9 views

Uploaded by Riyaz Siddique

- Speaker Verification in Java
- Effect of Hand Transmitted Vibration through Tractor during Ploughing Field
- Ship Maneuvering Under Human Control
- Vibration and Damage Possibility
- Response Spectrum Analysis
- Fitz Bandpass
- MSFC-STD-3676-A
- ssplo
- Introduction to the Theory of Vibrations
- 6528-27856-1-PB
- RANDOM PROCESSES:SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICS
- Hood Vents Installation
- Ono Cf 4200z
- Object Motion Detection System Using Passive Uhf Rfid Technology for a Trauma Bay
- 10580-00349L Measurement Guide
- W4L7-Data and Signals
- Choy 1996
- Design.pdf
- 233 Sample Chapter
- Accurately Measure the Dynamic Response of Pressure Instruments

You are on page 1of 50

CONTENTS

Achal Kr. Mittal, Nikhil Agrawal, V. K. Gupta

Workamaw P. Warsido, Girma T. Bitsuamlak

Coast of India

Pradeep K. Goyal , T.K. Datta

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17

RECTANGULAR BUILDINGS

1 2 3

Achal Kr. Mittal , Nikhil Agrawal , V. K. Gupta

1

Principal Scientist, Structural Engineering Group, CSIR-CBRI Roorkee (achal_cbri@rediffmail.com)

2

Research Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee (nikky1827@gmail.com)

3

Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Roorkee (vkgsufce@iitr.ernet.in)

ABSTRACT

Interference effect for two tall rectangular buildings has been studied in a boundary layer wind

tunnel using an aeroelastic model of the principal building and a rigid model of the interfering

building, placed at different upstream and downstream positions with respect to the principal

building. Testing has been carried out in a simulated flow expected over a suburban terrain and the

results of mean along-wind interference effects between the buildings have been presented in this

paper and dynamic response results are presented in a companion paper. Discussion on the effect

of height ratio, reduced velocity, and orientation of principal as well as interfering building model on

the interference factor has been included. Both the shielding and amplification due to interference

are found to be predominant, when the heights of the interfering building range from 67% to 150% of

the height of the principal building. An increase of 100% in mean moment is observed at side-by-

side arrangement in case of the interfering building. Interference influence zones considering the

variations of height ratio, reduced velocity and orientations of principal/interfering building are also

include in this paper.

Keywords: Interference effects, Mean moments, Tall buildings, Wind tunnel test, Height ratio,

Orientation, Velocity ratio

NOTATION

Ur Reduced velocity HR Height ratio

Mean wind velocity at Natural frequency of principal building

UH nx

top of building (m/s) (Hz)

Iu Turbulent intensity (%) IF Interference factor

SAB Short afterbody LAB Long afterbody

Usual meaning of notation unless/otherwise mentioned in the text

INTRODUCTION

Preliminary assesment of wind loads on buildings is carried out mainly by using wind codes and

standards, whose specifications are generally based on wind tunnel tests, performed on isolated

structures in an open terrain. However, it has been brought out by several researchers that wind

loads on buildings in realistic environments may be considerably different from those measured on

isolated buildings due to the presence of adjacent building(s). The existing adjacent building(s) may

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 2

either decrease or increase the wind loads on a building, depending on various geometrical,

structural and wind parameters, including size, cross-section shape, relative position of the

buildings, reduced wind velocity, number of the adjacent building(s), upstream terrain condition,

orientation of existing and proposed building and so on. The phenomenon, commonly known as the

interference effect, is very complicated and must be evaluated properly (Khanduri et. al. 1998).

For a pair of buildings of equal size in tandem arrangement, Sakamoto and Haniu (1988) found that

the drag force of the downstream building reduced to zero when the upstream building was three

times the building breadth away (centre to centre spacing) from the downstream building, and the

mean drag force could be negative when the spacing was less than the critical distance. The

shielding effect decreases with the increase of the spacing between the two buildings.

However, Taniike (1992) found that the shielding effects could be still noticeable when the upstream

building was located at a place 16 times of the building breadth away from the downstream building.

The results show a mean interference factor of 0.8, or, a shielding of 20% of mean wind loads on the

principal building at above location.

Some studies aimed at providing the general recommendations on the wind-induced interference

effects. English (1993) suggested a third order regression polynomial to predict the shielding

factors for mean interference effects in case of a pair of rectangular prism in tandem arrangement.

Khanduri et. al. (1998) summarized research developments in the area of wind-induced

interference effects and English and Frick (1999) as well as Khanduri et. al. (2000) applied a well-

trained artificial neural network (ANN) to predicate the interference effects on the design loads for

buildings located in a variety of geometrical configurations and boundary layer flows.

Xie and Gu (2004) made detailed discussions on the mean interference factor (MIF) between two

and among three tall buildings by a series of wind tunnel tests. They considered the effects of breath

as well as height ratio (ratio of height of the interfering building to those of principal building, HR) of

building and terrain category. The authors mainly focused on the behaviour of the MIF among three

tall buildings. Larger upstream building(s) could produce more shielding effects on the principal

building and meanwhile, side-by-side interfering buildings with larger size can produce more

serious channelling effect on the principal building. The results show that the interfering building

with height ratio equal to 0.5, produced insignificant shielding effects; on the other hand, HR >1.25

produce almost same value of interference factor. So the mean interference effects may only be

sensitive to the height ratio in the range 0.5HR1.25.

Amin and Ahuja (2009) studied the mean interference effects between a pair of buildings located in

a geometrical configuration of 'L' and 'T' plan shapes. The study detailed the arrangement of

buildings, wind incident angles and level of interference. Pressure measurements were restricted to

open country flow type.

While the interference phenomenon has been investigated, there is still a shortage of information

on the interference effects between two tall rectangular buildings arranged in different orientations,

such that it is not good enough for generalisation. Present paper focuses on the mean interference

effects between two tall rectangular buildings for various parameters i.e. Ur, HR, relative position of

interfering building, and orientation of principal as well as interfering building.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 3

Furthermore, only the mean moment in the along-wind direction is considered in this study as it

affects safety of building due to the direct impact of the wind, and form the basis for other responses

i.e. rms and peak. The study of dynamic response between two tall buildings will be discussed in

another paper.

This paper summarizes the significant findings of the mean interference effects based on wind

tunnel tests conducted on an aero-elastic model, under suburban terrain conditions.

The wind tunnel tests were conducted in the Boundary Layer Wind Tunnel of Civil Engineering

Department at Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee (IITR). This is an open circuit, continuous

flow, suction type tunnel using single blower fan (125 HP) having a test section of 2.1 m 2.0 m size.

Wind characteristics corresponding to suburban terrain have been simulated based on Indian

Standard (IS 875 (Part 3)-1987). The power law exponent , of the mean wind velocity profile is

0.19. The measured turbulent intensity Iu, at the top of the building height (H=240m) is about 10%.

Measured longitudinal mean wind velocity profile, turbulent intensity profile, and turbulence

spectrum of the wind simulation are shown in Figure 1 (a-c).

Figure 1 Wind model properties: (a) Mean wind velocity profile (=0.19); (b) Turbulent

intensity profile; (c) Longitudinal turbulence spectrum, (Nikhil et al. 2012)

Building Models

In the present study, a single rigid lumped mass model, pivoted at the base, having two degrees of

freedom, described by Isyumov (1982) is adopted. This is a rectangular building model with

dimensions of 0.05x0.15x0.60m. Tests are conducted for two different orientations, namely, long

afterbody (LAB) and short afterbody (SAB). Orientation of building in which shorter dimension of

building faces the wind, with longer dimension along the wind, corresponds to LAB orientation and

when longer dimension of building faces the wind, with shorter dimension along the wind,

corresponds to SAB orientation. The length scale, velocity scale and frequency scale are also set

as 1/400, 1/4 and 100 respectively. Data are recorded for a sampling duration of 20 seconds

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 4

(corresponding to 33.34 min. at full scale) at a sampling rate of 250 Hz per channel, i.e. 5000 data

points are taken for each channel. Base bending moments are measured in along and across wind

direction with the help of strain gauge transducers (cantilever type). However, only mean moment

results are presented in this paper.

The rigid models, referred to as the interfering building models, are used to produce interference.

Photograph 1 (a) and (b), show aeroelastic and rigid models used in this study, respectively.

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Photo 1 (a) Aeroelastic model in the wind tunnel (b) Aeroclastic model bottom view

(c) Rigid model in SAB orientation (d) Rigid model in LAB orientation

Experimental Arrangements

Rigid model of the interfering building (I) is located at various locations upstream and downstream

from the aeroelastic model to provide different interference excitation or shielding effects on the

wind induced response of the principal building model (P). Experimental arrangements for all

configurations/orientations of principal as well as interfering building models are shown in Table 1.

Each orientation of principal building and interfering building model consists of different height

ratios of interfering building models, which varies from 0.6 to 1.5. The plan aspect ratio is fixed at

3:1.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 5

Principal Interfering No. of Positions of the

Terrain Building Building interfering building

Case Height Ratio (H R )

Category Model (P) Model (I) model

Orientation Orientation

0.6 65

0.75 65

I SAB SAB 1 70

1.25 70

1.5 70

0.6 65

0.75 65

II SAB LAB 1 70

1.25 70

Suburban 1.5 70

(=0.19) 0.6 65

0.75 65

III LAB SAB 1 65

1.25 65

1.5 65

0.6 70

0.75 70

IV LAB LAB 1 70

1.25 70

1.5 70

The centre-to-centre spacing between the two models which, varies longitudinally, X, and, laterally,

Y, on the Cartesian coordinates are shown in Figure 2 (a-d). The orientation of principal as well as

interfering building is also displayed in the same figure.

