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Slab bridges are defined as structures where the deck slab also serves as the main load-

carrying component. The span-to-width ratios are such that these bridges may be designed for

simple 1-way bending as opposed to 2-way plate bending. This design guide provides a basic

procedural outline for the design of slab bridges using the LRFD Code and also includes a

worked example.

The LRFD design process for slab bridges is similar to the LFD design process. Both codes

require the main reinforcement to be designed for Strength, Fatigue, Control of Cracking, and

Limits of Reinforcement. All reinforcement shall be fully developed at the point of necessity.

The minimum slab depth guidelines specified in Table 2.5.2.6.3-1 need not be followed if the

reinforcement meets these requirements.

For design, the Approximate Elastic or Strip Method for slab bridges found in Article 4.6.2.3

shall be used.

edge beam which is integral with the slab. As depicted in Figure 3.2.11-1 of the Bridge Manual,

the #5 d1 bars which extend from the 34 in. F-Shape barrier into the slab qualify as shear

reinforcement (strengthening) for the outside edges of slabs. When a 34 in. or 42 in. F-Shape

barrier (with similar d1 bars) is used on a slab bridge, its structural adequacy as an edge beam

should typically only need to be verified. The barrier should not be considered structural. Edge

beam design is required for bridges with open joints and possibly at stage construction lines. If

the out-to-out width of a slab bridge exceeds 45 ft., an open longitudinal joint is required.

Live Load distribution factors are calculated by first finding the equivalent width per lane that

that will be affected. This equivalent width, or strip width, in inches, is found using the

following equations:

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

For single-lane loading or two lines of wheels (e.g. used for staged construction design

considerations where a single lane of traffic is employed), the strip width E is taken as:

12.0 W

E = 84.0 + 1.44 L 1W1 (Eq. 4.6.2.3-2)

NL

When calculating E:

L1 = modified span length, taken as the lesser of (a) the actual span length (ft.)

or (b) 60 ft.

NL = number of design lanes according to Article 3.6.1.1.1

W = actual edge-to-edge width of bridge (ft.)

W1 = modified edge-to-edge width of bridge, taken as the lesser of (a) the

actual edge to edge width W (ft.), or (b) 60 ft. for multiple-lane loading, 30

ft. for single-lane loading

According to Article 3.6.1.1.2, multiple presence factors shall not be employed when

designing bridges utilizing Equations 4.6.2.3-1 and 4.6.2.3-2 as they are already embedded

in the formulae.

The fatigue truck loading specified in Article 3.6.1.4 shall be distributed using the single-lane

loaded strip width given in Equation 4.6.2.3-1, and the force effects shall be divided by 1.2

according to Article 3.6.1.1.2.

For slab bridges with skewed supports, the force effects may be reduced by a reduction

factor r:

r = 1.05 0.25tan 1.00, where is the skew angle of the supports in degrees.

(Eq. 4.6.2.3-3)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

The Department allows, but does not recommend, using the reduction factor for skewed

bridges.

The live load distribution factor, with units one lane, or two lines of wheels per inch, is then

taken as:

r

LRFD DF (Single or Multiple Lanes Loaded) =

E

Or

r

LRFD DF (Fatigue Truck Single Lane Loaded) =

1.2E

Note that the equations used to find the distribution factor in the AASHTO LRFD Code are in

the units one lane, or two lines for wheels per inch, whereas the AASHTO LFD Code

equations are in the units lines of wheels per inch. This is why the LRFD slab bridge live

load distribution factor is 1/E (assuming r = 1.00), whereas the LFD slab bridge live load

distribution factor is 1/2E.

These distribution factors apply to both shear and moment. Slab bridge slabs designed

using the equivalent strip width method may be assumed to be adequate in shear (5.14.4.1),

but edge beams on slab bridges require shear analysis.

Provisions for edge beam equivalent strip widths and load distribution are given in Article

4.6.2.1.4b.

In analyzing main reinforcement for slab bridges, three load combinations are used:

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Where:

p = For DC: maximum 1.25, minimum 0.90

For DW: maximum 1.50, minimum 0.65

For the fatigue load combination, all moments are calculated using the fatigue truck

specified in Article 3.6.1.4. The fatigue truck is similar to the HL-93 truck, but with a

constant 30 ft. rear axle spacing. Impact or dynamic load allowance is taken as 15% of

the fatigue truck load for this load combination (Table 3.6.2.1-1)

CE = vehicular centrifugal force, including forces due to bridge deck

superelevation

DC = dead load of structural components (DC1) and non-structural attachments

(DC2). This includes temporary concrete barriers used in stage

construction. Parapets, curbs, and railings using the standard details found

in Section 3.2.4 of the Bridge Manual need not be included in this value.

