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Wireless Information Transmission System Lab.

Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency


Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Technique

Institute of Communications Engineering National Sun Yat-sen University


Outline
OFDM Overview
OFDM System Model
Orthogonality
Multi-carrier Equivalent Implementation by Using IDFT
(IFFT)
Cyclic Prefix (CP)
Summary

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OFDM Overview (1/3)
Single carrier (SC) vs. multi-carrier (MC)

Single carrier : data are Multi-carrier : data are shared


transmitted over only among several carriers and
one carrier simultaneously transmitted
Selective fading Flat fading per subcarrier

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OFDM Overview (2/3)
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

The basic principle of OFDM is to split a high-rate data


stream into a number of lower rate streams that are
transmitted simultaneously over a number of sub-carriers.

It eliminates or alleviates the problem of multi-path


channel fading effect, low spectrum efficiency, and
frequency selective fading.

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OFDM Overview (3/3)
OFDM modulation

Features
No intercarrier guard bands
Overlapping of bands
Spectral efficiency
Easy implementation by IFFTs
Very sensitive to synchronization

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OFDM Transmitter

cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0 )

sin (2f 0 t )
Data d (n ) D(t )
Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )
t
1 a( N 1)
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
Nt
b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )

Figure 1

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Multi-carrier Systems
Multi-carrier Transmission

8T
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OFDM System Model (1/3)
An OFDM system transmitter shown in Figure 1.
The transmitted waveform D(t) can be expressed as
N 1
D (t ) = {a ( n ) cos( 2f n t ) + b( n) sin( 2f n t )} (1)
n =0

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where f n = f 0 + nf and f =
N t

Using a two-dimensional digital modulation format, the data


symbols d(n) can be represented as a(n) + jb(n)
a(n) : in-phase component
b(n) : quadrature component

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OFDM System Model (2/3)

Nt
+1
a(0 ) cos(2f 0 t )
t a(0)
T
b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )
Data d (n ) D(t )
Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )
t
a( N 1)
a(0 )
+1 b(N 1)
t T
t sin (2f N 1t )
1
a(1) a (N 1)

Nt
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OFDM System Model (3/3)
The serial data elements spaced by t are grouped and
used to modulate N carriers. Thus they are frequency
division multiplexed.

The signaling interval is then increased to Nt , which


makes the system less susceptible to channel delay
spread impairments.
Small-scale fading
(Based on multipath time delay spread)

Flat Fading Frequency Selective Fading


1. BW of signal < BW of channel 1. BW of signal > BW of channel
2. Delay spread < Symbol preiod 2. Delay spread > Symbol preiod

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Orthogonality (1/3)
Consider a set of transmitted carriers as follows:
n
j 2 f 0 + t
n (t ) = e N t
for n = 0, 1, ..., N 1 (2)

We now show that every two carriers are orthogonal to


each other. <proof is in next page>

In summary:
b (b a ) for p = q
a p (t ) (t )dt = 0 for p q and (b a ) = Nt
*
q

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Orthogonality (2/3) --- Proof
t
b b j 2 ( p q )
(t ) (t ) dt = e N t
dt
*
p q
a a
b a
j 2 ( p q ) j 2 ( p q )
e e N t N t
=
j 2 ( p q ) Nt

j 2 ( p q )
b
j 2 ( p q )
1
( a b )
e 1 e N t N t

=
j 2 ( p q ) Nt
= 0 , for p q and (b a ) = Nt

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Orthogonality (3/3)

Nt

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Frequency Error Results in Inter-Carrier
Interference (ICI)

0.8

0.6

Inter-Carrier Interference
0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

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Timing Synchronization Error Results in
Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)

Not Orthogonal Any More.

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Mathematical Expression of
OFDM Signal (1/2)
From above, we know that { n (t )} is the orthogonal
signal set. An OFDM signal based on this orthogonal
signal set can be written as:
N 1
x (t ) = Re d k ,n n (t kT ) (3)
k = n = 0
where n (t ) = e j 2f nt for n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1 0 t T
n
f n = f 0 + , T = N t
T
d k ,n = ak ,n + jbk ,n

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Mathematical Expression of
OFDM Signal (2/2)
T : OFDM symbol duration
dk,,n : transmitted data on the n-th carrier of the k-th symbol

N 1
x (t ) = Re C k , n n (t kT )
k = n = 0
N 1
= {a
k = n = 0
k ,n cos (2f n (t kT ) ) bk ,n sin (2f n (t kT ) )} (4)

If there is only one OFDM symbol ( i.e. k = 0 ), it can be


simplified as:
N 1
x(t ) = { an cos(2f nt ) bn sin( 2f nt ) } (5)
n=0

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (1/6)
According to the structure of Tx, it must use N
oscillators. That increases the hardware complexity.