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 6

Figure 2 X-Y Coordinate system for the interfering building locations as well as their

orientations for (a) Case I: P=SAB, I=SAB, (b) Case II: P=SAB, I=LAB, (c) Case III:

P=LAB, I=SAB, (d) Case IV: P=LAB I=LAB

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 7

Wind-induced responses of principal building are measured at a range of reduced velocity,

Ur=UH/nx*B, varies between 3 to 5 in SAB orientation and 9 to 12 in LAB orientation of principal

building. where, UH is the wind velocity at the top of the principal building which varies from 9.1m/s

to11.1m/s at model scale and 36.4m/s to 44.4m/s corresponding to full scale. B is the width of

principal building facing the wind. For LAB orientation of principal building B=b, where b is the

normalized width (0.05m).

Most of the interference studies quantified interference effects in terms of interference factor (IF),

which was initially introduced by Saunders and Melbourne (1979). For mean responses, IF can be

defined as follows:

IF

Mean base momentof an isolated building

Hence, increase in the mean response due to interference effect is proportional to the value of IF

(given in above expression). Measured IFs are usually illustrated in the form of IF contours. The IF

contour is a two dimensional plan which reflects the variation of interference factor with the position

of interfering building. The critical locations for the interfering building and the extent of mean

interference effect can be easily found using these contours.

The most striking characteristics regarding the effects of interference on mean along-wind loads is

the high degree of shielding (reduction in mean along moments) and significant amplification

(increase in mean moments) offered to the principal building by the interfering building.

English (1993) synthesized several existing wind tunnel results that were obtained for different

simulated terrains which concluded into a regression equation to predict the mean along-wind

interference factor of the downstream building for twin buildings in tandem arrangement. The

formula is given in the polynomial form as:

IF 0. 05 0 .65 Z 0 . 29 Z 2 0 . 24 Z 3 (1)

where Z = log[S*(H + B)/H*B], S is the clear spacing between the two buildings, B is the breadth of

the building, and H is the height of the principal building.

To check the reliability of the results of the present experiments, the IF's of two tandem-arranged

buildings under the suburban terrain (=0.19), are compared with equation (1) and presented in

Figure 3. The comparison shows a good agreement between the results obtained from present

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 8

study and calculated from a regression equation (1), for locations (>5.5B). However, larger

differences are observed for close locations (5.5B). It can be seen that the differences of the IF's,

calculated using equation 1 and present experimental results, decrease with the increase of

building spacing.

Table 1 show the comparison of IF's (mean to mean ratio) of two identical buildings (HR=1.0),

located in SAB orientation. The results show a good consistency, although some differences

appear due to the use of different building configurations, flow conditions and testing techniques.

Power Interfering Building at (X,Y)

Building

law

Authors Dimensio

exponent (0b, 2.5b) (1.5b, 2.5b) (1.5b, 3.5b) (1b, 4.5b) (3.5b, 4.5b) (6b, 4.5b) (-1b, 3b) (-2b, 4b)

ns Ratio

()

Yahyai et.

1:1.2:6 0.30 0.20 0.50 0.90 1.01 0.98 1.03 0.83 0.83

al. (1992)

Gupta

1:2:12 0.18 0.40 0.85 0.95 1.0 1.0 1.01 1.0 1.02

(1996)

Sakamoto

and Haniu 1:1:3 - 0.15 0.96 1.0 1.03 1.01 1.01 - -

(1988)

Taniike

and

1:1:4.5 0.14 - 0.95 1.0 - 1.02 1.02 - -

Inaoka

(1988)

Present

1:3:12 0.19 0.17 0.60 0.90 1.0 1.02 1.03 0.84 0.90

Study

Here b = 20m (full scale)

The interference contours for the mean moments of the principal building under the interference

excitation from adjacent building of height H, in suburban terrain is shown in Figure 4 for reduced

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 9

velocity (Ur= 3.8). It is evident that mean along-wind moment of the principal building is decreased

by the presence of an interfering building. Substantial reduction in mean moment is recorded when

the two rectangular buildings are in tandem arrangements (locations of interfering building along

the line passing through the centre of principal building in the direction of wind).

As the upstream interfering building moves in lateral direction, away from the longitudinal axis,

shielding effect from the interfering building is decreased, steadily. A downstream interfering

building (X=2.5b to 4.5b, Y=0 to 4.5b) has the insignificant effect on the response of the principal

building at upstream.

For shortest height interfering building (HR=0.60), 30% increase in mean base moments has been

recorded at X=8b. Maximum shielding factor of 90% has been observed when the interfering

building (HR=1.5) is located in front of principal building at a small separation distance (X=2.5b,

Y=0). However, in side-by-side arrangement, the mean moment is increased by 20%. A shielding of

50% at X=20b (400m), and 20% at X=32b (640m) has been noted for interfering building (HR=1.5).

Observations are also recorded when the interfering building is placed at downstream of the

principal building. Deviation in mean response is generally found within 20% for all downstream

interfering building locations (HR=0.6 to 1.5).

Variation of IF with respect to the HR of the interfering building, located at various positions is

presented in Figure 5. From Figure 5, it is noted that, shielding increases with the increase in HR for

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 10

various upstream locations of interfering building, but for side-by-side and downstream locations,

there is an amplification with the increase in HR. As the interfering building travel laterally, shielding

decreases with the increase in HR.

For the above orientation of principal as well as interfering building only shielding effect has been

observed for range of HR from 0.6 to 1.5, throughout the grid region. Maximum reduction of 55% in

mean moment is detected for identical interfering building (HR=1.0). No significant effect of variation

in Ur is noted.

Shielding effect due to interfering building (HR=1.25) is presented by IF contours in Figure 6. At side-

by-side arrangement of interfering building a 10% reduction in moment is detected. Similarly, for

downstream locations neither shielding nor amplification (almost same value as in case of isolated

building) has been observed.

Generally, shielding increases with the increase in HR upto 1.25, after that there is a decrease in the

shielding effect for HR upto 1.5 (Figure 7). Maximum variation of 30% in IF value is obtained due to

the presence of 1.5H interfering building, as it moves in lateral direction from longitudinal axis.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 11

For this orientation of principal and interfering building, both the effects i.e. shielding as well as

amplification in mean moment are observed. Maximum reduction of 90% and amplification of 83%

in mean moment is recorded for tallest interfering building (HR= 1.5).

Figure 8 indicate the shielding as well as the amplification due to the presence of interfering building

(HR=1.5) at Ur=11.7.

From the contours shown in Figure 8, amplifications have been observed in the dotted zone.

For tandem arrangement of interfering building maximum reduction of 80% in mean moment at

(5.5b, 0) is seen. It is interesting to note that even up-to a distance of 390m (full scale) 30% shielding

is present. Dotted region in Figure 8, show the amplification in mean moments due to the presence

of interfering building. In this region maximum amplification of the order of 80% at side-by-side

location (X=0.5b, Y=3.5b) and 30% at downstream location (X=-2.5b, Y=3.5b) of interfering building

has been noted. In general, as the interfering building moves away from the principal building either

longitudinally or laterally relative increase in amplification can be observed.

in Figure 9. Shielding as well as amplification in mean moments with the increase in HR at various

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 12

observed from the experimental results.

When both the buildings are in the LAB orientation shielding as well as amplification in mean

moment are noted, but not as dominant as in Case 1 and Case 3. Interference contours for HR=1.0

at different Ur's are presented in Figure 10 (a-b) and interference contours for HR=1.25 at Ur=9.6 are

present in Figure 10 (c). From Figure 10 (a-b), marginal amplification of 10-20% and shielding of the

order of 20-30% with the increase in velocity, is noted. Similar trend has been observed for other HR

values at different Ur's. A change (around 75%) from shielding to amplification has been noted at

X=1.5b, Y=4.5b location, when HR is changed from 1 to 1.25. On the other hand, at X=9b, a reverse

change (around 25%) from amplification to shielding has also been observed.

HR=1; (b) Ur=11.7 and HR=1; (c) Ur=9.6 and HR=1.25

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 13

A concept of interference influence zones has been devised to present an overall simplified yet

comprehensive view of wind-induced interference effects. Structural designers are more

concerned about the amplification in the response due to interference. Therefore, maximum value

of amplification has been picked up for all the variations of HR, Ur and all the locations. They are

presented in Figure 11 (a-d). For Case II i.e. P=SAB, I=LAB, mostly there is shielding. Substantial

amplification for all other three cases is evident.

Maximum increase in mean moment has been observed at side-by-side locations of interfering

building. Significant increase upto 60% in mean moment at downstream of principal building has

been noted for Case III as well as Case IV. Similarly, at X=11.5b and Y=0, there is an increase of

40% in Case I as well as Case IV and 100% in Case III.

It is worthy to note (Figure 11-c) that there is an increase of 40-80% in IF values when X=19.5b

(390m) and Y varies from 2.5b (50m) to 3.5b (70m).

In most of the Cases, maximum response is recorded in side-by-side arrangement of interfering

building. Similar trend of mean response (i.e. strongest mean moments are developed when the

two square prisms are at lateral offset from the longitudinal velocity direction) had also been noted

by Reinhold et. al. (1977).