Standard details for these components include additional longitudinal

reinforcement and stirrups that, when built integrally with the slab, are

adequate for self-support.

DW = dead load of future wearing surface

IM = impact or dynamic load allowance

LL = vehicular live load

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Design Reinforcement in Slab

Main reinforcement in slab bridges should be placed parallel to traffic except as allowed for

some simple span skewed bridges. See Section 3.2.11 for the Bridge Manual for details If

possible, use the same size bars for all main reinforcement.

Four limit states are checked when designing main reinforcement: Flexural Resistance

(5.7.3.2), Fatigue (5.5.3), Control of Cracking (5.7.3.4), and Limits of Reinforcement (5.7.3.3

& 5.5.4.2.1). These limit state should be checked at points of maximum stress and at

theoretical cutoff points. See Figures 3.2.11-2 and 3.2.11-3 in the Bridge Manual for further

guidance. As stated previously, shear analysis is unnecessary for designs using the

distribution factors located in Article 4.6.2.3. The deformation control parameters of Article

2.5.2.6 may be used in determining of slab thickness in the TSL phase, but are not

mandatory requirements for final design.

reinforcement (5.14.4.1).

a

Mr = Mn = A s f y d s MSTRENGTH 1 (Eqs. 5.7.3.2.1-1 & 5.7.3.2.2-1)

2

Where:

= 0.9 for tension-controlled reinforced concrete sections (5.5.4.2)

a = depth of equivalent stress block (in.), taken as a = c1

A s fy

c = (in) (Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4 or 5.7.3.1.2-4 )

0.851f ' c b

As = area of tension reinforcement in strip (in.2)

b = width of design strip (in.)

ds = distance from extreme compression fiber to centroid of tensile reinforcement

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

(in.)

fy = specified yield strength of reinforcement (ksi)

fc' = specified compressive strength of concrete (ksi)

1 A s f y

Mr =Mn = A s f y d s

2 0.85 f ' c b

The spacing of reinforcement, s (in.), in the layer closest to the tension face shall satisfy the

following:

700 e

s 2d c (Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

s fs

Where:

dc

s = 1+

0.7(h d c )

flexural reinforcement located closest thereto (in.)

h = slab depth (in.)

MSERVICE 1

fs = (ksi)

A s jd s

k

j = 1

3

k = (n)2 + 2n n

As

=

bds

Es

n = , typically taken as 9 for 3.5 ksi concrete

Ec

e = 0.75 for Class 2 Exposure. C5.7.3.4 defines Class 2 Exposure as decks and

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

any substructure units exposed to water.

The fatigue truck moment range, M f (k-in.), shall be taken as the absolute value of the

+

algebraic difference of MFATIGUE and MFATIGUE .

The fatigue truck stress range, ff (ksi), shall meet the following requirement:

Mf r

ff = 21 0.33 fmin + 8 (Eq. 5.5.3.2-1)

A s jd s h

Where:

fmin = algebraic minimum stress level, tension positive, compression negative (ksi).

The minimum stress shall be taken as that from Service I factored dead loads

(DC1 and DC2 with the inclusion of DW at the discretion of the designer), or

+

that produced by MFATIGUE in positive moment regions or MFATIGUE in negative

moment regions. The governing value shall be that which produces the lower

allowable stress range. For slab bridges, fmin should always be tensile at

points of maximum stress.

r

= ratio of base radius to height of rolled on transverse deformations. If the

h

actual value is not known, 0.3 may be used.

The 2006 Interims of the AASHTO LRFD Code eliminated upper limits on the amount of

reinforcement which can be used in a concrete section. Article 5.5.4.2.1 of the LRFD

Code instead imposes reduced resistance factors for sections that experience very small

amounts of strain, i.e. are over-reinforced. The LRFD provisions for calculating

potentially reduced resistance factors overly convolute the process of determining

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

whether a standard reinforced concrete member is over-reinforced (or will not

experience a ductile failure at ultimate load). As such, it is IDOT policy that the LFD

Code provisions for checking maximum levels of reinforcement shall be used in lieu of

the LRFD provisions for standard (non-prestressed) reinforced concrete design.

