Modern History Sourcebook: John Henry Newman: The Idea of A University, 1854


Introductory Note John Henry Newman was born in London, February 21, 1801. Going up to Oxford at s ixteen, he gained a scholarship at Trinity College, and after graduation became fellow and tutor of Oriel, then the most alive, intellectually, of the Oxford co lleges. He took orders, and in 1828 was appointed vicar of St. Mary's, the unive rsity church. In 1832 he had to resign his tutorship on account of a difference of opinion with the head of the college as to his duties and responsibilities, N ewman regarding his function as one of a "substantially religious nature." Returning to Oxford the next year from a journey on the Continent, he began, in cooperation with R. H. Froude and others, the publication of the "Tracts for the Times," a series of pamphlets which gave a name to the "Tractarian" or "Oxford" movement for the defence of the "doctrine of apostolical succession and the int egrity of the Prayer - Book." After several years of agitation, during which New man came to exercise an extraordinary influence in Oxford, the movement and its leader fell under the official ban of the university and of the Anglican bishops , and Newman withdrew from Oxford, feeling that the Anglican Church had herself destroyed the defences which he had sought to build for her. In October, 1845, h e was received into the Roman Church. The next year he went to Rome, and on his return introduced into England the ins titute of the Oratory. In 1854 he went to Dublin for four years as rector of the new Catholic university, and while there wrote his volume on "The Idea of a Uni versity," in which he expounds with wonderful clearness of thought and beauty of language his view of the aim of education. In 1879 he was created cardinal in r ecognition of his services to the cause of religion in England, and in 1890 he d ied. Of the history of Newman's religious opinions and influence no hint can be given here. The essays which follow do, indeed, imply important and fundamental elements of his system of belief; but they can be taken in detachment as the exp osition of a view of the nature and value of culture by a man who was himself th e fine flower of English university training and a master of English prose. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------I. What Is A University? If I were asked to describe as briefly and popularly as I could, what a Universi ty was, I should draw my answer from its ancient designation of a Studium Genera le, or "School of Universal Learning." This description implies the assemblage o f strangers from all parts in one spot; - from all parts; else, how will you fin d professors and students for every department of knowledge? and in one spot; el se, how can there be any school at all? Accordingly, in its simple and rudimenta l form, it is a school of knowledge of every kind, consisting of teachers and le arners from every quarter. Many things are requisite to complete and satisfy the idea embodied in this description; but such as this a University seems to be in its essence, a place for the communication and circulation of thought, by means of personal intercourse, through a wide extent of country. There is nothing far - fetched or unreasonable in the idea thus presented to us; and if this be a University, then a University does but contemplate a necessity

and in the religious world. after all. than so e xuberant and diversified and persistent a promulgation of all kinds of knowledge ? Why. . with swarms of little tracts. the life w . of present communication between man and man. something refined. the fact is undeniable. works in series. of teachers instead of learning. pamphlets. for it can be aff orded without loss. then we hav e reason for saying this. tracts.of our nature. of a provision for that necessity. even in this age. the litera scripta. and an instrument of teaching in the hands of a teacher. something choice. such certainly is our popular education. of oral instruction. Whatever be the cause. the an cient method. I think. I allow all this. and it s effects are remarkable. This. but the detail. of the personal influence of a master. and light literature. issue forth every morning. will be found to hold good in all those departments or aspects of societ y. the air. t hat no books can get through the number of minute questions which it is possible to ask on any extended subject. in a large sense of the word. by informing us by their plac ards where we can at once cheaply purchase it. and in the high world. an d the very bricks of our city walls preach wisdom. Considering the prodigious powers of th e press. and the unstudied turns of familiar conversation. and wasted them. in the language of trade. and for every man. Nevertheless. but here such careless profusion might be prudently indulged. our pavements are powdered. of the rival method. and book s in the running brooks. books. is called "a good article. when knowledge comes down to us ? The Sibyl wrote her prophecies upon the leaves of the forest." when they aim at something precise. and much more. I am not bound to investigate the cause of this. works larger and more comprehensive than those which ha ve gained for ancients an immortality. for the intellectual education of the whole man. Or again. through the eyes.intermitting iss ue of periodicals. and. Our seats are strewed. If the actions of men may be taken as any test of their convictions. carried on partly with set purpose. need we go up to knowledge. out of many whic h might be adduced in others. if we w ish to become exact and fully furnished in any branch of knowledge which is dive rsified and complicated. something really large. and partly not. that no book can convey the special spirit and delicate peculiarities of its subject with that rapidity and certainty which attend on the sympathy of mind with mind. I am conscious.that the province and the inestimable benefit of the litera scripta is that of being a record of truth. It i s true. in some shape or other. and how they are developed at this time in the never .perhaps we may suggest. you will sa y. whenever me n are really serious about getting what. of great centres of pilgr image and throng. and the humble initiation of a disciple. the tone. I need scarcely say. in this process. Mutual educatio n. What can we want more. We have sermons in stones. in consequence of the almost fabulous fecundity of the instr ument which these latter ages have invented. and it holds also in the literary and scientific wo rld. in casual expressions thrown off at the mo ment. or can hit upon the very difficulties which are severally felt by each reader in succession. But I am already dwellin g too long on what is but an incidental portion of my main subject.: . they avail themselves." It holds in the political world. but that. and emphatically so in this age. and anything I may say will. the accent. we must consult the living man and listen to his living voice. you will ask. that is. they go to another ma rket. One generat ion forms another. and the manner. the colour. The general principles of any study you may l earn by books at home. are one special instrument. and the existing generation is ever acting and reacting upon itself in the persons of its individual members. and an authority of ap peal. something really luminous. in consequence. and are projec ted onwards to the ends of the earth at the rate of hundreds of miles a day. which possess an interest sufficient to bind men together. Now. and is but one specimen in a particular medium. be short of its full analysis. which such a method of education necessarily involves. we must allow there never was a time which promised fairer for dispensing with ever y other means of information and instruction. is one of the great and incessant occupations o f human society. or to constitute w hat is called "a world. viz. the look.

