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Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with IMO Tier II


Project Guide Marine
MAN 48/60CR
purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending on the
subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be subject to
changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each project. This
will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual project, especially
specific site and operational conditions. CopyrightMAN Diesel & Turbo.
D2366472EN-N3 Printed in Germany GGKMD-AUG-08160.5

MAN Diesel & Turbo


86224 Augsburg, Germany
Phone +49 821 322-0
Fax +49 821 322-3382
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www.mandieselturbo.com

MAN 48/60CR
Project Guide Marine
Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with
IMO Tier II

MAN Diesel & Turbo a member of the MAN Group


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MAN Diesel & Turbo

MAN 48/60CR
Project Guide Marine
Four-stroke diesel engines compliant with IMO Tier II

Revision ............................................ 03.2016/4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II Project Guide


2017-03-03 - 4.4

All data provided in this document is non-binding. This data serves informa-
tional purposes only and is especially not guaranteed in any way. Depending
on the subsequent specific individual projects, the relevant data may be sub-
Marine

ject to changes and will be assessed and determined individually for each
project. This will depend on the particular characteristics of each individual
project, especially specific site and operational conditions.

EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo
MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II Project Guide

MAN Diesel & Turbo SE


2017-03-03 - 4.4

86224 Augsburg
Phone +49 (0) 821 322-0
Fax +49 (0) 821 322-3382
www.mandieselturbo.com
Marine

Copyright 2017 MAN Diesel & Turbo


All rights reserved, including reprinting, copying (Xerox/microfiche) and translation.

EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo

Table of contents

Table of contents
1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................................ 9
1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme .......................................................................... 9
1.2 Engine description MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II ........................................................................... 10
1.3 Engine overview ........................................................................................................................ 12

2 Engine and operation ........................................................................................................................... 17


2.1 Approved applications and destination/suitability of the engine ........................................... 17
2.2 Engine design ............................................................................................................................ 19
2.2.1 Engine cross section .............................................................................................. 19
2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters .............................................................. 21
2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments ..................................................................................... 22
2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views .......................................................... 23
2.2.5 Engine inclination ................................................................................................... 25
2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications ............................................................. 26
2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds .................................................................................................... 29
2.3.1 General remark ...................................................................................................... 29
2.3.2 Standard engine ratings ......................................................................................... 29
2.3.3 Engine ratings (output) for different applications ..................................................... 30
2.3.4 Derating, definition of P_Operating ......................................................................... 31
2.3.5 Engine speeds and related main data .................................................................... 32
2.3.6 Speed adjusting range ........................................................................................... 33
2.4 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment installations ............... 33
2.5 Starting ...................................................................................................................................... 36
2.5.1 General remarks .................................................................................................... 36
2.5.2 Requirements on engine and plant installation ........................................................ 36
2.5.3 Starting conditions ................................................................................................. 37
2.6 Low load operation ................................................................................................................... 39
2.7 Start-up and load application ................................................................................................... 41
2.7.1 General remarks .................................................................................................... 41
2.7.2 Start-up time .......................................................................................................... 41
2.7.3 Load application Cold engine (emergency case) .................................................. 44
2.7.4 Load application for electric propulsion/auxiliary GenSet ........................................ 45
2.7.5 Load application Load steps (for electric propulsion/auxiliary GenSet) ................. 47
2.7.6 Load application for mechanical propulsion (CPP) .................................................. 49
2.8 Engine load reduction ............................................................................................................... 52
2.9 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure ........................................................... 53
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2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions ................................................................................ 53


2.11 Generator operation .................................................................................................................. 58
2.11.1 Operating range for generator operation/electric propulsion ................................... 58
2.11.2 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations ......................................... 59
2.11.3 Generator operation/electric propulsion Power management .............................. 60

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2.11.4 Alternator Reverse power protection ................................................................... 61


