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# Wireless Information Transmission System Lab.

## Introduction to Orthogonal Frequency

Division Multiplexing (OFDM) Technique

## Institute of Communications Engineering National Sun Yat-sen University

Outline
OFDM Overview
OFDM System Model
Orthogonality
Multi-carrier Equivalent Implementation by Using IDFT
(IFFT)
Cyclic Prefix (CP)
Summary

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OFDM Overview (1/3)
Single carrier (SC) vs. multi-carrier (MC)

## Single carrier : data are Multi-carrier : data are shared

transmitted over only among several carriers and
one carrier simultaneously transmitted

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OFDM Overview (2/3)
OFDM
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing

## The basic principle of OFDM is to split a high-rate data

stream into a number of lower rate streams that are
transmitted simultaneously over a number of sub-carriers.

## It eliminates or alleviates the problem of multi-path

channel fading effect, low spectrum efficiency, and

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OFDM Overview (3/3)
OFDM modulation

Features
No intercarrier guard bands
Overlapping of bands
Spectral efficiency
Easy implementation by IFFTs
Very sensitive to synchronization

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OFDM Transmitter

cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0 )

sin (2f 0 t )
Data d (n ) D(t )
Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )
t
1 a( N 1)
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
Nt
b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )

Figure 1

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Multi-carrier Systems
Multi-carrier Transmission

8T
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OFDM System Model (1/3)
An OFDM system transmitter shown in Figure 1.
The transmitted waveform D(t) can be expressed as
N 1
D (t ) = {a ( n ) cos( 2f n t ) + b( n) sin( 2f n t )} (1)
n =0

1
where f n = f 0 + nf and f =
N t

## Using a two-dimensional digital modulation format, the data

symbols d(n) can be represented as a(n) + jb(n)
a(n) : in-phase component
b(n) : quadrature component

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OFDM System Model (2/3)

Nt
+1
a(0 ) cos(2f 0 t )
t a(0)
T
b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )
Data d (n ) D(t )
Input Encoder S/P MUX Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )} cos(2f N 1t )
t
a( N 1)
a(0 )
+1 b(N 1)
t T
t sin (2f N 1t )
1
a(1) a (N 1)

Nt
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OFDM System Model (3/3)
The serial data elements spaced by t are grouped and
used to modulate N carriers. Thus they are frequency
division multiplexed.

## The signaling interval is then increased to Nt , which

makes the system less susceptible to channel delay
(Based on multipath time delay spread)

1. BW of signal < BW of channel 1. BW of signal > BW of channel
2. Delay spread < Symbol preiod 2. Delay spread > Symbol preiod

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Orthogonality (1/3)
Consider a set of transmitted carriers as follows:
n
j 2 f 0 + t
n (t ) = e N t
for n = 0, 1, ..., N 1 (2)

## We now show that every two carriers are orthogonal to

each other. <proof is in next page>

In summary:
b (b a ) for p = q
a p (t ) (t )dt = 0 for p q and (b a ) = Nt
*
q

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Orthogonality (2/3) --- Proof
t
b b j 2 ( p q )
(t ) (t ) dt = e N t
dt
*
p q
a a
b a
j 2 ( p q ) j 2 ( p q )
e e N t N t
=
j 2 ( p q ) Nt

j 2 ( p q )
b
j 2 ( p q )
1
( a b )
e 1 e N t N t

=
j 2 ( p q ) Nt
= 0 , for p q and (b a ) = Nt

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Orthogonality (3/3)

Nt

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Frequency Error Results in Inter-Carrier
Interference (ICI)

0.8

0.6

Inter-Carrier Interference
0.4

0.2

-0.2

-0.4
-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

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Timing Synchronization Error Results in
Inter-Symbol Interference (ISI)

## Not Orthogonal Any More.

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Mathematical Expression of
OFDM Signal (1/2)
From above, we know that { n (t )} is the orthogonal
signal set. An OFDM signal based on this orthogonal
signal set can be written as:
N 1
x (t ) = Re d k ,n n (t kT ) (3)
k = n = 0
where n (t ) = e j 2f nt for n = 0, 1, 2, ..., N 1 0 t T
n
f n = f 0 + , T = N t
T
d k ,n = ak ,n + jbk ,n

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Mathematical Expression of
OFDM Signal (2/2)
T : OFDM symbol duration
dk,,n : transmitted data on the n-th carrier of the k-th symbol

N 1
x (t ) = Re C k , n n (t kT )
k = n = 0
N 1
= {a
k = n = 0
k ,n cos (2f n (t kT ) ) bk ,n sin (2f n (t kT ) )} (4)

## If there is only one OFDM symbol ( i.e. k = 0 ), it can be

simplified as:
N 1
x(t ) = { an cos(2f nt ) bn sin( 2f nt ) } (5)
n=0

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (1/6)
According to the structure of Tx, it must use N
oscillators. That increases the hardware complexity.

