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Katie Roner and Hannah Davis

Case Report
Schizophrenia

Summary
Schizophrenia is a chronic mental
disorder which affects how a person thinks,
acts, and feels. They usually have trouble
differing what is imaginary and real, they may
also have difficulty expressing normal
emotions. There are five subtypes of
Schizophrenia; all of them are chronic and take
a huge toll on an average persons everyday
life.1 There is a significant genetic connection
between who has and doesnt have
Schizophrenia. If one of your parents has
schizophrenia, you are10% more at risk of
developing the disease compared to a 1% risk in the general population. Schizophrenia is heredity and
genetics are a big part of what illnesses you will develop or wont develop. If youre Schizophrenic and you
go to counseling/peer groups and take your medication, your kids are less likely to develop Schizophrenia.2

Symptoms
Behavioral: social isolation, disorganized behavior, aggression, agitation, compulsive behavior,
excitability, hostility, repetitive movements, self-harm, or lack of restraint
Cognitive: thought disorder, delusion, amnesia, belief that an ordinary event has special and
personal meaning, belief that thoughts aren't one's own, disorientation, memory loss, mental
confusion, or slowness in activity
Mood: anger, anxiety, apathy, feeling detached from self, general discontent, loss of interest or
pleasure in activities, elevated mood, or inappropriate emotional response
Psychological: hallucination, paranoia, hearing voices, depression, fear, persecutory delusion,
or religious delusion
Speech: circumstantial speech, incoherent speech, rapid and frenzied speaking, or speech
disorder
Also common: false belief of superiority, fatigue, impaired motor coordination, or lack of
emotional response3
History
Written documents of Schizophrenia can be dated back to the ancient Egypt, but the disease was first
identified by Dr. Emil Kraepelin in 1887. At first he called it Dementia Praecox, or premature dementia.
Eugene Bleuler was the first to use the term Schizophrenia in 1911 derived of the Greek words schizo
meaning (split) and phren meaning (mind). Bleuler was a swiss psychiatrist who took Kraepelins ideas
and found that patients with Schizophrenia do improve over time. Before Schizophrenia was found as a
mental illness, treatment once consisted of exorcisms and insulin shock treatment.4 In 1952 Henri
Laborit a surgeon discovered chlorpromazine or what is now known as antipsychotic which helped with
treating the symptoms of schizophrenia. After this discovery, people diagnosed with schizophrenia no
longer needed to stay in confined asylums but they could live in the open community.5

Affected ages and frequency


Three quarters of people with Schizophrenia develop the disorder during the ages of 16 through
25. Its uncommon to develop Schizophrenia once age 30 and even more uncommon at age 40. This
disease isnt super common, but its a chronic and extremely serious illness. Worldwide an average of
1% of people have Schizophrenia and in America 1.2% people have it. About 1.5% of people are
diagnosed a year with one of the five subtypes. The five subtypes of Schizophrenia; Paranoid
Schizophrenia, Disorganized Schizophrenia, Catatonic Schizophrenia, Residual Schizophrenia, and
Schizoaffective Disorder.

Research
Translational Neuroscience of Schizophrenia focuses on the development of the brain once
diagnosed with Schizophrenia. They also focus on how to effectively treat and support patients that are
diagnosed with Schizophrenia. They study pathophysiology Schizophrenia and the many subtypes. They
also study the chances of people getting the disorder and what affects it once you are diagnosed, such
as drugs and alcohol. UT Southwestern medical group is focusing on investigating the nature and
treatment of cognitive deficits commonly seen in Schizophrenia. They now know that cognitive deficits
are a main feature of Schizophrenia. They are also conducting phenotyping to better understand the
genetic inheritance patterns for Schizophrenia. All of the research has been conducted using molecular
biological techniques and post mortem brain tissue, as well as genetic assessments with family members
and patients.

Changes in treatment
Before the 19th century, schizophrenia was often seen as a possession of the devil and exorcism
were performed on those diagnosed. In the 19th century, scientists and doctors got a better
understanding of schizophrenia, but treatments did not get any better. People diagnosed with
schizophrenia were often chained and locked up in asylums. In the early 20th century the way asylums
treated patients improved. Severe cases were treated with electroshock-therapy and lobotomies.
Antipsychotic medication first appeared in the 1950s Currently there is no cure for schizophrenia but
treatments are usually lifelong and involve various types of medication, psychotherapy, support groups,
cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, family therapy, social skill training, vocational rehabilitation,
supported employment, and electroconvulsive therapy.

Statistics

Men and women have equal chances of getting Schizophrenia


Men who have Schizophrenia may develop symptoms earlier than women
An average 1-2 years pass before the patient is diagnosed with the disease
Children and adults over the age of 45 rarely get Schizophrenia
All races have equal chances of getting Schizophrenia
10% of adults with Schizophrenia commit suicide
75%-90% of people with Schizophrenia smoke. There is no proof that this causes
Schizophrenia but just that it makes it worse
Marijuana increases the rate of psychosis
After 30 years 15% of patients with Schizophrenia are dead, mostly due to suicide
After 30 years 25% have experienced recovery (but there is no cure so no one is truly
recovered)
Citations

1"Schizophrenia Symptoms, Patterns And Statistics And Patterns." Mental Help


Schizophrenia Symptoms Patterns and Statistics and Patterns Comments. N.p., n.d.
Web. 22 May 2017.

2Schizophrenia.com - schizophrenia and children and offspring. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May
2017.

3"Schizophrenia." Mayo Clinic. Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and


Research, 11 Oct. 2016. Web. 22 May 2017.

4"Schizophrenia: A Brief History." Living With Schizophrenia. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May
2017.

Tracy, Natasha. "History of Schizophrenia - Schizophrenia Information - Thought


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Disorders." HealthyPlace. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 May 2017.

https://www.mentalhelp.net/articles/schizophrenia-symptoms-patterns-and-statistics-and-patterns/
:Schizophrenia Symptoms, Patterns And Statistics And Patterns
http://articles.mercola.com/schizophrenia/types.aspx :What Are the Different Types of Schizophrenia?
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/symptoms-causes/dxc-20253198
:Symptoms and causes
http://www.schizophrenia.com/family/schizintro.html : A Short Introduction to Schizophrenia
https://www.livingwithschizophreniauk.org/advice-sheets/schizophrenia-a-brief-history/ : Schizophrenia:
A Brief History
http://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/schizophrenia/diagnosis-treatment/treatment/txc-202532
11 : Schizophrenia medication and treatment
https://www.healthyplace.com/thought-disorders/schizophrenia-information/schizophrenia-facts-schizop
hrenia-statistics/ : SCHIZOPHRENIA FACTS, SCHIZOPHRENIA STATISTICS
https://www.healthyplace.com/thought-disorders/schizophrenia-information/history-of-schizophrenia/ :
History of Schizophrenia
http://www.utsouthwestern.edu/labs/schizophrenia/research/ : Schizophrenia reasearch/ Lab work