Table of contents

2.11.5 Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators ............. 63
2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive) ................................................................. 65
2.12.1 General remark for operating ranges ...................................................................... 65
2.12.2 Operating range for controllable pitch propeller (CPP) ............................................ 66
2.12.3 General requirements for the CPP propulsion control ............................................. 67
2.12.4 Operating range for mechanical pump drive ........................................................... 70
2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air consumption ..................................................... 71
2.13.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II .......................................... 71
2.13.2 Lube oil consumption ............................................................................................. 78
2.13.3 Starting air and control air consumption ................................................................. 79
2.13.4 Recalculation of fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions ..................... 80
2.13.5 Influence of engine aging on fuel consumption ....................................................... 81
2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion ................................. 82
2.14.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric pro-
pulsion ................................................................................................................... 82
2.14.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric pro-
pulsion ................................................................................................................... 83
2.14.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion ............................................................................................... 85
2.14.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion ............................................................................................... 86
2.14.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
propulsion .............................................................................................................. 87
2.14.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
propulsion .............................................................................................................. 88
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with CPP ........... 90
2.15.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
propulsion with CPP .............................................................................................. 90
2.15.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
propulsion with CPP .............................................................................................. 91
2.15.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP ......................................................................... 93
2.15.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP ......................................................................... 94
2.15.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
propulsion with CPP, constant speed .................................................................... 95
2.15.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed .................................................. 97
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive) ......................................................................................................................................... 98
2.16.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
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dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ......................................................................... 98


2.16.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ....................................................................... 100
2.16.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ........................................................ 101

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2.16.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II

Table of contents
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ........................................................ 103
2.16.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ....................................................................... 104
2.16.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive) ....................................................................... 105
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures .................................................................... 107
2.18 Filling volumes ........................................................................................................................ 112
2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary ..................................................................................... 113
2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger ................................................................... 117
2.21 Exhaust gas emission ............................................................................................................. 118
2.21.1 Maximum permissible NOx emission limit value IMO Tier II ................................... 118
2.21.2 Smoke emission index (FSN) ................................................................................ 118
2.21.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines ................ 119
2.22 Noise ........................................................................................................................................ 121
2.22.1 Airborne noise ...................................................................................................... 121
2.22.2 Intake noise ......................................................................................................... 123
2.22.3 Exhaust gas noise ................................................................................................ 124
2.22.4 Blow-off noise example ........................................................................................ 126
2.22.5 Noise and vibration Impact on foundation ......................................................... 126
2.23 Vibration .................................................................................................................................. 129
2.23.1 Torsional vibrations .............................................................................................. 129
2.24 Requirements for power drive connection (static) ................................................................ 132
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic) ........................................................... 134
2.25.1 Moments of inertia Crankshaft, damper, flywheel .............................................. 134
2.25.2 Balancing of masses Firing order ....................................................................... 136
2.25.3 Static torque fluctuation ....................................................................................... 139
2.26 Power transmission ................................................................................................................ 142
2.26.1 Flywheel arrangement .......................................................................................... 142
2.27 Arrangement of attached pumps ........................................................................................... 145
2.28 Foundation .............................................................................................................................. 146
2.28.1 General requirements for engine foundation ......................................................... 146
2.28.2 Rigid seating ........................................................................................................ 148
2.28.3 Chocking with synthetic resin ............................................................................... 155
2.28.4 Resilient seating ................................................................................................... 160
2.28.5 Recommended configuration of foundation .......................................................... 162
2.28.6 Engine alignment ................................................................................................. 171

3 Engine automation ............................................................................................................................. 173


3.1 SaCoSone system overview .................................................................................................... 173
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3.2 Power supply and distribution ............................................................................................... 180


3.3 Operation ................................................................................................................................. 183
3.4 Functionality ............................................................................................................................ 184
3.5 Interfaces ................................................................................................................................ 187
3.6 Technical data ......................................................................................................................... 188

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3.7 Installation requirements ....................................................................................................... 189


Table of contents

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices .................................................................... 192

4 Specification for engine supplies ...................................................................................................... 201


4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel engines .................................................. 201
4.1.1 Lube oil ................................................................................................................ 201
4.1.2 Fuel ...................................................................................................................... 201
4.1.3 Engine cooling water ............................................................................................ 202
4.1.4 Intake air .............................................................................................................. 203
4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and biofuels ........... 203
4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel operation (HFO) .............................. 207
4.4 Specification of gas oil/diesel oil (MGO) ................................................................................ 212
4.5 Specification of diesel oil (MDO) ............................................................................................ 214
4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO) ...................................................................................... 216
4.6.1 ISO 8217-2012 Specification of HFO ................................................................... 227
4.7 Viscosity-temperature diagram (VT diagram) ....................................................................... 229
4.8 Specification of engine cooling water .................................................................................... 231
4.9 Cooling water inspecting ........................................................................................................ 238
4.10 Cooling water system cleaning .............................................................................................. 239
4.11 Specification of intake air (combustion air) .......................................................................... 241
4.12 Specification of compressed air ............................................................................................. 243

