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Uniform Flow Definitions

12.1 Uniform flow in a channel is characterized by the following statement:

(a) Total energy remains constant along the channel.

(b) Gradient of the total energy is parallel to the channel bed.

(c) Specific energy decreases along the channel.

(d) Total energy line either rises or falls depending upon the Froude number.

12.2 Uniform flow in an open channel exists when the flow is steady and the

(a) channel is frictionless

(b) channel is non-prismatic

(c) channel is prismatic

(d) channel is prismatic and the depth of flow is constant along the channel.

12.3 In defining a Froude number applicable to channels of any shape, the length parameter used
is the

(a) depth of flow

(b) hydraulic radius


(c) ratio of area to top width

(d) wetted perimeter

12.4 The flow can be uniform in

(a) a non- prismatic channel

(b) a wide rectangular channel

(c) a horizontal trapezoidal channel

(d) a frictionless rectangular channel

Specific Energy and Critical Depth


12.5 A rectangular channel has its width reduced from 6.0 m to 4.0 m at a transition. If the depth
of flow upstream of the contraction is 1.2 m, the change in the bottom elevation at the transition
required to cause zero change in the water surface elevation is

(a) 0.60 m drop (b) 0.60 m rise

(c) 0.30 m drop (d) 0.30 m rise

12.6 The term alternate depths in open channel flow is used to designate the depths

(a) at the beginning and end of a hydraulic jump

(b) having the same kinetic energy for a given discharge

(d) at the beginning and end of a gradually varied flow profile

12.7 Which of the following conditions is the chief characteristic of critical flow?

2 2
(a) =1 (b) 2 = 1
3

2 2 2
(c) =1 (d) =1
3 3

12.8 If the alternate depths for certain flow in a rectangular channel are 0.5 m and 3.0 m
respectively, the critical depth for this channel is

(a) 1.087 m (b) 1.333 m

(c) 1.500 m (d) 3.500 m

12.9 While determining the critical depth applicable to channels of any shape, the length
parameter used along with average velocity is the

(a) ratio of area to wetted perimeter

(b) wetted perimeter

(c) depth of flow

(d) ratio of area to top width

12.10 For a triangular channel having side slopes of 2 horizontal: 1 vertical, the Froude number
is given by F=

(a) / (b) 2/

(c) /2 (d) /( 2)

12.11 in a rectangular channel if the critical depth is 2.0 m, the specific energy at critical depth is

(a) 3.0 m (b) 1.5 m

(c) 2.0 m (d) 2.5 m

12.12 In a rectangular channel the depth of flow is 1.6 m and the specific energy at that section is
2.7 m. the flow is

(a) sub-critical (b) supercritical

(c) critical (d) not possible

12.13 For a uniform flow with a depth of 0.6 m and Froude number of 2.0 in a rectangular
channel, the specific energy will be

(a) 2.4 m (b) 0.8 m

(c) 2.6 m (d) 1.8 m

12.14 A rectangular channel carries a uniform flow with a Froude number of 2.83 the ratio of
critical depth to normal depth of this flow is

(a) 1.68 (b) 2.83

(c) 2.00 (d) 4.75

12.15 In a triangular channel with side slopes of 2.0 horizontal: 1 vertical, the critical depth is 2.8
m, The specific energy at critical depth is

(a) 3.5 m (b) 3.0 m

(c) 4.2 m (d) 3.72 m

12.16 For a given discharge in a channel at critical depth,

(a) the total energy minimum

(b)the total energy maximum

(c) the specific energy is maximum


(d) specific energy is minimum

12.17 At critical depth,

(a) the discharge is minimum for a given specific energy

(b) the discharge is maximum for a given specific force

(c) the discharge is minimum for a given specific force

(d) the discharge is maximum for a given specific energy

12.18 The specific energy c in a critical flow at a depth occurring in a triangular channel is
given by =

(a) 1.25 (b) 1.50

(c) 1.75 (d) 2.5

12.19 For a given discharge in a channel the critical depth is a function of

(a) slope in the channel

(b) roughness of the channel

(c) geometry of the channel

(d) viscosity of the liquid

12.20 If the Froude number characterizing the flow in an open channel is less than unity, an
increase in the channel width at a transition causes the water surface elevation to

(a) remain unchanged

(b) decrease

(c) increase

(d) form ripples

12.21 In a supercritical flow in a rectangular channel, a smooth expansion changes the width
from B1 to B2. This causes the water surface elevation after the expansion to