The equivalent method is using IDFT (IFFT).

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (2/6)
In general, each carrier can be expressed as:

S c (t ) = Ac (t )e j (2f c t +c ( t ) ) (6)

We assume that there are N carriers in the OFDM signal.


Then the total complex signal Ss(t) can be represented by:
N 1
1
S s (t ) =
N
n
A (
n =0
t ) e j ( 2f n t +n ( t ) )
(7)

where f n = f 0 + nf
and An (t ), n (t ), f n are amplitude, phase, carrier frequency
of n - th carrier, respectively.
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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (3/6)
Then we sample the signal at a sampling frequency 1 t ,
and An(t) and n(t) becomes:
n (t ) = n (8)
An (t ) = An (9)
N 1
1
S s (kt ) =
N
Ae
n =0
n
j ( 2 ( f 0 + nf ) kt +n )
(10)

Then the sampled signal can be expressed as:

( ) e
N 1
1
S s (kt ) =
N

n =0
A en
( j 2f 0 kt +n ) j 2nkft
(11)

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (4/6)
The inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) is defined
as the following:
1 N 1
f ( kt ) = F ( nf )e j 2nk N (12)
N n=0

Comparing eq.(11) and eq.(12), the condition must be


satisfied in order to make eq.(11) an inverse Fourier
transform relationship:
1
f = (13)
Nt

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (5/6)
If eq.(13) is satisfied,
An e j (2f 0 kt +n ) is the frequency domain signal
S s ( kt ) is the time domain signal
f is the sub-channel spacing
Nt is the symbol duration in each sub-channel

This outcome is the same as the result obtained in the


system of Figure 1. Therefore IDFT can be used to
generate an OFDM transmission signal.

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (6/6)
cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )
d (n ) D(t )
Input Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}
t cos(2f N 1t )

1 a( N 1)
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
N t
b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )
d (0)
d (1)
d (2)


d (n ) D(t )
Input Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}
t
1
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
Nf
d (N 1)

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Cyclic Prefix (1/9)
In multipath channel, delayed replicas of previous OFDM signal
lead to ISI between successive OFDM signals.

Solution : Insert a guard interval between successive OFDM


signals.

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Cyclic Prefix (2/9)
Guard interval leads to intercarrier interference (ICI) in OFDM
demodulation

In DFT interval, difference between two subcarriers does not


maintain integer number of cycles loss of orthogonality.
Delayed version of subcarrier 2 causes ICI in the process of
demodulating subcarrier 1.
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Cyclic Prefix (3/9)
Cyclic prefix (CP) : A copy of the last part of OFDM signal is
attached to the front of itself.

d [0] D[0]
d [1] D[1]
d [2] D[2]
D[k ]
~

Input data d [n]








symbols

[ ]



D N Ng

D[N 1]

d [N 1]

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Cyclic Prefix (4/9)
All delayed replicas of subcarriers always have an
integer number of cycles within DFT interval no ICI

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Cyclic Prefix (5/9)
Linear convolution vs. circular convolution

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Cyclic Prefix (6/9)
Channel effect with cyclic prefix

Signal after removed CP

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Cyclic Prefix (7/9)
Spectrum of channel response h[n ] with length Lh (smaller
than N g )
H k = FFT {h[n]}

Received complete OFDM signal


r [n] = D[n] h[n] , 0 n N + N g + Lh 2
~ ~
Received useful part r [n]
r [n] = D[n] N h[n]
where N is N-point circular convolution (due to CP)
Received symbol at k-th subcarrier
Yk = FFT {r [n]} = FFT {D[n] N h[n]} = X k H k
Y Useful property for OFDM system to reduce
Xk = k
Hk complexity of channel equalization

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Cyclic Prefix (8/9) --- OFDM Receiver


r (n ) Output data
r (n )
~

Symbols


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Cyclic Prefix (9/9)
One of the most important reasons to do OFDM is the
efficient way it deals with multipath delay spread.
To eliminate inter-symbol interference (ISI) almost
completely, a guard time is introduced for each OFDM
symbol.
(The guard time is chosen larger than the delay spread)

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Bandwidth Efficiency
In a classical parallel system, the channel is divided into
N non-overlapping sub-channels to avoid inter-carrier
interference (ICI).

The diagram for bandwidth efficiency of OFDM system


is shown below:

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Summary
The advantage of the FFT-based OFDM system :
The use of IFFT/FFT can reduce the computation complexity.
The orthogonality between the adjacent sub-carriers will make
the use of transmission bandwidth more efficient.
The guard interval is used to resist the inter-symbol interference
(ISI).
The main advantage of the OFDM transmission technique is its
high performance even in frequency selective channels.
The drawbacks of the OFDM system :
It is highly vulnerable to synchronization errors.
Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problems.

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