For rectangular sections with tension reinforcement only, the LFD Code requires the

maximum reinforcement ratio shall not be greater than 0.75 times the balanced

reinforcement ratio (LFD 8.16.3.1.1). The balanced reinforcement ratio, b, is calculated

as follows:

b = (LFD Eq. 8-18)

fy 87000 + f y

Where 1 is the dimensionless LFD stress block factor, taken as 0.85 for concrete

strengths up to 4000 psi (LFD 8.16.2.7), and fc and fy are the design stresses in pounds

per square inch. Note that these units are different than in all other reinforced concrete

computations for LRFD, where fc and fy are computed in kips per square inch.

max = 0.75 1 c

fy 87000 + f y

The minimum reinforcement shall be such that Mn (k-in.) is greater than or equal to the

lesser of:

1.2Mcr

Where:

Mcr = S fr (Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

1 2

S = bh (in.3)

6

or,

1.33MSTRENGTH I

the main bottom reinforcement area. For slab bridges, the percentage is found using the

following equations:

100

50% (Eq. 5.14.4.1-1)

L

requirements stated in Article 5.10.8. The required area of top distribution reinforcement, As,

in square inches per foot width, shall be found using the following equation:

1.30bh

As (Eq. 5.10.8-1)

2(b + h)f y

Where h is the slab depth (in.), and b is the total width of the slab (in).

While Temperature and Shrinkage reinforcement is not necessary for members with a depth

of less than 18 inches (5.10.8), it is IDOT policy that it shall be used.

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Spacing for reinforcement designed for Shrinkage and Temperature shall not exceed 18

inches center-to-center, nor shall it exceed three times the slab thickness.

Provisions for development of reinforcement are found in Article 5.11. See also Figures

3.2.11-2 and 3.2.11-3 of the Bridge Manual for additional guidance on development lengths,

detailing and bar cutoffs

Edges of slabs at parapets (as described above) should be verified as adequate and at

open joints they should be fully designed. Edge beams shall be checked or designed for

both shear and moment.

The width of equivalent strips and distribution of loads for edge beams shall be determined

from Article 4.6.2.1.4b.

The moment design for an edge beam is similar to that for the slab described above. Shear

design shall be as follows:

The factored concrete shear resistance, Vc (kips) ( = 0.9), shall be found using the

following equation:

Where:

bv = effective web width (in.)

dv = effective shear depth, taken as the greater of 0.9ds or 0.72h (in.)

= 2.0 for slab bridges. It is IDOT policy that the simplified shear procedure

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

found in Section 5.8.3.4.1 be used for all slab bridges regardless of slab

depth.

At edges of slabs with F-Shape parapets and standard IDOT reinforcement, the factored

shear steel resistance, Vs ( = 0.9), shall be found using the following equation:

A v fy dv

Vs = (Eq. 5.8.3.3-4 Simplified per 5.8.3.4.1)

s

Where:

s = spacing of stirrups (in)

Av = area of shear reinforcement within a distance s (in.2)

dv = effective shear depth, taken as the greater of 0.9ds or 0.72h (in.)

fy = yield strength of steel (ksi)

When necessary, an edge beam may be thickened at an open joint using a concrete

haunch until shear capacity is met.

Design Stresses

fc = 3.5 ksi

fy = 60 ksi

wc = weight of reinforced concrete = 0.150 kcf

Where K1 is a correction factor for source of aggregate, assumed to be 1.0 unless proven

otherwise. In this example, K1 = 1.0.

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Bridge Data

Bridge Slab Width: 32 ft. Out-To-Out Including F-Shape Parapets

Slab Thickness: 16 in.

Future Wearing Surface: 50 psf

Skew: No Skew

12.0 W

E = 84.0 + 1.44 L 1W1 (Eq. 4.6.2.3-2)

NL

Where:

NL = 2 lanes

W = 32 ft.

L1 = 36 ft.

W1 = 32 ft.

in.

84.0 + 1.44 L 1W1 = 84.0 + 1.44 (36 ft.)(32 ft.) = 132.88

lane

12.0 W 12.0(32) in.

= = 192.00

NL 2 lane

in.

E = 132.88

lane

1 lane 12 in. lanes

Live Load Distribution Factor = = 0.090

132.88 in. ft. ft. of slab width

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

For Single-Lane Loaded (Modified for Fatigue Truck)

Where:

L1 = 36 ft.

W1 = 30 ft.

in.