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 14

Figure 11 Interference influence zones for mean bending moments for (a) Case I: P=SAB,

I=SAB, (b) Case II: P=SAB, I=LAB, (c) Case III: P=LAB, I=SAB, (d) Case IV: P=LAB I=LAB

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 15

CONCLUSIONS:

The mean interference effects between two buildings with different height ratio, orientation,

reduced velocity and relative position have been studied by a series of wind tunnel tests in suburban

terrain. Comparison of present study and the existing results have been made to validate the

present study results. The main inferences from the study are summarized as follows:

1) For SAB orientation of principal as well as interfering building, an increase in shielding with the

increase in HR for upstream locations is observed except for buildings with HR=0.6 and 0.75 at

higher reduced velocity (4.6). However, for side-by-side and downstream locations

amplification in mean moments is noted. Generally, 5-10% amplification due to higher reduced

velocity is noted, however, the amplification upto 20% is also recorded at a few locations. It is

worthy to note that, for this particular orientation of buildings, 20% shielding even at 640m (full

scale) distance due to presence of 1.5H interfering building is also observed.

2) When principal and interfering buildings are set at SAB and LAB orientations, respectively,

mostly shielding is observed. Reduction in the mean moments with the increase in HR is noted.

Maximum 50% reduction in moment is found due to the presence of tallest interfering building

(1.5H), at X=2.5b. Increase of 5 to 10% in amplification due to increase in reduced velocity is

also observed.

3) For LAB orientation of principal and SAB orientation of interfering building significant amount of

shielding and amplification is noted. Maximum 90% shielding and 83% amplification are

observed for interfering buildings having HR=1.5 and at higher reduced velocity. An increase in

the amplification of 30% due to change in Ur by 20% is noted for HR=1.5.

4) For LAB orientation of principal and interfering buildings, maximum 50% shielding and also

50% amplification is noted at different locations, due to variations in HR. Further, an increase in

mean moment of the order of 20% is observed due to increase in Ur by 13%.

5) In the present study, a concept of interference influence zones (IIZs) has been devised to

present an overall simplified yet comprehensive view of wind-induced interference effects. In

all orientations (Case I, Case II, Case III and Case IV) considered in the study, Case III, is the

worst case giving the maximum interference factor value i.e. 2.0 in IIZ. Case IV and Case I

come next regarding the adverse effect of Interference.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to the Professor Prem Krishna for his time and support during the study.

Wind Induced Mean Interference Effects on Tall Rectangular Buildings 16

REFERENCES:

1. Ahuja, A. K., Dalui, S. K., Ahuja, R. and Gupta, V. K. (2005), Effect of interference on wind

environment around high-rise buildings, Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 2, No. 1, pp.

1-8.

2. Amin, J. A. and Ahuja, A. K. (2011), Mean interference effects between two buildings: effects

of close proximity, Journal of The Structural Design of Tall and Special Buildings, Vol. 20, No.

7, pp 832-852.

3. Arunachalam, S., Lakshmanan N., Babu Ramesh, G., Rajan Selvi, S. and Selvam Panneer

(2006), Wind-induced interference studies on square building model, Journal of Wind and

Engineering, Vol. 3, No. 1, pp. 25-31.

4. Bailey, P. A. (1984), Interference excitation of tall buildings, M. Engg. Sc. thesis, school of

civil and mining engineering, University of Sydney, Nov. 1984.

5. English, E. C. (1993), Shielding factors for paired rectangular prisms: An analysis of along-

wind mean response data from several sources, International Proceedings of the 7th U.S.

National Conference on Wind Engineering, University of California, Los Angeles, CA, 193-

201.

6. English, E. C. and Frick, F. R. (1999), Interference index and its prediction using a neural

network analysis of wind-tunnel data, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial

Aerodynamics, Vol. 83, pp 567-575.

7. Gupta, Abhay (1996), Wind tunnel studies on aerodynamic interference in tall rectangular

buildings, Ph.D. thesis, University of Roorkee, Roorkee, India.

8. Indian Standards IS: 875 -Part 3 (1987), Code of Practice for Design Wind Loads (other than

Earthquake) for Buildings and Structures, Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi.

9. Isyumov, N. (1982), The Aero-elastic Modelling of Tall Buildings, Proceeding of

International Wind Symposium on Wind Tunnel Modelling, USA, pp 373-407.

10. Khanduri, A. C., Stathopoulos, T. and Bedard, C. (1998), Wind induced interference effects

on buildings A review of the state-of-the-art, Engineering Structures, Vol. 20, No. (7), pp

617-630.

11. Khanduri, A. C., Stathopoulos, T. and Bedard, C. (2000), Generalization of wind-induced

interference effects for two buildings, Wind and Structures, An International Journal, 3(4), pp

255-266.

12. Lee, B. E. and Fowler, G. R. (1975), The mean wind forces acting on a pair of square prisms,

Building Science, Vol. 10, pp 107-110.

13. Xie, Z. N. and Gu, M. (2004), Mean interference effects among tall buildings, Engineering

Structures, Vol. 26, pp 1173-1183.

14. Reinhold, T. A., Tieleman, H. W. and Maher, F. J. (1977). "Interaction of square prisms in two

flow fields", Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 2, pp 223-241.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 1-17 17

15. Sakamoto, H. and Haniu, H. (1988), Aerodynamic forces acting on two square prisms placed

vertically in a turbulent boundary layer, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial

Aerodynamics, Vol. 31, pp 41-66.

16. Saunders, J. W. and Melbourne, W. H. (1979). Buffeting effects of upstream buildings,

Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Wind Engineering, Fort Collins, Colorado,

USA, Vol. 1, pp 593-606.

17. Taniike, Yoshihito (1992), Interference mechanism for enhanced wind forces on

neighbouring tall buildings, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol.

41-44, pp 1073-1083.

18. Taniike, Yoshihito and Inaoka, Hideki (1988), Aeroelastic behaviour of tall buildings in wake,

Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 28, pp. 317-327.

19. Yahyai M, Krishen, K., Krishna, P. and Pande, P. K. (1992), Aerodynamic interference in tall

rectangular buildings, Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics, Vol. 41-44,

pp 859-866.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40

FOR TALL BUILDINGS

1 2

Workamaw P. Warsido , Girma T. Bitsuamlak

1

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W Flagler

St, Miami, Florida 33174, USA (wwars001@fiu.edu)

2

Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, WindEEE Research Institute, University of

Western Ontario in London, ON, Canada N6A 5B9 (gbitsuam@uwo.ca)

ABSTRACT

Aerodynamic wind tunnel testing has been the most commonly used method for estimating wind-

induced responses of tall buildings. Analysis of aerodynamic data for estimating wind-induced

responses of tall buildings can be carried out in the frequency or time domain. Frequency domain

analysis has been the most commonly used approach as it requires relatively less computational

time than carrying out the analysis in the time domain. The present study discusses the frequency

and time domain approaches for aerodynamic data analysis and compares the two analysis

approaches from accuracy and computational time perspectives. Moreover, the significance of

some traditionally used simplifying approximations on the accuracy of estimated wind-induced

responses is also assessed. The study showed that accuracy of results obtained from frequency

domain analysis could be significantly affected by the traditionally used simplifying approximations.

It was also learned that the enhanced computing capabilities of today's computers allow time

domain analysis to be carried out within a reasonable computing time.

INTRODUCTION

Tall buildings are among wind sensitive structures which could experience high wind-induced

effects. The degree of sensitivity is continuously increasing with the current trend of architectural

and engineering designs heading towards the construction of buildings with complex shapes using

lightweight materials. Hence, the methodologies used for estimating wind-induced responses of

such wind sensitive structures should meet high levels of accuracy. Although building codes and

standards have been widely used for estimating wind-induced responses of low-rise buildings,

limited wind load provisions are given for tall buildings. Wind tunnel studies are often recommended

to be conducted for most tall buildings and have been quite successful for estimating wind-induced

loads and responses (Cermak 2003; Isyumov 2004). Aerodynamic wind tunnel tests are the most

commonly conducted tests for tall buildings (Boggs 1992; Boggs and Peterka 1989). The two

aerodynamic tests conducted in most wind tunnel laboratories are the High Frequency Force

Balance (HFFB) and the High Frequency Pressure Integration (HFPI). In the HFFB test, base

bending and torsional moments are measured by mounting a building model on a high frequency

and sensitive balance (Tschanz and Davenport 1983; Xie and Irwin 1998). In the HFPI test,

pressure readings are collected by installing a large number of pressure taps on the building

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 19

envelope (Steckley et al. 1992; Ueda et al. 1994). The overall aerodynamic loads on the building

can be obtained by integrating the distributed forces obtained by multiplying the recorded pressure

time history with the tributary area assigned to each pressure tap. The data collected from

aerodynamic wind tunnel tests contains the dynamic effects resulting from the turbulence in the

wind. However, design wind effects on tall buildings should also consider dynamic wind effects

resulting from the building inertia. Hence, the aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests

should be analyzed together with the dynamic properties of the building to get wind effects which

contain dynamic effect of the building inertia. The numerical techniques used to carry out this

analysis can be classified into two as the frequency and time domain analysis approaches.

Theoretically, both the frequency and time domain analysis approaches should give the same

results for linear analysis provided additional approximations are not used in the solution process of

each approach. However, simplifying approximations are traditionally used, mostly in the frequency

domain approach, which could potentially affect accuracy of the analysis results. In this paper, a

dual aerodynamic data analysis framework which works in the time and frequency domains is

presented. The framework allows estimation of modal, resultant and peak values of various wind-

induced responses of a given tall building at each story level. The uncertainties caused by different

traditionally used simplifying approximations are also investigated with a case study on a 50 story

building. Moreover, the feasibility of carrying out time domain analysis is also assessed from the

computational time perspective.