## The equivalent method is using IDFT (IFFT).

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (2/6)
In general, each carrier can be expressed as:

S c (t ) = Ac (t )e j (2f c t +c ( t ) ) (6)

## We assume that there are N carriers in the OFDM signal.

Then the total complex signal Ss(t) can be represented by:
N 1
1
S s (t ) =
N
n
A (
n =0
t ) e j ( 2f n t +n ( t ) )
(7)

where f n = f 0 + nf
and An (t ), n (t ), f n are amplitude, phase, carrier frequency
of n - th carrier, respectively.
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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (3/6)
Then we sample the signal at a sampling frequency 1 t ,
and An(t) and n(t) becomes:
n (t ) = n (8)
An (t ) = An (9)
N 1
1
S s (kt ) =
N
Ae
n =0
n
j ( 2 ( f 0 + nf ) kt +n )
(10)

## Then the sampled signal can be expressed as:

( ) e
N 1
1
S s (kt ) =
N

n =0
A en
( j 2f 0 kt +n ) j 2nkft
(11)

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (4/6)
The inverse discrete Fourier transform (IDFT) is defined
as the following:
1 N 1
f ( kt ) = F ( nf )e j 2nk N (12)
N n=0

## Comparing eq.(11) and eq.(12), the condition must be

satisfied in order to make eq.(11) an inverse Fourier
transform relationship:
1
f = (13)
Nt

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (5/6)
If eq.(13) is satisfied,
An e j (2f 0 kt +n ) is the frequency domain signal
S s ( kt ) is the time domain signal
f is the sub-channel spacing
Nt is the symbol duration in each sub-channel

## This outcome is the same as the result obtained in the

system of Figure 1. Therefore IDFT can be used to
generate an OFDM transmission signal.

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Multi-carrier Equivalent
Implementation by using IDFT (6/6)
cos(2f 0 t )

a(0)

b(0)

sin (2f 0 t )
d (n ) D(t )
Input Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}
t cos(2f N 1t )

1 a( N 1)
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
N t
b( N 1)

sin (2f N 1t )
d (0)
d (1)
d (2)

d (n ) D(t )
Input Channel
fs =
1 {a(n ) + jb(n )}
t
1
f n = f 0 + nf , f =
Nf
d (N 1)

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Cyclic Prefix (1/9)
In multipath channel, delayed replicas of previous OFDM signal
lead to ISI between successive OFDM signals.

## Solution : Insert a guard interval between successive OFDM

signals.

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Cyclic Prefix (2/9)
Guard interval leads to intercarrier interference (ICI) in OFDM
demodulation

## In DFT interval, difference between two subcarriers does not

maintain integer number of cycles loss of orthogonality.
Delayed version of subcarrier 2 causes ICI in the process of
demodulating subcarrier 1.
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Cyclic Prefix (3/9)
Cyclic prefix (CP) : A copy of the last part of OFDM signal is
attached to the front of itself.

d  D
d  D
d  D
D[k ]
~

## Input data d [n]

symbols

[ ]

D N Ng

D[N 1]

d [N 1]

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Cyclic Prefix (4/9)
All delayed replicas of subcarriers always have an
integer number of cycles within DFT interval no ICI

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Cyclic Prefix (5/9)
Linear convolution vs. circular convolution

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Cyclic Prefix (6/9)
Channel effect with cyclic prefix

## Signal after removed CP

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Cyclic Prefix (7/9)
Spectrum of channel response h[n ] with length Lh (smaller
than N g )
H k = FFT {h[n]}

## Received complete OFDM signal

r [n] = D[n] h[n] , 0 n N + N g + Lh 2
~ ~
Received useful part r [n]
r [n] = D[n] N h[n]
where N is N-point circular convolution (due to CP)
Received symbol at k-th subcarrier
Yk = FFT {r [n]} = FFT {D[n] N h[n]} = X k H k
Y Useful property for OFDM system to reduce
Xk = k
Hk complexity of channel equalization

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Cyclic Prefix (8/9) --- OFDM Receiver

r (n ) Output data
r (n )
~

Symbols

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Cyclic Prefix (9/9)
One of the most important reasons to do OFDM is the
efficient way it deals with multipath delay spread.
To eliminate inter-symbol interference (ISI) almost
completely, a guard time is introduced for each OFDM
symbol.
(The guard time is chosen larger than the delay spread)

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Bandwidth Efficiency
In a classical parallel system, the channel is divided into
N non-overlapping sub-channels to avoid inter-carrier
interference (ICI).

## The diagram for bandwidth efficiency of OFDM system

is shown below:

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Summary
The advantage of the FFT-based OFDM system :
The use of IFFT/FFT can reduce the computation complexity.
The orthogonality between the adjacent sub-carriers will make
the use of transmission bandwidth more efficient.
The guard interval is used to resist the inter-symbol interference
(ISI).
The main advantage of the OFDM transmission technique is its
high performance even in frequency selective channels.
The drawbacks of the OFDM system :
It is highly vulnerable to synchronization errors.
Peak to Average Power Ratio (PAPR) problems.

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