E = 10.0 + 5.0 (36 ft.)(30 ft.) = 174.32

lane

1 lane 12 in. lanes

Live Load Distribution Factor (Non-Fatigue) = = 0.069

174.32 in. ft. ft. of slab width

0.069 lanes

Live Load Distribution Factor (Modified for Fatigue) = = 0.058

1.2 ft. of slab width

Using the full bridge width live load distribution factors, the following moments have been

calculated (k-ft.) for a one-foot-wide strip width:

+ + +

Pt. MSTRENGTH 1 MSTRENGTH 1 MSERVICE 1 M SERVICE 1 MFATIGUE MFATIGUE

1.0 -34.4 -118.4 -40.5 -78.1 0.0 -11.8

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Design Positive Moment Reinforcement

a

Mr = Mn = A s f y d s MSTRENGTH 1 (Eqs. 5.7.3.2.1-1 & 5.7.3.2.2-1)

2

b = 12 in.

ds = 16 in. 1 in. clear 0.5(1.128 in. bar diameter) = 14.44 in.

fy = 60 ksi

fc = 3.5 ksi

= 0.9 (5.5.4.2)

A s (60 ksi)

c = = 1.98As in. (Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4 or 5.7.3.1.2-4)

0.85(0.85 )(3.5 ksi)(12 in.)

+ 12 in.

Mr = MSTRENGTH 1 = 110.6 k-ft. = 1327.2 k-in.

ft.

1.68 A s in.

1327.2 k-in. = (0.9) A s (60 ksi)14.44 in.

2

Solving for As gives As = 1.92 in.2 Try #9 bars @ 6 in. center-to-center spacing.

As = 2.00 in.2

700 e

s 2d c (Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

s fs

Where:

dc = 1 in. clear + 0.5(1.128 in. bar diameter) = 1.564 in.

h = 16 in.

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

1.564 in.

s = 1+ = 1.155

0.7(16 in. 1.564 in.)

2.00 in.2

= = 0.0115

(12 in.)(14.44 in.)

n = 9

0.363

j = 1 = 0.879

3

12 in.

(68.9 k ft.)

fs = ft. = 32.57 ksi

(2.00 in.2 )(0.879 )(14.44 in.)

e = 0.75

700 e 700(0.75)

2d c = 2(1.564 ) = 10.83 in.

s fs (1.155 )(32.57)

Mf r

ff = 21 0.33 fmin + 8 (Eq. 5.5.3.2-1)

A s jd s h

+ 12 in.

MFATIGUE = 12.7 k-ft. = 152.4 k-in.

ft.

12 in.

MFATIGUE = -2.4 k-ft. = -28.8 k-in.

ft.

Mf = 152.4 k-in. (-28.8 k-in.) = 181.2 k-in.

(181.2 k in.)

ff = = 7.14 ksi

(2.00 in.2 )(0.879 )(14.44 in.)

MFATIGUE is negative, therefore use Service I dead load moment for determining fmin.

From the force envelope this value is 22.6 k-ft.

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

12 in.

(22.6 k ft.)

ft.

fmin = = 10.68 ksi

(2.00 in.2 )(0.879 )(14.44 in.)

r

= 0.3

h

r

21 0.33 fmin + 8 = 21 0.33(10.68) + 8(0.3) = 19.88 ksi

h

max = 0.75 1 c

fy 87000 + f y

Where:

1 = 0.85 (LFD 8.16.2.7)

f'c = 3500 psi

fy = 60000 psi

max = 0.75 = 0.0187

60000 psi 87000 + 60000

2.00 in.2

= = 0.0115 < 0.0187 O.K.

(12 in.)(14.44 in.)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Check Minimum Reinforcement (5.7.3.3.2)

1.2Mcr Mn

Where:

Mcr = S fr (Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

1

S = (12 in.)(16 in.) 2 = 512 in.3

6

Mn = ( )

0.9 2.00 in.2 (60 ksi)14.44 in.

( )

2.00 in.2 (60 ksi )

= 1378.0 k-in.

2(0.85 )(12 in.)(3.5 ksi )

100

50% (Eq. 5.14.4.1-1)

L

Where L = 36 ft.

100

= 16.67%

36

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

a

Mr = Mn = A s f y d s MSTRENGTH 1 (Eqs. 5.7.3.2.1-1 & 5.7.3.2.2-1)

2

b = 12 in.

ds = 16 in. (2.25 + 0.25) in. clear 0.5(1.128 in. bar diameter) = 12.94 in.

fy = 60 ksi

fc = 3.5 ksi

= 0.9

A s (60 ksi)

c = = 1.98As (Eq. 5.7.3.1.1-4 or 5.7.3.1.2-4)

0.85(0.85 )(3.5 ksi)(12 in.)

a = c1 = 0.85(1.98As) = 1.68As

12 in.