Similar to other vibration problems the response of tall buildings to dynamic loads can be expressed

by the three motion parameters, namely, acceleration, velocity and displacement. The summation

of forces associated to each parameter is equated to the excitation force to get the following

governing equation of motion.

where m, c and k represent mass, damping and stiffness matrices of the building while (t), (t),

u(t) and p(t) denote acceleration, velocity, displacement and wind load vectors respectively. The

sizes of these matrices and vectors depend on the total number of degrees of freedom defined for

dynamic analysis. Even though infinite degrees of freedom exist for tall buildings, the degrees of

freedom are usually minimized practicality to three, two translations (denoted here by subscripts x

and y) and one rotation (denoted here by subscript ), at each floor level using rigid floor idealization

(Clough et al. 1964). Hence, a total of 3n degrees of freedom are defined where n denotes number

of floors of the building. Eq. (1) can be written in expanded form as follows:

(2)

where m and I are n x n diagonal sub-matrices with lumped mass m and mass moment of inertia I of

each floor as diagonal elements respectively; cxx, cyy, cx, cy, c, kxx, kyy, kx, ky and k are n x n sub-

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 20

y (t) , u (t) , u x (t) , uy (t) , u (t) , p x (t) , py (t) and p (t) are nx1

sub-vectors in the corresponding damping and stiffness matrices; ,,,,,,,,,,and are nx1 sub-vectors in

the corresponding acceleration, velocity, displacement and wind load vectors. Using classical

modal analysis Eq. (2) can be converted into a set of uncoupled linear second order differential

equations as

Mq (3)

matrices respectively; , and 2 are diagonal matrices having, j, j and j2 as diagonal elements

respectively; j, and j denote damping ratio and natural frequency of the jth vibration mode

respectively; P(t) Tp(t) denotes the generalized wind load vector; 1 , 2,...,k

denotes the modal matrix comprised of the mode shape vectors and q q1 , q2 ,..., qk denotes the

T

generalized displacement vector; q T q1 , q2 ,..., qk denotes the generalized velocity vector and

q T q1 , q2 ,..., qk Denotes the generalized acceleration vector. The subscript k denotes the total

number of vibration modes considered for analysis. The generalized displacement vector can be

related to the different responses of interest through the modal participation coefficients (Chen and

Kareem 2005). For instance, the modal participation coefficients of displacement, acceleration,

shear, bending and torsional moment responses can be obtained using Eqs. (4-8).

(5)

alj 2jljs (s x, y, )

n

vlj 2j mi ijs ( s x, y) (6)

i l

n

zi if l 1 (7)

mlj ( z ) 2j m iijs z ( s x, y )

il zi - z l 1 otherwise

n

tlj 2j I i ij

i l (8)

displacement, floor acceleration, story shear, story bending moment and story torsion responses

th

respectively; z is bending moment arm; , ljx , ljy and lj are values of the j mode shape vector at

the lth floor in the x, y and degrees of freedom respectively. The generalized displacement vector

can be evaluated in the frequency or time domain. In the frequency domain analysis, the

generalized wind load time history is transformed into spectral data from which standard deviations

of the modal generalized displacements can be computed without solving the dynamic equation of

motion. In the time domain analysis, the dynamic equation of motion is solved using the generalized

wind load time history to get the time history of the modal generalized displacements. Computation

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 21

of the dynamic wind-induced responses in the frequency and time domain approaches is briefly

explained in the following subsections.

Application of frequency domain analysis for wind-induced vibration problems could be dated back

to the 1950's. Liepmann (1952) used a frequency domain approach for computing wind-induced

buffeting loads on aircrafts. The application was later extended for civil engineering structures in the

1960's (Davenport 1961; 1963; 1964; Harris 1963; Vickery 1965; 1966). The first step in the

frequency domain analysis is to transform the wind load time history data into frequency domain.

Transformation of a given data from time domain to frequency domain can be carried out with a

Fourier transform. When the time domain data is converted into frequency domain, variance and

covariance of the statistical parameters cannot be computed in the conventional way instead they

are computed from the spectral density functions. Power spectral density of the generalized wind

load in Eq. (3) can be obtained from product of the frequency domain data with its conjugate as

th

where Pj ( f ) and Spji are the j mode generalized wind load data in frequency domain and its power

spectrum respectively. The superscript * denotes the complex-conjugate operator. The cross

spectral density of the ith and jth mode generalized wind loads can be obtained by multiplying the

frequency domain data of one vibration mode with the complex-conjugate of another vibration

mode as follows:

S Pij f Pi f Pj f

*

(10)

th th

Where Pi ( f ) and Pj ( f ) are the i and j mode generalized wind loads in the frequency domain

respectively and Spji ( f ) is their cross spectrum. Spectral density functions of the generalized wind

loads can be related to the corresponding spectral density functions of the generalized

displacements through the mechanical admittance function H ( f ) as follows:

Sq f H j f S P f H *j f

jj jj

(11)

where the mechanical admittance function in the jth vibration mode is given by

1

H j f 2

f f

K j 1 2 i j (13)

f j f j

Where Kj and fj = j / 2 denote the jth mode generalized stiffness and frequency; i 1 indicates

imaginary part of the complex number. The power and cross spectral density functions can also be

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 22

obtained from the Fourier transforms of autocorrelation and cross correlation functions

respectively. Variance of the jth mode generalized displacement can be obtained from the area

under the power spectral density curve as

2

q jj S q jj f df H j f S Pjj f H *j f df (14)

0 0

Covariance between the ith and jth mode generalized displacements can also be computed as

q2ij Re Sqij f df Re H i f SPij f H *j f df (15)

0 0

where 'Re' denotes the real operator. Traditionally, the integrals in Eqs.(14) and (15) are evaluated

as the sum of two regions, which correspond to background and resonant response components.

The background component shows the dynamic response resulting from the turbulent nature of

wind alone while the resonant component shows the contribution from dynamic properties of the

building. The background component can be computed by removing the effect of dynamic

properties of the building from Eq. (14) as follows:

1 (16)

q2jjb SP f df

K 2j 0 jj

By subtracting Eq. (16) from Eq. (14) the resonant component can be computed as

Sometimes, the resonant variance component is computed approximately by simplifying Eq. (14)

with the assumption of White Gaussian process and j in the ranges of frequencies which are

close to the natural frequencies of the building as follows:

1

q2jjr f S (f ) (18)

K 2j 4 j j Pjj j

The approximation used in Eq. (18) has been the basis for simplified equations recommended by

some building codes and standards for estimating resonant components of wind-induced response

of tall buildings. The investigation on the accuracy of White noise approximation on wind-induced

responses is presented in the latter section.

th

Standard deviation of any response of interest (R) in the j mode of vibration can then be obtained

from standard deviation of the generalized displacement as follows:

R R q (19)

jj j jj

Standard deviations of modal responses should be combined to get standard deviation of the

resultant response. The most simplified modal combination rule is the square root of sum of the

squares (SRSS) rule which is suggested by Rosenblueth (1951).

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 23

k k

2 (20)

R 2Rjj

j 1 j 1

Rj q jj

As it can be seen from Eq. (20) the cross correlation of modal responses is ignored in this approach.

This approach works well when the modal responses are uncoupled for which the natural

frequencies are well-separated or the ratio of natural frequencies of two consecutive vibration

modes is at least 1.2 (Tse et al. 2008). The most commonly used modal combination rule, which

considers the cross correlation of modal responses, is the complete quadratic combination (CQC)

rule given by

k k k k

R Rii R jj rij

i 1 j 1

i 1 j 1

qii q jj rij

Ri Rj

(21)

Re H i f S Pij f H *j f df

q2ij 0

rij (22)

qii q jj

H f S f H f d f H f S f H f d f

* *

i pii i j p jj j

0 0

Different formulations were suggested for computing the correlation coefficient without directly

solving Eq. (22). The two most commonly used formulations were suggested by Chen and Kareem

(2005) and Huang et al. (2009).

Peak(minimum and maximum) value of any response of interest can be computed from the mean

and standard deviation components with a peak factor approach as follows (Davenport 1967):

R R g R R (23)

where R denotes the peak response; R denotes the mean response which can be computed as

follows (Chen and Kareem 2005):

k

Pj (24)

R Rj q j , qj

j 1 Kj

gR is the peak factor which can be computed with the following closed form equation in Eq. (25)

assuming the response time history to be a normally distributed stationary Gaussian process

(Davenport 1961).

0.5772

gR 2lnT (25)

2lnT

where T is the time interval in seconds over which the peak value is required and is the mean zero

upcrossing rate. The mean upcrossing rate can be computed as follows (Rice 1945):

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 24

(26)

f 2 SR f df S f df

R

0 0

Since spectra of the response R and the generalized displacement show the same variation with

frequency, Eq. (26) can be written as

(27)

f

2

Sq f df S f df

q

0 0

different vibration modes using the CQC modal combination rule as follows:

k k

S ( f )df

q

Sqii ( f )df

Sq jj ( f )df rij

(28)

0 i1 j1 0 0

k k

2

f 2 S q ( f )df f 2 S qii ( f )df f S q jj ( f )df rij (29)

0 i1 j1 0 0

Re f 2 Sqij f df

rij 0 (30)

f 2 S qii f df f 2 S q jj f df

0 0

Traditionally, the peak response is computed approximately after rearranging Eq. (23) as follows:

(31)

R R g g

b Rb

2

rj R rj

2

where gb and grj are the peak factors corresponding to the background and jth mode resonant

response components respectively. The back ground peak factor is commonly given a value

between 3 and 4(Chen and Kareem 2005). The resonant peak factor for each vibration mode is

computed from Eq. (25) by approximating the mean upcrossing rate parameter with the building

natural frequency (j fj) where fj is frequency of the jth vibration mode in Hz (Chena and Huang

2009).

