotonlyarightinIslambutan
obligation.Onewhotriestodenythisrighttohispeopleisopenlyat
warwithGod,theAllPowerful.Andthesamethingappliestothe
attempttostoppeoplefromevil.Whetherthisevilisperpetratedbyan
individualorbyagroupofpeopleorthegovernmentofone'sown
country,orthegovernmentofsomeothercountryitistherightofa
Muslimanditisalsohisobligationthatheshouldwarnandreprimand
theevildoerandtrytostophimfromdoingit.Overandabove,he
shouldopenlyandpubliclycondemnitandshowthecourseof
righteousnesswhichthatindividual,nationorgovernmentshould
adopt.

TheHolyQuranhasdescribedthisqualityoftheFaithfulinthe
followingwords:"Theyenjoinwhatisproperandforbidwhatis
improper"(9:71).
Incontrast,describingthequalitiesofahypocrite,
theQuranmentions:"Theybidwhatisimproperandforbidwhatis
proper"(9:67).ThemainpurposeofanIslamicGovernmenthasbeen
definedbyGodintheQuranasfollows:"Ifwegiveauthoritytothese
menonearththeywillkeepupprayers,andofferpoordue,bidwhat
isproperandforbidwhatisimproper"(22:41).

TheProphethassaid:
"Ifanyoneofyoucomesacrossanevil,heshouldtrytostopitwith
hishand(usingforce),ifheisnotinapositiontostopitwithhishand
thenheshouldtrytostopitbymeansofhistongue(meaninghe
shouldspeakagainstit).Ifheisnotevenabletousehistonguethenhe
shouldatleastcondemnitinhisheart.Thisistheweakestdegreeof
faith"(Muslim).

Thisobligationofinvitingpeopletorighteousnessand
forbiddingthemtoadoptthepathsofevilisincumbentonalltrue
Muslims.Ifanygovernmentdeprivesitscitizensofthisright,and
preventsthemfromperformingthisduty,thenitisindirectconflict
withtheinjunctionofGod.Thegovernmentisnotinconflictwithits
people,butisinconflictwithGod.InthiswayitisatwarwithGod
andistryingtousurpthatrightofitspeoplewhichGodhasconferred
notonlyasarightbutasanobligation.Asfarasthegovernmentwhich
itselfpropagatesevil,wickednessandobscenityandinterfereswith
thosewhoareinvitingpeopletovirtueandrighteousnessisconcerned,
accordingtotheHolyQuranitisthegovernmentofthehypocrites.

7.FreedomofAssociation

Islamhasalsogivenpeopletherighttofreedomofassociationand
formationofpartiesororganizations.Thisrightisalsosubjectto
certaingeneralrules.Itshouldbeexercisedforpropagatingvirtueand
righteousnessandshouldneverbeusedforspreadingevilandmischief.
Wehavenotonlybeengiventhisrightforspreadingrighteousnessand
virtue,buthavebeenorderedtoexercisethisright.Addressingthe
Muslims,theHolyQurandeclares:
Youarethebestcommunitywhichhasbeenbroughtforthformankind.
Youcommandwhatisproperandforbidwhatisimproperandyoubelieve
inGod...(3:110)