5 Engine supply systems ...................................................................................................................... 245


5.1 Basic principles for pipe selection ......................................................................................... 245
5.1.1 Engine pipe connections and dimensions ............................................................ 245
5.1.2 Specification of materials for piping ...................................................................... 245
5.1.3 Installation of flexible pipe connections for resiliently mounted engines ................. 246
5.1.4 Condensate amount in charge air pipes and air vessels ....................................... 252
5.2 Lube oil system ....................................................................................................................... 255
5.2.1 Lube oil system description .................................................................................. 255
5.2.2 Prelubrication/postlubrication ............................................................................... 266
5.2.3 Lube oil outlets ..................................................................................................... 267
5.2.4 Lube oil service tank ............................................................................................ 270
5.2.5 Pressure control valve .......................................................................................... 273
5.2.6 Lube oil filter ......................................................................................................... 274
5.2.7 Crankcase vent and tank vent .............................................................................. 275
5.3 Water systems ......................................................................................................................... 276
5.3.1 Cooling water system description ........................................................................ 276
5.3.2 Advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation ............. 287
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5.3.3 Cooling water collecting and supply system ......................................................... 290


5.3.4 Miscellaneous items ............................................................................................. 290
5.3.5 Cleaning of charge air cooler (built-in condition) by an ultrasonic device ............... 291
5.3.6 Turbine washing device, HFO-operation ............................................................... 293
5.3.7 Nozzle cooling system ......................................................................................... 294
5.3.8 Nozzle cooling water module ............................................................................... 296

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5.3.9 Preheating module ............................................................................................... 300

Table of contents
5.4 Fuel oil system ........................................................................................................................ 301
5.4.1 Marine diesel oil (MDO) treatment system ............................................................. 301
5.4.2 Marine diesel oil (MDO) supply system for diesel engines ..................................... 304
5.4.3 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) treatment system .................................................................. 312
5.4.4 Heavy fuel oil (HFO) supply system ....................................................................... 317
5.4.5 Fuel supply at blackout conditions ....................................................................... 329
5.5 Compressed air system .......................................................................................................... 330
5.5.1 Compressed air system description ..................................................................... 330
5.5.2 Dimensioning starting air vessels, compressors ................................................... 333
5.5.3 Jet Assist ............................................................................................................. 335
5.6 Engine room ventilation and combustion air ......................................................................... 336
5.7 Exhaust gas system ................................................................................................................ 337
5.7.1 General ................................................................................................................ 337
5.7.2 Components and assemblies of the exhaust gas system ..................................... 338

6 Engine room planning ........................................................................................................................ 341


6.1 Installation and arrangement ................................................................................................. 341
6.1.1 General details ..................................................................................................... 341
6.1.2 Installation drawings ............................................................................................. 342
6.1.3 Removal dimensions of piston and cylinder liner ................................................... 350
6.1.4 3D Engine Viewer A support programme to configure the engine room ............. 356
6.1.5 Engine arrangements ........................................................................................... 358
6.1.6 Lifting device ........................................................................................................ 360
6.1.7 Major spare parts ................................................................................................. 364
6.2 Exhaust gas ducting ............................................................................................................... 370
6.2.1 Example: Ducting arrangement ............................................................................ 370
6.2.2 Position of the outlet casing of the turbocharger .................................................. 371

7 Propulsion packages ......................................................................................................................... 377


7.1 General .................................................................................................................................... 377
7.2 Dimensions .............................................................................................................................. 378
7.3 Propeller layout data ............................................................................................................... 382
7.4 Propeller clearance ................................................................................................................. 383

8 Electric propulsion plants .................................................................................................................. 385


8.1 Advantages of diesel-electric propulsion .............................................................................. 385
8.2 Losses in diesel-electric plants .............................................................................................. 385
8.3 Components of an electric propulsion plant .......................................................................... 386
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8.4 Electric propulsion plant design ............................................................................................. 387


