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When an object is fairly or totally immersed in fluid, pressure difference at

different depths cause it to experience an upward force known as upthrust.

Fluids

Thus an object flooded in a fluid is below the action of two factors, in law of

Fluid is a substance, as a liquid or gas, that is capable of flowing and that flotation such as,

changes its shape at a steady rate when acted upon by a force tending to change

its shape. W - weight for downward action of a body and

Density

Upthrust

The density () of a substance of uniform composition is its mass per unit The floating and the sinking of a body in a fluid depend

volume: = m/ V. In the SI system, density is measured in units of kilograms on the relative magnitudes of weight and upthrust.

per cubic meter.

Possible Cases - Law of Floatation:

Pressure in fluids

Case 1: W > U which defines the weight of the body is greater than the

Consider a column of fluids of height h, density , and area of cross section A resulting upthrust:

Hence the body exhibits the downward acceleration and it sinks to bottom. Iron

piece which immerse in water will considered as example.

then the body sinks through

Pressure at the base =

=

=

= fluid)

Therefore Pressure P =

= hg

when balanced forces act on

P= h it)

Case 2: W = U which defines the weight of the body which is equal to the Derivation of Upthrust

upthrust

The upthrust is the difference between the force due to water pressure at the top

U

The net weight in this case = W U will and bottom of the cylinder

produce the value zero. Hence the body will

float below the surface of liquid.

weight is less than the upthrust.

areas, U

Ship.

Submarine.

Life belt.

Ice-berg. Pressure = Force/Area

Floating of man on water.

Balloon rising. Or Force = Pressure Area

Archimedes Principle

Force at the bottom F2 = P2A = h2gA

States that when a body is completely or partially immersed in a fluid, the

fluid exerts a resultant upthrust on the body equal to the weight of the fluid Upthrust U = F2- F1 = (h2gA) - (h1gA)

that is displaced by the body = (h2- h1) gA = (h2- h1) A g

U = V g

and V = mass of the fluid displaced

Hence U= mg

Fluid flaw Turbulent flow

Fluid dynamics is the study of how fluids behave when they're in motion.

Fluids can flow steadily, or be turbulent. In steady flow, the fluid passing a

given point maintains a steady velocity. For turbulent flow, the speed and or

the direction of the flow vary. In a fluid flow, the motion can be represented

with streamlines showing the direction the fluid flows in different areas. The

density of the streamlines increases as the velocity increases.

between liquids and gases, because liquids are generally incompressible, The flow is subject to sudden changes in speed and direction-eddies are

meaning that they don't change volume much in response to a pressure change; frequently seen.

gases are compressible, and will change volume in response to a change in There is a lot of large scale mixing of layers, so you should include

pressure. lots of eddies

Laminar and turbulent flow Note- There may be situations where one type of flow changes to another,

such as when a laminar air flow passes around an obstacle and becomes

Fluids moving through the pipes or around obstacles can flow in different ways turbulent.

Laminar flow means flow in layers. The layers do not mix, so your

Viscous Drag

drawings should not show streamlines crossing over.

The layers are roughly parallel When solids and fluids move relative to each other, the layer of fluid next to

the solid exerts a frictional force on it. Successive layers of fluid experience

The speed and direction at any point remain constant over time.

frictional forces between each other as well. The frictional force cause viscous

There are no sudden changes in the speed or direction along the drag, which is one of the cause of the air resistance.

streamlines either, so does not draw sharply angled changes in the

direction when the lines flow around objects.

Viscous drag is greater the fluid flow is turbulent, so designers of the car, for This equation is referred to as Stokes law

example, ensure that the flow remains as laminar as possible

-Coefficient of viscosity

Note- Viscous drag must be labeled opposite to the motion of moving object r radius of the sphere

vvelocity of the moving sphere

Viscosity

Terminal velocity

Fluid can be viscous (pours slowly) or non-viscous (pours easily). The amount

of viscous drag depends on the type of fluid as well as the shape of the object Consider a sphere falling from rest through a viscous fluid the force acting on

and the type of fluid flow. Viscous drag would be greater in viscous fluids the sphere are its weight W, upthrust U and the viscous drag F Initially the

(honey, syrup) and less in less viscous fluid (water, petrol..) downward force W is greater than the upward force U+F and the sphere

The coefficient of viscosity usually just called viscosity and is used to accelerates downward .As the velocity of the sphere increases the viscous drag

compare different fluids increases according to the strokes law(F= 6) until U+F = W. the sphere

continuous to move downwards with a constant velocity because there is no net

Viscosity is the property of a fluid by virtue of which the fluid opposes the force acting on it its velocity has a constant maximum value known as terminal

relative motion between successive layers due to the friction between the velocity

layers.

The viscosity of most of the liquids decreases with temperature. Ex: hot oil

flows more easily than cold oil.

Terminal velocity in terms of stokes law

Note: When the velocity of flow of a liquid is greater than the critical value, the

Consider a small steel ball moving through a fluid

flow of the liquid becomes disorderly and zig-zag called turbulent flow.

At terminal velocity upthrust + viscous drag =weight

Stokes Law

3

When a sphere moves slowly through a fluid [ex: pendulum bob swinging in Therefore r fluid g + 6 = r3(moving object) g

air, falling of a raindrop and slow descent of sand particle in water] the viscous

drag force F on the sphere is given by ( )

v=

F= 6

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