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Thomas Armstrong (Concrete Blocks) Ltd

Incorporating

Stocks Blocks Ltd


William Rainford (Holdings) Ltd
Barnetts (Buglawton) Ltd

Concrete Blocks
Product & Technical Guide
A comprehensive guide to our
extensive range of concrete blocks
from our group of companies
Serving the construction industry since 1830

Founded in 1830 in Cumbria as a We are continually striving to further enhance the


timber and saw mill operation we sustainability credentials of our operations and products
have grown and expanded our through the increased use of recycled material in our
operations into quarrying, blocks and with a commitment to minimise our impact on
construction and the manufacturing of concrete blocks. the environment by reducing energy use throughout our
operations and continue to produce high-quality products
We produce a comprehensive range of masonry building for the low carbon homes of the future.
and paving blocks compliant to all of the latest technical
Our group of 8 concrete block manufacturing plants are
and environmental standards for use in foundation walls,
located across the North of England offering a flexible and
internal walls, acoustic separating walls, thermally
comprehensive supply network. Our block manufacturing
insulating walls and permeable paving solutions for
group consists of several very well established and
driveways.
respected companies:

THOMAS ARMSTRONG
(Concrete Blocks)
WILLIAM RAINFORD
(HOLDINGS)
BARNETTS
(BUGLAWTON) STOCKS
LIMITED LIMITED LIMITED
BLOCKS

We are full members of both of the UKs leading industry associations;


the Concrete Block Association (CBA) and the Aircrete Products
Association (APA) and proudly support the Get Britain Building
campaign spearheaded by British Precast.

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Contents

ABOUT US TECHNICAL PERFORMANCE


4 - Quality, Environmental & Sustainability 21 - Fire
5 - Responsible Sourcing 22 - Thermal
6 - Product Overview 24 - Acoustic
26 - Air Tightness
27 - Structural
PRODUCTS
10 - ULTRALITE low density aggregate blocks
11 - INSULITE medium density aggregate blocks
DESIGN & DETAILING
12 - DENSE dense concrete blocks 29 - Foundations and Below dpc

13 - MIDI dense concrete blocks 30 - Floors

14 - CELLULAR dense concrete blocks 31 - Wall Types

15 - HOLLOW dense concrete blocks 32 - Movement Control & Wall Ties

16 - ARMSTART foundation blocks


17 - BRICKS concrete common & coursing blocks SITE WORK
18 - SPECIAL PRODUCTS slip, infill, Rockfaced blocks
35 - Storage & Laying of Blocks
19 - AIRTEC aerated concrete blocks
36 - Mortars & External Renders
38 - Internal Finishes
39 - Fixings

USEFUL INFORMATION
41 - Health & Safety
42 - Haulage Details
43 - Index

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Quality, Environmental and Sustainability
About Us

We believe that the key to success as a quality product using locally sourced materials and
business is to ensure the very best standards supporting local jobs and economies. No
of quality and customer service which is one imported materials and minimal carbon footprint.
of the reasons why we have continually grown
and developed as a business since 1830.

Environmental Policy
We are fully committed to minimising our
We are committed to preventing pollution and to conducting our opera-
impact upon the environment and to tional and business activities in an environmentally responsible manner.
promoting the undoubted and proven We recognise the need to continually improve our operations wherever
practical to do so in order to reduce our impact on the environment. To
sustainability of masonry construction; a achieve these objectives we shall:

Comply with and wherever possible exceed all applicable


environmental legislation and regulatory requirements. This includes
any other applicable environmental requirements relevant to our
activities, products and services. This is regularly evaluated to ensure
our compliance with such requirements.
Commitment to Quality
Identify and use materials and processes that reduce the risk of
We have been in business since 1830 and one of the key reasons
pollution, evaluate and assess all significant environmental impacts
and aspects with the objective to eliminate these impacts wherever
for our longevity and continual development as a company is
possible.
our commitment to quality and ensuring that the customers
needs are at the forefront of everything that we do. Promote conservation of natural resources through the efficient use
of energy and the minimisation of waste.
This philosophy encompasses all of our operations from
We take proactive measures to protect wildlife and natural flora and
selecting the best raw materials available for our products to
fauna at our sites and preserve natural habitats.
employing ISO 9001 Quality Management Systems at our
manufacturing sites. All of our concrete blocks are Minimise discharges, emissions and waste. Maximise recycling
manufactured in strict compliance to the harmonized wherever possible.
European standard for masonry products, the EN 771 series.
Utilise raw materials that have the minimum environmental impact
for local sources and use recycled raw materials wherever possible.
Environmental Performance We set environmental objectives and targets which are continually
reviewed and updated and use these as a measure of our
Our block production facilities operate in full compliance environmental performance.
with all of the latest environmental regulations with the vast
Stringently develop operational procedures and training regimes to
majority of production being certified to the world class ISO
assure environmental performance at all times and regularly carry
14001 Environmental Management System standard. We aim
out emergency response exercises to ensure that all staff can
to have 100% of our production fully ISO 14001 EMS respond to unforeseen incidents and protect the environment from
certified. As part of this, at all of our production facilities we any consequential harm.
focus on waste minimisation and recycling wherever possible.
We continually measure and review our performance through a
All of the types of concrete blocks that we produce have programme of regular internal and external audits and wherever
possible utilise an environmental management system compliant with
been environmentally profiled by BRE to give generic Green
BS EN ISO 14001 at our manufacturing sites.
Guide ratings and all blocks are fully recyclable at the end of
the life of the construction. We ensure that employees at all levels throughout the company are
informed of and participate in the adherence to our environmental
policy through a combination of training, communication and
awareness.

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Responsibly Sourced Raw Materials

About Us
Masonry: Built to last several lifetimes.
In common with the concrete block industry in general, we
manufacture from locally sourced raw materials, support local Masonry buildings can last for generations. Their durability,
jobs and economies and minimise our environmental impact by high performance and versatility has been proven time and
sourcing as close as possible to our manufacturing facilities. again beyond doubt making them the perfect sustainable
long-term building solutions for the following reasons:
We have therefore no requirements as an industry to
demonstrate compliance with stringent FSC or Chain of Custody Their high thermal mass results in lower seasonal
requirements placed on manufacturers who may source their temperature fluctuations than for a similar lightweight
materials from countries with poor ethical, social and framed building. This means a reduction and possible
environmental records. elimination of secondary mechanical heating and cooling
technologies than may be required for a lightweight
building. The consequence of this being a significant
The concrete block manufacturing process produces very little reduction of CO2 over the lifetime of the building and
or no waste whatsoever. Any product which is not suitable for lower energy bills for residents.
sale is completely recycled back into the manufacturing process
Masonry buildings are easy to modify and extend onto
to make new blocks.
unlike framed constructions. This makes masonry
Transportation of materials into our factories and product our of buildings a much more versatile, flexible and sustainable
our factories is kept within local regional areas on the whole building method which extends their lifetime and
which again minimises our carbon footprint and impact on the effectively future-proofs them.
environment as well as supporting local jobs and economies.
On demolition, masonry materials can be recycled and
no hazardous waste is produced.

Insulite Lightweight Blocks Dense Concrete Blocks Airtec Aerated Blocks


The vast majority of raw material used in Dense blocks require a proportion of Up to 90% of all raw materials used in
our Insulite mededium density lightweight quarried sand and gravel in order to the production of Airtec blocks is
blocks is fully recycled or reclaimed. In achieve their exceptional toughness, recycled. Furthermore Airtec is
fact, over 90% by weight of these blocks durability and load-bearing capacity. We manufactured in the UKs most advanced
consist of recycled materials, continually strive to utilize as much facility using a unique process resulting in
oredominantly Furnace Bottom Ash recycled raw material as possible and in superior product performance. All
(FBA) which would otherwise be fact around 20-30% of these blocks consist equipment is low-energy state of the art
landfilled. of reclaimed raw material. and we reclaim and re-use excess energy
generated by the curing process; nothing
is wasted.

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Our Products
Ultralite Page 10
Insulite Page 11
Dense Page 12
Our Products

MIDI Dense Page 13


Cellular Dense Page 14
Hollow Dense Page 15
Armstart Page 16
Bricks Page 17
Special Products Page 18
Airtec Page 19

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Our Products
Ultralite Insulite Dense Airtec Special Products
Low Density Medium Density Concrete Aerated Concrete Bricks, slips,
Aggregate Blocks Aggregate Blocks Blocks Blocks infill blocks

Low density The perfect, Highly resilient, Exceptionally high A wide range of
aggregate blocks traditional all-round tough, loadbearing performance blocks Airtec, Insulite and
with enhanced building block. blocks suitable for with the lowest Dense concrete
thermal properties. any application. thermal conductivity special products
Available in solid, of any masonry block including coursing
cellular and hollow available in the UK. bricks, concrete
forms. commons, slip
blocks and T-beam
infill blocks.

All of our concrete block range is specified on


NBS Plus and on RIBA Product Selector.

www.ribaproductselector.co.uk

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Overview of our products
Our Products

Airtec Airtec Airtec Airtec Airtec


XL Standard Party Wall Seven Ten
Airtec XL blocks have These weight all-round Available only as Higher strength aerated These 8.7 N/mm
the lowest thermal
building block are 100mm thick blocks blocks intended for use blocks can be used
conductivity value of
any block currently unique in offering a designed for use in in applications where as a 10.4 N/mm
manufactured in the strength of 3.6N/mm Robust Standard Detail higher loadbearing block in structural
UK, combining but with a thermal acoustic separating capacity or physical design due to our
exceptionally low conductivity value of walls and Part E walls. toughness is required. Category I
weight, good strength just 0.11 W/mK. manufacturing
and high thermal
performance. status.

Gross Dry Density, kg/m 460 (50) 530 ( 50) 600 ( 50) 730 ( 50) 790 ( 50)

Compressive Strength, N/mm 2.9 3.6 3.6 7.3 8.7

Thermal Conductivity, W/mK 0.09 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.19

Applications

Below dpc
Beam & Block Floor infill
Internal leaves of cavity walls
External leaves of cavity walls
Robust Detail party walls

Airtec Blocks Standard Texture


Airtec aerated blocks have a plain- Ultralite, Insulite and Dense
faced, smooth, cellular texture Concrete Standard texture finish is
which is a suitable background for intended for use in background
accepting renders and plasters. applications.

In common with all aerated concrete


products in the UK, the surfaces of the blocks may contain a Their relatively open texture provides the perfect substrate for
random amount of larger cells due to an unavoidable application of renders and plasters.
consequence of the manufacturing process. These large cells are
perfectly normal and are not a defect and do not detract from Standard texture blocks are not intended for fair-faced facing or
performance in any way. paint-grade applications and due to the use of locally sourced
raw materials, their texture and colour will vary between
Although the blocks can be painted, we cannot guarantee that manufacturing locations.
the surfaces will not contain some of these larger cells and we
therefore do not recommend using Airtec for paint-grade or
fair-faced applications.

The texture images used here are intended for indicative purposes only and actual textures and shades may vary between manufacturing locations.
For further information and sample blocks, please contact your local sales office - details can be found on the back cover of this brochure.

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We also produce a range of lightweight and dense coursing bricks,
concrete common bricks, slip blocks and split coursing blocks for block
and beam flooring applications.

Our Products
Solid Cellular Hollow Rockfaced
Ultralite Insulite
Dense Dense Dense Blocks
Low density Insulite medium density Highly durable and A lower weight Ideal for constructing A light coloured, close-
aggregate concrete lightweight blocks are a resilient Dense concrete alternative to the solid reinforced walls, the textured dense concrete
blocks manufactured versatile, all-round blocks available in dense block with hollow voids can be filled block manufactured at
using expanded clay building block. Available Standard and Fairtex improved thermal with poured concrete and our Congleton plant. The
products. These in Standard and Premier paint-grade finishes. properties. The cells are steel reinforcement. rippled rock appearance
blocks are low weight paint-grade finishes and They are also available blinded at one end to Perfect for commercial, on one face makes them
with enhanced as solid Armstart as small format accept a full bed of industrial and agricultural an attractive option for
thermal properties. foundation blocks. MIDI blocks. mortar for ease of build. applications. facing applications.

