The Open Water course teaches all of the basic in water skills that you need to be a safe diver

and to dive with a buddy of at least Open Water certification without the supervision of a dive professional. During your Open Water course you'll practice all of these skills and maybe even a few extras. You should aim to master these skills to a point where you feel that you can carry them out with ease. • Equipment Assembly and Disassembly Learn how to properly assemble and disassemble your equipment. Πρ ε− ∆ ι ϖ ε Σα φ ε τ ψ Χη ε χ κ With your buddy, check each others' equipment to ensure that everything is in place and working properly before the dive. One of the most important parts of every dive is the pre-dive safety check, which is also known as a buddy check. You should always carry out this check with your buddy before beginning the dive. The pre-dive safety check has two functions: you ensure that all of your buddy's equipment is working as it should; and you familiarize yourself with your buddy's equipment so that you are aware of how to release their weights and releases, use their deflator, and use their alternate air source, all of which may be necessary in the event of any difficulties during the dive. You should do the check once you've donned all of your equipment, with the exception of your mask and fins. It's a good idea to do the check while you're still on the boat or shore, but if you happen to forget you can still do it in the water before descending. The safety check is broken down into five components which are abbreviated with the acronym BWRAF. There are many mnemonics that can help you remember the steps in the safety check. You should use whatever you'll remember best. Here are some of the most common mnemonics. • Begin With Review And Friend • Beans With Rice And Fish • Because We Really Are Friends • Blonde Women Really Are Funny • Burgers With Relish And Fries • Bunnies Will Run Away Fast • Bangkok Women Really Are Fellas

Buoyancy
You want to check that your buddy's BCD is working properly. Begin by inflating their BCD, although not completely as you don't want to make your buddy uncomfortable. Also deflate the BCD to ensure that the deflator is working properly.

Weights
Check your buddy's weight system. How you do this will depend upon what weight system your buddy is using. • Weight Belt: Check that your buddy's weight belt is on properly and that the quick release is free of obstructions and easily accessible. Any excess length of belt should not be tied or tucked into the BCD in such a way that it's difficult to release. • Integrated Weights: Check that your buddy has their weight pockets in their

Many BCDs also have a chest and stomach clip. Final OK Check that your buddy has all other necessary equipment such as mask and fins. Holding the regulator with your right hand (as pictured) remove it from your mouth. Place the regulator back in your mouth. put it back in your mouth. Releases Check that all of your buddy's releases are properly secured. Purge button method: Use your tongue as a splash guard by placing the tip . and clear it. You can do this by placing one hand on the bottom of the tank and the other on the first stage regulator and trying to move the tank up and down to see if the strap will move. Reason to Learn This basic skill is taught so that you know how to clear water from your regulator whenever you need to put it back in your mouth while underwater.BCD (with weights in them!). Hold it with the mouth piece facing down While the regulator is out of your mouth. Aim Clear a regulator while underwater using both the exhalation and purge button methods and resume breathing from it. and that you know how to release them. You will now clear the regulator using one of these methods: • • Exhalation method: Sharply exhale into the regulator. You should also test your buddy's alternate air source by taking two breaths from it. slowly exhale by blowing small bubbles. ensure that the tank is full (approximately 200 bar or 3000 psi) and that the needle doesn't dip as they breathe. that they are properly secured. Regulator Clearing Remove your regulator. Ask your buddy if they're ready to go and if all is ok you're ready to dive. Air Check that your buddy's air is turned all the way on and half a turn back. It's a good idea to touch each clip as you check it and even count each one out loud as you do so. You will need to do this while sharing air with a buddy or in the unlikely event that your regulator is knocked from your mouth. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: One minute or less Here's How: Inhale normally from your regulator. If the needle dips this is a sign that the air isn't turned all the way on or there is a problem with the regulator. Remember to check the tank strap and clip. While you look at the SPG. This includes their Velcro waist band and at least two shoulder clips. Have your buddy take one or more breaths from their regulator while you watch their SPG.