ThismeansthatitistheobligationanddutyoftheentireMuslim
communitythatitshouldinviteandenjoinpeopletorighteousnessand
virtueandforbidthemfromdoingevil.IftheentireMuslimcommunity
isnotabletoperformthisdutythen"lettherebeacommunityamong
youwhowillinvite(people)to(do)good,commandwhatisproperand
forbidwhatisimproper,thosewillbeprosperous"(3:104).
Thisclearly
indicatesthatiftheentireMuslimnationcollectivelybeginstoneglect
itsobligationtoinvitepeopletogoodnessandforbidthemfromdoing
evilthenitisabsolutelyessentialthatitshouldcontainatleasta
group
ofpeoplewhichmayperformthisobligation.Ashasbeensaidbefore
thisisnotonlyarightbutanobligationandonthefulfilmentofwhich
dependssuccessandprosperityhereaswellasintheHereafter.Itisan
ironywiththereligionofGodthatinaMuslimcountrytheassembly
andassociationthatisformedforthepurposesofspreadingeviland
mischiefshouldhavetherighttoruleoverthecountryandthe
associationandpartywhichhasbeenformedforpropagatingrighteous
nessandvirtueshouldliveinperpetualfearofharassmentandofbeing
declaredillegal.Conditionsherearejustthereverseofwhathasbeen
prescribedbyGod.TheclaimisthatweareMuslimsandthisisan
IslamicState5buttheworkthatisbeingdoneisdirectedtospreading
evil,tocorruptandmorallydegradeanddebasethepeoplewhilethere
isanactiveandeffectivecheckontheworkbeingcarriedoutfor
reformingsocietyandinvitingpeopletorighteousness.Moreoverthe
lifeofthosewhoareengagedinspreadingrighteousnessandchecking
thespreadofevilandwickednessismadeintolerableandhardtobear.

8.FreedomofConscienceandConviction

Islamalsogivestherighttofreedomofconscienceandconviction
toitscitizensinanIslamicState.TheHolyQuranhaslaiddownthe
injunction:"Thereshouldbenocoercioninthematteroffaith"
(2:256).
Thoughthereisnotruthandvirtuegreaterthanthereligionof
TruthIslam,andMuslimsareenjoinedtoinvitepeopletoembrace
Islamandadvanceargumentsinfavourofit,theyarenotaskedto
enforcethisfaithonthem.Noforcewillbeappliedinordertocompel
themtoacceptIslam.Whoeveracceptsithedoessobyhisownchoice.
MuslimswillwelcomesuchaconverttoIslamwithopenarmsand
admithimtotheircommunitywithequalrightsandprivileges.Butif
somebodydoesnotacceptIslam,Muslimswillhavetorecognizeand
respecthisdecision,andnomoral,socialorpoliticalpressurewillbe
putonhimtochangehismind.

9.ProtectionofReligiousSentiments

Alongwiththefreedomofconvictionandfreedomofconscience,
Islamhasgiventherighttotheindividualthathisreligioussentiments
willbegivenduerespectandnothingwillbesaidordonewhichmay
encroachuponthisright.IthasbeenordainedbyGodintheHoly
Quran:"DonotabusethosetheyappealtoinsteadofGod"(6:108).

Theseinstructionsarenotonlylimitedtoidolsanddeities,butthey
alsoapplytotheleadersornationalheroesofthepeople.Ifagroupof
peopleholdsaconvictionwhichaccordingtoyouiswrong,andholds
certainpersonsinhighesteemwhichaccordingtoyouisnotdeserved
bythem,thenitwillnotbejustifiedinIslamthatyouuseabusive
languageforthemandthusinjuretheirfeelings.Islamdoesnotprohibit
peoplefromholdingdebateanddiscussiononreligiousmatters,butit
wantsthatthesediscussionsshouldbeconductedindecency."Donot
arguewiththepeopleoftheBookunlessitisinthepolitestmanner"
(29:46)saystheQuran.
Thisorderisnotmerelylimitedtothepeople
oftheScriptures,butapplieswithequalforcetothosefollowingother
faiths.

