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# Opera-3d Training Course

## Power Conversion & Medical Physics & Transportation Power Systems

Electromechanical Science Applications
Devices

using ELEKTRA/VL

ELEKTRA/VL

## Type of problems that can be solved

Equations

Upwinding
Why?

Setting up a model

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

## Eddy currents induced purely by motion of a conducting material

through a stationary field
DC sources
Coils
Permanent magnets

## Invariant cross-section geometry orthogonal to direction of motion

Single instance geometry
Moving conducting media must have same cross-section at all positions
in the direction of motion
For example, fixed coils and spinning disk
Media can be stationary and DC source moving
For example, NDT pipeline inspection pig

## Example: Electromagnetic brake on train

induces eddy current in rail

In a
Velocity of train coordinate
system on the
train, the rail
is moving in
the opposite
direction
However, the
rail s X-section
rails X section
is always the
same =>
Elektra-VL

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

ELEKTRA/VL equations

J = ( v B + V )

## Apply Minkowski transformation of standard ELEKTRA equation

1
A = ( v A + V )

External circuits are not available in ELEKTRA/VL

3-6: ELEKTRA/VL 5
Cobham Technical Services

Upwinding

## Upwinding used to help stop oscillatory eddy currents

Solution
Solution can become unstable at high velocity
Element Peclet number becomes greater than one
Product: ( u h) > 1
u = speed, h = element size in motion direction
SI units
Upwinding
Upwinding modifies element shape function to reduce
oscillations
Can only be used with linear elements

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

Velocity

Unstable
bl
results in
this region

Upwind solution

Velocity

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

## Setting the velocity

Volume
Volume properties

Analysis settings
Upwinding
Linear elements

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

## 11 3-6: ELEKTRA/VL Cobham Technical Services

Analysis settings

## Opera version 15, November 2011

Opera-3d Training Course

1000 RPM