(a) increase

(d) decrease
(c) remain unchanged

(d) increase or decrease depending upon the channel roughness

12.22 In subcritical flow in a channel, is the minimum height of a smooth hump that can be
installed to cause critical flow over the hump. If the hump of height > is installed, then
the flow over the hump will be

(a) subcritical

(b) supercritical

(c) critical and the upstream water surface will rise

(d) critical and a lowering of the upstream water surface will occur

12.23 For a given discharge In a horizontal frictionless channel two depths may have the same
specific force. These two depths are known as

(a) specific depths

(b) sequent depths

(c) alternate depths

(d) normal and critical depths

12.24 For flow under a sluice gate where the upstream depth is 1.2 m and the depth at the
vena contracta is 0.3m,the discharge per meter width would be nearly.

(a) 0.36 3/ (b) 1.25 3/

(c) 1.45 3/ (d) 0.15 3/

Uniform Flow :Resistance and Computation

12.25 A rectangular channel 3 m wide is laid on a slope of 0.0002. The average boundary shear
stress for depth of flow of flow of 1.5 m is nearly

(a) 0.90 /2 (b) 0.45 /2

(c) 0.30 /2 (d)0.15 /2

12.26 In a wide rectangular channel the full supply depth is 1.52 m. If 50% of the full supply
discharge is flowing in this channel, the depth of flow will be
(a) 0.76m (b) 0.90 m

(c) 1.00 m (d) 0.43 m

12.27 The dimension of Mannings roughness coefficient are

(a) 1/2 1 (b) 1/3

(c) 0 0 0 (d) L

12.28 The dimensions of Chezy coefficient are

(a) 1/3 (b) 0 0 0

(c) 1/2 1 (d) 1

12.29 Mannings roughness coefficient is related to Darcy-Weisbach friction factor as


1
3
(a) n =[ 8 ]

(b) n = 2/3 /8
1
(c) n = [8 3 /)1/2

(d) n = 8/1/6

12.30 The Chezy coefficient C and Mannings n are related as


1
(a) C = 1/3 1/6 (b) C = 1/6

1
6
(c) C =
(d) n= C1/6

12.31 A rectangular channel, 2.0 m wide has a bed slope of 1/800. Taking Chezy coefficient as 60, the
discharge in the channel at a depth of flow of 1.0 m is

(a) 1.0 3 / (b) 1.5 3 /

(c) 2.0 3 / (d) 3.03 /

12.32 In a wide rectangular channel, an increase in a normal depth by 20% correspond to an increase in
discharge by about

(a) 13% (b) 25%

(c) 36 % (d) 48%


12.33 For a hydraulically efficient rectangular channel of bed width 4.0 m, the depth of flow is

(a) 4.0 m (b) 8.0 m

(c) 1.0 m (d) 2.0 m

12.34 For a hydraulically efficient triangular section the hydraulic radius R=

(a) 22 (b) y/22

(c) y/2 (d) y

12.35 In a hydraulically efficient circular channel the ratio of the hydraulic radius to the diameter of the
channel

(a) 1.0 (b) 0.5

(c) 0.25 (d) 0.125

12.36 A hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section carries water at the optimal depth of
0.72 m Chezy coefficient is 75 and the longitudinal slope is 1 in 2500 .what is the discharge through the
channel?

(a) 0.808 3 / (b) 1.14 3 /

(c) 0.900 3 / (d) 0.090 3 /

12.37 In a hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section the hydraulic radius R=

(a) y/2 (b) y

4
(c) y/22 (d) 3

12.38 In a hydraulically most efficient trapezoidal channel section the ratio of the bed width to depth is

(a) 0.50 (b) 0.707

(c) 0.866 (d) 1.155

12.39 At the same mean velocity, the ratio of head loss per unit length for a sewer pipe running full to
that for the same pipe flowing half full would be
(a) 2.0 (b) 1.67

(c) 1.0 (d) 0.67

Hydraulic jump

12.40 The sequent depth ratio of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 16.48.The Froude number
at the beginning of the jump is

(a) 5.0 (b) 8.0

(c) 10.0 (d) 12.0

12.41 The Froude number at the end of a hydraulic jump in a rectangular channel is 0.25.The sequent
depth ratio of this jump is

(a) 2.5 (b) 5.2

(c) 8.9 (d) 9.8

12.42 The type of jump that forms when the initial Froude number lies between 2.5 and 4.5 is known as
(a) weak jump

(b) steady jump

(c) undular jamp

(d) Oscillating jump

12.43 In A horizontal rectangular channel a hydraulic jump with a sequent depth ratio of 5.0 is formed.
This jump can be classified as