gestures. in high society? The very nature of the case leads u s to say so. it is access to the contributions of fact and opin . some of them may be found in any rank. as to shrines of refinement and good taste. who aspires to visit the great Masters in Florence and in Rome. enriched with a portion of the social accomplishments. begins to see things wit h new eyes. or stiffness. yet I cannot but think that stat esmanship. If it be not presumption to say so. which is never put into print. the talent of not offending. the delicacy of thought. and features of truth. it is familiarity with business. which may not have done justice to the doctrine which it has been intended to enforce. For instance. are written. the ease. of one kind or another. All that goes to constitute a gentle man. from society are acquired. The principle on which I have been insisting is so obvious. I admit I have not been in Parliament. You must imitate the student in French or German. which the most diligent perusal of newspapers will fail to impart to them. we must come to the teachers of wisdom to learn wisdom.heads of political wisdom and experience. . we must repair to the fountain. the lo fty principle. and is it not so in matter of fact? The metropolis. And now a second instance: and here too I am going to speak without personal exp erience of the subject I am introducing. if tolerably observant. not by books. that I should think it tiresome to proceed with the subject. and instances in poi nt are so ready. such as they had not before. you cannot learn to converse till you have the world to converse with. the taste a nd propriety. lineaments. A member of the Legislature. as well as high breeding. with the multitude who go up to them. Till w e have discovered some intellectual daguerreotype. gait. it is dail y intercourse. or awkwardness. The bearings o f measures and events. voice. and drin k there. ex cept that one or two illustrations may serve to explain my own language about it . He hears a vast deal in public speeches and private conversation. the candour and consideration. you cannot unlearn your natural bashfulness. do we expect they can be learned from books? are they not necessarily acquired. or at least originated. the self . the power of conversing. We ll. are brought out to the man who is in the midst of them with a distinctness .posses sion. the masterpieces of human genius. . some of them come by nature.hich makes it live in us. you cannot fence without an antagonist. the happiness of expression. or o ther besetting deformity. and then in due time the country goe s back again home. the generosity and forbearance. bound up in the unity of an individual character. address.these qualities. We are unable to conceive how the "gentleman .the carriage. and so strictly personal when attained. the polished manners and high . where they are to be found. and in like manner. who is not content wit h his grammar. as completely and min utely as the optical instrument reproduces the sensible object. you must catch all these from those in whom it lives a lready. which takes off the course of thought.bred bearing which are so difficul t of attainment. Words have a meaning now. Parliament puts a clever man au courant with politics and affairs of state in a way surprising to himsel f. it stands t o reason. but in certain ce ntres of education. is learned. but goes to Paris or Dresden: you must take example from the youn g artist.which are so much adm ired in society. and the form. any more than I have figured in the beau monde. which those very visits serve to call out and heighten in the gracious dispensers of t hem. but the fullness is in one place alone. a nd ideas a reality. . till you serve your time in some school of manners. It is in such assemblages and con gregations of intellect that books themselves. nor challenge all comers in disputation before you have supported a thesis. the court. Portions of it may go from thence to the ends of the earth by means of books. are the centres to which at stated times the country comes up. and maintained in this way it is. some of them are a direct precept of Christianity. the courtesy. and the persons of friends and ene" can otherwise be maint ained. the action of parties. even though his views undergo no change. the openness of hand. It is access to the fountain . the great hou ses of the land. but the full assemblage of them.

and a co mparison and adjustment of science with science. are in ill keeping with the order and gravity of earnest intellectual education. The novelty of place and circumstance. and the fine arts. and I can well believe in their utility. and that atmosphere of intellect. which have arisen in the course of the last twenty years. t he intercourse with mankind on a large scale. they answer to the annual Act. Above all subjects of study. of politics. We desiderate means of instruction which involve no interruption of our ordinary h abits. the amiable charities of men pleased both with themselves and with each other. and successes. of high society. of an ardent love of the particular study. or Commencement. The y issue in the promotion of a certain living and. b ut they are of a University nature. Science is conveyed. There they live. and panegyrical solemnities with mathematical and physical truth? Yet on a closer attention to the subject. journals. as it were. the not ungraceful hilarity. in the periodical meetings for its advance. the circ ulation of thought. which such meetings secure. reviews. well . not to its ordinary condition. Such gatherings would to many persons appear at first sight simply preposterous. a city or town is taken by turns. whether we will or no. the eveni ng circle. which does this for hi m. bodily communicati on of knowledge from one to another. Thither come up youths fro m all parts of the country. so as a matter of course is it the seat of letters also. the curiosity. which may be cho sen by each individual. skies are bright. the narratives of scientific processes. and in London a University scarcely exists exc ept as a board of administration. or Commemoration of a University. the brilliant lecture. the learned and scientific societies. with the change of times. and a noble devotion to its interests. and periodicals of all kinds. where buildings are spacious and hospitality hearty. dis coveries are made in solitude. and academies there found. the publishing trade. Such meetings. disa ppointments. we find a remarkable instance of the principle which I am illustrating. and they are satisfied with their temporary home. and of law. and at this time. the students of law.known faces. They have not come in vain. of a general interchange of ideas. Of course they can but be occasional. and all nature rejoices.ion thrown together by many witnesses from many quarters. for a long term of yea rs. In every great country. the stimulus. The bustle and whirl which are their usual concomitants. the outdoor exercise. the majesty of rank or of genius. medicine. though in Paris its famous University is no more. by books. has. moved away to the centre of civil government. and only partially represent the id ea of a University.furnished. inte llectual and social. or the refreshment of wel l . the elevated spirits. these a nd the like constituents of the annual celebration. for they find in it all that was promised to them there. or b y private teaching. the metropolis itself become s a sort of necessary University. London and Paris are in fact and in operation Universities. As the chief city is th e seat of the court. the excitement of strange. an d the employes and attaches of literature. They have not learned any particular religion. However. conflicts. museums. it is found that not even scientific thought c an dispense with the suggestions. t he well . I need not account for a fact. the morning sections. of an enlargement of mind. the sympathy. for the natural course of things brings it abou t. are considered to do somethi ng real and substantial for the advance of knowledge which can be done in no oth er way. A fine time of year is chosen. The newspapers. to which it is sufficient to appeal.earned board. while we debate over it. which i n a former age hung over Oxford or Bologna or Salamanca. magazines. the discussions or collisions or guesses of gr eat men one with another. nor need we seek it long. but t . that the Houses of Parliament and the atmosphere around them are a sort of Unive rsity of politics. the earth smiles. I repeat. as far as their own obj ect in coming is concerned. such as the British Association. are but periodical. the libraries. necessarily invest it with the functions of a University. the instruction. is propagated. of ancient name or m odern opulence. the splendid eulogistic orations. experiments and investigations are conducted in silence. As regards the world of science. as chance determines . What have philosophers to do with festive celebri ties. when days are long. of hopes.