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 25

In the 1970's and 80's, when the computer processing-speed was limited, analysis of aerodynamic

data had been mostly carried out in the frequency domain owing to its smaller computational

demand compared to the time domain approach. However, with the fast growth of computing

speed, memory and storage capacity of computers, carrying out time domain analysis is becoming

increasingly favorable as it has been underscored by some recent research works (e.g. Flay and Li

2007; Simiu et al. 2008; Spence et al. 2008; Tse et al. 2008). In the time domain analysis, time

history of wind-induced responses are obtained by using the time history of wind load data,

measured in wind tunnel tests, as input in the dynamic equation of motion. Time history of the

generalized displacement vector can be obtained by directly solving Eq. (3) with numerical time

stepping methods. Several numerical time-stepping methods have been developed over the years

which can be generally categorized into two schemes, namely explicit and implicit. In explicit

schemes unknown value of a function can be explicitly defined in terms of known values of a

function, while in implicit schemes coupled system of equations, which contain both unknown and

known values of a function, need to be solved. Explicit schemes are easy to implement compared to

implicit schemes but require relatively smaller time steps to ensure convergence and stability of the

numerical solutions. Implicit schemes involve solving of a system of equations at each time step,

hence they require extra computational effort compared to explicit schemes. In the present study,

time domain analysis is carried out using the Newmark's linear acceleration method which is an

implicit scheme. Since the mathematical background of this numerical scheme is available in

published literatures (e.g. Chapra and Canale 2009; Chopra 2007) it is not presented here. Once

time history of the generalized displacement is obtained, time history of the required modal

response of interest can be obtained using the modal participation coefficient as follows:

R j R j q j (32)

Modal responses can then be directly superimposed to get the resultant time history of response.

Moreover, since time history of a wind-induced response is obtained, the statistical parameters

such as mean and standard deviation can be computed in the conventional way. The resultant time

history also contains peak responses. However taking instantaneous peak values directly from the

time history may not be a good peak estimation approach since such measured peak values may

not be statistically stable. A more stable peak estimation approach would be one that makes use of

information from whole of the time history data. Sadek and Simiu (2002) suggested a peak

estimation approach for low-rise buildings for which the time histories of wind-induced responses

are generally non-Gaussian. The approach involves fitting a combination of gamma and normal

distributions to the time history data together with a standard translation processes approach

(Grigoriu 1995). In the present work, normal probability distribution is fitted to the time history of

wind-induced responses following a similar approach. Goodness of fit is checked by the probability

plot correlation coefficient (PPCC) method (Filliben 1975). Moreover, acceptability of the normal

distribution fit to the time history of wind-induced responses is also checked from the probability and

cumulative distribution function plots. The mathematical formulation of this approach is discussed

as follows.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 26

For a standard Gaussian process X(t) the cumulative distribution function of the largest peak X in a

certain time interval T is given as (Rice 1954):

exp T exp X /2

F X X X

2 (33)

Rearranging Eq. (33) the peak value can be expressed in terms the cumulative distribution function

as:

X T (34)

X 2 ln

ln F X

X

Hence, for a given value of the cumulative distribution function FXk X the maximum and minimum

peak values can be computed as:

X T X T (35)

X max

k

2 ln and X min

k

2 ln

X X

ln F k

ln F k X

X

where X is the mean zero upcrossing rate for process X, which can be computed from Eq. (27).

Peak values of the process X corresponding to a set of predetermined values of the cumulative

distribution function can then be mapped to the corresponding peak values of the process R (time

history of the response of interest) as follows:

R max

k

X max

k

and Rmin

k

X min

k

(36)

Where and are slope and intercept parameters of the least squares regression line obtained by

fitting inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution to the sorted time history of response.

The final estimated peak values of the response are then computed as the average of peak values

obtained in Eq. (36).

R max f Xk X R max

k

and R min f Xk X R min

k

(37)

X X

where f Xk X is the probability density function of the peak X in a certain time interval T, which can

be computed as:

X T k

f Xk X 2 ln

F X ln F k X (38)

ln F k X

X X

X

CASE STUDY

Experimental setup

HFPI wind tunnel test was carried out on a 50 story steel building which is 182.88m (600ft) high with

a rectangular plan dimensions of 30.48m (100ft) x 45.72m (150ft) (Fig. 1(a)), similar to the

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 27

The building model was constructed to a 1:400 scale and tested at RWDI's boundary layer wind

tunnel facility (Fig. 1(b)). The tunnel has a cross-section of 2.13m x 2.44m (7ft x 8ft) at 13.3m (43.5ft)

distance down-stream of the tunnel entrance, where the building model was installed on a turn

table. The test was carried out in an open upwind exposure which was generated by the combined

effect of 15.24cm x 33.02cm (6in x 13in) trapezoidal spires and 2.54cm (1.0in) high triangular floor

roughness elements. The mean wind speed and turbulence intensity profiles as well as longitudinal

turbulence spectrum of the simulated open exposure are shown in Fig. 2. Pressure readings were

taken for several wind directions using 280 pressure taps installed on the building surface at 10

levels with 28 taps at each level. The data was collected for a duration of 36sec at a sampling

frequency of 512Hz which is equivalent to 1hr in the full scale. Since the pressure taps were

connected to the pressure scanner with 1.34mm (0.053in) PVC tubes the data collected was low

pass filtered to reduce resonance effects from the tubes (Irwin et al. 1979). Using the pressure data

and an assumed design wind speed of 56.7m/sec at the building height, the full-scale forces and

torsional moment are computed at each floor level.

Fig. 1 (a) Dimensions of the study building in m and pressure tap locations;

(b) HFPI test setup at RWDIs boundary layer wind tunnel laboratory

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 28

Fig. 2 (a) Normalized mean wind speed (U/Uref) and turbulence intensity (TI) profiles and

(b) longitudinal turbulence spectrum at the building height

Classical modal analysis was carried out for the building model using finite element analysis

software (see Fig. 3). The building was designed in such a way that it will have coupled vibration

modes by deliberately orienting the elevator core asymmetrically on the building plan as shown in

Fig. 3(b). Natural frequencies for the first three vibration modes were found to be 0.280 Hz, 0.291 Hz

and 0.562 Hz respectively and the corresponding mode shapes are shown in Fig. 4. It has to be

noted that the torsional mode shape was plotted together with the sway modes after being

multiplied by the radius of gyration (ra) at each floor level. As it can be observed from Fig. 4 as well

as from the natural frequency values, the first two vibration modes are coupled. A 1% damping ratio

is assumed in all the three vibration modes. The aerodynamic data coupled with dynamic properties

of the building was analyzed in the frequency and time domains to obtain wind-induced responses.

Fig. 3 FEM model of the study building: (a) 3D view and (b) typical plan view

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 29

Fig. 4 Normalized (a) first, (b) second and (c) third vibration modes

Modal responses

Standard deviations of the generalized displacements corresponding to the three vibration modes

are computed in the frequency and time domain analysis approaches. In the frequency domain

analysis the modal responses are computed with two approaches. In the first approach, resonant

components are computed with the White noise approximation using Eq. (18) and combined with

the background components obtained from Eq. (16). In the second approach, the modal

generalized displacements are computed without approximation by integration of the full spectrum

given in Eq. (14). Fig. 5 shows comparison of the modal generalized displacements obtained from

the frequency domain approaches, with the time domain results, for several wind directions. As it

can be observed, the frequency domain results obtained by integration of the full spectrum closely

match the time domain results in all the three vibration modes. The variations observed between the

full spectrum frequency domain results and the time domain results are less than 5% for all wind

directions. The slight percentage deviations observed between the two approaches can be

attributed to the approximation in the process of numerical integration. The frequency domain

results obtained with the White noise approximation show relatively larger deviations from the time

domain results. As it can be observed, as high as 30% deviation is observed in some wind

directions.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 30

Fig. 5 Standard deviation of generalized displacements in the three vibration modes obtained from

frequency domain (FD) and time domain (TD) approaches (a, c and e); Percentage deviations of

frequency domain results from time domain results(b, d and f)

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 31

Fig. 6 shows comparison of modal correlation coefficients obtained from the CQC formulations of

Chen and Kareem (2005) and Huang et al. (2009) with the exact correlation coefficients obtained by

directly solving Eq. (22). The correlation coefficients obtained from the formulation of Huang et al.

(2009) show perfect match with the exact correlation coefficients. However, the coefficients

obtained from Chen and Kareem (2005) show some deviations particularly between the highly

coupled first and second modes. The correlation coefficients between the remaining uncoupled

pairs show good agreement. If standard deviations of the generalized displacements are computed

by integration of the full spectrum given in Eq. (14), it will be more convenient to compute the exact

correlation coefficients directly from Eq. (22). This is because the standard deviation values are

already available and the only extra parameter that needs to be computed is the covariance

parameter.

Fig. 6 Modal correlation coefficients (a) r12 (b) r13 and (c) r23

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 32

Resultant responses

Comparison of the standard deviation of resultant base moments obtained from frequency and time

domain analyses are shown in Fig. 7. In the frequency domain analysis, standard deviations of the

modal base moments are computed from integration of the full spectrum and they are combined

with the SRSS and CQC combination rules. In the time domain analysis, standard deviations of the

resultant base moments are computed in the conventional way from the time history of base

moments. As it can be observed from the figures, frequency domain results obtained with the SRSS

rule show relatively larger deviations from the time domain results. For most wind directions the

SRSS resulted in 10% deviations and up to 20% deviations are observed for few wind directions.

