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You are on page 1of 34

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Technique

Outline

OFDM Overview

OFDM System Model

Orthogonality

Multi-carrier Equivalent Implementation by Using IDFT

(IFFT)

Cyclic Prefix (CP)

Summary

2

OFDM Overview (1/3)

Single carrier (SC) vs. multi-carrier (MC)

transmitted over only among several carriers and

one carrier simultaneously transmitted

Selective fading Flat fading per subcarrier

3

OFDM Overview (2/3)

OFDM

Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

stream into a number of lower rate streams that are

transmitted simultaneously over a number of sub-carriers.

channel fading effect, low spectrum efficiency, and

frequency selective fading.

4

OFDM Overview (3/3)

OFDM modulation

Features

No intercarrier guard bands

Overlapping of bands

Spectral efficiency

Easy implementation by IFFTs

Very sensitive to synchronization

5

OFDM Transmitter

cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0 )

sin (2f 0 t )

Data d (n ) D(t )

Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel

fs =

1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )

t

1 a( N 1)

f n = f 0 + nf , f =

Nt

b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )

Figure 1

6

Multi-carrier Systems

Multi-carrier Transmission

8T

7

OFDM System Model (1/3)

An OFDM system transmitter shown in Figure 1.

The transmitted waveform D(t) can be expressed as

N 1

D (t ) = {a ( n ) cos( 2f n t ) + b( n) sin( 2f n t )} (1)

n =0

1

where f n = f 0 + nf and f =

N t

symbols d(n) can be represented as a(n) + jb(n)

a(n) : in-phase component

b(n) : quadrature component

8

OFDM System Model (2/3)

Nt

+1

a(0 ) cos(2f 0 t )

t a(0)

T

b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )

Data d (n ) D(t )

Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel

fs =

1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )

t

a( N 1)

a(0 )

+1 b(N 1)

t T

t sin (2f N 1t )

1

a(1) a (N 1)

Nt

9

OFDM System Model (3/3)

The serial data elements spaced by t are grouped and

used to modulate N carriers. Thus they are frequency

division multiplexed.

makes the system less susceptible to channel delay

spread impairments.

Small-scale fading

(Based on multipath time delay spread)

1. BW of signal < BW of channel 1. BW of signal > BW of channel

2. Delay spread < Symbol preiod 2. Delay spread > Symbol preiod

10

Orthogonality (1/3)

Consider a set of transmitted carriers as follows:

n

j 2 f 0 + t

n (t ) = e N t

for n = 0, 1, ..., N 1 (2)

each other. <proof is in next page>

In summary:

b (b a ) for p = q

a p (t ) (t )dt = 0 for p q and (b a ) = Nt

*

q

11

Orthogonality (2/3) --- Proof

t

b b j 2 ( p q )

(t ) (t ) dt = e N t

dt

*

p q

a a

b a

j 2 ( p q ) j 2 ( p q )

e e N t N t

=

j 2 ( p q ) Nt

j 2 ( p q )

b

j 2 ( p q )

1

( a b )

e 1 e N t N t

=

j 2 ( p q ) Nt

= 0 , for p q and (b a ) = Nt

12

Orthogonality (3/3)

Nt

13

Frequency Error Results in Inter-Carrier

Interference (ICI)

0.8

0.6

Inter-Carrier Interference

0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

14

Timing Synchronization Error Results in

Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)

15

Mathematical Expression of

OFDM Signal (1/2)

From above, we know that { n (t )} is the orthogonal

signal set. An OFDM signal based on this orthogonal

signal set can be written as:

N 1

x (t ) = Re d k ,n n (t kT ) (3)

k = n = 0

where n (t ) = e j 2f nt for n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1 0 t T

n

f n = f 0 + , T = N t

T

d k ,n = ak ,n + jbk ,n

16

Mathematical Expression of

OFDM Signal (2/2)

T : OFDM symbol duration

dk,,n : transmitted data on the n-th carrier of the k-th symbol

N 1

x (t ) = Re C k , n n (t kT )

k = n = 0

N 1

= {a

k = n = 0

k ,n cos (2f n (t kT ) ) bk ,n sin (2f n (t kT ) )} (4)

simplified as:

N 1

x(t ) = { an cos(2f nt ) bn sin( 2f nt ) } (5)

n=0

17

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (1/6)

According to the structure of Tx, it must use N

oscillators. That increases the hardware complexity.

