open channel

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open channel

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(d) Total energy line either rises or falls depending upon the Froude number.

12.2 Uniform flow in an open channel exists when the flow is steady and the

(d) channel is prismatic and the depth of flow is constant along the channel.

12.3 In defining a Froude number applicable to channels of any shape, the length parameter used

is the

(c) ratio of area to top width

12.5 A rectangular channel has its width reduced from 6.0 m to 4.0 m at a transition. If the depth

of flow upstream of the contraction is 1.2 m, the change in the bottom elevation at the transition

required to cause zero change in the water surface elevation is

12.6 The term alternate depths in open channel flow is used to designate the depths

12.7 Which of the following conditions is the chief characteristic of critical flow?

2 2

(a) =1 (b) 2 = 1

3

2 2 2

(c) =1 (d) =1

3 3

12.8 If the alternate depths for certain flow in a rectangular channel are 0.5 m and 3.0 m

respectively, the critical depth for this channel is

12.9 While determining the critical depth applicable to channels of any shape, the length

parameter used along with average velocity is the

12.10 For a triangular channel having side slopes of 2 horizontal: 1 vertical, the Froude number

is given by F=

(a) / (b) 2/

(c) /2 (d) /( 2)

12.11 in a rectangular channel if the critical depth is 2.0 m, the specific energy at critical depth is

12.12 In a rectangular channel the depth of flow is 1.6 m and the specific energy at that section is

2.7 m. the flow is

12.13 For a uniform flow with a depth of 0.6 m and Froude number of 2.0 in a rectangular

channel, the specific energy will be

12.14 A rectangular channel carries a uniform flow with a Froude number of 2.83 the ratio of

critical depth to normal depth of this flow is

12.15 In a triangular channel with side slopes of 2.0 horizontal: 1 vertical, the critical depth is 2.8

m, The specific energy at critical depth is

(d) specific energy is minimum

12.18 The specific energy c in a critical flow at a depth occurring in a triangular channel is

given by =

12.20 If the Froude number characterizing the flow in an open channel is less than unity, an

increase in the channel width at a transition causes the water surface elevation to

(b) decrease

(c) increase

12.21 In a supercritical flow in a rectangular channel, a smooth expansion changes the width

from B1 to B2. This causes the water surface elevation after the expansion to

(a) increase

(d) decrease

(c) remain unchanged

12.22 In subcritical flow in a channel, is the minimum height of a smooth hump that can be

installed to cause critical flow over the hump. If the hump of height > is installed, then

the flow over the hump will be

(a) subcritical

(b) supercritical

(d) critical and a lowering of the upstream water surface will occur

12.23 For a given discharge In a horizontal frictionless channel two depths may have the same

specific force. These two depths are known as

12.24 For flow under a sluice gate where the upstream depth is 1.2 m and the depth at the

vena contracta is 0.3m,the discharge per meter width would be nearly.

12.25 A rectangular channel 3 m wide is laid on a slope of 0.0002. The average boundary shear

stress for depth of flow of flow of 1.5 m is nearly

12.26 In a wide rectangular channel the full supply depth is 1.52 m. If 50% of the full supply

discharge is flowing in this channel, the depth of flow will be

(a) 0.76m (b) 0.90 m

(c) 0 0 0 (d) L

1

3

(a) n =[ 8 ]

(b) n = 2/3 /8

1

(c) n = [8 3 /)1/2

(d) n = 8/1/6

1

(a) C = 1/3 1/6 (b) C = 1/6

1

6

(c) C =

(d) n= C1/6

12.31 A rectangular channel, 2.0 m wide has a bed slope of 1/800. Taking Chezy coefficient as 60, the

discharge in the channel at a depth of flow of 1.0 m is

12.32 In a wide rectangular channel, an increase in a normal depth by 20% correspond to an increase in

discharge by about

12.33 For a hydraulically efficient rectangular channel of bed width 4.0 m, the depth of flow is

12.35 In a hydraulically efficient circular channel the ratio of the hydraulic radius to the diameter of the

channel

12.36 A hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section carries water at the optimal depth of

0.72 m Chezy coefficient is 75 and the longitudinal slope is 1 in 2500 .what is the discharge through the

channel?

12.37 In a hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section the hydraulic radius R=

4

(c) y/22 (d) 3

12.38 In a hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section the ratio of the bed width to depth is

12.39 At the same mean velocity, the ratio of head loss per unit length for a sewer pipe running full to

that for the same pipe flowing half full would be

(a) 2.0 (b) 1.67

Hydraulic jump

12.40 The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48.The Froude number

at the beginning of the jump is

12.41 The Froude number at the end of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 0.25.The sequent

depth ratio of this jump is

12.42 The type of jump that forms when the initial Froude number lies between 2.5 and 4.5 is known as

(a) weak jump

12.43 In A horizontal rectangular channel a hydraulic jump with a sequent depth ratio of 5.0 is formed.

This jump can be classified as

12.44 The sequent depths in a hydraulic jump formed in a 4.0 m wide rectangular channel are 0.2 m and

1.0 m. The discharge in the channel ,in 3/ .is

12.44 The sequent depths in a hydraulic jump formed in a horizontal rectangular channel are 0.2 m and

2.0 m. The length of the jump is about

(a) 50 m (b) 12 m

(c) 8 m (d) 2 m

12.46 In a hydraulic jump occurring in a horizontal channel the sequent depths are 0.25m and 1.25 m .

12.47 The discharge per meter width at the foot of a spillway is 103 / at a velocity of 20m/s. A perfect

free jump will occur at the foot of the spillway when the tail water depth is nearly

12.48 The differential equation of the gradually varied flow can be written by using Mannings formula

for the case of a wide rectangular channel as =

1(/ )3.33

(a) 1( /)3

1(/ )3.33

(b) 1(0 /)3

1(/ )3

(c) 1( 3

/)

1(/ )3

(d) )

1( /)3.33

(a) + (b)

(c) (d) -1

12.51 A 3mwide rectangular channel flowing at its normal depth of 0.8 m carries a discharge of 9.53/ .

The channel slope is

12.54 The flow will be in supercritical state in the following profiles

(a) 3, 3 1

(b) 2, 1 3

(c) 2, 3 3

(d) 1, 2 3

12.55 Which of the following is the correct representation of sequence of surface profiles if the channel

slope change from Mild to Steep?

(a) 1, 1 (b) 1, 2

(c) 2, 3 (d) 2, 2

12.56 A wide rectangular channel carries a flow of 2.963 /s per meter width. The bed slope of the

channel is1.0 104 and Mannings n=0.021.If at a section, the depth of flow is 1.5m the energy slope at

that section is

12.57 The flow in a long 4.0 m wide rectangular channel is 8.0 3 /s. The normal depth of flow is 1.5 m.

If, at a certain section A, the depth of Flow in the channel is 1.0 m, the depth of flow at a section

downstream of A would be

(a) 2 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 3

3

12.58 The flow in a long 4.0 m wide rectangular channel is 8.0

. The normal depth of flow is 1.5 m. If ,

at a certain section A, the depth of flow in the channel is 1.0 m, the depth of flow at a section

downstream of A would be

Broad- crested Weir

12.59 The discharge Q over a broad-crested weir of length L is expressed as Q=1.705 3/2 . In this

expression H is the difference in elevation between

(d) The upstream energy line and the downstream energy line

12.61 If the and length L of a rectangular notch and a broad-crested weir are the same, then for the

same head on both of these

(a) the broad-crested weir passed 73% more discharge than the rectangular notch

(c) the rectangular notch passes 73% more discharge than then the broad-crested weir

(d) both notch and the broad-crested weir pass equal discharge.

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