Results obtained from the different CQC formulations show close agreement with time domain

results. For most wind directions, the percentage deviations for the different CQC formulations fall

below 5%, while for few wind directions, up to 10% deviations are observed. Larger deviations in the

SRSS rule are observed particularly in the bending moment responses (Mx and My) for which the

major contributions come from the coupled first and second vibration modes. Hence, the variations

observed in the SRSS rule result from ignoring the cross-correlation effects between the first and

second mode responses. The major contribution for the torsional moment response (M) comes

from the third vibration mode which is not coupled with the other two modes. Hence, results

obtained from the SRSS and the CQC rules are relatively close since the cross-correlation effects

are minimal.

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 33

Fig. 7 Standard deviation of resultant base moments (a, c and e); Deviations of base moments

obtained with different modal combination

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 34

Peak responses

In the frequency domain analysis, peak values of the base moment responses are computed with

two approaches. In the first approach, the peak factor is computed by approximating the mean

upcrossing rate by the fundamental natural frequency of the building. In the second approach, the

peak factor is computed using the mean cycling rate computed using Eq. (27). For the sake of

convenience, the first approach will be referred as Traditional Peak Factor (TPF) approach and the

second approach will be referred as Accurate Peak Factor (APF) approach. In the time domain

analysis also two sets of peak values are obtained. The first set of peak values referred as

estimated peak values are computed using the statistical approach discussed before, while the

second set of peak values referred as measured peak values are directly taken from the time history

of responses. For the estimated peak responses, the probability plots and cumulative distribution

function plots of the normal distribution fitted to the time history of base moment responses are

shown in Fig. 8. As it can be observed from the plots as well as from the PPCC values, which are

very close to log normal distribution fit to the data is acceptable. The peak bending and torsional

base moments obtained from frequency and time domain analysis are compared in Fig. 9. It can be

observed from the figure that the peak values obtained from the TPF frequency domain approach

are relatively larger than the peak values obtained from the APF frequency domain approach. It can

also be observed that, the peak values obtained with the APF frequency domain approach and the

estimated peak values from time domain analysis show close agreement. The peak responses

obtained from the TPF frequency domain approach are larger than the estimated peak values by

about 15% for most wind directions but reach as high as 25% for few wind directions. Peak values

from the APF frequency domain approach show less than 5% deviations from the estimated peak

values for most wind directions. The measured peak responses in the time domain show random

percentage deviations in different wind directions with magnitudes falling in a wide range of 0-30.

This indicates the relatively unstable nature of measured peak values compared to the estimated

peak values.

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 35

Fig. 8 Probability plots (a, c and e) and Cumulative distribution function plots (b, d and f) for base

moment responses at 180o wind direction

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 36

Fig. 9 Absolute peak base moments (a, c and e); Deviations of moments obtained with different

approaches from statistically estimated peak moments in the time domain (b, d and f)

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 37

CPU time

The computational time required to carry out time domain analysis is generally expected to be

longer than the time required for frequency domain analysis. In this section the CPU time elapsed

for carrying out the analysis in the time and frequency domains are compared. The case study is

carried out on a laptop computer having 4.0GB RAM and dual core processors running at 2.2 GHz.

It is to be noted that the codes for both analysis techniques are developed in a similar programming

language. Moreover, common programming tasks are handled with similar algorithms in both

analysis techniques. In addition, to assure repeatability of the results obtained, the analysis was

carried out for multiple wind directions. Fig.10 shows a comparison of the CPU times elapsed in

time and frequency domain approaches to compute mean, standard deviation and peak values of

displacement, acceleration, shear, bending moment and torsion responses at each floor level. It

has to be noted that the extra CPU time required for exporting analysis results in the required output

formats are not included in the time values. It can be observed from the figure that to analyze

aerodynamic data from one wind direction it took about 15sec in the frequency domain while it took

about 57 sec in the time domain. Hence, although the CPU time taken for time domain analysis

seems relatively large compared to the CPU time taken for frequency domain analysis it is still

efficient to carryout time domain analysis.

Fig. 10 CPU time elapsed for analyzing aerodynamic data in time and frequency domains

CONCLUSION

An aerodynamic wind tunnel test was carried out on a 50 story building which has the same

dimensions as the CAARC building and the data collected was analyzed in time and frequency

domains. The results obtained were compared at different stages of the solution process starting

from the computation of modal responses up to the estimation of peak responses. Comparison of

standard deviations of modal responses revealed that frequency domain results obtained without

simplifying approximations match time domain results more closely than the results obtained with

simplifying approximations. In the frequency domain analysis, standard deviations of modal

responses were combined with the SRSS and CQC modal combination rules and the resultant

responses were compared with the corresponding time domain results. Results obtained from the

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 38

SRSS rule showed relatively larger deviations from time domain results compared to results

obtained from the CQC rule. A statistical peak response estimation approach was implemented in

time domain analysis which was found to be more stable than the measured peak values.

Moreover, a more accurate procedure was implemented to compute peak factors used in the

frequency domain analysis. Peak responses obtained with accurate peak factors in the frequency

domain showed close agreement with statistically estimated peak values in the time domain.

Hence, accuracy of results obtained from frequency domain analysis can be compromised by the

traditionally used simplifying approximations. The present work also attempted to assess feasibility

of time domain analysis from the computational perspective by comparing the CPU time elapsed for

time and frequency domain analysis. Although, the CPU time taken for time domain analysis may

seem relatively large compared to the CPU time taken for frequency domain analysis it is still

computationally efficient to carryout time domain analysis.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This research is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No.

0846811, any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material

are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the granting agencies.

REFERENCES

1. Boggs, D. W. (1992). "Validation of the aerodynamic model method." J. Wind Eng. Ind.

Aerodyn., 41-44, 1011 1022.

2. Boggs, D. W., and Peterka, J. A. (1989). "Aerodynamic model tests of tall buildings." J. Eng.

Mech., 15(3), 618-635.

3. Cermak, J. E. (2003). "Wind-tunnel development and trends in applications to civil

engineering." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 91, 355370.

4. Chapra, S., and Canale, R. (2009). Numerical methods for engineers, 6th Ed., McGraw-Hill

5. Chen, X., and Kareem, A. (2005). "Dynamic wind effects on buildings with 3D coupled modes:

application of high frequency force balance measurements." J. Struct. Eng., 131(11), 1115-

1125.

6. Chena, X., and Huang, G. (2009). "Evaluation of peak resultant response for wind-excited tall

buildings." Eng. Struct., 31, 858-868.

7. Chopra, A. K. (2007). Dynamics of structures- theory and applications to earthquake

engineering, Third Ed., Pearson Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey.

8. Clough, R. W., King, I. P., and Wilson, E. L. (1964). "Structural analysis of multistory

buildings." ASCE, J. Struct. Div., 90, 19-34.

9. Davenport, A. G. (Year). "The application of statistical concepts to the wind loading of

structures." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 449-472.

A Dual Aerodynamic Data Analysis Framework for tall Buildings 39

Conference on Wind Effects on Buildings and Structures, Teddington, UK, 358-391.

11. Davenport, A. G. (Year). "Note on the distribution of the largest value of a random function with

application to gust loading." Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, 187-196.

12. Davenport, A. G. (1967). "Gust loading factors." J. Struct. Eng., 93, 11-34.

13. Filliben, J. J. (1975). "The probability plot correlation coefficient test for normality."

Technometrics, 17(1), 111-117.

14. Flay, R. G. J., and Li, Y. F. (Year). "On predicting accelerations in tall buildings from wind tunnel

model tests using spectral and time history methods." Proc. 12th Int. Conf. on Wind

Engineering, Cairns, Australia, 1215-1222.

15. Grigoriu, M. (1995). Applied non-Gaussian processes, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, N.J.

16. Harris, R. I. (Year). "The response of structures to gusts." International conference on wind

effects on buildings and structures, Teddington, UK, 394421.

17. Huang, M. F., Chan, C. M., Kwok, K. C. S., and Hitchcock, P. A. (2009). "Cross correlations of

modal responses of tall buildings in wind-induced lateral-torsional motion." J. Eng. Mech.,

135(8), 802-812.

18. Irwin, H. P. A. H., Cooper, K. R., and Girard, R. (1979). "Correction of distortion effects caused

by tubing systems in measurements of fluctuating pressures." Journal of Wind Engineering

and Industrial Aerodynamics, 5(12), 93-107.

19. Isyumov, N. (Year). "Improved performance of tall buildings through wind tunnel testing."

Structures Congress 2000: Advanced Technology in Structural Engineering Philadelphia,

PA, United states.

20. Liepmann, H. W. (1952). "On the application of statistical concepts to the buffeting problem."

J. Aeronaut. Sci., 19(12), 793-800.

21. Melbourne, W. H. (1980). "Comparison of measurements on the CAARC standard tall

building model in simulated model wind flows." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 6, 73-88.

22. Rice, S. O. (1945). "Mathematical analysis of noise, Pt III." Bell syst. tech., 24, 46-156.

23. Rice, S. O. (1954). Mathematical analysis of random noise. Selected papers on noise and

stochastic processes, Dover, New York.

24. Rosenblueth, E. (1951). "A basis for aseismic design," PhD Thesis University of Illinois,

Urbana, Illinois.

25. Sadek, F., and Simiu, E. (2002). "Peak non-Gaussian wind effects for database-assisted low-

rise building design." J. Eng. Mech., 128(5), 530539.

26. Simiu, E., Gabbai, R. D., and Fritz, W. P. (2008). "Wind-induced tall building response: a time-

domain approach." Wind Struct., 11(6), 427-440.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 18-40 40

27. Spence, S. M. J., Gabbai, R. D., and Simiu, E. (Year). "Time-domain wind-tunnel based

methodology for tall building analysis and optimal design." The 4th International Conference

on Advances in Wind and Structures, Jeju, Korea.

