Dc Dc Resonant Converter

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Dc Dc Resonant Converter

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1

Erik ETVS,2Marcel BODOR

1,2

Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Mechatronics and Industrial Engineering, FEI TU of Koice, Slovak Republic

1

erik.eotvos@student.tuke.sk, 2marcel.bodor@tuke.sk

Abstract Step-up DC/DC converter, as a part of the Considering that it is required to have the high efficiency

photovoltaic (PV) system is described in the paper. The system and an electrical isolation the series resonant LLC half-bridge

consists of the mentioned DC/DC converter and single phase converter was chosen [1]. Principal scheme of the LLC

inverter, and they together serve for transmission of the energy

converter is shown in Fig.1. It consists of the half-bridge

from PV panels to the grid. The converter is based on the LLC

resonant architecture. The task of the converter is to increase and inverter, created by power MOSFET switches, from which the

control of the output voltage, which is supply voltage for in the resonant tank is supplied.

cascade connected inverter. The converter also provides the The resonant tank of the converter comprises of series LS

electrical isolation of PV panels from the grid. It is controlled by and parallel inductance LP and the resonant capacitor CR.

an 8-bit microcontroller unit (MCU), which also tracks maximum On secondary side of the transformer there is a full-bridge

power point (MPP) to achieve maximum available power from

rectifier with a filter capacitor.

PV. The converter operates at high switching frequency to

achieve small size of the power transformer. The main benefit of

this converter consists in zero-voltage switching (ZVS) of the II. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION

primary MOSFETs and zero-current switching (ZCS) of the The power MOSFETs are switched with variable frequency

rectifier diodes over the entire operating range. Laboratory with fixed 50% duty cycle and no overlapping. The resonant

model with maximum 95.5% efficiency was built to verify the

properties of the LLC resonant DC/DC converter.

tank has two main resonant frequencies. The higher resonant

frequency fR depends on the series inductance and the

KeywordsLLC resonant converter, ZVS, ZCS. resonant capacitor and is calculated by using (1). The lower

resonant frequency f0 of the resonant tank depends on the

series inductance, the resonant capacitor and also on the series

I. INTRODUCTION inductance (2). If switching frequency is higher than fR, the

converter operates always in the inductive area. It means that

In nowadays the renewable energy resources are used

the resonant tank current lags input voltage square waveform,

increasingly. The photovoltaics is the most dynamically and therefore switches work under ZVS condition. Below the

developing field of the renewable energy sources. It is desired f0 resonant frequency, the resonant tank behaves as a

to use the renewable energy sources with maximal efficiency. capacitive load. Therefore resonant tank current leads the

One of the possibilities how increase the efficiency of a PV input voltage. Switches works under ZCS condition. The area

system, is to increase the efficiency of an inverter. There are between f0 and fR is split by a borderline to the capacitive

quantities of inverters for PV systems on the market. Some and the inductive region. The operating point in this area

inverters include DC/DC step-up converter, depending on depends on the load of the converter. When the switching

whether the inverter is connected to the string of PV panels frequency is equal to the resonant frequency fR, the voltage

with voltage higher than the maximum value of the grid gain of the resonant tank is 1. It means that converter is load

voltage. There is a problem with capacitive currents flowing independent. At normal operation condition, the operating

through the inverter when using thin layer PV panels. One point should be placed near to this resonant frequency. Fig. 2.

possible solution is to use the DC/DC converter with a shows voltage gain curves of resonant tank for few load

transformer. conditions. We can see the capacitive region on the left side of

Described converter should work with input voltage range the borderline and the inductive region on its right side.

from 60V to 100V. The required output voltage (input voltage

1 (1) 1 (2)

for the inverter) is 400V and maximum output power should fR = f0 =

be about 600W. 2 LS C R 2 ( L S + L P )C R

1 (3)

M (Q , f N , ) =

2 2

1 +

+ Q2 fN

1

2 fN

fN

2 Z 0 POUT Z 0 = 2 f R L R

Q= 2

(4) (5)

Fig. 1. Principal scheme of the LLC converter. 8 n 2V OUT

SCYR 2010 - 10th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers FEI TU of Koice

LS f SW MOSFET is charging.