Holding the regulator with your right hand remove it from your mouth. Throw the regulator away from your body to the right. but there may still be a small amount of water in the regulator. Aim Recover a regulator using both the sweep and reach methods and continue breathing from it. If all is clear. Cautiously inhale. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: One minute or less Here's How: Inhale normally from your regulator. . While the regulator is out of your mouth. Breathe carefully from the regulator just in case. Push the purge button on the front of your regulator gently. What You Need: • A full set of scuba gear. Keep your arm straight and sweep it forward towards your face. Reason to Learn This skill is taught so that in the event that your regulator is knocked from your mouth you'll be able to quickly and calmly recover it and continue breathing normally. The regulator will hang over your arm. Hold it with the mouth piece facing down. either turn it so that the mouth piece is facing down or put your finger over the hole in the mouth piece. Using either method the free-flow should stop. Tips: Remember to continuously exhale while the regulator isn't in your mouth. Using either method. You will now retrieve the regulator using one of two methods: • Sweep Method Lean to the right while reaching back with your right hand to touch the bottom of your tank. Normally the regulator will be clear. Ρε γ υ λ α τ ο ρ Ρεχ ο ϖ ε ρ ψ Learn two techniques that will help you recover your regulator in the event that it is knocked out of your mouth. If water remains. If the regulator begins to free-flow (air comes gushing out) when you take if out of your mouth. slowly exhale by blowing small bubbles. breathe normally and give your instructor the OK sign. repeat step 5.of your tongue on the top of your mouth behind your teeth. or by covering the hole in the regulator with your tongue. all of the water in the regulator will be forced out of the regulator's exhaust valves.

allowing water to trickle into the mask. Reason to Learn There are a few reasons why you may need to clear water from your mask. If not. try the sweep method. Tips: If you wear contact lenses remember to keep your eyes closed while your mask is . take another breath from your regulator and repeat steps 3 & 4. If you can’t locate it using the reach method. Difficulty: Average Time Required: One minute or less Here's How: Gently peel the mask seal off the face at the forehead. Reach with your right hand over your right shoulder and feel for the first stage regulator which is attached to your tank. either turn it so that the mouth piece is facing down or put your finger over the hole in the mouth piece. Check that your regulator is free and clear and in no way tangled. or viceversa. Clear a Partially Flooded Mask Partially flood your mask and clear it while remaining underwater. Place the regulator back in your mouth and clear it. You may need to use your left hand to lift the bottom of your tank to make it easier to reach. Aim Flood and clear a scuba mask while underwater. Using either method the free-flow should stop. Tips: If the regulator becomes tangled or you don’t find it stay calm and repeat all of the steps. Place the index and middle fingers of both hands onto the top corners of your mask. Remember to continuously exhale while the regulator isn't in your mouth. Masks sometimes leak if hair prevents the mask making a proper seal on the face. While applying this pressure to the top of your mask exhale through your nose.• Reach Method Lean to the right. Take a regular breath from your regulator. Push down on the top of the mask. Move your hand along the hose for your second stage regulator until it is in your hand. Tilt you head back so that you're facing the surface. You will practice this skill by both partially and fully flooding your mask. The air coming of out of your nose will push all of the water out of your mask. If the mask is clear. Sometimes a diver will want to deliberately partially flood their mask in order to defog it. If the regulator begins to free-flow (air comes gushing out) when you take if out of your mouth. give your instructor the OK sign.