28. Steckley, A., Accardo, M., Gamble, S. L., and Irwin, P. A. (1992). "The use of integrated

pressures to determine overall wind-induced response." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 41-44,

1023-1034.

29. Tschanz, T., and Davenport, A. G. (1983). "The base balance technique for the determination

of dynamic wind loads." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 13, 429-439.

30. Tse, K. T., Hitchcock, P. A., and Kwok, K. C. S. (2008). "A time domain technique for

aerodynamic wind tunnel model studies." J. Wind Eng., 5(2), 1-16.

31. Ueda, H., Hibi, K., Tamura, Y., and Fujii, K. (1994). "Multi-channel simultaneous fluctuating

pressure measurement system and its applications." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 51, 93-104.

32. Vickery, B. J. (1965). "On the flow behind a coarse grid and its use as a model of atmospheric

turbulence in studies related to wind loads on buildings." National Physical Laboratory (UK).

33. Vickery, B. J. (1966). "On the assessment of wind effects on elastic structures." Australian

Civil Engineering Transactions, CE8, 183-192.

34. Xie, J., and Irwin, P. A. (1998). "Application of the force balance technique to a building

complex." J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn., 77&78, 579-590.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 41-49

FOR THE EAST COAST OF INDIA

1 2

Pradeep K. Goyal , T.K. Datta

1

Dept. of Civil Engg. Govt. Engineering College, Ajmer, Rajasthan, India, 305001

Email:pk_goyal2003@yahoo.co.in

2

Department. of Civil Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, India, 110016

Email: tushar_k_datta@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

In this study, statistical distributions of key cyclone parameters are obtained by analyzing the

cyclone track records obtained from India meteorological department for east coast region of India.

The dataset of historical landfalling cyclone tracks is put into GIS with latitude /longitude and landfall

locations. The Statistical tests were performed to find a best fit distribution to the track data for each

key cyclone parameter for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa.

INTRODUCTION

Cyclone hazard analysis in the coastal region is a crucial issue in pre cyclone disaster mitigation of

any country prone to cyclones. Cyclone wind field simulation techniques have emerged as the most

reliable method for predicting design wind speeds and cyclone hazard risk analysis for the area of

interest in cyclone-prone regions. Therefore, it is important to obtain the probability distribution of

key cyclone parameters for cyclone hazard risk analysis and vulnerability assessment for the

region of interest. Key Cyclone parameters are defined as the parameters which are used in a

cyclonic wind field model to estimate wind speeds.

These key parameters are (i) central pressure difference p, (ii) the radius of maximum wind speed,

Rmax, (iii) the translation velocity of cyclone track, VT, and (iv) heading of cyclone track (). Using

these probability distributions, distribution of the cyclonic wind speed for a particular site in the

coastal region can be obtained.

Mathematical simulation methods have been used to estimate cyclonic wind speeds at the site of

interest (Russell, 1971; Russell and Schueller, 1974; Georgiou, et al., 1983; Vickery and Twisdale,

1995a, 1995b).

In this paper, the statistical distributions of key cyclone parameters are obtained for the states of

Andhra Pradesh and Orissa from the landfalling track records of Indian coastal region.

METHODOLOGY

The hourly latitude/longitude information of cyclone tracks is collected from the Journals/reports

published by India Meteorological Department (IMD) and database of the Joint Typhoon Warning

Statistical Modelling of Key Cyclone Parameters for the East Coast of India 42

Centre (JTWC). The dataset of historical landfalling storm tracks in India from 1975 to 2007 with

latitude /longitude is put into GIS and landfall locations are assigned in a region of study.

The statistical distribution of the key cyclone parameters are derived from actual data of central

pressure difference, translation velocity, radius of maximum wind, heading direction of all

landfalling tropical cyclones on Indian coastal region formed in Bay of Bengal. The

latitude/longitude information for each storm track is mapped into GIS and landfall locations are

assigned as shown in Fig. 1. Standard statistical techniques are employed to determine the best fit

distributions.

2.1. Procedure for evaluation of velocity using the distribution of the cyclone key

parameters

The most intensive wind generally occurs at the eye wall of cyclones. The wind speed decreases as

the location moves away from cyclone centre. The gradient wind speed at a distance r from the

cyclone centre is given by

B B

rf r 22f p R max R (1)

Vg B exp max

2 4 r r

where f is the Coriolis parameter, r is the radial distance from the storm centre to the point of

interest, is the density of air, is the pressure difference, B is Holland (1980) parameter.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 41-49 43

(980) po

B 1.5 (2)

120

where po is the central pressure of a tropical cyclone.

After the translation of cyclone is taken into account, the 1-minute average wind speed at 10-meter

above the sea surface (Chang and Lindell, 2005) is given by

where V10 denotes the 1-minute average wind speed at 10-meter above the sea surface, Vg denotes

the gradient wind speed given by Eq. (1), VT denotes translation velocity of the cyclone centre, and

denotes the angle between the hurricane track and surface wind direction in the region of interest

based on wind field model as shown in Fig. 1. Note that no wind field model is available for

Indian coastal region. The wind field model based on Hubbert et al., (1991) and by Chang and

Lindll (2005) has been widely used. Because this model can represent a wide variety of

storms in both size and shape it is not necessary to choose a random value for B

The distribution of wind velocity at the site of interest is simulated using the distributions of the key

cyclone parameters. Simulation procedure consists of the following steps:

(i) Using the distribution of the key cyclone parameters, random values of the key

parameters are generated using MATLAB.

(ii) For each cyclone key parameter, a set of 1000 random values (length of record) are

generated. The sampling interval is taken as 6-h, same as that of the cyclone track

records as obtained from the available data.

(iii) For generating the values of key cyclone parameters p , Rmax, VT , , different trial sets

of random values are obtained using MATLAB. Note that simulated values of the

cyclone key parameters are site specific, since mean and standard deviation values of

the parameters are determined from the actual track records.

(iv) Thus, a set of cyclonic wind speeds at the site of interest is obtained using Eq. (3) and

the CDF of the data set is calculated.

NUMERICAL STUDY

The states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa are the most disaster prone states in India. Therefore,

these states are taken as example problem for the numerical study. The distributions of the key

cyclone parameters are obtained from the track records using the method described before. The

probability density and cumulative distributions of key cyclonic parameters for Andhra Pradesh and

Orissa are shown in Figs. 3 to 9.

The cumulative distributions and probability density function obtained for the central pressure

difference for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa are shown in Figs. 3 and 4 respectively. Two

Statistical Modelling of Key Cyclone Parameters for the East Coast of India 44

standard distributions, namely Weibull and lognormal, are fitted to the histograms. From the

Chi-square and K-S tests, it was observed that lognormal distribution fits best to the histograms. It

is seen that one of the reported distributions for central pressure difference in the literature

is the lognormal distribution (Batts et al., 1980). The characteristics of the distribution of the

central pressure difference data according to the best fit for east coast of India are given in Table 1.

The percentages indicate that the probability of occurance ofthe central pressure will be less than

the given value.

Since each site individually has too few data for the radius of maximum wind, it is difficult to

get any good distribution from the data for each state. Therefore, data of the sites located in the

eastern side, i.e., Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Tamil Nadu, West Bengal are grouped together to get

the distribution of key cyclone parameters and the same distributions are assumed to hold good for

all sites in the eastern region. Fig. 5 shows cumulative and probability density function of radius of

maximum wind (RMW). Three distributions, namely lognormal, normal, and logistic are fitted to the

histograms. From the Chi-square and K-S test, lognormal distribution is found to be the best fit for

the radius of maximum wind. It is seen that the distribution as obtained from Indian data is the

same as that observed elsewhere (Georgiou et al., 1983; Vickery and Twisdale, 1995a;

Huang et al., 2001).

The characteristics of the distribution of the data for the radius of maximum wind are given in Table

2. The percentages indicate that the probability of occurance of RMW will be less than the given

value.

CDF and PDF of storm heading direction for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa are

shown in Figs. 6 to 7. Normal distribution is found to be the best fit from Chi-square and K-S tests for

both the states. The distribution as obtained from Indian data is the same as that observed

elsewhere (Huang et al., 2001).

The characteristics of the distribution of the storm heading direction data for east coast of India

according to the best fit are given in Table 3.

CDF and PDF of translation velocity for the states of Andhra Pradesh and Orissa are shown in Fig. 8

to 9 respectively. Three distributions, namely Weibull, lognormal and normal are fitted to the

histograms of translation wind velocity. A Weibull distribution ranks first as the best fit for the

translation speed.

It is seen that there is some variation in the distribution of the key parameter of translation

velocity (for Indian condition) compared to those in the literature. This kind of deviation is

expected because characteristics of the cyclonic wind speed are likely to vary from region

to region and from country to country.

The characteristics of the distribution of translation (forward) speed data for east coast of India are

shown in Table 4. The percentages indicate that the probability of occurance the translation speed

will be less than the given value.