850 - 950 1350 - 1450 1900 - 2100 1900 - 2100 1900 - 2100 2000 - 2200

3.6, 7.3 3.6, 4.2, 7.3 7.3, 10.4 7.3 7.3 10.4

0.25 0.42 1.13 0.88 0.88 1.22

Indicates that higher strengths may be available. Please check with your local sales office

Premier Insulite Fairtex Dense


Premier is a closer textured Insulite Fairtex Dense concrete blocks have
medium density lightweight a close textured finish suitable for
aggregate block whose smoother use in either paint-grade or fair-
surface offers an excellent paint- faced unfinished applications.
grade finish.
Fairtex precise texture and shade
Due to the use of reclaimed and recycled raw materials in these will vary between manufacturing locations and we recommend
blocks, the precise texture and shade of blocks may vary from sourcing blocks from one location only for each project to avoid
batch to batch and also between manufacturing locations. For a mixture of block shades.
this reason, Premier Insulite blocks are the perfect paint-grade
block but are not intended for use in unfinished decorative fair- We recommend that sample panels are erected prior to
faced applications where consistency of colour and texture is commencement of build in order to assess appearance and
critical. during the build phase select blocks from more than one pack at
a time to reduce the risk of patchiness and colour banding in the
For unfinished, facing applications where texture and colour are finished wall.
critical, we recommend the use of our Fairtex Dense concrete
blocks.

The texture images used here are intended for indicative purposes only and actual textures and shades may vary between manufacturing locations.
For further information and sample blocks, please contact your local sales office - details can be found on the back cover of this brochure.

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ULTRALITE
Low Density Aggregate Blocks

Ultralite blocks offer the builder a low-weight, loadbearing block


with enhanced thermal properties suitable for a wide range of
applications.
Our Products

Ultralite blocks are manufactured from expanded clay aggregates


and all sizes weigh less than 20kg.

Available in Standard texture only.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner & outer leaf of external cavity


Property Value walls up to 3 storeys (7.3 N/mm only).

Internal partition walls.


Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 440mm x 215mm
Walls below dpc (7.3 N/mm only).
Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1

Gross Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 850 - 950 kg/m


Acoustic separating walls to Part E of the
Building Regulations.
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1): 3.6, 7.3 N/mm
Standard texture finish provides an
Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II excellent surface for mortars, renders and
0.25 W/mK (Protected inner leaf) plasters.
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 0.27 W/mK (exposed outer leaf)

Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m Lower weight, safer handling, easy to cut
and accepts most standard fixings.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Solid - Group 1

Available Texture finish: Standard only

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4

90 0.36 86 42 8.2 3 90 80 8.0

100 0.40 96 43 8.7 4 100 72 7.2

140 0.56 134 46 12.6 6 140 48 4.8

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.

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INSULITE
Medium Density Aggregate Blocks

Insulite blocks are the perfect all-round building block. They are
cost effective, simple to use and provide an ideal background for
accepting renders and plasters.

Our Products
Insulite blocks consist of over 90% high quality recycled and
reclaimed raw material.

They are available in Standard and Premier finishes.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner & outer leaf of external cavity walls up


Property Value to 3 storeys (7.3 N/mm or above).

Internal partition walls.


Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 440mm x 215mm
Block & beam floor infill (7.3 N/mm or above).
Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1

Gross Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1350 - 1450 kg/m Walls below dpc (7.3 N/mm or above).
3.6, 4.2, 7.3 N/mm Acoustic separating walls to Part E of the
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1):

Building Regulations and Robust Details.
Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II
0.42 W/mK (Protected inner leaf) Standard texture finish provides an excellent
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 0.45 W/mK (exposed outer leaf) surface for mortars, renders and plasters.
Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m Premier close textured finish available for
paint-grade applications.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
Lower weight, safer handling, easy to cut and
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Solid - Group 1
accepts most standard fixings.
Available Texture finish: Standard & Premier paint grade
BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.
Note : For Insulite manufactured at Stocks Blocks Ltd, Leeds, use a protected thermal conductivity of 0.40 W/mK

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4

75 0.18 108 43 10.0 2 75 96 9.6

90 0.21 124 45 11.5 3 90 80 8.0

100 72 or 90 7.2 or 9.0


100 0.24 138 46 13.8 4
(Void Pack) (84 or 86) (8.4 or 8.6)
140 60 6.0
140 0.33 193 49 19.3 6
(Void Pack) (56) (5.6)

190 0.45 262 52 24.5 6 190 40 4.0

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
Void packs are only available from our
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.
Silloth and Rowlands Gill sites.

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DENSE
Solid Dense Concrete Blocks

Dense Concrete blocks are the most durable and resilient block
type in our range of products. Perfect for applications requiring
high loadbearing capacity, high acoustic performance and
unfinished facing applications.
Our Products

Dense blocks are manufactured from high quality Class 2


aggregates and consist of up to 30% recycled raw material.
Available in Standard and Fairtex fair-faced finishes.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner & outer leaf of external cavity


Property Value walls over 3 storeys.

Internal partition walls.


Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 440mm x 215mm
Block & beam floor infill.
Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1

Gross Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1900 - 2100 kg/m Walls below dpc.
7.3, 10.4 N/mm Acoustic separating walls to Part E of the
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1):

Building Regulations and Robust Details.
Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II
1.13 W/mK (Protected inner leaf) Standard texture finish provides an
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 1.21 W/mK (exposed outer leaf) excellent surface for mortars, renders and
Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m plasters. Fairtex close textured finish
available for fair-faced applications.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
Lower weight, safer handling, easy to cut
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Solid - Group 1 and accepts most standard and heavy-duty
Available Texture finish: Standard & Fairtex fair-faced fixings.

BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4

75 0.07 151 45 14.3 2 75 96 9.6

90 0.08 179 48 17.2 3 90 80 8.0

100 0.09 199 49 18.8 4 100 72 7.2


(Void Pack) (86) (8.6)
140 48 4.8
140 0.12 278 52 26.6 6
(Void Pack) (44) (4.4)

215 0.19 427 55 40.5 6 215 32 3.2

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
Void packs are only available from our
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.
Silloth and Rowlands Gill sites.

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MIDI
Solid Dense Concrete Blocks

MIDI blocks offer the same characteristics of a 140mm solid


dense concrete block but at only 66% of the weight. This means
a lighter block with easier manual handling.

MIDI blocks are manufactured from high quality Class 2

Our Products
aggregates and consist of up to 30% recycled raw material.

Available in Standard and Fairtex finishes.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner & outer leaf of external cavity


Property Value walls over 3 storeys.
290mm x 215mm Internal partition walls.
Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 300mm x 215mm

Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1 Walls below dpc.

Gross Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1900 - 2100 kg/m Acoustic separating walls to Part E of the
7.3, 10.4 N/mm Building Regulations and Robust Details.
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1):

Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II
Standard texture finish provides an
excellent surface for mortars, renders and
1.13 W/mK (Protected inner leaf)
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 1.21 W/mK (exposed outer leaf)
plasters. Fairtex close textured finish
available for fair-faced applications.
Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m
Lower weight, safer handling, easy to cut
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
and accepts most standard and heavy-duty
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Solid - Group 1 fixings.
Available Texture finish: Standard & Fairtex fair-faced BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4
290 x 215 x 290 x 215 x
0.12 278 52 17.6 6 72 4.8
140 140
300 x 215 x 300 x 215 x
0.12 278 52 18.0 6 72 5.0
140 140

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 13


CELLULAR
Dense Concrete Blocks

Cellular Dense blocks offer a lower weight alternative to solid


Dense blocks with improved thermal properties. Blinded cells on
the upper face allows for a full bed of mortar and easier build.
Our Products

Cellular Dense blocks are manufactured from high quality Class 2


aggregates and consist of up to 30% recycled raw material.

Available in Standard texture only.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner & outer leaf of external cavity


Property Value walls up to 3 storeys.

Internal partition walls.


Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 440mm x 215mm
Standard texture finish provides an
Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1
excellent surface for mortars, renders and
Net Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1900 - 2100 kg/m plasters. Fairtex close textured finish
available for fair-faced applications.
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1): 7.3 N/mm
Lower weight, safer handling, easy to cut
Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II
and accepts most standard and heavy-duty
0.88 W/mK (Protected inner leaf)
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 0.92 W/mK (exposed outer leaf)
fixings.
Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire

Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Cellular - Group 2

Available Texture finish: Standard only

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4

100 0.11 158 47 14.8 3 100 90 9.0

140 60 6.0
140 0.16 227 50 21.3 6
(Void Pack) (56) (5.6)

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
Void packs of Cellular Dense are only
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.
available from our Silloth site.

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HOLLOW
Dense Concrete Blocks

Hollow Dense blocks are ideal for agricultural, industrial and


commercial applications. Strong reinforced walls can be
constructed quickly and economically.

Our Products
Hollow Dense blocks are manufactured from high quality Class 2
aggregates and consist of up to 30% recycled raw materials.

Available in Standard texture only.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Agricultural and commercial


Property Value applications where large, external wall
panels are required, e.g. sheds, bunkers
Face Size (BS EN 771-3): 440mm x 215mm and retaining walls.

Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1 Some or all of the cores can be filled with
poured concrete and steel rebar to form
Net Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1900 - 2100 kg/m extremely strong reinforced walls with
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1): 7.3 N/mm high resistance to lateral loads. Ideal for
lining swimming pools, ponds etc.
Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II
0.88 W/mK (Protected inner leaf)
Standard texture finish provides an
Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 0.92 W/mK (exposed outer leaf) excellent surface for mortars, renders and
Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m
plasters. Fairtex close textured finish
available for fair-faced applications.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
Half the equivalent weight of a solid block
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Hollow - Group 2 of the same thickness.
Available Texture finish: Standard only

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks m per
mm mk/W kg/m Rw, dB kg Hours mm per pack pack
See Note 1 See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4

140 0.16 210 50 19.6 4 140 60 6.0

190 0.17 285 51 23.5 4 190 40 4.0

215 0.24 282 52 26.0 6 215 40 4.0

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides. Pack sizes and quantities vary slightly
2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides. between manufacturing locations. Always
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from check details with your nearest sales office.
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 15


ARMSTART
Medium Density Aggregate Foundation Blocks

Armstart Foundation blocks are available in a range of width and


length combinations to provide solid foundation walls for a
variety of wall thicknesses.
Our Products

Solid foundation walls are quicker, more cost-effective and safer


to construct than cavity foundation walls and all Armstart blocks
weigh less than 20kg for ease of manual handling.

Armstart blocks consist of up to 30% recycled raw material.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Solid foundation walls from 250mm -


Property Value 350mm thick to suit cavity widths of
75mm - 150mm.
300mm x 250mm x 140mm
300mm x 275mm x 140mm
Face Size (BS EN 771-3):
320mm x 280mm x 140mm
Each block offers 2 alternative widths.
350mm x 250mm x 140mm
A simple and safer alternative to cavity
Dimensional Tolerance (BS EN 772-16): Category D1 foundation walls; no wall ties required,
cavity filling or danger of collapsed
Gross Dry Density (BS EN 772-13): 1350 - 1450 kg/m
cavities, faster build rates, less mortar and
7.3 N/mm
Mean Compressive Strength (BS EN 772-1): repetitive manual handling required.