10.ProtectionfromArbitraryImprisonment

Islamalsorecognizestherightoftheindividualthathewillnotbe
arrestedorimprisonedfortheoffencesofothers.TheHolyQuranhas
laiddownthisprincipleclearly:"Nobearerofburdensshallbemadeto
beartheburdenofanother"(6:164).
Islambelievesinpersonal
responsibility.Weourselvesareresponsibleforouracts,andthe
consequenceofouractionscannotbetransferredtosomeoneelse.In
otherwordsthismeansthateverymanisresponsibleforhisactions.
If
anothermanhasnotsharedthisactionthenhecannotbeheld
responsibleforit,norcanhebearrested.Itisamatterofgreatregret
andshamethatweareseeingthisjustandequitableprinciplewhichhas
notbeenframedbyanyhumanbeing,butbytheCreatorandNourish
eroftheentireuniverse,beingfloutedandviolatedbeforeoureyes.So
muchsothatamanisguiltyofacrimeorheisasuspect,buthiswife
beingarrestedforhiscrime.
Thingshavegonesofarthatinnocent
peoplearebeingpunishedforthecrimesofothers.Togivearecent
example,inKarachi(Pakistan),amanwassuspectedofbeinginvolved
inabombthrowingincident.Inthecourseofpoliceinvestigationhe
wassubjectedtohorribletortureinordertoextractaconfessionfrom
him.Whenheinsistedonhisinnocence,thenthepolicearrestedhis
mother,hiswife,daughterandsisterandbroughtthemtothepolice
station.Theywereallstrippednakedinhispresenceandhewas
strippednakedofallhisclothesbeforetheireyessothataconfession
ofthecrimecouldbeextractedfromhim.
Itappearsasifforthesake
ofinvestigationofcrimeithasbecomeproperandlegalinourcountry
tostriptheinnocentwomenfolkofthehouseholdinordertobring
pressureonthesuspect.Thisisindeedveryoutrageousandshameful.
Thisistheheightofmeannessanddepravity.Thisisnotamerehearsay
whichIamrepeatinghere,butIhavefullinformationaboutthiscase
andcanprovemyallegationsinanycourtoflaw.Iwouldhereliketo
askwhatrightsuchtyrantswhoperpetratethesecrimesagainst
mankindhavetotellusthattheyareMuslimsorthattheyareconduct
ingtheaffairsofthestateaccordingtotheteachingsofIslamandtheir
stateisanIslamicState.Theyarebreachingandfloutingaclearlawof
theHolyQuran.Theyarestrippingmenandwomennakedwhichis
strictlyforbiddeninIslam.Theydisgraceandhumiliatehumanityand
thentheyclaimthattheyareMuslims.

11.TheRighttoBasicNecessitiesofLife

Islamhasrecognizedtherightoftheneedypeoplethathelpand
assistancewillbeprovidedforthem."Andintheirwealththereis
acknowledgedrightfortheneedyandthedestitute"(51:19).
Inthis
verse,theQuranhasnotonlyconferredarightoneverymanwhoasks
forassistanceinthewealthoftheMuslims,buthasalsolaiddownthat
ifaMuslimcomestoknowthatacertainmaniswithoutthebasic
necessitiesoflife,thenirrespectiveofthefactwhetherheasksfor
assistanceornot,itishisdutytoreachhimandgiveallthehelpthat
he
canextend.ForthispurposeIslamhasnotdependedonlyonthehelp
andcharitythatisgivenvoluntarily,buthasmadecompulsorycharity,
zakatasthethirdpillarofIslam,nextonlytoprofessionoffaithand
worshipofGodthroughholdingregularprayers.
TheProphethas
clearlyinstructedinthisrespectthat:"Itwillbetakenfromtheirrich
andgiventothoseinthecommunityinneed"(alBukhariandMuslim).
Inadditiontothis,ithasalsobeendeclaredthattheIslamicState
shouldsupportthosewhohavenobodytosupportthem.TheProphet
hassaid:"TheHeadofstateistheguardianofhim,whohasnobodyto
supporthim"(AbuDawud,alTirmidhi).
Thewordwaliwhichhasbeen
usedbytheProphetisaverycomprehensivewordandhasawiderange
ofmeanings.Ifthereisanorphanoranagedman,ifthereisacrippled
orunemployedperson,ifoneisinvalidorpoorandhasnooneelseto
supporthimorhelphim,thenitisthedutyandtheresponsibilityof
thestatetosupportandassisthim.Ifadeadmanhasnoguardianor
heir,thenitisthedutyofthestatetoarrangeforhisproperburial.In
shortthestatehasbeenentrustedwiththedutyandresponsibilityof
lookingafterallthosewhoneedhelpandassistance.AtrulyIslamic
Stateisthereforeatrulywelfarestatewhichwillbetheguardianand
protectorofallthoseinneed.