8.5 Engine selection ...................................................................................................................... 388
8.6 E-plant, switchboard and alternator design .......................................................................... 389
8.7 Over-torque capability ............................................................................................................ 392
8.8 Power management ................................................................................................................ 393
8.9 Example configurations of electric propulsion plants ........................................................... 394

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8.10 High-efficient diesel-electric propulsion plants with variable speed GenSets (EPROX) ...... 399
Table of contents

8.11 Fuel-saving hybrid propulsion system (HyProp ECO) ............................................................ 401

9 Annex .................................................................................................................................................. 403


9.1 Safety instructions and necessary safety measures ............................................................. 403
9.1.1 General ................................................................................................................ 403
9.1.2 Safety equipment and measures provided by plant-side ...................................... 403
9.2 Programme for Factory Acceptance Test (FAT) ..................................................................... 408
9.3 Engine running-in ................................................................................................................... 411
9.4 Definitions ............................................................................................................................... 414
9.5 Abbreviations .......................................................................................................................... 419
9.6 Symbols ................................................................................................................................... 420
9.7 Preservation, packaging, storage .......................................................................................... 423
9.7.1 General ................................................................................................................ 423
9.7.2 Storage location and duration .............................................................................. 424
9.7.3 Follow-up preservation when preservation period is exceeded ............................. 425
9.7.4 Removal of corrosion protection .......................................................................... 425
9.8 Engine colour .......................................................................................................................... 425

Index ................................................................................................................................................... 427

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8 (433)
MAN Diesel & Turbo 1

1 Introduction

1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme


1.1 Medium speed propulsion engine programme

IMO Tier II compliant engine programme

Figure 1: MAN Diesel & Turbo engine programme


1 Introduction
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 9 (433)


1 MAN Diesel & Turbo
1.2 Engine description MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II

1.2 Engine description MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II

General
The actual MAN 48/60CR engine represents the newest technologies in the
area of medium speed operated industrial sized diesel engines. By the use of
electronic injection, high efficiency turbochargers, electronic hardware and
variable valve timing the MAN 48/60CR is a synthesis of the most advanced
large engine technologies available.

Fuels for common rail system


The MAN 48/60CR common rail injection system can be operated with MGO
(Class DMA or Class DMZ according to DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2010),
MDO (ISO-F-DMB according ISO8217-2010) and HFO (according to
ISO8217-2010) with HFO-viscosities up to 700 cSt at 50 C. The fuel system
is also designed for starting and stopping the engine during HFO operation.

Common rail injection


The MAN 48/60CR injection system uses the latest MAN Diesel & Turbo
common rail technology which allows flexible setting of injection timing, dura-
tion and pressure for each cylinder. This flexibility allows the fuel consump-
tion and emissions of the MAN 48/60CR to be optimised on its operating
profile. Due to constant development of our safety concept the redundant
high pressure pumps guarantee further operation of the engine even in the
event of high pressure pump malfunction.

Safety concept
The common rail system comprises an intelligent designed safety concept:
All high-pressure pipes are screened or have a double wall design.
Flow limiting valves at each cylinder prevent uncontrolled injection.
Redundant high-pressure pumps guarantee further operation of the
engine even in the event of high-pressure pump malfunction.
Redundant twin type pressure sensors and speed sensors assure that
the engine stays operational even in the event of failure of one of these
elements. In case of single-engine plants the ECUs (Electronic Control
Units) are in double type as well.

Boost injection
A special, patented feature for common rail engines, called boost injection,
was introduced parallel with release of the IMO Tier II engines. SaCoSone is
able to detect a load increase at the engine at early stage and to improve the
load response of the engine significantly by activation of a boost injection in
the common rail control.
1 Introduction

2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN Diesel & Turbo turbocharging system


Optimally adapted charging system (constant pressure) with modern MAN
Diesel & Turbo turbochargers from the TCA series having long bearing over-
haul intervals and high efficiency. Good part load operation thanks to very
high turbocharger efficiency even under low pressure conditions. The MAN
48/60CR engines are charged by just one TCA turbocharger, which means
that only one common exhaust gas collector pipe is required for all cylinders.