Manufacturing Category (BS EN 771-3): Category II Suitable for use in soil conditions up to DS-3
as defined in BRE Special Digest 1.
Design Thermal Conductivity (BS EN 1745): 0.42 W/mK

Moisture Movement (BS EN 772014): 0.06 mm/m


Higher strengths available to order to suit
both low an high-rise buildings.
Fire Resistance (BS EN 13501-1): Class 1 Reaction to Fire
All Armstart blocks are below 20kg in
Configuration (BS EN 1996-1-1): Solid - Group 1 weight to comply with HSE and CDM
guidelines on repetitive manual handling
Available Texture finish: Standard finish only
safety.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES & PACK DETAILS

Block 1. Block weights quoted above are


Blocks per Blocks Linear m
Size weight,kg Pack per m per pack
approximate and include the
Laying Orientation typical additional weight from
mm
See Note 1 See Note 2 the natural moisture content
although this can vary slightly.
21.5 22.32 If walled 300mm length (a 250mm wide wall)
300 x 250 15.2 72
25.6 18.72 If walled 250mm length (a 300mm wide wall)
2. Pack size quantities may vary
between manufacturing
21.5 22.32 If walled 300mm length (a 275mm wide wall) locations. Always check details
300 x 275 16.7 72
23.4 20.52 If walled 275mm length (a 300mm wide wall)
with your nearest sales office.

20.2 17.82 If walled 320mm length (a 280mm wide wall)


320 x 280 18.2 54
23.0 15.66 If walled 280mm length (a 320mm wide wall)

18.5 17.28 If walled 350mm length (a 250mm wide wall)


350 x 250 17.8 48
25.6 12.48 If walled 250mm length (a 350mm wide wall)

16 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


BRICKS
Coursing Blocks & Concrete Commons

We produce Insulite, Dense Concrete Common and Airtec


coursing units for infill around openings and adjustment of
coursing heights reducing the need to cut down whole blocks.

Our Products
Furthermore, by supplying coursing units in all block grades,
continuity of material type can be maintained throughout the
build helping to avoid differential movement problems and
maximise thermal performance.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner and outer leaf of external


Insulite Concrete Airtec
Property
Brickettes Commons Brickettes
cavity walls over 3 storeys.

65mm x 215mm Internal partition walls.


Face Size: 65mm x 215mm
73mm x 215mm
65mm x 215mm

Dimensional Tolerance: Category D1 Walls below dpc.


Gross Dry Density: 1350 - 1450 kg/m 1900 - 2100 kg/m 460, 530 & 730 kg/m
Acoustic separating walls to Part
Mean Compressive Strength: 7.3, 10.4 N/mm 21.0 N/mm 2.9, 3.6 & 7.3 N/mm
E of the Building Regulations
and Robust Details.
Manufacturing Category: Category II Category I
Standard texture finish provides
Thermal Conductivity: 0.42 W/mK 1.13 W/mK 0.09, 0.11, 0.17 W/mK an excellent surface for mortars,
renders and plasters.
Moisture Movement: 0.06 mm/m

Fire Resistance: Class A1 Reaction to Fire A range of thicknesses available


to suit most typical wall types.
Configuration: Solid Group 1 Frogged upper face Solid Group 1

Available Texture, Finish: Standard only

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES & PACK DETAILS

Pack sizes and quantities may vary


Blocks Block Weight between manufacturing locations.
Block Type m per pack Blocks per m Pack details
per pack kg Always check details with your
nearest sales office.
Insulite Brickettes 520 2.3 8.67 60 Non-void pack on
wooden pallets
Void packed coursing units are only
65mm Dense Non-void pack on
416 3.0 7.02 60 available from our Silloth factory.
Concrete Commons wooden pallets
65mm Dense
424 3.0 7.07 60 Voided pack
Concrete Commons
73mm Dense
360 3.3 6.67 54 Voided pack
Concrete Commons
520 (100mm) 0.66 - 1.05 kg 8.78
468 (115mm) 0.74 - 1.17 kg 7.90 Non-void pack on
Airtec Brickettes 59.26
416 (140mm) 0.92 - 1.47 kg 7.02 wooden pallets
364 (150mm) 0.99 - 1.58 kg 6.14

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 17


SPECIAL PRODUCTS
Slip Blocks, Infill Blocks, Rockfaced Blocks

We produce a wide range of slip blocks for maintaining coursing


heights and infill blocks for block & beam flooring. When used in
conjunction with our Insulite or Dense Concrete blocks, they
ensure material continuity throughout the construction.
Our Products

Decorative Rockfaced blocks are available from our Congleton


and Aintree facilities.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Size Material Strength Density Blocks per Slip blocks used to maintain coursing height on adjoining
Length x Width x Height Type N/mm kg/m pack
masonry wall for 150mm and 225mm high T-beams.

The 225 split coursing


440mm x 100mm x 38mm Insulite 7.3 1350 - 1450 336
block can be used to
course when using a
Dense
440mm x 100mm x 38mm 7.3 1900 - 2100 294 225mm high beam on a
Concrete
100mm block wall.
Dense
440mm x 140mm x 40mm 7.3 1900 - 2100 252
Concrete
380mm long split coursing blocks are used to close the space
150 Split Coursing blocks Dense
7.3 1900 - 2100 304 between the beams at the ends (for blocks laid 440mm wide and
380mm x 100mm x 38mm Concrete
a 525mm beam spacing).
225 Split Coursing blocks Dense
7.3 1900 - 2100 128
380mm x 100mm x 113mm Concrete

Large End Closure Block Dense


7.3 1900 - 2100 48
505mm x 140mm x 100mm Concrete
For a 150mm high beam For a 225mm beam
Small End Closure Block Dense
7.3 1900 - 2100 96
205mm x 140mm x 100mm Concrete

REBATED INFILL CLOSURE BLOCKS


Standard Dense Concrete, 7.3 N/mm, 1900 - 2100 kg/m

Weight per Type C Block Type D Block


Size Blocks per
pack
Length x Width x Height pack
Tonnes
Type C Block (half-depth)
72 1.17
440mm x 215mm x 100mm

Type D Block (half-depth)


215mm x 215mm x 100mm
144 1.13 Type F Block Type G Block

Type G Block (full-depth)


72 1.19
440mm x 140mm x 150mm

Type F Block (full-depth)


96 1.15
215mm x 215mm x 150mm

ROCKFACED BLOCKS Light coloured decorative facing blocks

Strength Density Blocks per


Size Material
N/mm kg/m pack

440mm x 215mm x
Dense Concrete 10.4 2000 - 2200 56
100mm
Note: Packs are supplied on wooden pallets

18 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


AIRTEC
Aerated Concrete Blocks

Airtec blocks possess unrivalled technical properties and physical


characteristics. They have the lowest available thermal
conductivity values of any UK manufactured block and the
tightest possible mortar designation TLMB (Thin Layer Mortar B).

Our Products
All Airtec blocks are BBA certified, manufactured to Category I
standard, ISO 9001 Quality assured and ISO 14001
Environmentally accredited.

TECHNICAL PROPERTIES APPLICATIONS

Inner and outer leaf of external cavity


Airtec Airtec Airtec Party Airtec Airtec
XL Standard Wall Seven Ten walls.

Dry Density,
460 530 600 730 810
Internal partition walls.
kg/m
Compressive Strength, Walls below dpc.
2.9 3.6 3.6 7.3 8.7
N/mm
Thermal Conductivity, Acoustic separating walls to Part E of the
0.09 0.11 0.13 0.17 0.19
W/mK Building Regulations and Robust Details.
Available Thicknesses,
100 - 215 100 - 215 100 100 - 215 100 - 140 Standard texture finish provides an
mm
excellent surface for mortars, renders
Suitable for block & beam
floor infill and plasters.
Large Format blocks
available Very low weight, safer handling, easy to
cut, drill & chase. Accepts a range of
Solid Foundation blocks
available aerated block light to heavy-duty fixings.

BRE Green Guide A+ rated walls.

PHYSICAL PROPERTIES (selected blocks; please refer to Airtec Brochure for full details) PACK DETAILS

Walled Sound Block Fire


Block Size R Value
Weight Reduction Weight Resistance Block Size Blocks per
m per pack
kg/m Rw, Db kg Hours mm pack
mm mK/W
See Note 2 See Note 3 See Note 4
See Note 1
100mm 100 56 7.94
1.11 54 39 6.3 4
Airtec XL
100mm 140 40 5.67
0.91 61 40 7.3 4
Airtec Standard
100mm 275 x 140
0.59 79 42 10.0 4 30 2.84
Airtec Seven Foundations
140mm 300 x 140
1.56 76 41 8.8 4 30 2.84
Airtec XL Foundations
140mm 275 x 215
1.27 85 42 10.2 4 20 2.84
Airtec Standard Foundations
140mm 300 x 215
0.82 111 44 14.0 4 20 2.84
Airtec Seven Foundations
100mm Airtec Large
0.77 67 40 8.2 4 28 7.47
Party Wall Block 620 x 430 x 100

1. Walled weight is for a single-leaf wall, plastered on both sides.


2. Sound Reduction Rw values are based on wall mass and assumes a plastered finish on both sides.
3. The block weights quoted above are approximate and include the typical additional weight from
the natural moisture content of the block, although this can vary slightly.
4. Fire resistance periods to BS 5628-3 for a single-leaf, non-loadbearing plastered wall.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 19


Technical Performance
Fire Page 21
Thermal Page 22 & 23
Acoustic Page 24 & 25
Air Tightness Page 26
Structural Page 27
Technical Performance

20 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Fire

Thefollowingtablesshowthenominalreresistanceperiods
Historically, buildings formed from masonry have
forourvariousblocktypes.Theguresareinaccordancewith
proven time and again to be among the safest and most BS 5628-3 and BS EN 1996-1-2.
reliable fire-resistant building methods available. This is
true both during the construction phase and for the Ultralite Blocks & Insulite Blocks
entire lifetime of the building.
Block Loadbearing wall Non-Loadbearing Wall
mm No Finish VG plaster No Finish VG plaster
All of the concrete blocks in our range are non-
90 1 hours 2 hours 2 hours 4 hours
combustible with zero spread of flame and are classed
100 2 hours 4 hours 2 hours 6 hours
as category A1 in accordance with BS EN 13501-1.
140 3 hours 4 hours 4 hours 6 hours

Technical Performance
Solid Dense Blocks

Block Loadbearing wall Non-Loadbearing Wall


mm No Finish VG plaster No Finish VG plaster

90 1 hours 2 hours 1.5 hours 3 hours

100 2 hours 4 hours 2 hours 4 hours

140 2 hours 4 hours 3 hours 6 hours

Hollow Dense Blocks

Block Loadbearing wall Non-Loadbearing Wall


mm No Finish VG plaster No Finish VG plaster

140 3 hours 4 hours N/A N/A

190 4 hours 4 hours 30 mins 1 hour

215 6 hours 6 hours 30 mins 2 hours

Cellular Dense Blocks

Block Non-Loadbearing wall


mm No Finish VG plaster

100 2 hours 3 hours

140 3 hours 6 hours

Airtec Aerated Blocks

Block
Loadbearing wall Non-Loadbearing Wall
mm
No Finish VG plaster No Finish VG plaster

100 2 hours 3 hours 4 hours 4 hours

140 3 hours 3 hours 4 hours 4 hours

215 6 hours 6 hours 6 hours 6 hours

VG vermiculite / gypsum plaster or pearlite / gypsum plaster 13mm thick


applied to both faces of the single leaf wall.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 21