12.EqualityBeforeLaw

Islamgivesitscitizenstherighttoabsoluteandcompleteequality
intheeyesofthelaw.AsfarastheMuslimsareconcerned,thereare
clearinstructionsintheHolyQuranandhadiththatintheirrightsand
obligationstheyareallequal:"Thebelieversarebrothers(toeach
other)"(49:10)."Ifthey(disbelievers)repentandkeepupprayerand
paytheIpoordue,theyareyourbrothersinfaith"(9:11).
The
Prophethassaidthat:"ThelifeandbloodofMuslimsareequally
precious"(AbuDawudIbnMajjah).
Inanotherhadithhehassaid:
"TheprotectiongivenbyallMuslimsisequal.Evenanordinaryman
ofthemcangrantprotectiontoanyman"(alBukhariMuslimAbu
Dawud).

InanothermoredetailedTraditionoftheProphet,ithasbeen
saidthatthosewhoaccepttheOnenessofGod,believeintheProphet
hoodofHisMessenger,giveupprimitiveprejudicesandjointheMuslim
communityandbrotherhood,"thentheyhavethesamerightsand
obligationsasotherMuslimshave"(alBukharialNisa'i).
Thusthereis
absoluteequalitybetweenthenewconvertstoIslamandtheold
followersoftheFaith.
Thisreligiousbrotherhoodandtheuniformityoftheirrightsand
obligationsisthefoundationofequalityinIslamicsociety,inwhichthe
rightsandobligationsofanypersonareneithergreaternorlesserinany
waythantherightsandobligationsofotherpeople.
Asfarasthenon
MuslimcitizensoftheIslamicStateareconcerned,theruleofIslamic
Shari'ah(law)aboutthemhasbeenverywellexpressedbytheCaliph
'Aliinthesewords:"Theyhaveacceptedourprotectiononlybecause
theirlivesmaybelikeourlivesandtheirpropertieslikeourproperties"
(AbuDawud).

Inotherwords,their(ofthedhimmis)livesand
propertiesareassacredasthelivesandpropertiesoftheMuslims.
Discriminationofpeopleintodifferentclasseswasoneofthegreatest
crimesthat,accordingtotheQuran,Pharaohusedtoindulgein:"He
haddividedhispeopleintodifferentclasses,"..."Andhesuppressed
onegroupofthem(atthecostofothers)"(28:4).

13.RulersNotAbovetheLaw

IslamclearlyinsistsanddemandsthatallofficialsoftheIslamic
State,whetherhebetheheadoranordinaryemployee,areequalin
theeyesofthelaw.Noneofthemisabovethelaworcanclaim
immunity.EvenanordinarycitizeninIslamhastherighttoput
forwardaclaimorfilealegalcomplaintagainstthehighestexecutiveof
thecountry.

TheCaliph'Umarsaid,"IhavemyselfseentheProphet,
mayGod'sblessingsbeonhim,takingrevengeagainsthimself
(penalizinghimselfforsomeshortcomingorfailing)."

Ontheoccasion
oftheBattleofBadr,whentheProphetwasstraighteningtherowsof
theMuslimarmyhehitthebellyofasoldierinanattempttopushhim
backinline.Thesoldiercomplained"OProphet,youhavehurtme
withyourstick."TheProphetimmediatelybaredhisbellyandsaid:"I
amverysorry,youcanrevengebydoingthesametome."Thesoldier
cameforwardandkissedtheabdomenoftheProphetandsaidthatthis
wasallthathewanted.

Awomanbelongingtoahighandnoblefamilywasarrestedin
connectionwithatheft.ThecasewasbroughttotheProphet,and
itwasrecommendedthatshemaybesparedthepunishmentoftheft.
TheProphetreplied:"Thenationsthatlivedbeforeyouweredestroyed
byGodbecausetheypunishedthecommonmenfortheiroffencesand
lettheirdignitariesgounpunishedfortheircrimesIswearbyHim
(God)whoholdsmylifeinHishandthatevenifFatimah,thedaughter
ofMuhammad,hascommittedthiscrimethenIwouldhaveamputated
herhand."