10 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 1

Electronics SaCoSone

1.2 Engine description MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II


The MAN 48/60CR is equipped with the latest generation of proven MAN
Diesel & Turbo engine management systems. SaCoSone combines all func-
tions of modern engine management into one complete system. Thoroughly
integrated with the engine, it forms one unit with the drive assembly.
SaCoSone offers:
Integrated self-diagnosis functions
Maximum reliability and availability
Simple use and diagnosis
Quick exchange of modules (plug in)
Trouble-free and time-saving commissioning
CCM plus OMD
As a standard for all our 4-stroke medium speed engines manufactured
in Augsburg, these engines will be equipped with a Crankcase Monitor-
ing System (CCM = Splash oil & Main bearing temperature) plus OMD
(Oil mist detection). OMD and CCM are integral part of the MAN Diesel &
Turbos safety philosophy and the combination of both will increase the
possibility to early detect a possible engine failure and prevent subse-
quent component damage.

Miller valve timing


To reduce the temperature peaks which promote the formation of NOx, early
closure of the inlet valve causes the charge air to expand and cool before
start of compression. The resulting reduction in combustion temperature
reduces NOx emissions.

VVT Variable valve timing


Variable valve timing enables variations in the opening and closing of the inlet
valves. VVT is an enabling technology of variable Miller valve timing. A strong
Miller effect under high load operation results in an improvement in the NOx-
SFOC trade-off. At low load the Miller valve timings are reduced to attain
higher combustion temperatures and thus lower soot emissions.

ECOMAP 2.0 Evolution of a CO2 saving technology


MAN Diesel & Turbo has developed the optional ECOMAP 2.0 feature for
propulsion enabling the common rail engine to run along different perform-
ance characteristics (so called "maps") without the need of any hardware
modification.
The class approved ECOMAP 2.0 provides the owner with a significantly
improved flexibility to cope with varying voyage profiles in a more fuel eco-
nomic manner. An optional advisory tool supporting the map selection and
intelligent load sharing is also available.
1 Introduction

For more information please contact MAN Diesel & Turbo directly.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Core technologies in-house


As well as its expertise in engine design, development and manufacture,
MAN Diesel & Turbo is also a leader in the engineering and manufacturing of
the key technologies which determine the economic and ecological perform-
ance of a diesel engine and constitute the best offer for our customers:

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 11 (433)


1 MAN Diesel & Turbo

High efficiency turbochargers


1.3 Engine overview

Advanced electronic fuel injection equipment


Electronic hardware and software for engine control, monitoring and
diagnosis
High performance exhaust gas after treatment systems
Our impressive array of computer aided design tools and one of the engine
industrys largest, best-equipped foundries allow us to decisively shorten
product development and application engineering processes. Our mastery of
these engine technologies is the firm foundation for:
Low emissions
Low operating costs
Low life cycle costs
Long service life

1.3 Engine overview

Figure 2: Engine overview, L engine view on counter coupling side (CCS)


1 Introduction

2017-03-03 - 4.4

1 Fuel inlet 4 HT cooling water pump

2 LT cooling water pump (optional) 5 HT water outlet

3 Lube oil pumps 6 Exhaust heat shield

12 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 1

1.3 Engine overview


Figure 3: Engine overview, L engine view on coupling side (CS)

1 Turbocharger exhaust outlet 3 Charge air cooler

2 Silencer

1 Introduction
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MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 13 (433)


1 MAN Diesel & Turbo
1.3 Engine overview

Figure 4: Engine overview, V engine view on counter coupling side (CCS)

1 Exhaust head shield 4 HT cooling water pump

2 LT cooling water pump (optional) 5 Camshaft cover

3 Lube oil pumps


1 Introduction

2017-03-03 - 4.4

14 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 1

1.3 Engine overview


Figure 5: Engine overview, V engine view on coupling side (CS)

1 HT water outlet 4 Charge air cooler

2 LT water outlet 5 Silencer

3 Turbocharger exhaust outlet 6 Camshaft cover

1 Introduction
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 15 (433)


1 MAN Diesel & Turbo
1.3 Engine overview
1 Introduction

2017-03-03 - 4.4

16 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2 Engine and operation

2.1 Approved applications and destination/suitability of


the engine
2.1 Approved applications and destination/suitability of the engine

Approved applications
The MAN 48/60CR is designed as multi-purpose drive. It has been approved
by type approval as marine main engine by all main classification societies
(ABS, BV, LR, DNV, CCS, GL, RINA).
As marine main engine1) it may be applied for mechanical or diesel-electric
propulsion drive2) for applications as:
Bulker, container vessel and general cargo vessel
Ferry and cruise liner
Tanker
Fishing vessel
Dredger and salvage tugs in line with project requirements regarding
required high-torque performance engine will be adapted
Others to fulfill all customers needs the project requirements have to be
defined at an early stage