It is therefore important to become comfortable with not wearing a mask and with putting it back on. Remember that there is no need to clear the mask in one go. put it back on. There is no correct speed to fill the mask and you can do this as quickly or as slowly as you like. If you wear contact lenses you will need to close your eyes during this exercise. and clear it. With your mask now off. Reason to Learn While unlikely. Keep a firm grip on the mask as it could be very difficult if you drop it. Some people have difficulty knowing whether they are exhaling from their nose or mouth. You may also want to intentionally remove your mask underwater in order to adjust the strap or change masks. Remember to look up as you clear your mask. If you have long hair you'll need to be careful not to tangle it in the mask strap. Pull the mask strap over the top of your head and allow the mask to come away from your face.flooded with water. you should hold it in front of you with both hands. If you have trouble exhaling from your nose try placing your tongue on the roof of your mouth while exhaling .your instructor will . You can repeat steps 2-4 as many times a necessary to clear the mask. Peel the rubber skirt at the top of your mask off your face and allow water to slowly fill your mask. Take is slow and steady and be cautious of tangles. Even if you don't wear contact lenses you might find it more comfortable to keep your eyes closed. it is possible that your mask can be knocked off while diving. Step 1 Begin by relaxing and breathing normally. Holding the mask with one hand.most people find that this forces you to exhale through your nose. This could be caused by accidentally making contact with another diver or by a broken mask strap. Continue breathing normally with the mask off. breathe normally while it's off. Remember to use two fingers on each hand to apply pressure to the top of your mask. Mask Removal & Replacement Take the last skill a little further and completely remove your mask. Aim To remove a scuba mask underwater. replace the mask and clear it. Looking up makes it much easier for the water to flush out of the mask. Don't lift the bottom of the mask as this will cause the mask to fill up with water again as soon as you clear it. When you perform this skill in the open water course you may need to keep the mask off for 60 seconds . use the other hand to grasp the back of the mask strap. You may want to arrange a predetermined way for your instructor to let you know when the mask is clear.

if you have long hair you will need to be cautious about entanglement. Using your index and middle fingers. Check that it's not twisted and is correctly in place. When you're ready to put your mask back on you should start by arranging the strap in front of the mask. leaving the face side of the mask clear. Learn how to comfortably breathe without your mask on. You may find it difficult to breathe with the mask off . securing their alternate air source. Remember: If your mask isn't clearing you may not be exhaling through your nose. Many people confuse exhaling through their mouth and nose. As with taking the mask strap off. Alternate Air Source Use Simulate being out of air by signaling to your buddy. allowing the bubbles to flow freely out of the left regulator vent. With your fingers putting pressure on the top corners of your mask. Try to concentrate on breathing out through your nose or try placing your tongue on the roof of your mouth as you exhale (this forces most people to exhale through their nose). use your other hand to slide the mask strap over your head. look up towards the surface.if you find that water gets up your nose you can try exhaling from your nose. Don't be discouraged if your mask doesn't completely clear on the first attempt . While holding your mask in place. Ensure that the rubber seal is free of any hair or any other objects. and ascending while breathing from their alternate. Push the mask against your face so that the rubber skirt seals and the mask feels comfortable. breathe normally and give your instructor the OK sign. . push against the top corners of your mask. making contact with each other. • • No Mask Breathing This skill is normally done in combination with Mask Removal & Replacement. Take a regular breath from your regulator and exhale through your nose. Pressure on the top of the mask will be adequate and lifting the bottom of the mask will usually lead to the mask reflooding as it's cleared.signal when you can begin to put it back on. Your mask should clear. If bubbles from your regulator go in your face you can tilt your head to the right.just take another breath and try again. Once your mask is clear. If hair is caught under the mask seal it can cause the mask to leak or flood. Remember not to hook your thumbs under the bottom of the mask.

replace the mask and clear it.Aim To remove a scuba mask underwater. If you have long hair you'll need to be careful not to tangle it in the mask strap. Push the mask against your face so that the rubber skirt seals and the mask feels comfortable. You may find it difficult to breathe with the mask off . If bubbles from your regulator go in your face you can tilt your head to the right.your instructor will signal when you can begin to put it back on. you should hold it in front of you with both hands. . You may also want to intentionally remove your mask underwater in order to adjust the strap or change masks. It is therefore important to become comfortable with not wearing a mask and with putting it back on. With your mask now off. When you're ready to put your mask back on you should start by arranging the strap in front of the mask. allowing the bubbles to flow freely out of the left regulator vent. Check that it's not twisted and is correctly in place. Take is slow and steady and be cautious of tangles. leaving the face side of the mask clear. Pull the mask strap over the top of your head and allow the mask to come away from your face. it is possible that your mask can be knocked off while diving. breathe normally while it's off. Peel the rubber skirt at the top of your mask off your face and allow water to slowly fill your mask. This could be caused by accidentally making contact with another diver or by a broken mask strap. Even if you don't wear contact lenses you might find it more comfortable to keep your eyes closed. There is no correct speed to fill the mask and you can do this as quickly or as slowly as you like Holding the mask with one hand. Continue breathing normally with the mask off. Step 1 Begin by relaxing and breathing normally. While holding your mask in place.if you find that water gets up your nose you can try exhaling from your nose. As with taking the mask strap off. Reason to Learn While unlikely. Keep a firm grip on the mask as it could be very difficult if you drop it. When you perform this skill in the open water course you may need to keep the mask off for 60 seconds . use your other hand to slide the mask strap over your head. if you have long hair you will need to be cautious about entanglement. If you wear contact lenses you will need to close your eyes during this exercise. use the other hand to grasp the back of the mask strap.