Duringthecaliphateof'Umar,Muhammadthesonof'Amr
ibnal'AstheGovernorofEgypt,whippedanEgyptian.TheEgyptian
wenttoMedinaandlodgedhiscomplaintwiththeRighteousCaliph,
whoimmediatelysummonedtheGovernorandhissontoMedina.
WhentheyappearedbeforehiminMedina,theCaliphhandedawhipto
theEgyptiancomplainantandaskedhimtowhipthesonofthe
Governorinhispresence.AftertakinghisrevengewhentheEgyptian
wasabouttohandoverthewhipto'Umar,hesaidtotheEgyptian:
"GiveonestrokeofthewhiptotheHonourableGovernoraswell.His
sonwouldcertainlyhavenotbeatenyouwereitnotforthefalsepride
thathehadinhisfather'shighoffice."Theplaintiffsubmitted:"The
personwhohadbeatenme,Ihavealreadyavengedmyselfonhim."

'Umarsaid:"ByGod,ifyouhadbeatenhim(theGovernor)Iwould
nothavecheckedyoufromdoingso.Youhavesparedhimofyourown
freewill."Thenhe('Umar)angrilyturnedto'Amribnal'Asandsaid:
"O'Amr,whendidyoustarttoenslavethepeople,thoughtheywere
bornfreeoftheirmothers?"

WhentheIslamicStatewasflourishingin
itspristinegloryandsplendour,thecommonpeoplecouldequally
lodgecomplaintsagainstthecaliphofthetimeinthecourtandthe
caliphhadtoappearbeforetheqaditoanswerthecharges.Andifthe
caliphhadanycomplaintagainstanycitizen,hecouldnotusehis
administrativepowersandauthoritytosetthematterright,buthadto
referthecasetothecourtoflawforproperadjudication.

14.TheRighttoAvoidSin

Islamalsoconfersthisrightoneverycitizenthathewillnotbe
orderedtocommitasin,acrimeoranoffenceandifanygovern
ment,ortheadministrator,ortheheadofdepartmentordersan
individualtodoawrong,thenhehastherighttorefusetocomplywith
theorder.Hisrefusaltocarryoutsuchcrimeorunjustinstructions
wouldnotberegardedasanoffenceintheeyesoftheIslamiclaw.
On
thecontrarygivingorderstoone'ssubordinatestocommitasinordoa
wrongisitselfanoffenceandsuchaseriousoffencethattheofficer
whogivesthissinfulorderwhateverhisrankandpositionmaybe,is
liabletobesummarilydismissed.

TheseclearinstructionsoftheProphet
aresummarizedinthefollowinghadith:"Itisnotpermissibletodis
obeyGodinobediencetotheordersofanyhumanbeing"(Musnadof
IbnHanbal).

Inotherwords,noonehastherighttoorderhis
subordinatestodoanythingagainstthelawsofGod.Ifsuchanorder
isgiven,thesubordinatehastherighttoignoreitoropenlyrefuseto
carryoutsuchinstructions.Accordingtothisrulenooffenderwillbe
abletoprovehisinnocenceorescapepunishmentbysayingthatthis
offencewascommittedontheordersofthegovernmentorsuperior
officers.Ifsuchasituationarisesthenthepersonwhocommitsthe
offenceandthepersonwhoordersthatsuchanoffencebecommitted,
willbothbeliabletofacecriminalproceedingsagainstthem.Andifan
officertakesanyimproperandunjustmeasuresagainstasubordinate
whorefusestocarryoutillegalorders,thenthesubordinatehasthe
righttogotothecourtoflawfortheprotectionofhisrights,andhe
candemandthattheofficerbepunishedforhiswrongorunjustorders.