(a) weak jump

(b) oscillating jump

(c) strong jump

(d) steady jump


12.44 The sequent depths in a hydraulic jump formed in a 4.0 m wide rectangular channel are 0.2 m and
1.0 m. The discharge in the channel ,in 3/ .is

(a) 5.00 m (b) 1.12 m

(c) 2.17 m (d) 4.34

12.44 The sequent depths in a hydraulic jump formed in a horizontal rectangular channel are 0.2 m and
2.0 m. The length of the jump is about

(a) 50 m (b) 12 m

(c) 8 m (d) 2 m

12.46 In a hydraulic jump occurring in a horizontal channel the sequent depths are 0.25m and 1.25 m .

The energy loss in this jump is

(a) 0.8 m (b) 1.0 m

(c) 1.25 m (d) 1.50 m

12.47 The discharge per meter width at the foot of a spillway is 103 / at a velocity of 20m/s. A perfect
free jump will occur at the foot of the spillway when the tail water depth is nearly

(a) 4.5 m (b) 5.00 m

(c) 6.50 m (d) 8.50 m

Gradually Varied Flow

12.48 The differential equation of the gradually varied flow can be written by using Mannings formula

for the case of a wide rectangular channel as =

1(/ )3.33
(a) 1( /)3

1(/ )3.33
(b) 1(0 /)3

1(/ )3
(c) 1( 3
/)
1(/ )3
(d) )
1( /)3.33

12.49 If E= specific energy at a section in a gradually varied flow, then dE/dx =

(a) + (b)

(c) (d) -1

Where =energy slope and =bed slope

12.50 If in a gradually varied flow / is positive, then dE/dx

(a) is always negative

(b) is always positive

(c) is positive if y/ > 1

(d) is negative if >

12.51 A 3mwide rectangular channel flowing at its normal depth of 0.8 m carries a discharge of 9.53/ .
The channel slope is

(a) steep (b) critical

(c) mild (d) none of the above

12.52 In an 1 type of gradually varied flow profile

(a) 0 > > (b) 0 > >

(c) > > (d) ) > >

12.53 In an 2 type of gradually varied flow profile

(a) 0 > > (b) > >

(c) 0 > > (d) > >


12.54 The flow will be in supercritical state in the following profiles

(a) 3, 3 1

(b) 2, 1 3

(c) 2, 3 3

(d) 1, 2 3

12.55 Which of the following is the correct representation of sequence of surface profiles if the channel
slope change from Mild to Steep?

(a) 1, 1 (b) 1, 2

(c) 2, 3 (d) 2, 2

12.56 A wide rectangular channel carries a flow of 2.963 /s per meter width. The bed slope of the
channel is1.0 104 and Mannings n=0.021.If at a section, the depth of flow is 1.5m the energy slope at
that section is

(a) 0.01 (b) 0.00228

(c) 0.0009 (d) 0.001

12.57 The flow in a long 4.0 m wide rectangular channel is 8.0 3 /s. The normal depth of flow is 1.5 m.
If, at a certain section A, the depth of Flow in the channel is 1.0 m, the depth of flow at a section
downstream of A would be

(a) 2 (b) 2

(c) 3 (d) 3

3
12.58 The flow in a long 4.0 m wide rectangular channel is 8.0
. The normal depth of flow is 1.5 m. If ,

at a certain section A, the depth of flow in the channel is 1.0 m, the depth of flow at a section
downstream of A would be

(a) > 1.0 (b) < 1.0

(c) =1.0 m (d) 1.0


Broad- crested Weir

12.59 The discharge Q over a broad-crested weir of length L is expressed as Q=1.705 3/2 . In this
expression H is the difference in elevation between

(a) the upstream energy line and the crest

(b) the upstream water surface and the crest

(c) the upstream water surface and the upstream bed

(d) The upstream energy line and the downstream energy line

12.60 The modular limit of abroad-crested weir is about

(a) 15% (b) 35%

(c) 67% (d) 90%

12.61 If the and length L of a rectangular notch and a broad-crested weir are the same, then for the
same head on both of these

(a) the broad-crested weir passed 73% more discharge than the rectangular notch

(b) the rectangular notch passes 57.7% less discharge

(c) the rectangular notch passes 73% more discharge than then the broad-crested weir

(d) both notch and the broad-crested weir pass equal discharge.