It is the living voice. was a match in disputation for the learned philosophers who came to try him . And such. Oral Trad ition. and there the best workmen. It is a place where inquiry is pushed forward. that its great inst rument. in this s ense of the word. and discoveries verified and perfected. great orators.a Universi ty is a place of concourse. It does not indeed seat itself merely in centres of the world. Truth. sometimes years. yet has not been exhausted. All the riches of the land. Religious teaching itself affords us an illustration of our subject to a certain point. imagination. There you have all the choicest producti ons of nature and art all together. it was a work of long time. by all those ways which are implied in the word "catechizing. Irenaeus does not hesitate to speak of whole races. Anthony. w hich preaches. In the nature of things. you must go to some great city or emporium for it. It is the place wh ere the professor becomes eloquent. whether the education sought and given should be based on principle. it is poured into his mind and is sealed up there is perpetuity. It is the centre of t rade. without being able to read them. the personal presence of a teacher. by propounding and repeating it. and done their part in maintaining the tradition of them. beco me acquainted with the habits. illiterate. It is the place for seeing galleries of first . Didymus again. in which the intellect may safely range and specul ate. not truth recondite and rare. or. called the Disciplina Arcani. The teaching on the Blessed Trinity and the Eucharist appears to hav e been so handed down for some hundred years. the breathing form. though he knew not lett ers. in theological language. not the few. . greatness and unity go together. which you find each in its own separate plac e elsewhere. and knowledge with knowledge.r ate pictures. and of the earth. displayi ng his science in its most complete and most winning form. and reason. excellence imp lies a centre. by questioning and requestioning. but St. the expressive countenance. the supreme court of fashion. manifold spirit. To be unable to read or write was in those t imes no evidence of want of learning: the hermits of the deserts were. They have. is a University. by correcting and explaining. it has filled many folios. through his affection s. by t he collision of mind with mind. there are the best markets. yet the great St. or left to the random succession of masters and sch ools. was blind. which catechizes. It is the place to which a thousan d schools make contributions. a metropolis is such: the simple question is. but it concurs in the principle of a University so far as this. d irected to the highest ends. were devoted to the arduous task of disabusing the mind of the incipient Christian of its pagan erro rs. for the third or fourth time. are carried up thithe r. the great Alexandrian theologian.hey have learned their own particular profession well. The more sacred doctrines of Revelation were not committed to books but passed on by successive tradition. I hope I do not weary out the reader by repeating it. It is the place for great preachers. and error exposed." In the first ages. and the standar d of things rare and precious. It is intended for the many. who had been converted to Christianit y. invisible. But I have said more than enough in illustration. one after another. the umpire of rival talents. and opinions of their place of sojourn. and for hearing wonderful voices and performers of transcendent sk ill. pouring it forth with . great sta tesmen. and of moulding it upon the Christian faith. formed upon rule. with a melancholy waste of thought and an extreme hazar d of truth. this is i mpossible from the nature of the case. has ever been that which nature prescribes in all educa tion. The Scriptures indeed were at h and for the study of those who could avail themselves of them. and is a missionary and a preacher. great nobles. is poured into the mind of the scholar by his eyes and ears. The ancient discip line. We cannot then be with out virtual Universities. moreover. months. by progressing and then recurring to first princip les. sure to find its equal in some antagonist activity. You cannot have the best of every kind everywhere. and its judge in the tr ibunal of truth. I end as I began. whither students come from every quarter for every k ind of knowledge. a subtle. its subject matter is truth necessary for us. or rather organ. involved the same principle. manners. and when at length reduced to writ ing. and rashness rendered innocuous.

Site Of A University If we would know what a University is. bound to her by the double chain of kindred and of subjection. Pericles. Not content with patronizing their professors. a light of the world. Hither. His tre es extended their cool. but his encouragement of such men as Phidias and Anax agoras led the way to her acquiring a far more lasting sovereignty over a far wi der empire. under the patronage of the Blessed Virgin. yet. Such is a University in its idea and in its purpose. It is a seat of wisd om. and then sent back again to the business of l ife. just rising. and no nobility but that of genius.Athens . the city seemed hardly suited for the duties of a central m etropolis of knowledge. the youth of the Western World for a long thousand years. Pisistratus had in an early age discovered and nursed the infant genius of his p eople. pruned and dressed it. and in the loveli ness of the region in which it lay. of employments. and the Ionians. in the name of S t. and there was Ci mon. while hospitable to the authors of the city 's civilization. then. whose schools drew to her bosom. Nor. such in good measure has it before now been in fact. where taste and philosophy were majestically enthroned as in a royal c ourt. Then commenced what may be called her University existence. or just risen into manhood. he built the first of those noble porticos. It is this and a great deal more. after the Persian war. Athens would . and Cimon.aged by its beau ty. it gained in its neighbourhood to the traditions of the mysterious East. The arts and phil osophy of the Asiatic coast were easily carried across the sea.tongued gene ration. and princes did homage. and demands a somewhat better head and hand than mine to describe it well. the many . what it lost in convenience of approach. as to a sort of ideal land. is said by Plutarch to have entertained the idea of making Athens the capital of federated Greece: in this he failed. we mus t betake ourselves to the first and most celebrated home of European literature and source of European civilization. Little understanding the sources of her own greatness. It is a place which wins the admiration of the young by its celebrity. Patrick. as in Athens it was one of the most beneficent. hither flocked continually from the very corners of the orbis terrarum. as I have said. and laid it out with handso me walks and welcome fountains. to the bright and beautiful Athens . to attempt it. had given it a home. That war had estab lished the naval supremacy of Athens. considered in its elementary idea. who succeeded Cimon both in the government and in the patronage of art. was he ungrateful to the instruments of her prosperity. and rivets the fidelity of the old by its associations. Planting is one of the mos t graceful. of which we hear so much in Athens. and all diversities of intellectual power e xhibited. for many generations. ready to receive them with due hono urs. who assembled in the Agora. a minister of the faith. wh ere all archetypes of the great and the fair were found in substantial being. It is the place where the catechist makes good his ground as he goes. were imp orting into her both their merchandise and their civilization. for all the while the ir ships had been carrying forth the intellectual fame of Athens to the western world. umbrageous branches over the merchants. wh ich in process of time became the celebrated Academy. and lighting up his own love of it in the breasts of hi s hearers. where professors were rulers. with his ample fortune. Seated on the ver ge of the continent. Shall it ever be again? We are going forward in the st rength of the Cross. where there was no sovereignty but that of mind. Those merchants certainly had deserved that act of bounty. and he formed the groves. an Alma Mater of the rising g eneration. treading in the truth day by day into the ready memory. she had become an imperial state. in order to gain wisdom. an d all departments of truth explored. Cimo n took in hand the wild wood. II. and wedging and tighten ing it into the expanding reason.the zeal of enthusiasm. kindles the affections of the middle .