15.TheRighttoParticipateintheAffairsofState

AccordingtoIslam,governmentsinthisworldareactually
representatives(khulafa')oftheCreatoroftheuniverse,andthis
responsibilityisnotentrustedtoanyindividualorfamilyoraparticular
classorgroupofpeoplebuttotheentireMuslimnation.
TheHoly
Quransays:"Godhaspromisedtoappointthoseofyouwhobelieve
anddogooddeedsas(His)representativesonearth"(24:55).

This
clearlyindicatesthatkhilafahisacollectivegiftofGodinwhichthe
rightofeveryindividualMuslimisneithermorenorlessthantheright
ofanyotherperson.

ThecorrectmethodrecommendedbytheHoly
Quranforrunningtheaffairsofthestateisasfollows:"Andtheir
businessis(conducted)throughconsultationamongthemselves"
(42:38).

AccordingtothisprincipleitistherightofeveryMuslimthat
eitherheshouldhaveadirectsayintheaffairsofthestateora
representativechosenbyhimandotherMuslimsshouldparticipatein
theconsultationofthestate.Islam,undernocircumstance,permitsor
toleratesthatanindividualoragrouporpartyofindividualsmay
deprivethecommonMuslimsoftheirrights,andusurppowersofthe
state.Similarly,Islamdoesnotregarditrightandproperthatan
individualmayputupafalseshowofsettingupalegislativeassembly
andbymeansofunderhandtacticssuchasfraud,persecution,bribery,
etc.,getshimselfandmenofhischoiceelectedintheassembly.

Thisis
notonlyatreacheryagainstthepeoplewhoserightsareusurpedby
illegalandunfairmeans,butagainsttheCreatorWhohasentrustedthe
MuslimstoruleonthisearthonHisbehalf,andhasprescribedthepro
cedureofanassemblyforexercisingthesepowers.Theshuraorthe
legislativeassemblyhasnoothermeaningexceptthat:
(1)Theexecutiveheadofthegovernmentandthemembersofthe
assemblyshouldbeelectedbyfreeandindependentchoiceofthe
people.
(2)Thepeopleandtheirrepresentativesshouldhavetherightto
criticizeandfreelyexpresstheiropinions.
(3)Therealconditionsofthecountryshouldbebroughtbefore
thepeoplewithoutsuppressinganyfactsothattheymaybeableto
formtheiropinionaboutwhetherthegovernmentisworkingproperly
ornot.
(4)Thereshouldbeadequateguaranteethatonlythosepeople
whohavethesupportofthemassesshouldruleoverthecountryand
thosewhofailtowinthissupportshouldberemovedfromtheir
positionofauthority.

Reference:
HUMANRIGHTSINISLAM
by'AllamahAbual'A'laMawdudi
alTawhidJournal,vol.IVNo.3RajabRamadhan1407

iwillpostrestofthetopicsstepbystep,ihoperoshanitmighthelpyoualot.

regardssabahat
__________________
GEOtoaiseksabtumharaha,MAROtoaisajaisetmharakuchbhinhi.

Mazadetihanzindagikithokerinunko,jinhenNAAMEKHUDAlekarsanbhaljaneykiadatho.

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Islamicconceptofcharity
ByBilalAhmedMalik

POVERTYnexttosicknessisthebiggestthreattohumankind.Extremepovertyhasexisted
everywhereintheworldduringvariousstagesofhistory,andstillcontinuestoexistinmany
partsoftheworld.IslamasthelastoftheDivinemessagesofAllahhasalsotakenavery
comprehensiveviewofpoverty,andtheQuranandSunnahhaverecommendednumerous
measurestoalleviateitspainandanguishinasociety.Islamencouragesitsfollowersto
spendmoneyforAllahsSakewhenevertheyarecapableofdoingso,anditstressesonthe
greatvirtuesofgivingacharity.

Thus,ofallIslamicvirtuesemphasisedintheQuran,charityisperhapstheonementioned
mostfrequently.TheHolyBookrepeatedlyenjoinsuponMuslimstogivegenerouslytothe
poor,sothatinequalityofwealthissomewhateliminated.TheQuranstatesthatforMuslims,
PrayerandZakatareofcomparablesignificance.Thatiswhythetwoareoftenmentioned
sidebyside.ThereareinnumerableversesintheQuranwhichurgeMuslimstobemindfulof
thepoor,helplessandneedy.TheseversesleavenodoubtabouttheimportanceofZakatand
Sadaqaforthelegal,moralandeconomicbettermentoftheMuslimUmmah.