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 41-49 45

Percentile Value

Min 0.4941

5% 1.5444

10% 2.1067

25% (Q1) 3

50% (Median) 4.6058

75% (Q3) 5.7506

90% 8.0338

95% 9.6067

Max 20.972

Percentile Value

Min 26

5% 26

10% 26

25% (Q1) 29

50% (Median) 32

75% (Q3) 38

90% 44

95% 44

Max 44

Percentile Value

Min - 169.07

5% - 101.4

10% - 89.964

25% (Q1) - 89.837

50% (Median) - 57.983

75% (Q3) - 22.445

90% 0

Statistical Modelling of Key Cyclone Parameters for the East Coast of India 46

Percentile Value

Min 0.4941

5% 1.5444

10% 2.1067

25% (Q1) 3

50% (Median) 4.6058

75% (Q3) 5.7506

90% 8.0338

95% 9.6067

Max 20.972

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 41-49 47

Fig. 5: Probability distribution function of radius of maximum wind for Andhra Pradesh and Orissa

Fig. 6 : Probability distribution function of storm heading data for Andhra Pradesh

Statistical Modelling of Key Cyclone Parameters for the East Coast of India 48

Fig. 8: Probability

Fig. distribution

9: Probability function

distribution (b)

(a)CDF

(a)

PDF

of forward

function

CDF motion

of forward for Andhra

motion Pradesh

for Orissa

Journal of Wind and Engineering, Vol. 10, No. 2, July 2013, pp. 41-49 49

4. Conclusions

The statistical distributions of key cyclone parameters for the states of Andhra Pradesh and

Orissa are obtained from the actual track records. Best fit distributions of key cyclone parameters

are obtained by an elaborate statistical analysis using MATLAB. The lognormal distribution is found

to be the best fit for central pressure difference and radius of maximum wind. The Normal

distribution and Weibull distributions are found to fit best for storm heading direction and translation

velocity respectively.

References

1. Batts, M.E., Russell, L.R. and Simiu, E. (1980). Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United States.

Journal of the Structural Division, ASCE, 106(ST10), pp. 2001-2016.

2. Chang, L. and Lindell, M.K (2005), Hurricane Wind Risk Assessment for Miami-Dade

Country, Florida: A Consequence Based Engineering (CBE) Methodology. CBE Report for

the Mid-America Earthquake (MAE) Center.

3. Georgiou, P.N., Davenport, A.G. and Vickery, B.J. (1983). Design Wind Speeds in Regions

Dominated by Tropical Cyclones. Journal of Wind Engineering and Industrial Aerodynamics,

13(1-3), pp. 139-152.

4. Goyal P.K. and Datta T.K. (2011). Probability Distributions for Cyclone key Parameters and

cyclonic wind speed for the east coast of Indian Region, The International Journal of Ocean

and Climate Systems, Vol.2 (3), Multi science, UK

5. Huang, Z., Rosowsky, D.V. and Sparks, P.R. (2001). Long-term Hurricane Risk Assessment

and Expected Damage to Residential Structures. Reliability Engineering and System Safety,

74(3),pp. 239249.

6. Holland, G. J. (1980), An analytic model of the wind and pressure profiles in hurricance,

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 108, P 1212 - 128.

7. Holmes, J.D. (2001). Wind Loading of Structures, Spon Press, New York.

8. Hubbert, G.D., Holland, G.J., Leslie, L.M., and Manton, M.J. (1991). A Real Time System for

Forecasting Tropical Cyclone Storm Surges. Weather and. Forecasting, American

Meteorological Society, 6(1), pp. 86-97.

9. Russell, L.R. (1971). Probability Distributions for Hurricane Effects. Journal of Waterways,

Harbors, and Coastal Engineering Division, ASCE, 97(1), pp. 139-154.

10. Russell, L.R. and Schueller, G.F. (1974). Probabilistic Models for Texas Gulf Coast Hurricane

Occurrences. Journal Petroleum Technology, pp. 279-288.

11. Vickery, P.J. and Twisdale, L.A. (1995a). Prediction of Hurricane Wind Speeds in the United

States. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 121(11), pp. 1691-1699.

12. Vickery, P.J. and Twisdale, L.A. (1995b). Wind-field and Filling Models for Hurricane Wind

Speed Prediction. Journal of Structural Engineering, ASCE, 121(11), pp. 17001709.

- Speaker Verification in JavaUploaded byPhat Luong
- Effect of Hand Transmitted Vibration through Tractor during Ploughing FieldUploaded byAnonymous 7VPPkWS8O
- Ship Maneuvering Under Human ControlUploaded byAnil Kumar Dash
- Vibration and Damage PossibilityUploaded byvgchristopher4470
- Response Spectrum AnalysisUploaded byAdarsh Kumar S
- Fitz BandpassUploaded byJoshua D John
- MSFC-STD-3676-AUploaded bypws111
- ssploUploaded byالاميره شروق
- Introduction to the Theory of VibrationsUploaded byYves Simon
- 6528-27856-1-PBUploaded byMehdiGhoddosi
- RANDOM PROCESSES:SPECTRAL CHARACTERISTICSUploaded byRamakrishnaVakulabharanam
- Hood Vents InstallationUploaded byapi-26140644
- Ono Cf 4200zUploaded byenergicul
- Object Motion Detection System Using Passive Uhf Rfid Technology for a Trauma BayUploaded byIJSTR Research Publication
- 10580-00349L Measurement GuideUploaded byHector Manuel Cardoso Ferrer
- W4L7-Data and SignalsUploaded byMuhammad Zeeshan
- Choy 1996Uploaded byEddy Pacheco
- Design.pdfUploaded byMoisés Solis
- 233 Sample ChapterUploaded byAnand Panwal
- Accurately Measure the Dynamic Response of Pressure InstrumentsUploaded byAndrew Bailey
- Trends in Power System ProtectionUploaded byJayashree Ganesh
- PMA LMSC208 2 Complex WavesUploaded byAnonymous nmdNb0Be1
- Experimental Wake Investigation of a Solar Powered Car4 With Pic for Final PresUploaded byPhillip Sterbenz
- e0b49528e65a7cc93fUploaded bythlpap
- Signals_and_Syatem_Bridge_course_9th_July.pdfUploaded byPavaman
- Lab2_EE422Uploaded byDhanya Rao Mamidi
- 1Uploaded byYashu Handa
- TIMP RealUploaded byFawad Hasan
- chetn-i-73Uploaded byVangjush Mbrice
- 50_License Plate Localization Using a Statistical Analysis of Discrete Fourier Transform SignalUploaded byTuyến Đinh

- CIDECT Design Guide 3Uploaded byparis062
- course broucherUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Cracking in Post-tensioned Slabs KBondyCrackingSlabsUploaded byMark Ramnarine
- Dr.KP-JayaUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Design Of 6 storey Building in EtabsUploaded byMisqal A Iqbal
- Matrix AnalysisUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Dr.KP-JayaUploaded byVinay Sain
- Wind DynamicUploaded byimtiyaz_baadil
- Column Behaviour of Cold-Formed Hollow SectionsUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- driftUploaded bysunilr_60
- Yea Form 2018Uploaded byDr-Atul Dwivedi
- MS08-1096Uploaded byHamed Nikbakht
- Frame WeldsUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- WCEE2012_3527Uploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- maslakeahnafvamaslakeghairmuqallideenhindi.pdfUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Tecnical Data of Dynamic AnchoragegUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Design of ABR & AF (07.01)(Autosaved) (1)Uploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Rebuild Volume6 No 4Uploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- ETABS FAQUploaded bychorged
- 17Uploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Tall Chimneys - The Present TrendUploaded byRiyaz Siddique
- Wind effects on high rise - Ámundi Fannar Sæmundsson.pdfUploaded byionutfalcescu
- 2nd Order Versus 1st Order AnalysisUploaded byKha Phuc
- nistgcr10-917-5Uploaded bygustic1
- Stability Analysis of Steel Frame Structures P-Delta AnalysisUploaded byInternational Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology
- Case Studies of Some Concrete Structural Failures (1)Uploaded byBandilung Tz
- Corrosion ProtectionUploaded byMandar Punde

- Case - Midwest ElectronicsUploaded byOrkhan Hajiev
- Global Marketing Environment for Coffee ShopsUploaded byAtiqah Ismail
- V.1 Comment Opposiiton to Defendant's Motion for Extension of Time to File AnswerUploaded byRhows Buergo
- 8. Bachrach v. Golingco.docxUploaded byjeirome
- Hashoo Foundation Credit and Enterprise Development (CED) for Rice Microfinance (RMF)Uploaded byCristal Montanez
- Demco Gate ValveUploaded byr_ergin
- Bangkok Office Market Report Q3 2011 from Colliers InternationalUploaded byColliers International Thailand
- Trutax Income Tax ConsultingUploaded byTru Tax
- Design of Cross BeamUploaded byNAGARAJ
- Kevin Robertson v. Albert Fiore Hudson County Improvement Authority, 62 F.3d 596, 3rd Cir. (1995)Uploaded byScribd Government Docs
- OTN TechnologyUploaded byAlejandro Ramos
- A Comparative Study on Vodafone & Airtel Marketing Research 2012Uploaded byAjit Singh Rathore
- Product_Information_DIGSI_V4_87-SP1.pdfUploaded byZoki
- attacksUploaded byShubham Bansal
- Events Management Dissertation Topics PDFUploaded byAngie
- Ancient Economic ThoughtUploaded byBernardokpe
- idea vasUploaded byShivendra Singh
- Bata IndustrialsUploaded byAnonymous im9mMa5
- CloudForms 1.0 Installation Guide en USUploaded bySudhakar Pallela
- SKF Vibration Sensors CatalogUploaded byEmil Veg
- IBM Tape Library ConfigurationUploaded bySatya Charan
- Welcome to Evidentia - A Review and PreviewUploaded byLaura Cosgrove Lorenzana
- MForce SolutionUploaded byHumanRecognition
- 21 CFR Part 11 ComplianceUploaded bypham hoang quan
- 7.3LInjectorDiagnosticUploaded byimamfadili
- Sarhad University of Science and Information TechnologyUploaded byUmair Ali Sekhery
- Keil Undercut AnchorsUploaded byTracyval Cada
- Blake MoutonUploaded byOoi Theam Hock
- Ts 7400 DatasheetUploaded bymanteshb
- Anne Anastasi- Psychological Testing IUploaded bydemon_for_me20