letting go of the purge button. and inserting the mouth piece back into your mouth. You can also overcome this problem by tilting your head further to the right. Once your mask is clear. It may necessary to purge the . Step One: Tilt you head to the right and take the left side of the mouthpiece out of your mouth. Finish the simulation by taking a breath from the regulator.Ensure that the rubber seal is free of any hair or any other objects. Push the purge button on the front of our regulator to simulate a free flowing regulator. Using your index and middle fingers. If hair is caught under the mask seal it can cause the mask to leak or flood. You should keep the right side of the mouth piece firmly in your mouth. look up towards the surface. Your instructor will have you breathe from the free flowing regulator for at least 30 seconds. Remember not to hook your thumbs under the bottom of the mask. With your fingers putting pressure on the top corners of your mask. Reason to Learn: Second stage regulators are designed to be fail safe. • Free Flowing Regulator Simulate a freeflowing regulator. but you'll find that it's very easy and comes completely naturally. Try to concentrate on breathing out through your nose or try placing your tongue on the roof of your mouth as you exhale (this forces most people to exhale through their nose).just take another breath and try again. It's important to tilt you head to the right as your regulator hose comes out of the right side of the regulator and if this hose is subjected to the flow of air coming out of the regulator it can make it difficult to keep the regulator in your mouth. It sounds difficult. You may need to hold the top of your mask as the air rushing past may cause it to come loose. Pressure on the top of the mask will be adequate and lifting the bottom of the mask will usually lead to the mask reflooding as it's cleared. Your mask should clear. In the unlikely event that your regulator fails and begins to free flow you need to learn how to continue breathing from it safely. Remember: If your mask isn't clearing you may not be exhaling through your nose. Many people confuse exhaling through their mouth and nose. Aim: To breathe normally from a free flowing regulator. You'll see how easy it is to continue breathing normally from a regulator that won't stop flowing. push against the top corners of your mask. meaning that if anything fails inside the regulator it will flow continuously rather than ceasing to work. Don't be discouraged if your mask doesn't completely clear on the first attempt . A regulator will free flow at full strength so remember to push the button all the way in. Take a regular breath from your regulator and exhale through your nose. Continue to breathe by sipping air from the stream that is rushing past your mouth. breathe normally and give your instructor the OK sign.