ThefollowingaresomeversesoftheQuranthatdealwiththisissue.
Establishworship,paythepoordue,andbowyourheadswiththosewho
bow(Quran2:43).

Paythepoordue,andholdfasttoAllah.HeisyourProtectingFriend.Ablessed
PatronandablessedHelper!(Quran22:78).

Inthefollowingverses,thosewhospendfreelyinAllahscausearebeingpraisedbyHim.

Thesteadfast,andthetruthful,andtheobedient,thosewhospendand(hoardnot),
thosewhoprayforpardoninthewatchesofthenight.(Quran3:17).

ThefollowingpeopleareyetagainmentionedbyAllah,asbeingrighteous:

SuchaspersevereinseekingtheirLordscountenanceandareregularinprayer
andspendofthatwhichWebestowuponthemsecretlyandopenly,andovercome
evilwithgood.Theirswillbethesequelofthe(heavenly)Home.(Quran13:22).

WhileputtingemphasisoncharitytheQuranfurtherspecifiesthecategoriesofpeoplewhoare
tobeconsideredappropriaterecipientsofgenerosity.

Followingaresomeversesthatexplainthispointfurther:

Theyaskthee(OMohammad)whattheyshallspend.Say:Thatwhichyespendfor
good(mustgo)toparentsandnearkindredandorphansandtheneedyandthe
wayfarer.Andwhatsoevergoodyedo,lo!Allahisawareofit.(Quran2:215).

(Almsare)forthepoorwhoarestraightenedforthecauseofAllah,whocannot
travelintheland(fortrade).Theunthinkingmanaccounteththemwealthybecause
oftheirrestraint.Thoushallknowthembytheirmark:Theydonotbegofmenwith
importunity.Andwhatsoevergoodthingyespend,lo!Allahknowethit.
(Quran2273).

IntheabovementionedversetheQuranstatesthatCharityisforthoseinneed.Thisis
generalprinciplewhichenjoinsustohelppeopleinneed,betheygoodorbad,ontheright
pathornot,MuslimsornonMuslims.Wearenotsupposedtojudgeinthesematters.

Theendsincharity,asreiteratedhere,shouldbeGodspleasureandourownspiritualgood.
ThisverseinthefirstinstancewasrevealedinMadina,butitisofgeneralapplications.

TheconceptofcharityinIslamisthuslinkedwithjustice.

Itisnotlimitedtotheredressalofgrievances.Itimpliesapartfromtheremovalofhandicaps,
therecognitionoftherightthateveryhumanbeinghastoattainthefullnessoflife.

Intheversebelow,theQuranclearlyspecifiestheamountthatistobespentincharityand
almsgiving.

Andtheyasktheewhattheyoughttospend.Say:thatwhichissuperfluous.

ThusAllahmakethplaintoyou(His)revelations,thathaplyyemayreflect(Quran
2:219)

Allahprovidesincentivestopeoplebypromisingthemgreatrewards,soastoencouragethem
topracticecharity.

WhoisitthatwilllenduntoAllahagoodlyloan,sothatHemaygiveitincrease
manifold?Allahstraitenethandenlargeth,Untohimyewillreturn.(Quran2:245)
TherearecertainparametersandethicalboundariessetbytheQuranthatapersonmustnot
crosswhilepractisingcharity.

Theactofcharitymustbeaccompaniedbyhumilityandmustnotbeexecutedasafavourto
theonereceivingit.Thefollowingverseselucidatethispoint.

Oyewhobelieve!Rendernotvainyouralmsgivingbyreproachandinjury,likehim
whospendethhiswealthonlytobeseenbymenandbelievethnotinAllahandthe
LastDay.