Athens. There at length the swarthy Moor and Spaniard were seen to meet the blue . as radiant.go to war: peace is the interest of a seat of commerce and the arts. was notorious for its very want of it. commanding the plain. He would report that the climate was mild. not always full. as young. till they had a softness and harmony. yet is after all within the tru th. whether peace or war. when they would visit their Ionian cousins. . that that olive tree was so choice in nature and so noble in shape. He would say nothing of the thyme a nd thousand fragrant herbs which carpeted Hymettus. there was plenty of good marble. the city of mind. which in the same perfection was nowhere else. He would not think of writing word to his employers. the special purity. but long since worked out. which slowly rise aloft like w ater spirits from the deep. did that for it which e arth did not. oil first . how that same delicate and brilliant atmosphere freshened up the pale olive. . the Thessalian vale. He would not tell. for all their richness. perhaps fifty miles its greatest length. and the Cappadocian. as well as of Greece. nor the b old shadows cast from Otus or Laurium by the declining sun. Revolution after revolution passed over the face of Euro pe. clearness.our agent of a mer cantile firm would not value these matters even at a low figure. till the olive forgot its monotony. sufficient certain ly for sheep and goats. as they resound upon the hollow shore. but i t was associated in popular belief with the dulness of the Boeotian intellect: o n the contrary. it mattered not. but to war she went. fit concomitant and emblem of its genius. meeting at an angle. figs fair. starting from the Sunian headland. these had not the gift. nor of the gentle. A confined triangle.they did but bring fresh triumphs to the city of the poet and the sage. an unsatis factory soil.eyed Gaul. the hills were limestone. Boeotia. that it excited a religious veneration. . fanlike jets of silver upon the rocks. two elevated rocky barriers. silver mines once. as splendid. fisheries productive. The heavy atmosphere of that Boeotia might be good for vegetation. . brought out. Many a more fruitful coast or isle is washed by the blue Aegean. and thirty its gre atest breadth. nor the graceful outline and roseate golden hue of the jutting crags. a sort of viad uct thereto across the sea. The deep pastures of Arcadia. and would have illuminated the face even of a more b are and rugged country. he would hear nothing of the hum of its bees. gazed without alarm at the ha ughty conquering Roman. elasticity.rate. since Gozo and Minorca were sufficient for the English demand. olives in profusion. and its cheek glowed lik e the arbutus or beech of the Umbrian hills. three prominent mountains. then shiver. nor take much account of the rare flavour of its honey. . how that clear air. he would follow with his eye the chain o f islands. kingdoms rose and fell. mor e pasture land than at first survey might have been expected. seemed to offer the fabled divinities of Attica. some streams. and break. and spread. He would look over the Aegean from the height he had ascended. keeping steady time.such is about the report which th e agent of a London company would have made of Attica. late subject of Mithridates. was. nor the refined colouring. as ever she had been. and disappear. as delicate. the plain of Argos. of which I have spoken. and that it took so k indly to the light soil. and shroud thems elves. which lay to its immediate north. many a spot is there more beautiful or sublime to see. The political power of Athens waned and disappeared. but still she was there. Rather we must . and to cli mb up and fringe the hills. and Hymettus. which in a picture looks exaggerated.Parnes. But what he would not think of noting down.he would not deign to notice that restless living element at all. yet blended and subdue d the colours on the marble. yet to her. as to expand into woods upon the open plain. except to bless his st ars that he was not upon it. Nor the distinct detail. but there w as one charm in Attica. and salubrity of the air of Attica. incessant heavi ng and panting of the whole liquid plain. nor of those graceful. nor of the long waves. in a soft mist of foam. Pentelicus. which. but that fancy would not occur to him. nor any admir ation of the dark violet billows with their white edges down below. like a line of soldiery. many a territory more ample. centuries rolled away. .it brought out every bright hue and tender shade of the landscap e over which it was spread. .

Labour was cheap. He considered it was worth the consideration of the gover nment. the question of the site is th e very first that comes into consideration.what has all this to do with a University? at least what has it to do with education? It is instructive doubtless. Nor was this all that a University required. by comin g to understand the sort of country. was the material pomp and circumstance which should environ a g reat seat of learning. and was leaving my University for the Long Vacation. Here some one will interrupt me with the remark: "By the bye. and whither are we going? . whose face was strange to companions. barren as was the soil of Attica. whom afterwards I knew very well. it is undeni able that art did much more. I recollect a conversation I once had on this very subject with a very em inent man. th e staple of subsistence in such a climate. and found in Athens. An ample range. I did no t suspect it. before I go f arther. I managed to hear many things which were no vel to me at the time. from Britain or from Maurita nia. as temples and porticos. Of course they must have the means of living. nay luxurious abode there. The Athenian di d not condescend to manufactures himself. armour .turn for the sympathy we seek to yon pilgrim student come from a semi . and who claimed to have their bodily wants supplied. with fine trees in . came from the isles of the Aegean. I may be allowed to pause awhile. slaves. where he might take hi s fill of gazing on those emblems and coruscations of invisible unoriginate perf ection. learned at once what a real University must be. fi ne wool and carpeting from Asia Minor. and a p opulation of foreigners caught at the lucrative occupation both for home consump tion and for exportation. and one point which he was strong upon. were in course of time ap plied to the mansions of public men. If the students at that famous place had nothing bet ter than bright hues and soothing sounds. or to remain afterwards a pleasant thought in their memor y. What has this to do with my subject! why. from the Euxine.for instance. which was its suitable home. should be turned into wood and meadow. and timb er too. that it was a common saying. as his friends knew. if Athens was to be an A lma Mater at the time. who in a scene so different from that of his chilly. whose combat was to be with intellectual. which at first were devoted to public buildings. and I should have thought every one would have seen this: however. Luckily for me. when I found myself in company in a public conveyance with a middle aged person. woody swamps. No one. Now. I was a youth of eighteen. but still how much ha s it to do with your subject?" Now I beg to assure the reader that I am most con scientiously employed upon my subject. and the taste and skill. who will deny it? All auth orities agree in this. even t here. So abundant were the im ports of the place. as now. that the productions. when a Stadium Generale is contempla ted. yet it had only too m any resources for an elegant. and this was very much to the point. and very little reflection will be sufficient to make it clear.were in great request. in a certain sense. since the objection is made. could live on poetry. and luckily too. So. were brought all together in Athens. where are we. And so they had: be it recollected Athens was a port. which wer e found singly elsewhere. Corn and wine. and was evidently fond of urging. or of hi s fiery. what with my flippancy and his condescension. Their cloth. t hat they might be at leisure to set about furnishing their minds. However. and their hardware . and iron and brass from the coasts of the Mediterranean. but encouraged them in others. stone and marble in plenty. of enjoyment. It was the stranger from a remote province. it was the great academical luminary of the day. for that site should be a liberal and noble one. it was a fancy of his. when a number of strangers were ever flocking to it. pe rhaps the first in Greece. and show distinctly the drift of what I have been saying. If nature did much for Athens. and a mart of trade. choking sands. and bare the face of the country. and other textures for dress and furnitur e. s ay four miles in diameter. n ot physical difficulties. whether Oxford should not stand in a domain of its own. and the Univer sity should be approached on all sides by a magnificent park. to ma ke himself on easy terms especially with stage .barbarou s land to that small corner of the earth. as to a shrine. they would not have been able or dispo sed to turn their residence there to much account. nay.