Thermal

Linear Thermal Bridging


Our wide range of block types and thermal
conductivities give the builder multiple options for Higher thermal performance and airtightness requirements has increased the
significance of heat loss at junctions and must be accounted for in SAP
finding the most practical and economical solution for calculations.
meeting target u-values. Furthermore, exceptionally
Simply put, the detail of each junction between each building element
low u-values can be achieved resulting in improved SAP throughout the property (e.g. wall/window, floor/wall junctions) must be
ratings with the possibility of reducing the amount of assessedindividuallytogiveapsivalueforthatjunction.Thepsivaluesare
then added together to give an overall Linear Thermal Bridging figure for the
additional and expensive energy saving measures. property; its y-value. There are currently 3 options for determining the overall
y-value of a building:

Performance Requirements: Part L of the Building


Technical Performance

Regulaons 2010 Opon 1 Do nothing use a y-value of 0.15


If the designer does not account for each thermal bridge, then a default y-
In October 2010, Approved Document L of the Building Regulations
value of 0.15 must be applied in SAP 2009 which will be significantly
(England & Wales) was introduced. There were a number of disadvantageous in achieving desired DER and % reduction in CO2 requirements.
important changes to the 2006 version all of which aim to improve The only way to gain a pass in SAP would be to use Photo Voltaic or
CO2 emissions by 25% over the 2006 regulations. The key changes renewables at relatively high expense.
include:
Opon 2 Use figures from table K1 in the guidance to SAP 2009
Improved limiting u-values for building elements In the absence of any approved government scheme, it is permitted to
use the accredited values in table K1 found in the guidance for SAP
Party wall u-values (aka Party Wall Bypass)
2009 for the purposes of SAP calculations. An overall y-value of around
Improved Airtightness Requirements 0.08 would be expected. Once an Accredited Construction Detail (ACD) scheme
Linear Thermal Bridging is up and running, on- site inspections of the as-built vs design will need to be
carried out by inspectors.
These measures are part of the fabric first approach which basically
attempts to get the building as thermally efficient as possible before adding
Opon 3 Use specific modelled junctions
on the renewables and other energy-saving techniques. This is the
valuesforspecificjunctionsusingspecificbuildingmaterialscanbe
most sensible approach and it is anticipated that the next revision of Part L
calculated by trained, approved persons. These can lead to y-values of
in 2013 will continue this concept.
0.04 or lower which can greatly reduce the need for Photovoltaic etc in order to
achieve SAP target DER figures.

Liming U-Values No site inspection is required but a 25%, or 0.02 confidence factor
(whicheveristhegreater)mustbeaddedtoeachvalue.Nevertheless
using modelled junctions result in better values than any ACD scheme
Part L1 A Part L1 B and can result in significant cost savings for the builder.
Element
New Build Existing Dwellings

External Walls 0.30 W/mK 0.28 W/mk

Floors 0.25 W/mK 0.22 W/mK


Thermal Bridging - Current Status:
For Ultralite, Insulite and Dense Concrete blocks, use table K1 values
In practice, lower u-values than the limiting values shown above are (opon 2 above).
aimedfortohelpachievetherequired%reductioninCOintheSAP
assessment. The page opposite show tables of u-values for common For Airtec blocks, Opon 3 may be used. As part of the Aerated Products
constructions using our blocks giving examples of how certain levels of Association (APA) there are over 30 modelled junctions available from
u-values can be met. Constructive Details Limited which are being continually updated.

These modelled junctions are available at www.constructivedetails.co.uk


Party Wall Bypass
Please contact us for details or visit our website
A new concept introduced into Part L 2010 is the Party Wall bypass. The
www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk
theory is that heat can be lost from the dwelling up through the cavity
party wall and that therefore this heat loss must be accounted for in SAP.

22 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Example U-Values

Cavity Walls, Paral Fill : Brick outer leaf | 50mm clear cavity | Insulaon | 100mm block inner leaf | plasterboard on dot & dab

0.28 0.22 0.18 0.15

70mm Kingspan / Celotex 90mm Kingspan / Celotex 115mm Kingspan / Celotex


Ultralite 50mm Kingspan / Celotex
65mm Kingspan K8 85mm Kingspan K8 105mm Kingspan K8
70mm Kingspan / Celotex 95mm Kingspan / Celotex 115mm Kingspan / Celotex
Insulite 50mm Kingspan / Celotex
65mm Kingspan K8 85mm Kingspan K8 105m m Kingspan K8
75mm Kingspan / Celotex 95mm Kingspan / Celotex 120mm Kingspan / Celotex
Solid Dense 55mm Kingspan / Celotex
70mm Kingspan K8 90mm Kingspan K8 110m m Kingspan K8
75mm Kingspan / Celotex 95mm Kingspan / Celotex 120mm Kingspan / Celotex
Cellular Dense 55mm Kingspan / Celotex
70mm Kingspan K8 90mm Kingspan K8 110mm Kingspan K8
55mm Kingspan / Celotex 80mm Kingspan / Celotex 100mm Kingspan / Celotex
Airtec XL 35mm Kingspan / Celotex
50mm Kingspan K8 70mm Kingspan K8 95mm Kingspan K8

Technical Performance
Cavity Walls, Fully Filled : Brickouterleaf|Fullylledcavity|100mmblockinnerleaf|plasterboardorinsulateddryliningondot&dab

0.28 0.22 0.18 0.15

100mm Xtratherm 100mm Xtratherm Cavitytherm


Ultralite 100mm Dritherm 37 125mm Dritherm 34
Cavitytherm + 25mm Thermaline Super
150mm Springvale 100mm Xtratherm Cavitytherm
Insulite 100mm Dritherm 34 125mm Dritherm 32
Planum or Plustherm + 30mm Thermaline Super
125mm Springvale Pla 150mm Springvale 100mm Xtratherm Cavitytherm
Solid Dense 100mm Dritherm 32
num or Plustherm Planum or Plustherm + 35mm Thermaline Super
150mm Springvale 100mm Xtratherm Cavitytherm
Cellular Dense 100mm Dritherm 32 125mm Dritherm 32
Planum or Plustherm + 35mm Thermaline Super
100mm Xtratherm Cavitytherm
Airtec XL 90mm Blown Rockwool 125mm Dritherm 37 125mm Dritherm 32
+ 20mm Thermaline Super

Solid Walls, External Insulaon : Brick slip or render outer leaf | Insulaon|215mmsolidblockwall|wetplasterinternalnish

0.16 0.14 0.12 0.10

165mm Neopor 190mm Neopor 235mm Neopor 275mm Neopor


Ultralite 105mm Kingspan K5 120mm Kingspan K5 145mm Kingspan K5 175mm Kingspan K5
175mm Neopor 200mm Neopor 235mm Neopor 285mm Neopor
Insulite
110mm Kingspan K5 125mm Kingspan K5 150mm Kingspan K5 180mm Kingspan K5
180mm Neopor 210mm Neopor 245mm Neopor 295mm Neopor
Solid Dense 115mm Kingspan K5 130mm Kingspan K5 155mm Kingspan K5 185mm Kingspan K5
130mm Neopor 155mm Neopor 190mm Neopor 240mm Neopor
Airtec Standard 80mm Kingspan K5 100mm Kingspan K5 120mm Kingspan K5 150mm Kingspan K5

Suspended Block & Beam Floors : 100mm block between 150mm T-beams | Insulaon | 65mm screed

0.22 W/mK 0.18 W/m2K 0.16 W/m2K


Block Insulaon P/A P/A P/A P/A P/A P/A P/A P/A P/A
Inll Type 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.60 0.50 0.40
EPS 105mm 100mm 90mm 140mm 135mm 130mm 165mm 160mm 155mm
Extruded 90mm 85mm 80mm 125mm 120mm 110mm 145mm 140mm 135mm
Insulite Low-k EPS 85mm 80mm 75mm 110mm 110mm 100mm 130mm 130mm 120mm
PIR / PU 60mm 60mm 55mm 85mm 80mm 75mm 100mm 95mm 90mm

EPS 110mm 105mm 95mm 145mm 140mm 130mm 170mm 165mm 155mm
EPS : Expanded Polystyrene Solid Extruded 95mm 90mm 85mm 125mm 120mm 115mm 150mm 145mm 135mm
Dense Low-k EPS 85mm 85mm 75mm 115mm 110mm 105mm 135mm 130mm 125mm
Extruded : Extruded Polystyrene PIR / PU 65mm 60mm 55mm 85mm 80mm 80mm 100mm 95mm 90mm

Low-k EPS : EPS with graphite EPS 90mm 85mm 80mm 130mm 125mm 115mm 155mm 150mm 140mm
Airtec
coating Extruded 80mm 75mm 70mm 110mm 105mm 100mm 135mm 130mm 120mm
Large Low-k EPS 75mm 70mm 65mm 100mm 100mm 85mm 120mm 115mm 110mm
PIR / PU : Polyisocyanurate or Format PIR / PU 55mm 50mm 45mm 75mm 70mm 70mm 90mm 85mm 80mm
Polyurethane

For a more extensive range of example wall u-values, please visit the Concrete Blocks secon of our website www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 23


Acoustic

With an extensive range of block types available, we Route to Compliance : Pre Completion Testing, PCT
can offer effective, proven and cost-effective solutions PCT is intended to demonstrated compliance with requirement e E1 of
Approved Document E of the Building Regulations. This applies to dwellings and
to acoustic performance requirements whether it be
residential buildings. Approved Document E includes a number of example wall
achieving compliance with Building Regulations, Robust and floor constructions which, if constructed in accordance with the guidance,
should achieve the acoustic performance in order to comply to the regulations.
Details or higher-level performance criteria.
PCT must however be carried out to demonstrate compliance.

For large developments there is a sampling approach that can be used so that
not every single separating wall or floor needs to be tested. The developer
needs to liaise with their local building control who will determine the
necessary sampling regime.

Requirements : Part E of the Building Regulations


Technical Performance

The table below is extracted from Approved Document E1 (ADE) of


the building regulations and shows the current performance values Route to Compliance : Robust Standard Details, RSDs
required of internal walls.
Robust Standard Details are a collection of various new-build separating wall
and floor constructions which if registered and built in strict accordance with
the detail (often referred to as a pattern) eliminates the need for PCT.
Airborne sound Impact sound
insulaon insulaon The principle behind the Robust Details approach is that each of these
(minimum values) (maximum values)
patterns have been extensively tested in real builds and have been shown to
DnT,w + Ctr LnT,w
exceed the Building Regulations minimum requirements by at least 5dB. RSD
constructions have been made as practical and as simple as possible and are
DWELLING HOUSES and FLATS Purpose Built
being constantly updated and added to as requirements and regulations
Separating Walls 45 dB - change.

Separating Floors & Stairs 45 dB 62 dB


In order to utilize the Robust Details approach, an application must be
DWELLING HOUSES and FLATS Formed by a material change of use registered with Robust Details Limited and a fee paid. Further details can be
found at www.robustdetails.com.
Separating Walls 43 dB -

Separating Floors & Stairs 43 dB 64 dB

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Purpose Built

Separating Walls 43 dB -

Separating Floors & Stairs 45 dB 62 dB

RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS formed by a material change of use

Separating Walls 43 dB -

Separating Floors & Stairs 43 dB 64 Db

NON-ACOUSTIC SEPARATING ELEMENTS: INTERNAL WALLS AND FLOORS - Dwellings


or Rooms for Residential Purposes - Purpose Built or Formed by a material change of
use. Airborne Sound Insulation Rw (minimum values)

Internal Walls and Floors 40 dB

SCHOOLS New Build

Internal Walls and Floors: Refer to guidance on meeting the requirements given in
Building Bulletin 93 The Acoustic Design of Schools published by DfES
The illustration above shows Robust Detail E-WM-1. There is a range of RSDs available for
Terms: Dwelling: Houses and flats; Residential: Hotels, hostels, residential care
homes, halls of residence, boarding houses which are blocks are suitable. Please contact our Technical Department for further
information.