Hislikenessisasthelikenessofarockwheronisdustofeartharainstorm
smitethit,leavingitsmoothandbare.Theyhavenocontrolofaughtofthatwhich
theyhavegained.Allahguidethnotthedisbelievingfolk.(Quran2:262,263,264.)

TheQuranalsobringstolighttheimportanceofspendingonlythatwhichisgood,towardsa
charitablecause.Mostindividualsgiveawayincharityonlyitemswhichtheydeemnotfitfor
theirownuse.Allahwarnsagainstthisattitude.

Oyewhobelieve.Spendofthegoodthingswhichyehaveearned,andofthat
whichwebringforthfromtheearthforyou,andseeknotthebad(withintent)to
spendthereof(incharity)whenyouwouldnottakeitforyourselvessavewith
disdainandknowthatAllahisAbsoluteOwnerofPraise.(Quran2:267).

Yewillnotattainuntopietyuntilyespendofthatwhichyelove.Andwhatsoever
yespend,Allahisawarethereof.(Quran.3:92)

TheQuranalsorecommendsthatcharitybegivenprivately,notonlytopreventengendering
arroganceonthepartofthepersongivingalms,butalsotopreservetheinterestofthe
receiver,asitmightcausethelatterembarrassment.

Ifyepublishyouralmsgiving,itiswell,butifyehideitandgiveittothepoor,it
willbebetterforyou,andwillatoneforsomeofyourilldeeds.Allahisinformedof
whatyedo.(Quran2:271)

TheQuraninabovementionedverse,warnsusagainstspendingtobeseenofmen.Thisis
falsecharity.

Almsgivingwiththismotiveisworsethannotgivingawayanythingatall.

Allahalsourgescreditorstoforegotheirdebtsasalmsgiving,iftheborrowersare
experiencinghardship.Thisisindicatedbythefollowingverses:

Andifthedebtorisinstraightenedcircumstances,then(lettherebe)
postponementto(thetimeof)ease.andthatwhichyeremitthedebtasalmsgiving
wouldbebetterforyouifyedidbutknow.(Quran2:280).

CharityisavirtuethattheQuranurgesMuslimstodisplayintimesofabundanceaswellasin
timesofadversity.

Thefollowingverseillustratesthisfurther:

Thosewhospend(ofthatwhichAllahhathgiventhem)ineaseandinadversity,
thosewhocontroltheirwrathandareforgivingtowardmankindAllahloveththe
good(Quran3:134).

LastbutnotleastMuslimsareurgednottoletanythingdistractthemfromtheremembrance
ofAllah,theperformanceofSalatandthepayingofAlms.

MenwhomneithermerchandisenorsalebeguilethfromtheremembranceofAllah
andconstancyinprayerandpayingtothepoortheirduewhofearadaywhen
heartsandeyeballswillbeoverturned(Quran24:37)

Fromtheaboveverses,itisevident,thattheQuranregulateswithspecificinjunctions,the
virtuesofallMuslims,whentheycomeingivingcharitytothepoor.Thushonestyand
truthfulnessdemandthatapersonshouldactunselfishly.

Unfortunately,theaccumulationofworldlyrichesforonesownbenefitisacommonpractice,
oftenleadingpeopletosuccumbtodishonesttemptations.

Inorderforhonestcharitytobeeffectiveithastobegenuine,andnotamereactof
expediencyresultingfromfearorinjuryoramereshowoffofwealth.Charitymustalsobea
habitofmind,ratherthansomethingpracticedasaresultofaneedorsomethingtoshowoff
oneswealth.

SincecharityispurelyforthesakeofGod,ithasvalueonlyifsomethinggoodandvaluableis
given.Itshouldbelawfullyearnedoracquiredbythegiver.Itshouldincludesuchthingsas
areofuseandvaluetoothers.Charityis,inthewordsoftheProphet,toplaceathinginthe
palmofGod.

TheFollowing3UsersSayThankYoutoRoshanwadhwaniForThisUsefulPost:
farheen79(Monday,August26,2013),MehwishDolly(Saturday,November17,2012),
MoonSaghar(Monday,January14,2013)

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