If the hose comes loose. but may be more difficult underwater. Standard Hand Signals Practice all of the standard diving hand signals with your instructor. repeats steps 3 and 4.to disconnect your low pressure inflator. Aim: To disconnect and reconnect the low pressure inflator. Once the hose is reconnected. This step is quite similar to when you connect it when setting up your gear. • • • Air Depletion Experience the feeling of running out of air and signal that you're out of air to your instructor. ∆ισ χ ο ν ν ε χ τ Λοω Πρ ε σ σ υ ρ ε Ινφ λ α τ ο ρ Simulate a stuck inflator and practice disconnecting your low pressure inflator. Pull the low pressure hose away from the inflator. In the event of a real stuck inflator button it is unlikely that you'd want to do that. this is just the sound of air escaping from the valve as you remove it from the inflator. You may hear a loud popping noise. pull back firmly to ensure that it is definitely connected. Reason to Learn: It is possible for an inflator button to become jammed on. . There is an easy solution to this problem . Push the quick release valve back onto the low pressure inflator. You can now manually inflate your BCD (as learned when performing the Fin Pivot) In training you will be asked to reconnect your Low Pressure Inflator while still underwater. It is quite common for this to be quite difficult due to air in the line. it is possible that you will resolve the problem of the sticking inflator button once the hose is disconnected and that you'll want to reconnect the hose. test the inflator button to ensure that it is working properly. Grasp the quick disconnect valve between your thumb and index finger. causing your BCD to continually inflate. pulling the slide-lock back. Once you're sure that the hose is reconnected.regulator (using the methods learned in Regulator Clearing) With the regulator back in your mouth. You can adjust your buoyancy by releasing air from your BCD by using your deflator or a dump valve. Gripping the hose with your left hand. However. Once it is disconnected it is possible to manually inflate your BCD (as learned when performing the Fin Pivot). use your thumb and index finger to pull the slide lock back. Don't be concerned if it takes a few tries to reattach the hose. Now that the hose is disconnected your BCD will stop auto-inflating. You will need to push down forcefully and when it is all the way down let the quick release valve snap back into place. take a cautious breath to ensure that the regulator is clear of water and then breathe normally again. It may be difficult as there is air in the low pressure hose. Step One: Hold your inflator with your right hand and grip the inflator hose with your left hand.

disconnect it and don't attempt to reconnect it until it has been serviced. If you're wearing a weight belt remember to hold the buckle as you stride – it is not uncommon for buckles to burst open when they hit the water. Hold your weight belt buckle with your left hand. Once you've entered the water you should float comfortably on the surface. inflate your BCD until you do. your regulator is in your mouth and all other equipment is in place. For example some larger boats will ask their divers to put all equipment on including their fins before leaving their tank rack. If you don't. • Deep Water Entry Enter the water safely using an appropriate deep water entry. Inflate your BCD so that it is a third to half full of air. Once all is OK give the OK signal to the boat. a dock. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: 1-3 Minutes Here's How: Put on all of your equipment according to the method used on your boat. Look down into the area where you're planning to enter the water to make sure it's clear of other divers and potential hazards. Reason to Learn The giant stride entry is the best entry whenever you're entering deep water off a stable platform. If the boat is rocking you may need to hold a rail or ask another diver or one of the boat crew to help you balance. Place the palm of your right hand over your regulator with you index and middle fingers firmly against your mask. If you start to sink when you're in the water just inflate your BCD to become positively buoyant. If you dive from larger dive boats this is the entry you'll most commonly use. While looking straight ahead towards the horizon take one big step forward with your back leg. • Giant Stride Aim To enter the water safely using the giant stride method. other boats may ask divers to put their fins on closer to the entry point. Stand at the edge of the boat with one fin over the edge and the other at a 45 degree angle to your body. . A stable platform may be either a boat with a dive platform.If is jams again. or even the side of a swimming pool. Tips: Don't jump off the boat .look straight ahead and just take a big step. The correct entry will depend upon the conditions. Ensure that your mask is on properly.

Make sure your mask is on and your regulator is in your mouth. You should do this check whenever you change diving locations.this is the only time in scuba . Step One: Make sure you do this check in water that is too deep to stand in and is the same as the water you'll be diving in . You should enter the water facing towards the platform. Establish positive buoyancy by inflating your BCD and when all is OK give the OK sign to the boat. • Backwards Roll • Bellyflop Entry Proper Weighting Fine tune your weighting to achieve perfect buoyancy on every dive. If you have a full cylinder you should add approximately 2 pounds (1 kilogram) to compensate for the fact that your tank will become more buoyant throughout the dive. As long as you push away from the platform you should have no problems clearing the platform and entering the water smoothly. Reason to Learn If you need to enter the water from an unstable platform or when the water isn't deep enough for a giant stride entry the controlled seated entry can be the safest method. Step One With all equipment in place sit on the edge of the platform with your legs over the edge. By checking for proper weighting. • Aim: To check that you are properly weighted in the water. a freshwater swimming pool won't help to check weighting for diving in the ocean (which is salt water).ie. shore.• Controlled Seated Entry Aim To safely enter the water using a controlled seated entry. Push off from the edge with your arms and move forward into the water. exposure suits or equipment. Place your hands on the edge of the platform next to you. exposure suit. Take a regular breath from your regulator and hold it . Reason to Learn: One of the main reasons for divers using too much air and bumping into coral and bottom features is not being properly weighted. or haven't dived for a while. turning towards the platform as you drop in to the water. Your BCD should be partially inflated (one-third to half full). or other platform. and equipment. you can ensure that you have the correct amount of weight based on your body. or performing a buoyancy check. You should start when you are relaxed and positively buoyant in the water.