24 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Decibel Ratings
The following table shows the predicted sound reduction Rw value of single-leaf junctions and the transmission of sound from other parts of the building and neighbouring

masonry walls using each of our block types. The predicted figures shown are based on structures. Cellular and Hollow blocks are not permitted for use in Robust Standard Detail

wall mass and calculations in accordance with BS 8233 and are intended for indicative separating walls or Type 1 Part E solid separating walls. We recommend the use of solid

purposes only. Actual tested performance may vary significantly and will be affected blocks for Part E separating walls .

by multiple factors including workmanship, wall ties, finishes, floor, roof & flanking

Thickness & Approximate Walled Weight Sound Reducon


Conguraon Block Weight (Dry, single leaf) (Single Leaf) Rw, dB Robust Details
Block Type Available?
mm kg kg/m2 Unnished Plastered DryLined

90 8.2 86 41 42 42

Ultralite 100 8.7 96 42 43 43

Technical Performance
140 12.6 134 45 46 46

90 11.5 124 44 45 45

100 13.8 138 45 46 46 Yes


Insulite
140 19.3 193 48 49 49 Yes

190 24.5 262 51 52 51

90 17.2 179 47 48 48

100 18.8 199 48 49 49 Yes

100 Cellular 14.8 158 46 47 47

Dense 140 26.6 278 52 52 52 Yes

140 Cellular 21.3 227 50 50 50

140 Hollow 19.6 210 49 50 50

215 Hollow 26.0 282 52 52 52

MIDI 290mm 140 17.6 278 52 52 52 Yes

MIDI 300mm 140 18.0 278 52 52 52 Yes

100 7.3 61 37 40 39

125 9.1 76 39 41 41

Airtec Standard 140 10.2 85 40 42 42

190 13.8 115 43 45 44

215 15.6 130 44 46 45

Airtec Party Wall 100 8.2 67 38 40 40 Yes

100 10.0 79 40 42 41 Yes

125 12.5 99 42 43 43 Yes

Airtec Seven 140 14.0 111 43 44 44 Yes

190 19.0 151 46 47 47

215 21.5 171 47 48 48

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 25


Air Tightness

The limiting value for air permeability has been set


at 10 m/hr/m tested at 50 pascals and the
requirements for on-site air permeability testing has
been increased over previous regulations.

For non-tested properties, the regulations say that


an additional 2 m/hr/m must be added to the
figure achieved for a tested property of the exact
same house type. In practice, designers are aiming
Technical Performance

for a maximum figure of 8 m/hr/m to ensure


compliance with Part L of the Building Regulations.

Masonry block walls using any type of Thomas


Armstrong concrete block have been shown to easily
achieve these figures provided that high standards of
workmanship during the build are maintained.
Figures of around 5 m/hr/m or less are
commonplace and routinely achieved in practice.

Air Permeability of Our Blocks


Blocks tested at 50 pascals; units in m3/hr/m2

Block Type 100mm 140mm

InsulitePremier(unnished,fairfaced) 2.67 2.17

InsuliteStandard(unnished) 2.37 1.76

Insulite Standard (painted) < 0.16 < 0.23

DenseConcrete(unnished,Fairtex) 3.18 3.64

Dense Concrete (painted) 0.49 0.73

AirtecStandard(unnished) 0.22 0.26

Airtec Standard (painted) < 0.1 <0.1

In practice, good air tightness of a building comes down to good


workmanship and site practice as much as the building materials
used.

A parge coat on the internal faces can contribute to exceptionally


low air permeability figures of 2.0 or less helping to achieve
Passivhaus or Code Level 4 requirements. However, the designer
has to be aware that the air quality may deteriorate posing health
risks for occupants and mechanical ventilation systems may have
to be employed to avoid condensation and associated risks.

26 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Structural

All of the products in our range are suitable for use in


meeting the UK structural Building Regulations and
codes currently in use:
Approved Document A of the Building Regulations
BS 5628 (Code of Practice for Use of Masonry)
BS EN 1996-1 (aka Eurocode 6)
BS 8103 (Structural Design of Low Rise Buildings)

The following rules of thumb for selecting block strength to storey

Technical Performance
height is taken from Approved Document A of the Building Regulations
England & Wales:

1 Storey

HS

3 Storeys

Characteristic Compressive Strength, fk


Cavity Internal
(of selected aggregate block types, 440mm long x 215mm high)
2 Storeys HS
Wall Wall

Mean Compressive strength of block, N/mm2


Cavity Internal
HS HS Block Size 3.6 7.3 10.4 15.0 17.5 22.5
Wall Wall

Solid (Group 1) blocks using designation iii (M4) mortar


This wall to be at
HS HS least 140mm thick 100mm 3.50 6.40 8.20 9.43 10.10 12.00
This wall to be at or 215mm thick in
least 140mm thick brickwork
or 215mm thick in 140mm 2.91 5.35 6.85 7.89 8.46 10.03
Hf brickwork below
groundoorlevelif 215mm 2.21 4.11 5.27 6.09 6.53 7.71
height Hf exceeds 1m
Cellular or Hollow (Group 2) blocks using designaon iii (M4) mortar

Aggregate & Aerated Concrete Masonry Unit Strength to BS EN 771-3 & 4


140mm 2.91 5.15 6.11 - - -

Condion A Block Strength 2.9 N/mm2


215mm 2.21 4.03 4.96 - - -
Condion B Block Strength 7.3 N/mm2
Blocks Laid Flat using designaon iii (M4) mortar
Condion C Block Strength 7.3 N/mm2
100mm 2.50 4.10 5.20 6.37 7.00 8.10
Where Hf is less than or equal to 1m, Condion A
Where Hf is greater than 1m, Condion B

Notes
Other Physical Properes of our blocks (all types)
1. If HS is not greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks should be
used as indicated in the key table above.
Modulus of Elascity (E):
2. If HS is greater than 2.7m, the compressive strength of bricks or blocks used in the wall E = (-520 + 4.7pdry) 500 N/mm2 where p is the block dry density
should be at least Condion B, or as indicated by the key, whichever is the greater.
Coecientoflinearexpansion:
3. If the external wall is solid construcon, the masonry units should have a compressive
8 x 10-6 K
strength of at least that shown for the internal leaf of a cavity wall in the same posion.

4. The guidance given in the diagram for walls for 2 & 3 storey buildings should only be SpecicHeatCapacity:
used to determine the compressive strength of masonry units where the roof construcon 1.05 kJ / kg / K
is of mber.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 27


Design & Detailing
Foundations and below dpc Page 29
Floors Page 30
Walls types Page 31
Movement control & wall ties Page 32 & 33
Design & Detailing

28 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Foundations & Below dpc

Our range of concrete blocks are resilient and


durable products most of which are perfectly
suitable for use below dpc and as foundation wall
blocks.

They are resilient to frost attack and are suitable for


use in most soil conditions encountered in the UK.
Use of blocks below ground should be carried out in
accordance with the recommendations contained in
BS 5628 - Part 3.

Criteria for suitability for use below ground Typical Solid Wall Foundation Section

The following block types are suitable for use below dpc in soil conditions
up to DS-3 as defined in BRE Special Digest 1:

Airtec Standard, Airtec Seven and Airtec Ten

Design & Detailing


Ultralite blocks of 7.3 N/mm compressive strength or above dpc
Insulite blocks of 7.3 N/mm compressive strength or above Weepholes
Dense Concrete blocks of any strength
Ground Level
Airtec XL 2.9 N/mm aerated blocks and Ultralite, Insulite or Dense
Concrete blocks of less than 7.3 N/mm compressive strength are not Solid Armstart or
recommended for use below dpc. Airtec Foundation
Block

Positioning of walls on solid foundation blocks


Sulphate Soil Conditions

Current building practice is such that wherever masonry is used below


ground level it is usually limited to the top 1 meter depth. At the same
time, sulphate levels in the top 1 meter of UK soils are rarely more severe
than class DS-1. It follows that the depth at which samples are taken to
enable the sulphate soil classification to be determined should be
indicative of the depth where the masonry is being used. BRE Special

Digest 1 draws attention to this.

Research by the BRE and the Concrete Block Association has shown that In general, walls should be positioned Where the external face of
the wall is at or near to the
surface carbonation of aggregate blocks enhances their sulphate so that the vertical centre line of the
edge of the foundation
resistance, the requirement being that blocks are surface carbonated for a wall aligns with the vertical centre line block, it is sufficient to
minimum of 10 days. Such exposure to air and surface carbonation will of the foundation wall as shown on ensure that the vertical
always take place without any special provisions between the time of the diagram above. centre line of the wall is
manufacture of the block and back-filling after construction. within the middle third of
the foundation width.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 29


Floors

Suspended block & beam floors are the most popular,


simple and cost-effective form of ground floor
construction in the UK. We offer a complete range of
concrete blocks, bricks and slip blocks for use in
suspended block & beam floors including Part E and
Robust Standard Detail acoustic separating floors.

Block & beam floors possess a number of distinct advantages over


other forms of floor construction:

Exactly the same blocks may be used for walls and floors therefore
simplifying the build process.

Long spans are readily achieved without intermediate support


Our Range of Special Floor Products
resulting in cost-savings and a quicker build.

Requirements for thermal, acoustic and fire resistance are easily We offer a number of coursing and infill blocks to suit most standard 150mm
achieved. and 225 deep T-beams.

A proven and reliable construction technique which eliminates the The diagrams below show sections for blocks laid 440mm wide and 215mm
Design & Detailing

effects of ground heave or shrinkage. wide. See page 18 for further details on our Special Products.

A versatile method which may be used for ground floors and


Slip Blocks / Split Course Blocks
intermediate floors. A safe method; once installed, the floor may be
used as a working platform.
525mm Centres

Slip blocks used to


150 Slip Block maintain coursing height
380mm x 38mm x 100mm on adjoining masonry
Specification of blocks suitable for use in floors wall for 150mm and
225mm high T-beams.
Insulite and Dense Concrete blocks:
Solid (Group 1) Standard grade Insulite or Dense Concrete walling blocks of 225 Slip Block
nominal dimensions 440mm x 100mm x 215mm with a compressive strength 380mm x 113mm x 100mm
of 7.3 N//mm (when tested in normal block-laying aspect).

Airtec aerated blocks: Rebated Infill Closure BlocksFull Depth


Airtec Large Format blocks with dimensions 620mm x 100mm x 430mm,
Airtec Seven 7.3 N/mm blocks with dimensions 620mm x 100mm x 215mm, 300mm
525mm Centres Centres
Airtec Ten 8.7 N/mm blocks with dimensions 620mm x 100mm x 215mm,
are suitable for use as infill blocks for block & beam flooring.
Type G Closure Block Type F Closure Block
The following block types are not recommended for use as block & beam
floor infill:

Rebated Infill Closure BlocksHalf Depth


Ultralite blocks of any strength To allow for a poured concrete topping for high mass Part E
Insulite or Dense Concrete blocks of less than 7.3 N/mm compressive and Robust Details acoustic floors (e.g. E-FC-6)
strength
Cellular or Hollow Concrete blocks
Airtec XL 2.9N, Airtec Standard 3.6N or Airtec Party Wall blocks
Type C Closure Block Type D Closure Block

30 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Wall Types

Our extensive range of blocks offer solutions for all types


of masonry walls, from internal partition walls to high
performance acoustic separating party walls compliant
with Part E of the Building Regulations and Robust
Standard Detail walls.

There are a number of basic rules of thumb to follow


when constructing various wall types which are outlined
here.