a . in the nineteenth century." said the Proctor of th e German nation. the superb fortress. Germain . till the institution itself has foll owed its green meadows. than the seat of wisdom? So thought my coach c ompanion. etc. That famous school engrossed a s its territory the whole south bank of the Seine. Ascend and walk round th e walls. What has a better claim to the purest a nd fairest possessions of nature. and spread along the green sod. I may say. the waywardness of his fancy is excused by the justness of his principle. discoursing on the dema nds of a University. he imagined. to witness the sale of that ancient manor. and the fair meadow b ecame the scene of party brawls. For long years it was devoted to the purposes of innocent and healthy enjoyment. . which Alcuin seems to mention in his farewell verses to Paris. which it recorded. te Germanus. in which the students for centuries took their recreati on. Whither shall the youthful student now betake himself. as the traveller drew near it. and with the sacred elevation of Montmartre confronting it. Now carry your feet or your eyes b eyond the walls. though it would cost a round sum to realize it. disorder arose within its precincts. the spaces open and delightful. but evil times ca me on the University. of the city. et Britannus. for certainly. And in like manner. into the region of things which once were and now are no t. and spots for simple enjoyment. convents. and birds chirping or singing. Old Antony . but the eligible south. and time has shown that the outward calamity. groves. the river meandering along. what do you look down upon? Does not the wonderful and delightful varie ty smooth the brow and soothe the mind? You have corn. and the north of the river w as given over to the nobles and citizens to do what they could with its marshes. s heep and oxen. "suggested Mechlin.hou ses. wearied with intense reading. King Louis had the island pretty well as hi s own. country . was but the emblem of the g reat moral revolution. to the fair summit of St. Athenae Belgicae Te Gallus. There is nothing surely absurd in the idea. to turn a sco re of villages into a park or pleasance.des . Great was the grief and indignation of the doctors and mas ters. still. vines. rising from the stream. and wayward as might be the thought of my learned coach compa nion. Norman . heresy stalked through Europe. nay. a heavy debt was the con sequence to the academical body. when they were first contemplating a University in Belgium. et te duplicis Hispaniae alumnus." And then he breaks out into poetry: Salvete Athenae nostrae. fields. so because no c ity seemed from the disposition of place and people. and th at the pleasanter half. its vineyards and its gardens. and the country a t length became town. take the great University of Paris. and Germany and England no longer sending their contingent of students. with its broad meadows. which was to follow. There was that pleasant Pratum." says Lipsius. and he did but express the tradition of ages and the instinct of manki nd. then. Genevieve. Extravagant.Pres. as an abode salubr ious and clean. et te Sarmata Invisit. had expressed the same sentiment long before him. more suitable for learned l eisure. there are streamlets. but Louvain was preferred. now that the pleasant stream is taken from him?" T wo centuries and more have passed since this complaint was uttered.Wood. some centuries ago. "a wretched sight. what relief will he find for his eyes. "Many.groups and groves and avenues. and occupied one half. For instance. which swept around its base. when. Who will not approve the decision? Can a site be a healthier or more ple asant? The atmosphere pure and cheerful. when this catastrophe was scarcely more than a fortification. and apples. all this w as the inheritance of the University. and which has given a name to the great Abbey of St. To let their land was the only resource left to them: buildings rose upon it. a rus in urbe. as Horace . and with glimpses and views of the fair city. copses or woods fill up the scene. w hither the Muses were wont to wander for retirement and pleasure.wise. as for other reasons. "A wretched sight. such as he would have m ade it. stretching along the river's bank. and grapes. meadows . a University ought to be.

and the holy Pope at Rome. as will be seen. not witho ut Jerusalem. where so many noble memorials of moral and mate rial power cooperating to an honourable end. its situation on several islands in a broad plain. meet the eye all at once. who has trea ted of Oxford. suggests to us how far more majestic and more touching. nay with the sea." By others the local advantages of that University have been more philosophically analyzed. Wood himself appe als. Let the reader then listen to the words of the last learned German. of Bacon the admirable. protected the city from invaders. and the secular concomitants of a great University. in influence. "There is scarce a spot in the world. it still retai ns so much of that outward lustre. with reference to Athens itself. which in its highest perfection we admire in Athens. those commodities are enough to invite students to stay and abide there. or of very pervert ed views. wide as her sway is world . looked upon the blue eyes and golden hair of the fierce Saxon youth in the slave market. of spirits seemi ngly too beautiful in their fall to be really fallen. a good and pleasant site. its own strength as a military position. through which ma ny streams flowed. composed with waters. and not in fiction. as a ser vant and soldier of the Truth.." says Huber. springs or wells. . how brimful of indescribable infl uence would be the presence of a University. and of Bradwardine the profound. which. which for its pleasant situation was afterwards c alled Bellositum or and appearance. woods and pleasant f ields. nor would it occur to me to speak its name. as to afford me an illustrat ion of the point on which I am engaged. and growing. of Occam the special. Others will bear us witness. in times when it was needed. Once named the second school of the Church. the foster . not Angles. Oxford has now lapsed to that level of me re human loveliness. now Oxford. what should be the material dwelli ng . As the Athenians in ancient times were happy for their con veniences. privileged with all those convenience s before ancient times. He who ca n be proof against the strong emotions which the whole aspect and genius of the place tend to inspire. so also were the Britons. Richard. Nor wo uld it have a place. by means of the Thames. when by a remnant of the Grecians that came amongst them. while t he London fortifications hindered pirates from ascending the stream. must be dull. even side by side with the Eternal . in what I have said of the fascination which the very face and smile of a University possess ov er those who come within its range. Pictures are drawn in tales of romance. . the theatre of great intellects.wide. when he would discourse of Oxford." he puts down. which being obtained. "that bears an historical sta mp so deep and varied as Oxford. ought to be a ray from an illumination within. not lessening. Alas! for centuries past that city has lost its prime honour and boast. the surrounding marshes. potent as her truth is strong. its e asy communication with London. like the brightness on the prophet's f ace. even now when her true glory is departed. secon d only to Paris. and the spell which this once loyal daughter of the Church still exercis es upon the foreign visitor. and pronounced them Angels.for instance. Edmund. that.mother of St. Gregory. Among "those things which are required t o make a University. of Hales th e irrefragable. St. and judge for himself if they do not bear me out. of Scotus the subtle Doctor. thoughtless. which all t he time was so ready and convenient for a descent. by the extent of space over which its attraction would be exerted. now or hereafter. they or their successors selected such a place in Britain to plan t a school or schools therein. where there is a wholesome and temperate const itution of the air. of Middleton the s olid. with reference to its position in the middle of south ern England." And to Athens. Thomas Cant ilupe. in these pages. except that even in its sorrowful deprivation. viz. which was planted within. "First. the local circumstances. which. St. uneducated. when he spoke of seeking tru th "in the groves of Academe.

and the city churches. and being smit with its splendour and its sweetness. the Alma Mater of Oxford may be fitly named. The capital of that prosperous and hopeful land is situate in a beautiful bay and near a romantic region. the domestic offices of these palaces of learning. we find around us all the signs of an active and prosperous trade. I am turning my eyes towards a hundred years to come. I desiderate for a School of the Church. and en tire town. which ever rivet the e ye of the observer. for good or bad. or whether at least some footing for Catholicity may not be foun d there. which is ever more comprehensive than human hope and aspiration. w hich received grace before the Saxon came to Britain. whom for centuries past no footstep of foreign armies has des ecrated. and peculiar impression.seats. is essentially different from that of any of the towns of the middle ages. if never again it is to be Catholic. I never. having felt the influence of this ancient School. as producing a deep. young in the promise of its future. and in this respect harmonizes with the Colleges. looking at the general state of things at this day. and in it I see a flou . lies a broad green vale. a peculiar repose. a nation. where the Cherwell and the Isis mingle their f ull. the University buildings. Here and there primeval elms and oaks overshadow them. But on entering t he streets. a more central position than Oxford has to show. they sink into a modest. ask wistfully. while all besides seems perforce to be subservient to them. But for me. in motley mixture.Rome. and I look for a city less inland than that old sanctuary. The outlines are far from being so sharp. In the midst ri ses a mass of mighty buildings. and where I lived for nearly thirty years. The principal masses consist of Colleges. as it we re. farm . I see its inhabitants rival Belgium in pop ulousness. clear waters. Those rich and elegant shops are. Nay. cottages. have had an ticipation of its future. which Augustine and Paulinus found. the world has grown.towers and Romaic domes. old in its Christianity.houses. reigns in those broader. I look towards a land both old and young. Each of the larger and more ancient Colleges looks like a separate whole . become the road of passage and union between two hemi spheres. and will have an inevit able day. a lastin g. into four or f ive continents. break through the horizontal lines. and country . so ir regular. memorials which have been growing out of that life from almo st the beginning of Christianity itself. Only in the creations of Claude Lorraine or Poussin could we expect to find a spot to compare with the prevailing charact er of this picture. terrace . and. R ich and elegant shops in profusion afford a sight to be found nowhere but in Eng land. while in their various windings they encircle rising masses. Since the age of Alfred and of the fir st Henry. France in vigour. and I see England taught b y advancing years to exercise in its behalf that good sense which is her charact eristic towards every one else. and by the side of these the city itself is lost on distant view. Some few Gothic church . and a country closer upon the highway of the seas. and the centre of the world. if an additional School is to be granted to us. a menial attitude. so fantastical. meadows. and which has never quench ed it. from the west and south of Europe. but with all this glitter and show. "In one of the most fertile districts of the Queen of the Seas. and the town itself has happily escaped the lot of modern beautifying. I contemplate a people which has had a long night. so angular. and Spain in enthusiasm. especially when lit up by a favourable light. and Pole and Fisher left behind them. and I dimly see the island I am gazing on. the general character of which varies between co nvent. villages. whom nature has so richly blessed." There are those who. a certain softness. All honour and merit to the charitable and zealous hearts who so inquir e! Nor can we dare to tell what in time to come may be the inscrutable purposes of that grace. palace. and castle. as it were. it is true. and never for a moment have I had a wish to see again a place. from the day I left its walls. by the side of the grandly severe memorials of the higher intellectual life. which I have never ceased to love. which comprehends in its history the rise and fall of Canterbur y and York. a Church. whose walls and monuments proclaim the vigorous growth of many centur ies. yet the general impression at a dis tance and at first sight.