= (6) fN = (7)

LP fR

M: 600W

1,8 borderline

Resonant gain characteristics M

M: 500W

1,6 M: 400W

M: 200W

1,2 region

M: 0W

1 borderline

capacitive

0,8

region

0,6 Fig. 3. Characteristic waveforms of collector emitter voltage and

0,60

f0 0,80

fR 1,00 1,20 1,40 1,60

collector current of half-bridge switches.

Normalized frequency fn

On the bottom picture there are waveforms of current and

voltage of the rectifier diode D1. The current through the

The voltage gain curves are calculated using (3), where Q diode starts and stops flowing when voltage is near to zero.

is quality factor (4), is inductance ratio (6) and fN is the Therefore the switching losses are minimal.

normalized frequency (7).

the turn ratio of the transformer [2]-[6].

The operation of converter we can explain according to

Fig. 3. in the next six phases:

1. The resonant tank current from the previous phase is

flowing now through the body diode of Q1. It causes

that the voltage across Q1 drops to zero, and creates

the zero voltage condition for the lossless turn-on of

the switch.

2. Now the current flows through Q1, and has quasi

sinusoidal character. Therefore the turn-off current is

Fig. 4. Simulated waveforms of voltages and currents on switch Q1 and

much smaller. diode D1.

3. Q1 and Q2 are switched-off. The current of Q1 drops

to zero immediately, but the voltage across the switch

rises slowly due to the charging of the output III. LABORATORY MODEL OF THE CONVERTER

capacitance of the MOSFET. It reduces the turn-off The laboratory model of the resonant converter was built.

losses. Parameters of the model:

4. Like in the first phase, the resonant tank current flows Input voltage range VIN = 60-100V.

through the body diode but now of the switch Q2. Output voltage VOUT = 400V.

The voltage of Q2 falls to zero. The switch is turned Output power POUT = 600W.

on. When the circuit was designed, there was a need to solve

5. The current flows through Q2 similarly to the second few problems. Because the converter operates at high

phase. frequency and in addition with high currents, each part of

6. Switches Q1 and Q2 are switched-off again. The circuit must by able to withstand this condition. When

current of Q2 falls to zero, but the voltage rises

choosing discrete components, such as MOSFETs and rectifier

slowly again due to charging of the transistor output

diodes, we must care; that they should have minimal loses in

capacitance [7].

active mode and short switching times. But there is not

7. SIMULATION problem with the maximum operating voltage, because the

voltage stress is very low due to soft switching.

The resonant converter was simulated in LTSpice IV program. The input and resonant capacitors must handle very high

Components of the resonant tank were calculated by equations load current at high frequency. Quality capacitors of KPI

presented in chapter II. Working frequency was set to 150

type are suitable to fulfil these conditions.

kHz. The collector current and collector-emitter voltage of the

The transformer can be designed so that it integrates the

switch Q1 are shown in Fig. 4 (upper waveforms). It can be

series and the parallel inductance in one circuit. In classic

seen there that the switch Q1 starts to conduct when voltage of

the switch is zero and thus ZVS is achieved for primary transformer, the parallel inductance can by replaced by a

switches. When Q1 is turned-off, the current falls to zero, but magnetizing inductance, and series inductance by a primary

SCYR 2010 - 10th Scientific Conference of Young Researchers FEI TU of Koice

leakage inductance. But there is problem with inductance ratio connect to the inverter and verify the operation of the whole

between magnetizing and leakage inductance, because the converter.

ratio is very small. One solution is to integrate an air gap into

the magnetic circuit of the transformer. By adjusting the air Efficiency measurement

0,96

gap; we can control the size of the magnetizing inductance and

0,95

thereby also the inductance ratio (6). For winding we must use

0,94

litz-wire to avoid a skin effect in a conductor [8].