Design & Detailing


Internal Walls & Partitions Separating Party Walls External Walls Solid Walls
Any block from our range is suitable We recommend the use of solid All blocks within our range can be Blocks can be laid flat (i.e. a 215mm
for the construction of internal blocks for use in party walls used for external walls. They are not thick wall) to form a high-mass solid
partition walls and will provide a although cellular blocks may be used however intended to be left wall without any deterioration in
durable and robust building. as long as pre-completion acoustic unfinished and exposed to the strength. Airtec blocks should not be
testing is carried out. If using Robust elements due to the fact that laid flat and should only be used in
All blocks within our range are non- Standard Detail party walls however, concrete blocks in general are not their intended orientation to achieve
combustible and are categorised as only solid blocks may be used. fully resistant to moisture. Therefore, their full compressive strength. Airtec
Class A1 fire resistance in accordance external walls should be protected blocks are available in 190mm and
with the very latest standards and Party walls should always be from exposure by rendering or 215mm thickness for solid wall
will provide fire-resistant internal constructed without vertical cladding. construction.
walls. movement joints. Movement can be
accommodated by the use of If blocks are to be left unfinished on Solid walls can be used for internal
horizontal bed-joint reinforcement. an externally exposed wall, we walls, party walls and are particularly
Party walls should not be chased recommend the use of 190mm or effective when used for externally
and only approved Part E or Robust 215mm Hollow concrete blocks which insulated (EWI) solid walls also known
Detail wall ties should be used. will provide better resistance to rain as Super-insulated Masonry (SIM)
penetration than thinner, solid walls.
blocks. To aid resistance to moisture
ingress, all mortar joints must be fully SIM walls can eliminate cold bridging
filled and preferably tooled. Un- entirely, have zero interstitial
tooled and recessed mortar joints are condensation risk, provide a
more susceptible to rain penetration. completely watertight barrier and can
achieve exceptionally low u-values
using only 2 main layers.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 31


Movement Control & Wall Ties

Vertical Movement Joints Compressible


Movement joints can be Filler
formed by butting the block up
Internal walls of low-rise dwellings and houses do not normally require
against a 10mm strip of rigid
movement joints and the use of bed-joint reinforcement is usually
sufficient and movement joints are never usually required below dpc. filler which is left I place until
Movement joints are particularly suitable at the interfaces between the wall is completed. This can
dissimilar materials; at intersecting walls for example. For acoustic party remain in place or be removed.
walls, vertical movement joints should never be used. However, additional flexible
sealing will be required to Flexible Sealant
10 - 12mm deep
maintain airtightness placed at
Wherever possible, blockwork should be designed as a series of panels least 10mm deep to ensure a
separated by movement joints. Generally length should not exceed 3 x good bond. Stop beads should
height of the panel, except where bedjoint reinforcement is incorporated.
be used at the ends of the Flexible Sealant
Care must be taken when introducing wide window openings as the joint. 10 - 12mm deep

blockwork immediately above and below may exceed the 3 to 1


length/height ratio. Where possible storey height openings should be
designed, forming the masonry into discrete panels without interfering Movement joints should be
with the overall design aspect. (See diagram below). carried through external the
render layer if used and Flexible
formed using stainless steel Sealant
render stop beads. 10 - 12mm
deep

Bed and lap DPC over lintel


to form a slip plane and
avoid cracking
Design & Detailing

Bed Joint
Reinforcement

Not to exceed recommended


maximum length/height ratio

General Guidelines for Vertical Movement Joints:


Movement
Ultralite, Insulite and Dense Concrete block walls should be divided into Joint
approximately 6 - 10m long panels for internal walls and 6 - 8m long panels
for external walls. For Airtec block walls, the panels should be no longer
than 6m in length whether they be internal or external walls.

Each panel should be separated by a suitable vertical movement joint


Bed Joint
placed in an unobtrusive location (note: vertical movement joints are not Reinforcement
to be used in acoustic separating party walls).

The first movement joint should not be more than 3m distance from the
end of the wall or an internal / external corner or angle.

The adverse effects of movement can be minimised by protecting the


blockwork from the extremes of moisture during and after construction.
Recommendations can be found in BS 5628-3.

Overly strong mortars should be avoided to reduce the effect of movement


and to prevent the blocks from cracking. This is especially important for
Airtec block walls.

Additional wall ties should be placed either side of the movement joint
Additional wall ties should be placed either side of the
at every block course up the length of the joint and within 150mm of the
movement joint at every block course up the length of the joint
joint.
and within 150mm of the joint.

32 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Horizontal Movement Control
Bed joint reinforcement is particularly suitable for houses and low-rise dwellings
wherever a vertical movement joint is impractical and for acoustic separating
party walls where vertical movement joints are prohibited.

Horizontal movement control can be in the form of steel ladder-type mesh or


flexible movement control mesh (particularly designed for use with Airtec thin-
joint mortar construction).

Horizontal movement control is particularly effective at relieving stresses


around areas of point loading such as joists and lintels as well as above and
below openings such as doors and windows.

General Guidelines for horizontal movement control:

Horizontal movement control should be placed in the 2 courses above


and below any opening and below any area of higher stress such as
lintels and floor joists.

The reinforcement should extend at least 600mm beyond the width of Wall Ties
the opening into adjacent blockwork. (See diagram below).
Wall ties should be flexible enough to accommodate the relative
Ideally, the reinforcement should be of a suitable length so that any movement between both leaves of a cavity wall by stiff enough to
stresses are transmitted to vertical movement joints or adjacent areas of transmit axial loads. Stainless steel wall ties should be specified
blockwork. conforming to BS EN 845-2 or BS DD 140-2.

Design & Detailing


Reinforcement should normally have a mortar cover of at least 13mm
on the face of the internal blockwork and 25mm on the external
General Guidelines for Wall Ties:
blockwork faces.
For conventional 10mm mortar construction, butterfly or double triangle
Where a wall is supported by a floor, the first two courses above the type wall ties should be embedded at least 50mm into the mortar joint on
floor junction should be bed-joint reinforced. each leaf.

Masonry grade reinforcement should be used. Plastering grades are not When using partial-fill internal cavity insulation, suitable retaining devices
suitable. should be used to support the cavity insulation batts in position.

Reinforcement must never bridge a vertical movement joint. The leaves should be coursed so that the ties slope slightly down towards
the outer leaf and the drip is facing downwards in order to prevent water
A piece of dpc placed immediately below lintel bearings and joists will penetration across the cavity to the inner leaf.
provide a slip plane and additional protection from cracking in these
areas of higher stress.
Wall Tie Spacing and Positioning

Wall tie spacing and positioning should be in accordance with BS 5628


Additional wall ties should be with a tie density of 2.5 ties per m of wall.
Bed Joint
placed either side of the movement Ties should be evenly distributed over the entire wall area using a
Reinforcement
joint at every block course up the staggered pattern when both leaves are greater than 90mm thick.
length of the wall and within

150mm of the joint.


The distance from a vertical movement joint or the vertical edge of any
opening (e.g. door, window) should be no greater than 150mm (see
diagram opposite).

Leaf Cavity
Horizontal Vercal Ties
Thickness Width
Spacing Spacing per m2
mm mm
Additional wall ties should be

placed either side of an


Less than
50 75 450 mm 450 mm 4.9
mm opening at each course and 90mm
600
within 150mm of the edge of
mm
600 the opening. Over 90mm 50 - 150 900 mm 450 mm 2.5

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 33


Site Work
Storage & Laying of Blocks Page 35
Mortars and external renders Page 36 & 37
Internal finishes and fixings Page 38
Fixings Page 39
Sitework

34 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Storage and Laying of Blocks

Storage of Blocks Block Laying

General Good Practice for Site Storage of Blocks General Good Practice for block laying
Blocks should not be laid if the temperature is at or below 3C and falling
We can deliver on a variety of vehicles from 6-wheeler rigid wagons to unless it is at 1C and rising.
articulated crane and flat vehicles. Always be sure to check that the site can Remove all dirt and debris from the block surfaces.
accommodate safely the vehicle type requested.
Blocks should always be laid on a full bed of mortar and the vertical
Minimise repeated handling and lessen the potential for damage to product
perpend joints filled.
by storing in positions as near to the point of use as possible.
The cubed packs may vary in size and quantity depending on where they There is no need to wet the blocks before applying mortar. The
are manufactured and may or may not be delivered on wooden pallets. consistency of the mortar mix should be adjusted to suit the suction of
Some of our factories can supply voided packs for handling with forks the block. For example, a slightly thinner mortar mix would suit Airtec
without the need for a wooden pallet. blocks whose suction is higher than that of an Ultralite, Insulite or Dense
Always check load and pack details with your sales office to ensure that the Concrete block.
site is equipped with the correct offloading and handling equipment. When building cavity walls, both leaves should be brought up together.
However, if constructing using Airtec and thin-joint masonry the inner
leaf can be built ahead of the outer leaf for external cavity walls (refer to
Safety & Manual Handling the Thin Joint section opposite).

Packs should be stored on firm, level ground no more than 2 packs high and
protected from exposure to severe weather to preserve their quality. Block Bonding
Packs are banded and care must be taken when removing these bands as Blocks should be laid to achieve a good bond normally not less than one quarter
individual blocks may fall out. Never un-band packs above shoulder height. of the length of the block. Other patterns may require the inclusion of bed joint
reinforcement.
For blocks above 20kg in weight, manual handling precautions must be
taken on site. For further guidance on safe manual handling, see HSE
Construction Information Sheet 37 (CIS 37).
Protection of Finished Blockwork
Load units out to above knee height.
Blockwork should be protected from inclement weather with weatherproof
When cutting, drilling or chasing blocks, ensure that suitable eye protection
sheeting which must be properly tied down. Care must be taken to cover all of
is worn and if using mechanical cutting, suitable dust suppression and
the newly laid blockwork particularly if there is any possibility of extreme hot or
extraction measures should be provided on site.
cold weather.

Facing Blocks
We strive to ensure that our facing blocks are consistent in colour and texture

Sitework
from the factory that they are produced in. However, due to the use of natural
locally sourced aggregates, we cannot guarantee exact matches between
blocks produced at different times and appearance of the block will vary
between manufacturing locations.

If using Fairtex or Rockfaced facing blocks whose finished appearance is


critical, select blocks from more than one pack at a time during block laying to
reduce the risk of banding or patchiness on the finished wall which may result
on slight variability of shading from packs made on different days.

Efflorescence

Efflorescence on concrete blocks takes the form of a white crystalline deposit


on the block surface and is caused by natural water soluble salts drying out on
the surface. This is a completely natural and harmless effect than can Chasing
occasionally occur when concrete blocks are left exposed whose effects Vertical chasing should be restricted to the depth of the block thickness and
diminish over time as the soluble salts are washed away. Efflorescence is more for horizontal chasing, the depth of the block.
common in the winter months. Dry surface deposits can be removed using a
stiff brush and then any residues washed away with clean water preferably Chasing is not permitted in acoustic separating party walls and always avoid
under pressure. back to back chases in any type of wall.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 35


Mortars & External Renders

Mortars

Airtec, Ultralite, Insulite and Dense Concrete block surfaces offer an excellent
substrate for accepting mortars and no pre-treatment is required other than
ensuring that block surfaces are clean and free of dust and debris. Generally in
order to avoid unsightly cracking, the weakest mortar mixture appropriate to the
structural requirements should be selected as per BS 5628-3.

For most applications above dpc, we recommend that a Class iii designation mortar
is used.

There is no need to wet the blocks before applying mortar. The consistency of the
mortar mix should be adjusted to suit the suction of the block. For example, a slightly
thinner mortar mix would suit Airtec blocks whose suction is higher than that of an
Ultralite, Insulite or Dense Concrete block.

The following table shows the recommended mortar mixes for our blocks. A slightly
weaker mortar mix should be used wherever Airtec aerated concrete blocks are
used.