when their stay is over. . at the end of life. that on Zeno's death he actually was hi s successor in his school. of representing things as they really were. but in what different fashion he comes! It is no other than Marcus. and to submit himself to an initiation into the Eleusinian mysteries. or Italian. to bring before the reader what Athens may h ave Zeno. Yet. which for a while had to struggle with fortune. and it is said that once. Thither. . Professors long since we re summoned from Athens for his service. and now he comes. to Athens he came with three drachms in his girdle. the most high minded. from England. in getting up the steam again. after tossing on the Saronic waves. or Armenian. Per haps he is some Cleanthes. as to a sacred soil. an d the fountain . to make his acknowledgments. that is. from a prince to a peasant. so fa r. who has been a boxer in the public games.all speaking one tongue. if my memory does not play me false.head of their Christianity. and last. or if I may change it. and may be made to order. all owning one faith." III. and to do this. . or of concealing what was morally base in what was intellectually great. It has been my desire. So now let us fancy our Scythian. Or it is another disciple of the Porch. University Life At Athens However apposite may have been the digression into which I was led when I had go t about half through the foregoing Chapter. it has had the inconvenience of what may be called running me off the rails. and thence. the home of their fathers. not with any purpose of writing a panegyric on a heathen city. were it not for his weakness . He attac hed himself. he cont inued in his illiberal toil as if he had been a monk. and blew it aside. from Egypt and Asia Minor. which would be his more ordinary c ourse to Athens. though not least. and.Stoic by nature. carrying loads. in payment for attending his lectures. if I may continue the metaphor. or African. when the wind took his pallium. and South. even when he was the head of a school. I shall find some trouble.rishing University. of all philosophers. had successes far exceed ing their anxieties. when he was a youth. if he came thither by accident. and what it ne eds of aid and support external to itself to complete that nature and to secure that object. and out of his daily earnings the poor scholar brought his master the daily sum of an obolus. He is of any condition or ra nk of life you please. but just the contrary. Or it is a young man of great promise as an orator. or Gallic student. in the very constituti on of society and in its own idea. viewed as what we have since called a University. at last casting anchor at Piraeus.who is entering the city. what is its nature and object. Emperor of Rome and philosopher. were I able. from America and Australia and India. How did it ever cross his brain to betake himself to Athens in search of wisdom? or. to the city of wisdom. and now that I wish to proceed from the point at which it took place. earlier than by profe ssion. he was discovered to have no other garment at all. Such progress did he make. after his victories in the battlefield. or of denying its man y deformities. all ea ger for one large true wisdom. he is the a uthor of a hymn to the Supreme Being. and the like servile occupations. We st. w hen its first founders and servants were dead and gone. how did the love of it ever touch his heart? But so it was. and he got his livelih ood by drawing water. students are flocking from East. with the ease and rapidity of a locomotion not yet discovered.something like the German student who came up to Heidelb erg with nothing upon him but a greatcoat and a pair of pistols. the most haughty of speculators. . but which. . in getting into the swing of my subject. to Zeno the Stoic. which is one of the noblest effusions of t he kind in classical poetry. going back a gain to carry over all the earth "peace to men of good will. as to enable him to see what a University is.

and he will like his short sojourn at Athens s o well. yet merciful to his physical resourc es on the other.of chest. Or it is a mere boy of fifteen: his name Eunapius. they break into the philosopher's house. and then Hephaestion put on the cloak. for they had only one cloak between them. and tol d him curious stories about Athenian life. p elting each other with snowballs on their own sacred territory. and. and will in time become preeminently a theolo gian. and Proaeres ius crept under the coverlet. when the passengers landed in the evening at Piraeus. he could n ot stand. But a freshman like Eunapius soon got experience for himself of the ways and man ners prevalent in Athens. and they were even worse off than Cleanthes the Stoic. with the lic ence of academic students. and defying the magistracy. He himself had come up to the Univers ity with one Hephaestion.making. yet in the course of that time will not learn a line of Latin. He is a grave person. and whose fame it was which drew the enthusiastic youth to At hens. Hephaestion lay in bed. though the voyage was not lon g. Or it is one Horace. someth ing or other in the Christian line his father is for certain. and in that he will succeed. seasickness. which is only not impudence. where the poorer l ived any how. he will stop but a short time. giv en to matter . a youth of low stature and black hair. and the teachers themselves had no prote ction from the humours and caprices of the students who filled their lecture . some say he is a Christian.exertion. and difficult to make out. His name is Gregor y. thinking it enou gh to become accomplished in Greek composition. At first sight one wonders at their childis hness. so when Proaeresius went abroad.of . though he ap pears to have retired for the night. he is said to have a turn for poetry: a hero he is not. At another time there was so fierce a feud between what would be called "town and gown" in an English University. who has narrowly escaped d rowning on his voyage. that the Profess ors did not dare lecture in public. and should adopt a delivery sufficient for the display of his rhetorical talents on the one hand. took him up among them and carried him to the house of the great teacher of the day. and now is sending him to fi nish it at Athens. before he returns to continue a career whi ch will render his name immortal. But see where comes from Alexandria (for we need not be very solicitous about an achronisms). except some old bedding. He is called Cicero. but he is caught by the enthusiasm of the hour. and nothing whatever besides. but the like conduct obtained in the medieval Universities. and proceed to make themselves free of it. when they would interfere with their privilege of becoming boys. So . for fear of ill treatment.fact calculations. Proaeresius. or confinement. and got on as they could. and to the anxieties of money . Proaeresius took a fancy to the boy. Such a one as he had hardly entered the city. when he was caught hold of by a party of the academic youth. His countrymen who accompanied him. for what could you expect of a place where th ere was a mob of youths and not even the pretence of control. he is by country a Cappadocian. and g oes off campaigning with Brutus and Cassius. and not many months have passed away since the journals have told us of sober Englishmen. and is to remain at Athens as many as eight or ten years. which renders it necessary that he should acquire the art of speaking without over . and one of the principal Doctors of the Greek Church. who proceeded to practise o n his awkwardness and his ignorance. because Proaeresius ta kes it so easily. threw him int o a fever.h alls? However. and will leave his shield behind hi m on the field of Philippi. whose father has giv en him an education at Rome above his rank in life. or bad living on board the vessel. who was a friend of the captain's. and will pa ss over to Asia Minor and its cities. and. His companions understand the sort of place they are in. and p ractised himself in oratory. b ut not out of keeping with Athens. Strange introduction for our stranger to a seat of learning. as to this Eunapius. a young man from twenty to twenty .two. and i t were well if he knew it. with an absence of ceremony. that he will take good care to send his son thither at an earlier age th an he visited it himself.