For the applications named above the MAN 48/60CR can be applied for sin-
gle- and for multi-engine plants.
The MAN 48/60CR as marine auxiliary engine may be applied for diesel-elec-
tric power generation2) for auxiliary duties for applications as:
Auxiliary GenSet2)
Note:
The engine is not designed for operation in hazardous areas. It has to be
ensured by the ship's own systems, that the atmosphere of the engine room
is monitored and in case of detecting a gas-containing atmosphere the
engine will be stopped immediately.
In line with rules of classifications societies each engine whose driving force
1)

may be used for propulsion purpose is stated as main engine.


2)
See section Engine ratings (output) for different applications, Page 30.

Offshore
For offshore applications it may be applied as diesel-electric drive3) for:
FPSO (Floating Production Storage and Offloading Unit)
For the applications named above the MAN 48/60CR can be applied for sin-
2 Engine and operation

gle- and for multi-engine plants.


Due to the wide range of possible requirements such as flag state regula-
tions, fire fighting items, redundancy, inclinations and dynamic positioning
modes all project requirements need to be clarified at an early stage.
Note:
2017-03-03 - 4.4

The engine is not designed for operation in hazardous areas. It has to be


ensured by the ship's own systems, that the atmosphere of the engine room
is monitored and in case of detecting a gas-containing atmosphere the
engine will be stopped immediately.
3)
See section Engine ratings (output) for different applications, Page 30.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 17 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Destination/suitability of the engine


2.1 Approved applications and destination/suitability of
the engine

Note:
Regardless of their technical capabilities, engines of our design and the
respective vessels in which they are installed must at all times be operated in
line with the legal requirements, as applicable, including such requirements
that may apply in the respective geographical areas in which such engines
are actually being operated.

Operation of the engine outside the specified operated range, not in line with
the media specifications or under specific emergency situations (e.g. sup-
pressed load reduction or engine stop by active "Override", triggered fire-
fighting system, crash of the vessel, fire or water ingress inside engine room)
is declared as not intended use of the engine (for details see engine specific
operating manuals). If an operation of the engine occurs outside of the scope
of supply of the intended use a thorough check of the engine and its compo-
nents needs to be performed by supervision of the MAN Diesel & Turbo serv-
ice department. These events, the checks and measures need to be docu-
mented.

Electric and electronic components attached to the engine


Required engine room temperature
In general our engine components meet the high requirements of the Marine
Classification Societies. The electronic components are suitable for proper
operation within an air temperature range from 0 C to 55 C. The electrical
equipment is designed for operation at least up to 45 C.
Relevant design criteria for the engine room air temperature:
Minimum air temperature in the area of the engine and its components
5 C.
Maximum air temperature in the area of the engine and its components
45 C.
Note:
Condensation of the air at engine components must be prevented.
Note:
It can be assumed that the air temperature in the area of the engine and
attached components will be 5 10 K above the ambient air temperature
outside the engine room. If the temperature range is not observed, this can
affect or reduce the lifetime of electrical/electronic components at the engine
or the functional capability of engine components. Air temperatures at the
engine > 55 C are not permissible.
2 Engine and operation

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18 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.2 Engine design


2.2 Engine design

2.2.1 Engine cross section

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 6: Cross section L engine; view on counter coupling side

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 19 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.2 Engine design
2 Engine and operation

Figure 7: Cross section V engine


2017-03-03 - 4.4

20 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.2 Engine design


2.2.2 Engine designations Design parameters

Figure 8: Example to declare engine designations

Parameter Value Unit


Number of cylinders 6, 7, 8, 9 -
12, 14, 16, 18

Cylinder bore 480 mm

Piston stroke 600

Displacement per cylinder 108.6 litre

Distance between cylinder centres, in-line engine 820 mm

Distance between cylinder centres, vee engine 1,000

Vee engine, vee angle 50

Crankshaft diameter at journal, in-line engine 415 mm

Crankshaft diameter at journal, vee engine 480

Crankshaft diameter at crank pin 415


Table 1: Design parameters
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 21 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.2 Engine design