add a unit of weight and repeat the exercise from Step One. let all the air out of your BCD by pushing your deflate button. try to exhale even more. Reason to Learn Every time you go diving you need to start the dive by descending. Aim Safely Descend using the five point method. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: 1-3 Minutes . If you float. although eye level is most common. Tired Diver Tow Practice different techniques for helping a tired or injured diver on the surface. you don't have enough weight . Try to keep your body quite still while performing this exercise. The important thing is that you're not sinking and not floating. but remaining steady. Some people float at forehead level or chin level. 5 Πο ι ν τ ∆εσ χ ε ν τ Go through the steps for a proper 5 point descent. If you don't sink. Holding your deflator above your head.diving that you're ever allowed to hold your breath. just a regular breath. BCD Oral Inflation Simulate a broken inflator or low air situation by practicing orally inflating your BCD. Exhale completely . Remember not to take a deep breath. You don't want to descend without letting your buddy know or without making sure everything is as it should be – it's pretty embarrassing when you descend with your snorkel in your mouth. If you don't remain steady at eye (or other part of the head) level and begin to sink you have too much weight . It's important not to kick your fins while exhaling as this can push you up and make it seem like you're under-weighted when this is not the case. Scuba Unit Removal & Replacement Practice removing and replacing your scuba unit both on the surface and underwater.remove a unit of weight and restart the exercise from Step One.you should begin to sink in the water.add a unit of weight and restart the exercise from Step One. You should float at eye level. If this still doesn't work. • • • • • • Snorkel to Regulator Exchange Practice exchanging your regulator for your snorkel on the surface. Cramp Removal Learn how to remove your own cramp and the cramps of your dive buddies. you need more weight . Weight Removal & Replacement Practice removing and replacing your weight system both on the surface and underwater.

If you're relaxed. Equalize your ears. Tips: It is usually safest to descend feet first in a vertical position. and are not kicking but still can't sink you may not be wearing enough weights.Here's How: Signal to your buddy that you're ready to descend using the descend or go down signal. Find a marker to orient yourself to so that you know which way you're facing as you go down. Reason to Learn The fin pivot is a great way to find neutral buoyancy in the water. Difficulty: Average Time Required: 1-3 Minutes . Check the time or that you're dive computer is working and ready for the dive. As you lungs empty you will sink more easily. push the deflate button to let all the air inside the BCD out. There is no problem with going all the way back to the surface if you're having problems equalizing. Don't kick with your fins as this will make it harder to sink. This can't be emphasized enough. • Fin Pivot Learn how to find neutral buoyancy by moving up and down using only the air in your lungs. Watch where you're going as you head down and inflate your BCD slightly before you reach the bottom so that you level off rather than crashing into anything. The fin pivot will be performed by using the power inflator and by orally inflating the BCD. Aim To achieve neutral buoyancy by performing a fin pivot. This might be the boat. If you're ever in doubt as to whether your buoyancy is correct you can perform a fin pivot and be sure that it's just right. Keep close to your buddy as you descend. Remember to equalize early and often. Remember to relax and breathe out deeply. but divers often get so excited about the upcoming dive that they forget this step. Holding your low pressure inflator above your head. or some other surface feature that will give you a clear idea of which way is which underwater. Just remember to let your buddy know using the problem and ear signals. If you feel any discomfort in your ears stop and let them equalize or ascend slightly and try again. a beach. You should begin to sink. It's a good idea to start equalizing before you even leave the surface and about every 3 feet (1 meter) or whenever you feel the need. have released all the air from your BCD. a wall. Sounds simple. Put your regulator in your mouth.

