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Flyash Bricks


Flyash is a burnt residue of pulverized coal (bituminous or sub-bituminous) and is siliceous in

nature. R&D efforts undertaken during the past few decades have revealed that this material can
be gainfully utilized in number of ways in building products manufacturing as well as in civil
works with adequate durability, due to its superior Geo-technical, Pozzolanic and Physio-
Chemical Properties.

Major areas of fly ash utilization established through continual R&D efforts in the country are
Building materials as BRICKS, blocks, tiles, etc. Cement and cementitious binders and Special
grade materials such as oil well cement, sulphate resistant cement, insulating and low density
building products. Manufacturing of lightweight Aggregates, Controlled Low Strength Material
(CSLM), Ferro-cement, wear resistant ceramics and distemper. Also used in Grouting,
Engineered fills for low-lying land spaces for human settlement, use in Road Construction and
Construction of ash dykes and embankments.

Flyash bricks can be divided into the following types

- Clay Flyash Bricks.
Manufacturing process of clay flyash bricks by manual or extrusion process involves mixing
of flyash (60 %) with clay of moderate plasticity. The green bricks are dried under ambient
atmospheric conditions or in shed to equilibrium moisture level of below 3 percent. Dried
bricks are fired in traditional brick kilns at 1000 30 C with a soaking period of 5 7 hours
at maturing temperature. This technology has great potential to reduce not only precious top
soil and consumption of coal in making conventional clay bricks, but also requires minimum
charges in existing set up at kiln sites and not very much susceptible to quality of ash.

- Flyash Sand Lime Bricks.

In presence of moisture, fly ash reacts with lime at ordinary temperature and forms a
compound possessing cementitious properties. After reactions between lime and flyash,
calcium silicate hydrates are produced which are responsible for the high strength of the
This processes involves homogeneous mixing of raw materials (generally fly ash, sand and
lime), moulding of bricks and then curing of the green bricks. Some technologies call for
usage of chemical accelerator like gypsum. These processes are almost similar and vary
slightly from water curing to steam curing at low pressure or autoclaving at 10-14 kg/cm2.
Bricks made by mixing lime and flyash are, therefore, chemically bonded bricks. These
bricks are suitable for use in masonry just like common burnt clay bricks. These bricks posses
adequate crushing strength as a load-bearing member and are lighter in weight than ordinary
clay bricks.
Generally, dry fly ash available from power plants meets the properties specified in IS: 3812
and is suitable for manufacture of Fly Ash lime bricks in accordance with the requirements
of IS: 12894.

- Cold Bonded Lightweight Flyash Bricks, Blocks and Tiles

The material can be produced in a variety of building blocks, bricks and tiles, depending on
local markets and regulations. Keraton consists of cheap and ubiquitous raw materials such as
fly ash and / or other waste materials. These materials are mixed and a cold bonding agent is
added. The mixed raw material is cast in moulds, after which the moulds are processed in a
microwave oven for transportation to the building site. The products can be applied as a light-
weight material in the house building industry and utility building, such as stables, barns,
garages, etc. A surface treatment or coating for coloring is possible. Strong points are the
ability to use fly ash, the insulation properties and the production flexibility.

- Flux Bonded Flyash Bricks Blocks and Tiles

The process is similar to the one in the conventional tile industry: fly ash is mixed with less
than 10 % plastic clay and a few additives and tiles, bricks or blocks are pressed. These
shapes are fired in the range of 900C to 1000C to make the final product. More than 85% of
flyash is used in the process. The process is based on the formation of low melting fluxes at
the firing temperature, which partly react with the fly ash and form a high temperature
reactive glass binder phase. The bricks, tiles and blocks are brick red in colour, but changing
the initial composition can make a variety of colours. The process has been tested at pilot
plant scale under factory conditions. The Regional Research Laboratory in
Thiruvananthapuram promotes the technology.



These bricks have a pleasing colour like cement, are uniform in shape and smooth in finish, also,
they require no plastering for building work. The bricks are of dense composition, uniformly
shaped with/without a frog, free from visible cracks, warp-age, organic matter, pebbles and
nodules of free lime. They are lighter in weight than ordinary clay bricks and less porous too. The
colour of flyash bricks can be altered with the addition of admixtures during the process of brick
making. They come in various sizes, but generally are similar to the sizes of clay bricks.

Structural Capability
These bricks can provide advantages being available in several load-bearing grades, savings in
mortar plastering, and giving smart looking brickwork. High compressive strength eliminates
breakages/wastages during transport and handling, the cracking of plaster is reduced due to lower
thickness of joints and plaster and basic material of the bricks, which is more compatible with
cement mortar. Due to its comparable density the bricks do not cause any extra load for design of
structures and provides better resistance for earthquake loads due to panel action with high
strength bricks. Compressive strength of fly ash sand lime bricks is av. 9.00 N/mm2 (as against
3.50 N/mm2 for handmade clay bricks).

Thermal properties
Thermal conductivity is 0.90-1.05 W/m2 C (20-30% less than those of concrete blocks). These
bricks do not absorb heat; they reflect heat and gives maximum light reflection without glare.

Sound insulation
It provides an acceptable degree of sound insulation.
Fire and vermin resistance
Flyash bricks have a good fire rating. It has no problems of vermin attacks or infestation.

Durability and moisture resistance

These blocks are highly durable, after proper pointing of joints, the bricks can be directly painted
in dry distemper and cement paints, without the backing coating of plaster. Rectangular faced
with sharp corners, solid, compact and uniformly Water absorption is 6-12% as against 20-25%
for handmade clay bricks, reducing dampness of the walls.

Toxicity and Breath-ability

There are no definite studies on the toxic fume emissions or the indoor air quality of structures
built with flyash bricks, though claims of radio active emissions by these blocs have been made at
some scientific forums.

Flyash as a raw material is very fine and care has to be taken to prevent from being air-borne and
causing serious air pollution as it can remain airborne for long periods of time, causing serious
health problems relating to the respiratory system. Though block manufactured from flyash has
no such problems.

(environmental impacts)
Fly ash is a cocktail of unhealthy elements silica, aluminum, iron oxides, calcium, magnesium,
arsenic, mercury, and cadmium, and poses serious environment and health hazards for a large
population. But the brick is better off, for flyash changes into a non-toxic product when mixed
with lime at ordinary temperature as the calcium silicate hydrates and forms a dense composite
inert block. Thus having the potential as a good building material, while offsetting about
100million tonnes of flyash annually produced in India by the numerous thermal power plants,
which could cause serious contamination of land, groundwater and air.

Buildability, availability and cost

The blocks have an easy workability and high compressive strength eliminates breakages/wastage
during handling giving a neat finish, with lower thickness of joints and plaster. The construction
technique remains the same as regular bricks ensuring easy change of material, without requiring
additional training for the masons. Though these bricks are abundantly available closer to thermal
power plants all over the country for obvious reasons, finding dealers in all major cities and
towns wouldnt be a problem.
The blocks being available in several load bearing grades are suitable for use: -
Load bearing external walls, in low and medium size structures.
Non-load bearing internal walls in low and medium size structures.
Non-load bearing internal or external walls in high-rise buildings.

Mandadiar Bricks
4-E/2, Therespuram,
Tuticorin 628001, India
E-mail :
PH : 0461 - 2361765, 2361865, 553505
Mobile : 94431 36614
Fax : 0461 - 2363123,

SGS Brick Industries

2/438,Pudunagar, Mannivakkam,
Chennai 600048, India.
Phone: 091-44-64583745