are not perfection. to the extent of their wit. but. Athens was the hom e of the intellectual. do not seem to have been much better than those of Greek or Turkish tow ns which are at this moment a topic of interest and ridicule in the public print s. "might doubt. with all the praise I have already g iven. to the city of mind. His troubles are not at an end. that the upper stories projected over the roadway. or University gown. nevertheless. the cracked. a multitude of the dilapidated outhouses found in farm . y our magalia in Africa. of the rickety old wooden tenements. which our by . anywhere else in the three continents. and was ready in Athens so shelter him when he came.I suppose we must attribute it to something or other in human nature. for the Bath was a sort of initiation.sides can supply. But this was to be the end of his trial. Take.but then he will have to choose for himself wh ere he will put up. Learned writers assure us distinctly that th e houses of Athens were for the most part small and mean. whom is he to attend? He finds himsel f seized. the actual tenements. before he well knows where he is.a rema rkable coincidence of description. the sheds and stalls. that you stay there looking .friend. there stands the new . the se parate houses bulging or retiring below.on of professor this. others with fiercen ess. thus accidentally determined. or sophist that. by another party of men. o r river . on the sudden view. . where flesh and blood had to lodge (always excepting the mansions of great men of the place). they dance about him like madmen. and that it was traversed by drains. and the praise I shall have to give. though he has got his gown upon and a stool. be tween ourselves. he thereupon received t he pallium. like foreign porters at a landing. the roadway always narrow. be unde rstood to form streets. One alone is recorded as having been exempted from this persecution. or fish . . Where is he to lodge?. each of whom wishes the fame or the profit of having a houseful. and to make a fool of him. Gregory himself: but it was not from his force of character. Meanwhile. up and down the town. and a sleeping board. and to banter. and doors that opened outwards. a nd leaning forward till they meet overhead. or your grottos in Syria. that that roadway was jolting to carriages. I do not doubt at all. who seize on the bagga ge of the perplexed stranger.) as Gre gory. surrounded by a circle of his new associates.comer. as circumstances may have determined. (it would appear. to tell the truth. Athens seems in these respects to have been below the average cities of its time. . and beautiful. I question whether this picture would not nearly correspond to the special seat of the Muses in ancient times. or three or four parties at once. and thrust half a dozen cards into his unwilling h ands. that he escaped. Some address him with mock politeness." I grant all this. but a catechumen of the Church.and you have a good idea of Gallip oli. that the streets were crooked and narrow. Why stop within your lodgings counting the rents in your wa ll or the holes in your tiling. one place does not differ from another indoors. and ma terial organization. shutterless structures of pl anks and tiles. and was suffered by his tormentors to depart in peace. the great Basil. it w as a youth graver and loftier than even St. not of low mechanical contrivances. though history is sile nt. says the w riter. and with no meaning. and a table. I t was another Saint and Doctor. and that staircases. winding of course for no reason. and. obstructed it. the breadth never uniform. let the spaces between house and house. Gregor y was his bosom ." says an ancient. who forthwith proceed to frighten. the brick and wood which formed it.yards in England . "A stranger. when nature and art call you away? You must put up with such a chamber. tumble them down on the declivity of a bare bald hil l. then. and so they conduct him in solemn procession across the Agora to the Baths. balustrades. and much more. and as they approach. but at the instance of Gregory. What a food for the intellect is it possible to procure indoors. if really he saw Athens. I suppose y ou did not come to Athens to swarm up a ladder. what hear and see you could not elsewhere. Our youth is plied by the hangers . or to grope about a closet: you came to see and to hear. A lively picture has lately been set before us of Gallipoli. as freely as any Turkish town now. But to return to our freshman. if you will. recollect.lanes. We will say th at he escapes from their hands. and all but impassable.

but to imbibe the invisible atmosphere of genius. since the time that they were w ritten. It is but a crib or kennel. He goes farther west which he sleeps when the w eather is inclement or the ground damp. and the statues. and now he has come to that still more celebrated Aca deme. he had his fill of gazin g. we will suppose. and there he will hear Lysias or Andocides pleading. and see and hear the drama literally in action. many are the lessons which will be taught him da y after day by teacher or by companion. not to read the day's newspaper. and great er than anything are much out in your calculations. no gymnasium to converse. Or let him go westward to the A gora. I doubt whether Athens had a library till the reign of Hadrian. and they imply a sort of cloist ered life. leaving the tumble downtown behind him. he does not care to hear. the qualification for our doing so! A Spaniard is said to have travelled to Italy.about you? do you think to read there?. ma king virtue. Such is the spell which the living man exerts on his fellows. a bookshop in the whole place: nor was the book trade in existence till the very time of Augustus. or name. and to learn by heart the oral tra ditions of taste. w e at this day. Libraries. had he entered no lecture room to hear. strange to the nineteenth century. what he heard. or at least a life of rule. but you need not go to Athens to procure them. converting a f uneral oration over the slain into a philosophical panegyric of the living. he asks neither for discourse nor disputation. It was t he boast of the philosophic statesman of Athens. a burning thought in his heart. which has bestowed its own name on Universities down to this day. Strange to say. he must betake himself to the theatre on the south. True it is. he had got some measure of education. How nature impels us to lean upon others. along the shade of those noble planes. and not till night. simply to see Livy. and then went back again home. It will be a point in the history of his life. or Demosthenes harang uing. Many are the beauties of the place. if our sojourner at Athens would understand how a tragic poet can write. but his eye is just now arrested by one object. it is the very presence of Plato. a bond of union with men of like mind. which C imon has planted there. . He passes through the city gate. scarcely natural to an Athenian. and the temple. that his countrymen achieved by the mere force of nature and the love of the noble and the great. that in the age of Plato and Thucydides. and he looks around him at the statues and porticos and vestibules. He does not hear a word that he says. not to be increased by addition. a stay for his memory to rest on. he m ounts the Acropolis to the right. Had our young stranger got nothing by his voya ge but the sight of the breathing and moving Plato. or to buy the gay shilling volume. whi ch was the education furnished by Athens. an d something to tell of to his grandchildren. We indeed take our Sophocles or Aesch ylus out of our coat . each by itself a work of genius and skill. not what he read. to the temple of the Di oscuri to see the paintings of Polygnotus. But Plato is not the only sage. were the bright invention of Attalus or the Ptolemies. in no respect a home. and the stre am of the Cephissus flowing by. what other pe . what he sees is a whole. nor would you find them i n Athens. have the books of Greece as a perpetual memorial. where are your books? do you expect to purchase books at Athens? . the most thrilling of orators. He g oes to the Parthenon to study the sculptures of Phidias. nor the sight of him the only lesson to be learn ed in this wonderful suburb. It was what the student gazed o n. the groves. ever afterwards. and ther e he sees a sight which will be graven on his memory till he dies. enough to be the making o f another city. or he turns to the Areopagus on the left. complete in itself. is Pe ricles himself. what he caught by the magic of sympathy. or genius. and then he is at the famous Ce ramicus. there was not. Colle ges were the inventions of many centuries later. but. and here. and copies there have been. He leaves his narrow lodging early in the morning. Onwards he proceeds still. if even t hen. And he goes out of doors. it is said.pocket. the most elevated. for good or for evil. It is the region and the realm of philosophy. here are the tombs of the mighty dead. who live in the nineteenth century. will he return. and. Out he goes. I suspect.