18

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (2/6)

In general, each carrier can be expressed as:

S c (t ) = Ac (t )e j (2f c t +c ( t ) ) (6)

Then the total complex signal Ss(t) can be represented by:

N 1

1

S s (t ) =

N

n

A (

n =0

t ) e j ( 2f n t +n ( t ) )

(7)

where f n = f 0 + nf

and An (t ), n (t ), f n are amplitude, phase, carrier frequency

of n - th carrier, respectively.

19

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (3/6)

Then we sample the signal at a sampling frequency 1 t ,

and An(t) and n(t) becomes:

n (t ) = n (8)

An (t ) = An (9)

N 1

1

S s (kt ) =

N

Ae

n =0

n

j ( 2 ( f 0 + nf ) kt +n )

(10)

( ) e

N 1

1

S s (kt ) =

N

n =0

A en

( j 2f 0 kt +n ) j 2nkft

(11)

20

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (4/6)

The inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) is defined

as the following:

1 N 1

f ( kt ) = F ( nf )e j 2nk N (12)

N n=0

satisfied in order to make eq.(11) an inverse Fourier

transform relationship:

1

f = (13)

Nt

21

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (5/6)

If eq.(13) is satisfied,

An e j (2f 0 kt +n ) is the frequency domain signal

S s ( kt ) is the time domain signal

f is the sub-channel spacing

Nt is the symbol duration in each sub-channel

system of Figure 1. Therefore IDFT can be used to

generate an OFDM transmission signal.

22

Multi-carrier Equivalent

Implementation by using IDFT (6/6)

cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )

d (n ) D(t )

Input Channel

fs =

1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}

t cos(2f N 1t )

1 a( N 1)

f n = f 0 + nf , f =

N t

b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )

d (0)

d (1)

d (2)

d (n ) D(t )

Input Channel

fs =

1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}

t

1

f n = f 0 + nf , f =

Nf

d (N 1)

23

Cyclic Prefix (1/9)

In multipath channel, delayed replicas of previous OFDM signal

lead to ISI between successive OFDM signals.

signals.

24

Cyclic Prefix (2/9)

Guard interval leads to intercarrier interference (ICI) in OFDM

demodulation

maintain integer number of cycles loss of orthogonality.

Delayed version of subcarrier 2 causes ICI in the process of

demodulating subcarrier 1.

25

Cyclic Prefix (3/9)

Cyclic prefix (CP) : A copy of the last part of OFDM signal is

attached to the front of itself.

d [0] D[0]

d [1] D[1]

d [2] D[2]

D[k ]

~

symbols

[ ]

D N Ng

D[N 1]

d [N 1]

26

Cyclic Prefix (4/9)

All delayed replicas of subcarriers always have an

integer number of cycles within DFT interval no ICI

27

Cyclic Prefix (5/9)

Linear convolution vs. circular convolution

28

Cyclic Prefix (6/9)

Channel effect with cyclic prefix

29

Cyclic Prefix (7/9)

Spectrum of channel response h[n ] with length Lh (smaller

than N g )

H k = FFT {h[n]}

r [n] = D[n] h[n] , 0 n N + N g + Lh 2

~ ~

Received useful part r [n]

r [n] = D[n] N h[n]

where N is N-point circular convolution (due to CP)

Received symbol at k-th subcarrier

Yk = FFT {r [n]} = FFT {D[n] N h[n]} = X k H k

Y Useful property for OFDM system to reduce

Xk = k

Hk complexity of channel equalization

30

Cyclic Prefix (8/9) --- OFDM Receiver

r (n ) Output data

r (n )

~

Symbols

31

Cyclic Prefix (9/9)

One of the most important reasons to do OFDM is the

efficient way it deals with multipath delay spread.

To eliminate inter-symbol interference (ISI) almost

completely, a guard time is introduced for each OFDM

symbol.

(The guard time is chosen larger than the delay spread)

32

Bandwidth Efficiency

In a classical parallel system, the channel is divided into

N non-overlapping sub-channels to avoid inter-carrier

interference (ICI).

is shown below:

33

Summary

The advantage of the FFT-based OFDM system :

The use of IFFT/FFT can reduce the computation complexity.

The orthogonality between the adjacent sub-carriers will make

the use of transmission bandwidth more efficient.

The guard interval is used to resist the inter-symbol interference

(ISI).

The main advantage of the OFDM transmission technique is its

high performance even in frequency selective channels.

The drawbacks of the OFDM system :

It is highly vulnerable to synchronization errors.

Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problems.

34

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