BS 5628-3
Recommended Mix Proporons of materials
Mortar
by volume (as per BS 5628-3)
Class
1 : 1 : 5 to 6 Cement : Lime : Sand
Above 1 : 5 to 6 Cement : Sand
iii
dpc 1 : 4 to 5 MasonryCement:Sand(withnonlimeller)
1 : 3 to 4 MasonryCement:Sand(withlimeller)

iii A stronger (class ii) mix is preferred below dpc see below.

Below 1 : : 4 to 4 Cement : Lime : Sand


dpc 1 : 3 to 4 Cement : Sand
ii
1 : 2 to 3 MasonryCement:Sand(withnonlimeller)
1 : 3 to 4 MasonryCement:Sand(withlimeller)

Airtec aerated blocks:


Use the weaker mix, e.g. 1 : 1 : 6 Cement : Lime : Sand
Sitework

Thin Joint Mortar for Airtec Blocks

Airtec aerated block walls can be constructed using either conventional 10mm
mortar joints with mixes as shown in the table above, or using 2mm Thin Joint
mortar.

Thin Joint mortar is widely available in the form of 25kg bags of dry, pre-mixed
powder. Mixing is simply done by adding water to the powder according to the
instructions on the bag and if made correctly will ensure that the correct mortar
strength is achieved for use with aerated blocks.

Further details of Thin Joint construction can be found on our website and in our
Thin Joint brochure which is available to download from
www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk

36 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


External Rendering Pretreatment of walls using close-textured blocks
(Airtec, Premier Insulite & Fairtex Dense blocks)

Standard texture Ultralite, Insulite and Dense Concrete blocks provide an excellent Airtec, Insulite Premier and Fairtex blocks have a close texture and
key for adhesion. These blocks have moderate suction and no special pre- therefore have less mechanical key for the render to adhere to than a
treatment of the surface is normally required other than ensuring that all dust and Standard texture block. Although not necessary in all circumstances, the
debris is removed. following steps can assure render adhesion even on the smoothest surfaces.

Pre-treatments or raking back mortar joints are advised on paint quality


Traditional renders should be applied in 2 coats. The first coat should not exceed
blocks using traditional renders and also may be necessary when using
15mm thickness and the second coat should be 5-7mm. The first coat should be
proprietary renders (see below). Aggregate blocks should not be wetted
slightly stronger than the second coat. Render designation M4/iii should be used.
prior to the application of coatings whereas Airtec blocks should be wetted
Recommended proportions are:
prior to applying renders in dry, warm conditions to overcome their natural
suction and prevent the render from drying out too quickly. Proprietary pre-
rendering treatments such as Rend-Aid can be applied if desired. Stipple or
Spatterdash coatings applied prior to rendering offer the very best solution
Cement : Lime : Cement : Sand Masonry Cement : Masonry Cement : for rendering onto close-textured blocks.
Sand Sand Sand
with or without air with or without withcementller with lime cement
entrainment air entrainment other than lime ller Background Number of
Block Type
pre-treatment rendering coats
1 : 1 : 5 or 6 1 : 5 or 6 1 : 4 or 5 1 : 3 to 4
Ultralite None 2

Good Practice for Applying External Renders Insulite Standard None 2

Clean all dirt and debris from the block surfaces. Insulite Premier Stipple or spatterdash coat 2 + pre-treatment
There is generally no need to wet the blocks prior to applying the render.
Dense Standard None 2
Rake back mortar joints to provide an additional mechanical key, particularly
if using closer textured blocks. Dense Fairtex Stipple or spatterdash coat 2 + pre-treatment
Mortar joints should be left rough and not struck off or tooled.
Airtec Wet, stipple or spatterdash coat 2 + pre-treatment
Movement joints in the background blockwork should be carried through the
render and be formed using stainless steel stop beads.
Stipple coat: A stipple coat mix should be prepared using one part of
Provision should be made for external fixings, brackets and supports prior to cement with one and a half parts of sharp sand made into a consistency of a
commencing rendering work. slurry with water and a bonding agent such as styrene butadiene rubber
Corner beads and stop beads suitable for external work should be used. (SBR). The mixture should be pushed into the surface with a coarse brush
and then dabbed with a refilled brush to give a coarse finish which should
Cement, lime, sand mixes without air entrainment are preferred. be protected from rapid drying out for a day and then left for an addition
Sands in accordance with BS EN 13139 should be used. Sands that are too day or two to harden before applying the first render coat.
fine tend to have high water demand.
Spatterdash coat: A spatterdash coat mix should be prepared using one
Mixes should be accurately gauged, the ingredients being thoroughly mixed
part of cement to 2 parts of coarse sand with just sufficient water
before adding the water. The minimum amount of water required to provide
containing a bonding agent such as styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) to form
a workable mix should be used.
a thick slurry. The spatterdash should be thrown against the background
Design detailing should ensure that there are good overhangs at eaves, sills with a small scoop to form a layer of 3-5mm thickness. The mix should be
Sitework
and other projections in order to throw rain away from walls. stirred regularly to prevent settlement. The spatterdash layer should be
protected from rapid drying out for a day and then left for an additional day
Rendering must not bridge the dpc.
or two to harden before applying the first render coat.

Proprietary one & two-coat Render Systems


For proprietary 2 coat renders the manufacturers literature should be
consulted for base coat and final coat recommended thicknesses but these
Weather Conditions
are generally similar to those for traditional renders.
The bonding and durability of rendered finishes is affected by the weather
conditions at the time of application. Proprietary single coat renders may also be used on aggregate block
backgrounds. These have often worked well but on several occasions single
In hot weather or where the wind can dry out the render too quickly, the coat proprietary renders have failed. The cause of the failures has not yet
applied render should be kept damp for the first 3 days with the use of been identified. Until it has and appropriate steps taken to avoid similar
protective sheeting. failures have been established we are unable to recommend the use of all
proprietary single coat renders.
The same protection is needed from driving rain and freezing conditions.
Where sheets are used, ensure that they are hung so as not to contact the We therefore recommend that the render manufacturer to be used is
applied render and cause chafing and scuffing. contacted to establish a). whether there is any history of problems with
their product on masonry and, b). their preparation and application
guidance for the background which should be followed strictly.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 37


Internal Finishes

Plasters

Airtec, Ultralite, Insulite and Dense Concrete blocks provide an excellent background
for accepting plasters. Cement, lime, sand plasters provide a tough surface against
impact damage and enhanced sound insulation. To obtain a smooth finish, the final
coat should be gypsum plaster because a cement, lime, sand mix does not generally
provide a smooth enough finish coat. Before applying the plaster, the block surfaces
must be cleaned and free of dust and debris. Adhesion can also be improved by raking
back mortar joints to provide an additional mechanical key. For closer-textured blocks,
a proprietary bonding agent can be used if desired.

Base Coat
Cement:lime:plas Finish Coat Notes
tering sand

1:2:9 A skim coat of


Dense Avoid rapid drying out
1:1:6 gypsum plaster
Plaster of base coat
Approx 10mm thick Approx 3mm thick

Light Proprietary gypsum plasters requiring only the


Never mix Portland
addionofwaterforbothbaseandnishcoatsare
weight available. Manufacturers instrucons must be
cement and gypsum
Plaster plaster.
strictly followed.

Drylining

Standard plasterboard and thermal laminate drylining boards can be applied directly
to blockwork using dabs or other proprietary adhesive. The adhesive manufacturers
instructions and recommendations should always be followed to ensure correct
adhesion.

Painting

Premier and Fairtex close-textured blocks can be painted directly with any alkali-
resistant emulsion paint, preferably plastic emulsion paint. Standard texture blocks
are not intended for direct painting due to their open texture but will accept paint if
desired. Similarly, Airtec blocks have smooth surfaces which will accept direct painting
but are not intended for a paint-grade finish as the block surface may contain a
number of larger air pockets; a natural and harmless result of the manufacturing
Sitework

process.

Newly built walls will be slightly damp and should be left to dry out before applying
paint. Some general good practice points for painting are:

Surfaces should be clean and free of dust and debris.

Alkali-resistant paints are the most preferred option but most paints are suitable.
Plastic emulsion paints are especially suitable.

The first coat should be thinner and left to dry. The final coat should be normal
thickness.

Tiling

A 1 : 5 cement : sand render mix applied in 2 coats with a final scratched surface
provides a suitable and strong background to adhere tiles to. No special preparation
of the standard-texture block surfaces is required before applying the render
although for close-textured surfaces, pretreatment of walls may be necessary (see
previous page). The cement : sand render should be left to dry out for around 2
weeks before applying the tiles.

38 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Fixings

Fixings can be used on all of our products wherever they be solid, General Good Practice Points for Fixings
cellular or hollow. However, considerations should be given to the use
For heavy duty applications involving potential loading and vibration
of solid blocks wherever heavy-duty fixings are required.
cycles, substitute any hollow blocks for solid blocks in the specific
areas prone to high stresses.
Ultralite, Insulite and Dense blocks have good pullout strength and
provide good grip using common expanding wall plugs. For Airtec Avoid placing the fixing within 50mm of the edge or top of the wall
blocks, fixings designed especially for use with aerated concrete wherever possible.
blocks should always be used.
Avoid fixing into mortar joints. If using chemical resin anchors, always
The following table shows a selection of block types vs application follow the manufacturers instructions.
and suitable fixings from Fischer and Hilti. There are other fixing
For Airtec aerated blocks, drill holes using HSS drill bits on a steady
manufacturers available whose equivalent products would be suitable.
constant speed without hammer-action. Masonry drill bits are not
Please contact our Technical Department for information.
recommended for Airtec blocks.

Block Type Light-duty Applications Medium-duty Applications Heavy-duty Applications

Fischer : SXS / SXR / UX Nylon Plugs Fischer : GB Anchor / Turbo Anchor Fischer : PBB Resin (FIS V360) Anchor System
Airtec (all grades) Hilti :HRD Hilti : HLC Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Fischer : SXS / SXR / UX Nylon Plugs with wood screws Fischer : SXR / FUR with Fischer safety screws Fischer : FIS V360s with M8 Studs
Ultralite 7.3 N Hilti :HRD Hilti : HLC / HRD Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Fischer : SXS / SXR / UX Nylon Plugs with wood screws Fischer : SXR / FUR with Fischer safety screws Fischer : FIS V360s with M8 Studs
Insulite 7.3 N Hilti :HRD Hilti : HLC / HRD Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Fischer : SXS / SXR / UX Nylon Plugs with wood screws Fischer : SXR / FUR with Fischer safety screws Fischer : FIS V360s with M8 Studs
Solid Dense 7.3 N
Hilti :HRD Hilti : HLC / HRD Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Fischer : SXS / SXR / UX Nylon Plugs with wood screws Fischer : SXR / FUR with Fischer safety screws Fischer : FIS V360s with M8 Studs
Solid Dense 10.4 N +
Hilti :HRD Hilti : HLC / HRD Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Fischer : SXS / UX Nylon Plugs Fischer : FUR with Fischer safety screws Fischer : FIS V360s with M8 Studs and Sieve
Cellular Dense 7.3 N
Hilti :HRD Hilti : HRD Hilti : HY 70 Resin Anchor System

Sitework
Light-Duty Fixings
Standard plastic plugs and screws are perfectly acceptable for most light- Airtec aerated concrete blocks
duty applications such as fixing shelves and standard wall units. For Airtec
blocks non-expandable fixings designed especially for aerated concrete Due to the cellular structure of
blocks must be used. Airtec aerated blocks, fixings
specifically designed for use with
aerated concrete blocks should
Medium-Duty Fixings
always be used.
Plastic plug and screws are perfectly acceptable for most medium-duty
Standard expandable wall plugs are
applications such as fixing kitchen units, frame fixing and external fixings.
not suitable for use with Airtec
For Airtec blocks fixings designed especially for aerated concrete blocks
blocks.
must be used.