Mr = MSTRENGTH 1 = 118.4 k-ft. = 1420.8 k-in.

ft.

1.68 A s in.

1420.8 k-in. = (0.9) A s (60 ksi)12.94 in.

2

Solving for As gives As = 2.41 in.2 Try #9 bars @ 4.5 in. center-to-center spacing.

As = 2.67 in.2

700 e

s 2d c (Eq. 5.7.3.4-1)

s fs

Where:

dc = (2.25 + 0.25) in. clear + 0.5(1.128 in. bar diameter) = 3.064 in.

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

h = 16 in.

3.064 in.

s = 1 + = 1.338

0.7(16 in. 3.064 in.)

2.67 in. 2

= = 0.0172

(12 in.)(12.94 in.)

n =9

0.423

j = 1 = 0.859

3

12 in.

(78.1 k ft.)

ft.

fs = = 31.6 ksi

(2.67 in.2 )(0.859 )(12.94 in.)

e = 0.75

700 e 700(0.75 )

2d c = 2(3.064 ) = 6.29 in.

s fs (1.338 )(31.6)

Mf r

ff = 21 0.33 fmin + 8 (Eq. 5.5.3.2-1)

A s jd s h

+ 12 in.

MFATIGUE = 0.0 k-ft. = 0.0 k-in.

ft.

12 in.

MFATIGUE = -11.8 k-ft. = -141.6 k-in.

ft.

Mf = 0.0 k-in. (-141.6 k-in.) = 141.6 k-in.

(141.6 k in.)

ff = = 4.77 ksi

(2.67 in.2 )(0.859 )(12.94 in.)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

+

MFATIGUE is zero, therefore use Service I dead load moment for determining fmin.

From the force envelope this value is -40.5 k-ft.

12 in.

( 40.5 k ft.)

ft.

fmin = = 16.38 ksi

(2.67 in.2 )(0.859 )(12.94 in.)

r

= 0.3

h

r

21 0.33 fmin + 8 = 21 0.33(16.38) + 8(0.3) = 17.99 ksi

h

#9 bars @ 4.5 in. center-to-center spacing is adequate for fatigue limit state.

max = 0.75 1 c

f 87000 + f y

y

Where:

1 = 0.85 (LFD 8.16.2.7)

f'c = 3500 psi

fy = 60000 psi

max = 0.75 = 0.0187

60000 psi 87000 + 60000

2.67 in. 2

= = 0.0172 < 0.0187 O.K.

(12 in.)(12.94 in.)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Check Minimum Reinforcement (5.7.3.3.2)

1.2Mcr Mn

Where:

Mcr = S fr (Eq. 5.7.3.3.2-1)

1

S = (12 in.)(16 in.) 2 = 512 in.3

6

Mn = ( )

0.9 2.67 in.2 (60 ksi)12.94 in.

( )

2.67 in.2 (60 ksi )

= 1542.2 k-in.

2(0.85 )(12 in.)(3.5 ksi )

requirements stated in Article 5.10.8:

1.30bh

As (Eq. 5.10.8-1)

2(b + h)f y

Where:

b = 12 in/ft. 32 ft. = 384 in.

h = 16 in.

fy = 60 ksi

As = 0.166 in.2/ft.

2(384 in. + 16 in.)(60 ksi)

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

in.2

The design strip width, E, for 1-line of wheel loading ( lane) shall be taken as:

Width of parapet base + 12 in. + of strip width for a single lane loaded, not to

exceed the full strip width or 72 in.

E = 72 in.

1lane 12 in.

2 lanes

Live Load Distribution Factor = = 0.083

72 in. ft. ft. of slab width

Since this Distribution Factor is less than that used above for design of the interior

slab and the effective depth of the edge beam is equal to that of the slab, the edge

beam is OK for ultimate moment design by inspection. It is also adequate for fatigue

by inspection.

The concrete shear resistance, Vc, shall be found using the following equation:

Design Guides 3.2.11 - LRFD Slab Bridge Design

Where:

= 0.9

bv = 12 in. strip width

dv can be taken as:

0.72h = 0.72(16 in.) = 11.52 in.

= 2.0

The shear steel resistance, Vs, shall be found using the following equation:

A v fy dv

Vs = (Eq. 5.8.3.3-4 Simplified per 5.8.3.4.1)

s

Where:

s = 11 in.

Av = 0.31 in.2 (taking only one stirrup as effective in 12 in.)

dv = 11.52 in.

fy = 60 ksi

Vs = = 17.53 kips

11 in

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