Efficiency

High/Low side driver is used for driving of the MOSFETs. 0,93

The driver is controlled by the 8-bit MCU. The circuit has a 0,92

0,9

IV. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS 0,89

loaded by an adjustable resistor. Input voltage was set to 90V. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

rectifier diodes were measured by a digital oscilloscope. Fig. 6. Measured efficiency of converter.

Result is in Fig. 5. Waveforms of the voltage and the current

of the MOSFET Q1 are in the top picture and waveforms of

the voltage and the current of the rectifier diode are below.

We can see that the current starts to flow when voltage across ACKNOWLEDGMENT

MOSFET is zero and thus ZVS is achieved. Moreover, the This work was supported by Slovak Research and

switch-off current is minimal. The current through the rectifier Development Agency under project APVV-0095-07 and by

diode starts to flow when the voltage is near to zero. It means Scientific Grant Agency of the Ministry of Education of

small switching loss. The voltage of the diode starts to rise Slovak Republic under the contract VEGA No. 1/0099/09.

when current falls to zero. The ZCS of the diode is achieved,

too. If we look at waveforms of both voltages, we do not see

any voltage spikes. It means that there is no voltage stress REFERENCES

across MOSFETs and rectifier diodes. Therefore we can use

[1] Ya Liu, High Efficiency Optimization of LLC Resonant Converter for

these components with lower break down voltage, but with Wide Load Range, Blacksburg, Virginia 2007

better other parameters. [2] Bo Yang, Topology Investigation Front End DC/DC Power

Conversion for Distributed System, Virginia 2003

[3] ST Microelectronics, LLC resonant half-bridge converter design

guideline, October 2007

[4] Mingping Mao, Dimitar Tchobanov, Dong Li, Martin Maerz, Tobias

Gerber, Gerald Deboy, Leo Lorenz, Analysis and Design of a 1MHz

LLC Resonant Converter with Coreless Transformer Driver, 2007

[5] Hang-Seok Choi/Ph.D, FPS Application group, Half-bridge LLC

Resonant Converter Design Using FSFR-series Fairchild Power

Switch, 2007

[6] Christophere Basso, Understanding the LLC Structure in Resonant

Applications, 2008

[7] STMicroelectronics, Simplified Analysis and Design of Series-

resonant LLC Half-Bridge Converters, 2006

[8] Fu Keung Wong, B. Eng. and M Phil., High Frequency Transformer

for Switching Mode Power Supplies, Griffith University, Brisbane,

Australia, March 2004

[9] Kcsor, G. , pnik, P., Lokeninec, I.: Simulation Analysis of a Zero

Voltage and Zero Current Switching, DC/DC Converter. In

Fig. 5. Measured waveforms of currents and voltages on the primary proceedings: Transcom 03, ilina, Slovak Republic, 23 25 June

MOSFET and the rectifier diode. 2003, pp. 47-50

[10] Hamar, J., Buti, B., Nagy,I.: Dual Channel Resonant DC-DC Converter

Next was measured the efficiency of the converter. The Family. EPE Journal, Volume 17, Issue 3, Jul-Sep. 2007, pp.5-15.

converter was loaded from 10% to 100%. Results are in a

graph in Fig. 6. As we can see, the efficiency is high in wide

range of load, especially over 30% load. In 50% load the

efficiency reaches its maximum, and up to 100% load, slowly

declines.

V. CONCLUSION

The resonant converter with LLC topology has many

advantages compared to other converters. Due to the high

efficiency over the entire operation range, the converter is well

suitable for applications such as PV systems.

Next I am going to build the compact version of the

converter, implement the MPPT function and connect the

converter to the simulated PV panel DC source. Afterwards,

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