Heavy Duty Fixings


Wherever heavy-duty fixings are required, solid Dense concrete blocks
should be considered where possible. However, resin anchor systems will
satisfy heavy-duty requirements for all of our block types and provide
excellent, irreversible anchorage. Expanding anchors are not recommended
for heavy-duty applications.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 39


Useful Information
Health and Safety Page 41
Haulage Details Page 42
Index Page 43
Useful Information

40 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Health & Safety

Lightweight aggregate, dense concrete and autoclaved aerated (Airtec) building blocks for walls,
DESCRIPTION: foundations and flooring applications manufactured in various grades of strength and density and a
range of sizes for use in the construction industry.

Ultralite: Cement, expanded clay aggregate


Insulite: Cement, over 90% recycled material (Furnace Bottom Ash, Glass Sand).
COMPOSITION:
Dense: Cement, Class 2 natural aggregates, up to 30% recycled material (Glass Sand).
Airtec: Cement, Lime, over 90% recycled raw material (Pulverised Fuel Ash, Anhydrite)

All blocks are inert and can be regarded as non-hazardous within the meaning of the Health and
Safety at Work Act 1974 and COSHH Regulations 1988.
GENERAL HAZARDS:
Suitable PPE (hard hat, gloves and safety footwear) should be worn as a maer of course when
building constructions using concrete blocks.

Avoid dust getting into the eyes by wearing suitable eye protection when carrying out any cutting,
drilling and chasing of blocks.
EYE:
First Aid measures: If dust should irritate the eyes, wash with copious amounts of clean water. Seek
medical advice if irritation persists.

Avoid abrasion by wearing suitable gloves and clothing.


SKIN:
First Aid Measures: wash with soap and water. Seek medical advice if irritation persists.

Wear a suitable dust-mask when carrying out operaonsthatcancreatedustsuchascutting,drill


INHALATION: ing, chasing. If using mechanical cung devices, adequate dust suppression and dust extraction
measures should be put in place wherever possible.

INGESTION: First Aid Measures: drink plenty of water. Do not induce vomiting as this can lead to choking.

The HSE Recommend a maximum of 20kg per block for single person repetitive lifting. Good manual
MANUAL HANDLING: handling practice should be employed at all times and specialist advice should be sought when
dealing with blocks over 20kg in repetitive handling situations.
ForfurtherguidanceseetheHSEleaetConstrucon Information Sheet (CIS) 37.

Supplied as banded packs, with or without wooden pallets and should be stored on firm, level
Useful Information

ground. Care should be taken when un-banding the packs as individual blocks may fall over. We
STORAGE: recommend a maximum of 2 packs high for storage on firm, level ground. On so, loose or uneven
grounddonotstackhigherthan1pack.ThomasArmstrongLtdwillnotacceptanyliabilityfordam
age to the product where the packs have been stored differently than in these recommendations.

Concrete blocks are inert and non-toxic and should be disposed of in accordance with local
DISPOSAL:
regulations.

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 41


Haulage Details

Our extensive fleet of delivery vehicles enables us to match


vehicle type to customer requirements and most site conditions
that can be encountered during delivery. From large articulated
wagons to small rigid vehicles we have the versatility to deal
with most situations and offer safe, value for money delivery of
blocks.

Pack quantities for certain block types can vary between manufacturing site
as can vehicle capacities. In some factories we can produce voided packs and
in others we cannot. It is therefore important to check and confirm details of
packs, vehicle capacities and site access with your nearest sales office before
delivery. The table below shows approximate load sizes for some of our
popular block types using different delivery vehicles but is by no means
comprehensive and should be used for indicative purposes. Important Delivery Terms & Condions

It is the customers responsibility to ensure that the site


Block Block Pack 6-wheeler 8-wheeler Arculated conditions are suitable for safe delivery and offloading of
Type Size Quanty Rigid Rigid Vehicle blocks. We reserve the right to refuse to offload if we assess
mm (16 tonnes) (19.5 tonnes) (27 tonnes) that the site conditions are not conducive to safe offloading.
72 blocks 20 - 21 packs 23 - 24 packs 29 - 30 packs
Ultralite 100 Blocks should be stored safely and protected from damage in
(7.2m2) 144.0 - 151.2m2 165.6 - 172.8m2 208.8 - 216.0m2
accordance with our recommended good practice as described
72 blocks 15 - 16 packs 18 - 19 packs 25 - 26 packs on pages 35 & 41. We cannot accept liability for damage
(7.2m2) 108.0 - 115.2m2 129.6 - 136.8m2 180.0 - 187.2m2
caused as a result of incorrect or unsafe storage of products.
90 blocks 12 - 13 packs 13 - 15 packs 19 - 21 packs
100 If our delivery driver is asked to offload in a situation that he
(9.0m2) 108.0 - 117.0m2 117.0 - 135.0m2 171.0 - 189.0m2
has assessed that damage to plant or property may occur as a
Void Pack 13 - 14 packs 14 - 16 packs 20 - 22 packs
Insulite consequence, we ask that a Disclaimer Form (carried by all of
86 blocks 111.8 - 120.4m2 120.4 - 137.6m2 172.0 - 189.2m2
our drivers) must be signed by site personnel before offloading
48 blocks 16 - 17 packs 19 - 20 packs 27 - 28 packs can commence.
(4.8m2) 76.8 - 81.6m2 91.2 - 96.0m2 129.6 - 134.4m2
140
60 blocks 12 - 13 packs 15 - 16 packs 20 - 22 packs We price deliveries on full load sizes. Part-load charges will be
(6.0m2) 72.0 - 78.0m2 90.0 - 96.0m2 120.0 - 132.0m2 incurred by the customer for partly filled vehicles although we
will take every measure possible to try and minimise additional
72 blocks 11 - 12 packs 14 - 15 packs 20 - 22 packs
(7.2m2) 79.2 - 86.4m2 100.8 - 108.0m2 144.0 - 158.4m2 charges to our customers.
100
Solid Void Pack 7 - 8 packs 10 - 12 packs 17 - 19 packs If our vehicle is stood waiting to be offloaded on site for over
Dense 86 blocks 60.2 - 68.8m2 86 - 103.2m2 146.2 - 163.4m2 half an hour, a Standing Time charge will be incurred and for
48 blocks 12 - 13 packs 14 - 16 packs 21 - 22 packs every additional hour that the vehicle is stood waiting
140
(4.8m2) 57.6 - 62.4m2 67.2 - 76.8m2 100.8 - 105.6m2 thereafter.
90 blocks 12 - 14 packs 14 - 15 packs 19 - 21 packs
100 If the customer has supplied incorrect order information to use
Cellular (9.0m2) 108.0 - 126.0m2 126.0 - 135.0m2 171.0 - 189.0m2
which results in the delivery being diverted or turned away,
Dense 48 blocks 18 - 19 packs 21 - 22 packs 29 - 30 packs
Useful Information

140 additional charges will be incurred including transport,


(4.8m2) 86.4 - 91.2m2 100.8 - 105.6m2 139.2 - 144.0m2
handling and restocking costs.
60 blocks 12 - 13 packs 15 - 16 packs 20 - 22 packs
140
(6.0m2) 72.0 - 78.0m2 90.0 - 96.0m2 120.0 - 132.0m2 We cannot guarantee specific time deliveries although we will
always do whatever we can to satisfy our customers
Hollow 40 blocks 14 - 15 packs 16 - 18 packs 24 - 25 packs
Dense (4.0m2) 56.0 - 60.0m2 64.0 - 72.0m2 96.0 - 100.0m2 requirements as far as possible.
215
32 blocks 20 - 21 packs 23 - 24 packs 29 - 30 packs When delivery has been agreed for a specific date, we cannot
(3.2m2) 64.0 - 67.2m2 73.6 - 76.8m2 92.8 - 96.0m2 accept liability for a failure to deliver if unplanned events
300 x 72 blocks 12 - 13 packs 14 - 15 packs 20 - 21 packs beyond our control such as accidents, congestion, severe
Armstart
275 (number) 864 - 936 blocks 1008 - 1080 blocks 1440 - 1512 blocks weather and breakdown results in a cancelled load.

42 | For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk


Index

A D M S

Acoustic performance 24, 25 Decibel Ratings 25 MIDI Blocks 13 Separating Walls 24, 25, 31

Air Permeability 26 Delivery 35, 42 Modulus of elasticity 27 Slip Blocks 18, 30

Air Tightness 26 Dense Concrete blocks 12 Mortars 36 Solid Dense blocks 12

Airtec 19 DPC 29 Movement Control 32 Sound Reduction 25

Anchors 39 Drylining 38 Movement Joint 32 Specific heat capacity 27

Armstart foundation blocks 16 Split Coursing Blocks 18, 30

E P Spread of Flame 21

B Efflorescence 35 Painting 38 Storage of Blocks 35

Bed Joint Reinforcement 32 Environmental Policy 4 Part A 27 Structure 27

Block & Beam flooring 30 External rendering 37 Part E 2006 24 Sulphate Soils 29

Block Laying 35 Pat L 2010 22 Suspended floors 30


F
Bonding of blocks 35 Plastering 38 Sustainability 4, 5
Fire Resistance 21
Bricks, Common 17 Pre-completion sound testing 24
Fixings 39
Bricks, lightweight 17 Protection of blockwork 35, 37 T
Floors 30
Pull-out strength 39 T-beams 30
Foundations 29
C Thermal bridging 22

Cellular Dense 14 Thermal performance 22, 23


H
Characteristic Strength 27 Q Thin Joint Construction 36
Health & Safety 35, 41 Quality Control 4
Chasing 35 Tiling 38
Hollow Dense blocks 15
Closure Blocks 18, 30 Transverse Strength 30
R
Coefficient of linear expansion 27
I Rebate Infill Blocks 18, 30
Concrete Common Bricks 17 U
Infill Blocks 18, 30 Recycled Content 5
Coursing Units 17 Ultralite 10
Insulite 11 Rendering 37
U-Values 22, 23
Internal Finishes 38 Responsible Sourcing 5

Robust Standard Details 24


V
L Rockfaced Blocks 18
Vehicles 42
Lightweight Bricks 17

Linear Thermal Bridging 22


W
Load Sizes 42
Wall Ties 33

Weather Conditions 37
Useful Information

For further information - visit www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk | 43


Thomas Armstrong (Holdings) Limited
Workington Road, Flimby, Maryport, Cumbria. CA15 8RY

Established 1830

Our block manufacturing locations and regional sales offices

Whinfield Road, Rowlands Gill, Newcastle upon Tyne. NE39 1EH : Tel: 01207 544214 Fax: 01207 541800 blocks@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Pickhill, Thirsk, North Yorkshire. YO7 4JQ : Tel: 01845 567282 Fax: 01845 567606 blocks@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Blackdyke, Silloth, Cumbria. CA7 4PD : Tel: 01900 68114 Fax: 01900 66136 aggregates@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Bridge Road, Brompton on Swale, Richmond, North Yorkshire. DL10 7HW : Tel: 01748 810204 Fax: 01748 813950 airtec@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Unit G1, Park Road, Blackhill, Consett, Co Durham. DH8 5SP : Tel: 01207 505655 Fax: 01207 592345 blocks@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Stocks Blocks Ltd, Ninelands Lane, Garforth, Leeds, West Yorks. LS25 1NT : Tel: 0113 2320022 Fax: 0113 2870839 stocks.sales@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
William Rainford Holdings Ltd, Heysham Road, Aintree, Merseyide. L30 6UF : Tel: 0151 5255991 Fax: 0151 5301676 wrainford@thomasarmstrong.co.uk
Barnetts of Buglawton Ltd, Brook Street, Congleton, Cheshire. CW12 1RH : Tel: 01260 273170 Fax: 01260 298150 barnetts@thomasarmstrong.co.uk

www.thomasarmstrong.co.uk

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