but fructifying. as well as students. and hosts and proxeni of strangers and visitors. Thus the Professors were both patrons of clients. for the long spac e of eight hundred years. Carneades from Africa. t . Protagoras from Thra ce. and this being the case. whic h furnished both the quantity of the befits a University. as if in antagonism to Plato. He himself is of Lesbos. In every thing there is a better side and a worse. and he left his patrimony to his school. But in Roman times the chairs of grammar. however. nothing goes on there as it should be: if you believe the ot her. and the quality of the other. and brought to their favourite study senatorial rank or Asiatic opulence. was to do homage to it as a University. when the schools of Athens were not a hundred years old. it ended in fine linen. some of the Professors were themselves statesmen or high functionaries. How could Athens have collected hearers in such numbers. Anaxagor as was from Ionia. a marvellous phenomenon in tumultuous Greece. come hither from all regions of the earth. Zeno looks like a divinity in his porch. Epiphanius of the Arabic. T here was no narrow jealousy. The University was divided into four great nations. in every place a disreputab le set and a respectable. would be encoura ged to study by his protection. and the four philosophies. it is so much gain whenever an Herodes Atticus is found. . as well as masters of the schools: and the Cappadoci an. There was a brotherhood and a citizen ship of mind. He had a villa out at Heraclea. The Professors beca me honourable and rich. a teacher of marvell ous popularity. Proaeresius an Armenian. and Gorgias from Sicily. and these too became the property of his sect. for the poorness of his lodging and the turbulence of his companions . no long session stiffens the limbs. as the medieval antiquarian would style them. No awful arch. if y ou believe the one. Epicurus too had the property of the Gardens where he lectured. an d were proud of calling themselves their countrymen.ople aimed at by laborious discipline. Hilarius a Bithynian. Syrian. which the notion of a University implies. and Diophantus of the Pontic. politics. Men c ome away from the same University at this day. Epicurus is reclining in his garden. in whom we have interested ourselves. Athens was as liberal in intellectual. and gathered round itself. not only safe. and to aspire by his example. is wa lking his pupils off their legs in his Lyceum by the Ilyssus. and in th e middle of the fourth century. Philiscus a Thessalian. and now he is in the region of the schools . with contradictory impressions an d contradictory statements. in whose hands it remained. who has brought together two thousand pupils from all parts of t he world. Hadrian a Syrian. rhetoric. and the one is hardly known at all to the other. genius and talent were the qualifications. the restle ss Aristotle. directed against a Professor. according to the society they have found there. wisdom was not always sentenced to the bare cloak of Cleanthes. Mind came first. the gifts of fortune and the pri zes of life. As time went on. but it soon br ought along with it. and under some sort of a cloud or disadvantage. was in circ umstances to enjoy the otium cum dignitate. Proaeresius was the leader or proctor of the Att ic. and all who came among them were submitte d to the same method of education. philosophy lives out of doors. but beginning in rags. Patrons such as these can compensate to the freshman. and decency are at least in the minority everywhere. for masters. No close atmosphere oppresse s the brain or inflames the eyelid.coloured lights marks the seats of learning there or elsewhere. on the other side of the city. Our student has de termined on entering himself as a disciple of Theophrastus. or Sicilian youth who came to one or other of them. no window of many . unless she had selected teachers of such powe r? it was the range of territory. We have traced our student on his wanderings from the Acropolis to the Sacred Way. and was the foundation of the academical polity. Zeno from Cyprus. and the students ranged themselves under their names. Virtue. Andromachus was a Syrian. Even Plato. were handsomel y endowed by the State. because he was not an Athenian. Rome is celebrat ed for her liberality in civil matters. nothing goes on as it should not. Hephaestion of the Oriental. and to bring them to Athen s.

He w as one of those men who seem by a sort of fascination to draw others around them even without wishing it. ha lf philosopher. disappointed and d ispleased with the place himself. should hold so high a place in their esteem and love. he seems nevertheless to have been the means o f their profiting by its advantages. was that allotted to the youthful Basil. Celsus too is named. but suitable to his deserts. Long arcades. and we have instances on rec ord of his setting down. as the sum is cal culated. pagans as most of them were. and the nondescript visitor. and turned back to Athens for a season. and thither he d rew to him the elite. the place of his birth. at the distance of six. When the two saints were departing. and capable of admitting the whole population. and afterwards a Bishop.hall . was made of cedar wood curiously c arved. erected to the memory of his wife. though a rarer one. clear pools for the bath. Gregory. courteous always. in the sequel of unhappy memory. for three declamations. who was afterwards commissioner of the land tax. Never was so brilliant a lecture . but. He gave the sophist Polemo about eight thousand pounds. and known at least to St . and it is to the credit of the parties composing it. Basil persevered. both the one and the other. and the heir of an ample fortune.o throw the influence of wealth and station on the side even of a decorous philo sophy. A higher line. who. met with a reception. Hi s theatre. who afterwa rds was raised to the government of Cilicia by the Emperor Julian. . one at Marathon. at that time the bosom friend of Sophronius. and the flippant sciolist. was then at Athens. and his fortune to the patronage of liter ature. almost in spite of himself. Julian himsel f. about ten mil es from Athens. He had two villas. this Herod was content to devote his life to a professorship. their companions came around them with the hope of changing their purpose. A consular man. Here we have a glimpse of the better kind of society among the stu dents of Athens. but Gregory relented. and. One of these was Sophronius. and at times the whole body of the students. according to the emergency. men as intimately connected with Christianity as they were well known in the world. he was the centre of a knot of youths. One might have deemed that his gravity and his reserve would have kept them at a distance. groves of trees. highly connected students from Rome mixed with the sharp witted provincial of Greece or Asia Minor. Another Julian is also mentioned. entirely of white marble. used Athens hones tly for the purpose for which they professed to seek it. delighted and recruited the summer v isitor. who afterwards held a high office in the State: Eusebius was another. that such young men as Gregory and Basil. Herod was noted for his repartees. half as his evening banqueting . the other at Cephissia. He built at Athens a stadium six hundred feet l ong.