2.2.3 Turbocharger assignments

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II


No. of cylinders, Mechanical propulsion with CPP/electric propulsion
config.
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm 1,200 kW/cyl., 514 rpm
6L TCA55-42 TCA55-42

7L TCA55-42 TCA55-42

8L TCA66-42 TCA66-42

9L TCA66-42 TCA66-42

12V TCA77-42 TCA77-42

14V TCA77-42 TCA77-42

16V TCA77-42 TCA77-42

18V TCA88-42 TCA88-42


Table 2: Turbocharger assignments

Turbocharger assignments mentioned above are for guidance only and may
vary due to project-specific reasons. Consider the relevant turbocharger
project guides for additional information.
2 Engine and operation

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22 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.2 Engine design


2.2.4 Engine main dimensions, weights and views

L engine

Figure 9: Main dimensions and weights L engine

No. of cylinders, L L1 W Weight without


config. flywheel
mm t
6L 8,760 7,455 3,165 106

7L 9,580 8,275 119

8L 10,540 9,095 3,280 135

9L 11,360 9,915 148

The dimensions and weights are given for guidance only.

Minimum centreline distance for multi-engine installation, see section Installa-


tion drawings, Page 342.
Flywheel data, see section Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel,
Page 134.
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 23 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

V engine
2.2 Engine design

Figure 10: Main dimensions and weights V engine

No. of cylinders, L L1 Weight without flywheel


config.
mm t
12V 10,790 9,088 189

14V 11,790 10,088 213

16V 13,140 11,088 240

18V 14,140 12,088 265

The dimensions and weights are given for guidance only.

Minimum centerline distance for multi-engine installation, see section Installa-


tion drawings, Page 342.
Flywheel data, see section Moments of inertia Engine, damper, flywheel,
Page 134.
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

24 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.2 Engine design


2.2.5 Engine inclination

Figure 11: Angle of inclination

Athwartships Fore and aft

Max. permissible angle of inclination []1)


Application Athwartships Fore and aft
Heel to each side Rolling to each side Trim (static)2) Pitching
(static) (dynamic) (dynamic)
L < 100 m L > 100 m
Main engines 15 22.5 5 500/L 7.5
1)
Athwartships and fore and aft inclinations may occur simultaneously.
2)
Depending on length L of the ship.
2 Engine and operation

Table 3: Inclinations

Note:
For higher requirements contact MAN Diesel & Turbo. Arrange engines
always lengthwise of the ship.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 25 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.2 Engine design

2.2.6 Engine equipment for various applications

Device/measure, (figure pos.) Ship


Mechanical Electric propulsion
propulsion
Charge air blow-off for cylinder pressure limitation (flap 2) Order-related, if the intake air 5 C

Charge air by-pass (flap 6) X O (X1))

Temperature after turbine control by continuously adjustable waste O O


gate (flap 7)

Turbocharger Compressor cleaning device (wet) X1) X1)

Turbocharger Turbine cleaning device (dry) X X

Turbocharger Turbine cleaning device (wet) X X

Two-stage charge air cooler X X

CHATCO X X

Jet Assist O/X2) O

VVT X X

Slow turn O O

Oil mist detector X X

Splash oil monitoring X X

Main bearing temperature monitoring X X

Valve seat lubrication O O

Compressor wheel cooling X X

Attached HT cooling water pump X X

Attached LT cooling water pump O O

Attached lube oil pump X X

X = required, O = optional
1)
Required for engine version MAN 48/60CR enviro.
2)
Jet Assist required, if a shaft generator with an output higher than 25 % of the nominal engine output is attached to
the gear/engine.
Table 4: Engine equipment
2 Engine and operation

Engine equipment for various applications General description


Charge air blow-off for If engines are operated at full load at low air intake temperature, the high air
cylinder pressure limitation density leads to the danger of excessive charge air pressure and, conse-
(see flap 2 in figure quently, to excessive cylinder pressure. In order to avoid such conditions,
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Overview flaps, Page part of the charge air is withdrawn downstream (flap 2, cold blow-off) of the
27) charge air cooler and blown off.
Charge air by-pass (see flap The charge air pipe is connected to the exhaust pipe via a reduced diameter
6 in figure Overview flaps, pipe and a by-pass flap. The flap is closed in normal operation.
Page 27)