• • • Hover Learn how to finely regulate your buoyancy by remaining perfectly neutral in the water. Some people have naturally buoyant feet and may find it difficult to do so . Try to keep your fin tips on the ground.Here's How: Kneeling on the bottom. It's not an easy skill but it's important to learn. No Mask Swim Practice swimming without a mask. Facing downwards. Remove the regulator from your mouth. Release the deflate button before unsealing your lips and place your regulator back in your mouth. Oral Inflation: Take a breath from your regulator. Continue to repeat steps 3 & 4 until you're neutrally buoyant. You should begin to rise off the bottom as you inhale and you should sink as you exhale. You can do this using one of two methods: Power Inflator: Push the inflate button quickly to add a small "squirt" of air to your BCD. 5 Πο ι ν τ Ασ χ ε ν τ Learn the proper method for ending every dive with these 5 steps. There's no need to get it right on the first go. lie down on the bottom with your fins straight out behind you. You can't find your buddy and have no choice but to ascend on only one breath of air. Ascend at a safe rate while constantly exhaling.that's OK. release all of the air from your BCD by holding the deflator above your head and pushing the deflate button. You're now neutrally buoyant. If you don't begin to rise repeat step 3. Controlled Emergency Swimming Ascent (CESA) Simulate an out of air emergency. Seal your lips around the exhaust valve on your deflator and push the deflate button as you blow a "puff" of air into your BCD. Take a breath from your regulator. If you add too much you may become positively buoyant and float away. • Aim Safely ascend to the surface after a dive Reason to Learn Every dive will end with the need to ascend to the surface and it's important to make sure . remembering to clear it. Tips: Remember to only add small amounts of air to your BCD at a time. If this happens deflate your BCD and start again. Add a small amount of air to your BCD.

. At the conclusion of the safety stop signal your buddy and agree to surface. turn around. inflate your BCD and establish positive buoyancy. Ascend to 15 feet (5 meters) at a rate not exceeding 30 feet/9 meters a minute (some dive societies suggest 60 feet/18 meters a minute but I've chosen the more conservative rate for increased safety). make a vertical dive. swim underwater. Extend your deflator above your head and be prepared to release air from your BCD as you ascend. You'll set a heading.the theory being that you should ascend no faster than your slowest bubbles . Use your depth gauge to make sure you're not ascending faster than this rate. this is a last resort and shouldn't be used instead of a depth gauge.but remember. If you're diving in an environment with surface hazards such as speed boats or jet skis you may want to launch a surface marker buoy. Listen for the sound of approaching boats or other potential hazards. and come back to where you started from using only your compass for guidance.that every ascent is a safe ascent. At a depth of 15 feet (5 meters) perform a safety stop. Look up and rotate as you ascend to be fully aware of any potential surface hazards. Difficulty: Easy Time Required: 3 or more minutes Here's How: Signal to your buddy and agree to end the dive. • • Skin Dive You'll learn to properly hyperventilate. Look up and slowly kick to move up in the water. This may also be standard practice to make it clear to the dive boat where the divers will surface. follow a straight line. Note: Some dive societies advise extending the free arm over the head for safety while others advocate using this hand to hold your depth gauge . Vent air from your BCD as needed in order to ascend at a rate no greater than 30 feet / 9 meters a minute. When you reach the surface. and clear and breath from your snorkel upon ascent. Navigation Learn how to use a compass underwater. Use your depth gauge and watch or computer to monitor this. Tips: It is very important to ascend at a rate no greater than 30 feet / 9 meters a minute.both are good ideas and you should choose whichever you consider a better option. Signal the boat or shore that you are OK. Rotate in the water as you ascend so you can be aware of all parts of the surface above you. You'll practice this skill both on the surface and underwater. In the event of an equipment failure you can use your bubbles as a rough guide to your ascent speed .

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