26 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

At engine load between 20 % and 60 % and at nominal or reduced speed

2.2 Engine design


this charge air by-pass flap is opened to withdraw a part of the charge air
and leads it into the exhaust gas pipe upstream the turbine. The increased
air flow at the turbine results in a higher charge air pressure of the compres-
sor, which leads to an improved operational behavior of the engine. Addi-
tional this flap may be used to avoid surging of the turbocharger.
Temperature after turbine The waste gate is used to by-pass the turbine of the turbocharger with a part
control by continuously of the exhaust gas. This leads to a charge air pressure reduction and the
adjustable waste gate (see temperature after turbine is increased.
flap 7 in figure Overview For plants with an SCR catalyst, downstream of the turbine, a minimum
flaps, Page 27) exhaust gas temperature upstream the SCR catalyst is necessary in order to
ensure its proper performance.
In case the temperature downstream the turbine falls below the set minimum
exhaust gas temperature value, the waste gate is opened gradually in order
to blow-off exhaust gas upstream of the turbine until the exhaust gas tem-
perature downstream of the turbine (and thus upstream of the SCR catalyst)
has reached the required level.

Figure 12: Overview flaps


2 Engine and operation

Two-stage charge air cooler The two stage charge air cooler consists of two stages which differ in the
temperature level of the connected water circuits. The charge air is first
cooled by the HT circuit (high temperature stage of the charge air cooler,
engine) and then further cooled down by the LT circuit (low temperature
stage of the charge air cooler, lube oil cooler).
2017-03-03 - 4.4

CHATCO The charge air temperature control CHATCO serves to prevent accumulation
of condensed water in the charge air pipe. In this connection, the charge air
temperature is, depending on the intake air temperature, controlled in such a
way that, assuming a constant relative air humidity of 80 %, the temperature
in the charge air pipe does not fall below the condensation temperature.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 27 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Jet Assist Jet Assist for acceleration of the turbocharger is uesd where special
2.2 Engine design

demands exist regarding fast acceleration and/or load application. In such


cases, compressed air from the starting air vessels is reduced to a pressure
of approximately 4 bar before being passed into the compressor casing of
the turbocharger to be admitted to the compressor wheel via inclined bored
passages. In this way, additional air is supplied to the compressor which in
turn is accelerated, thereby increasing the charge air pressure. Operation of
the accelerating system is initiated by a control, and limited to a fixed load
range.
VVT VVT (Variable Valve Timing) enables variations in the opening and closing tim-
ing of the inlet valves. At low load operation it is used to attain higher com-
bustion temperatures and thus lower soot emissions. At higher loads it is
used to attain low combustion temperatures and thus lower NOx emissions
(Miller Valve Timing).
Slow turn Engines, which are equipped with slow turn, are automatically turned prior
to engine start, with the turning process being monitored by the engine con-
trol. If the engine does not reach the expected number of crankshaft revolu-
tions (2.5 revolutions) within a specified period of time, or in case the slow-
turn time is shorter than the programmed minimum slow-turn time, an error
message is issued. This error message serves as an indication that there is
liquid (oil, water, fuel) in the combustion chamber. If the slow-turn manoeuvre
is completed successfully, the engine is started automatically.
Slow turn is always required for plants with power management system
(PMS) demanding automatic engine start.
Oil mist detector Bearing damage, piston seizure and blow-by in combustion chamber leads
to increased oil mist formation. As a part of the safety system the oil mist
detector monitors the oil mist concentration in crankcase to indicate these
failures at an early stage.
Splash oil monitoring The splash oil monitoring system is a constituent part of the safety system.
Sensors are used to monitor the temperature of each individual drive unit (or
pair of drive at V engines) indirectly via splash oil.
Main bearing temperature As an important part of the safety system the temperatures of the crankshaft
monitoring main bearings are measured just underneath the bearing shells in the bearing
caps. This is carried out using oil-tight resistance temperature sensors.
Valve seat lubrication For long-term engine operation (more than 72 hours within a two-week
period [cumulative with distribution as required]) with DM-grade fuel a valve
seat lubrication equipment needs to be attached to the engine. By this
equipment, oil is fed dropwise into the inlet channels and thereby lubricates
the inlet valve seats. This generates a damping effect between the sealing
surfaces of the inlet valves (HFO-operation leads to layers on the sealing sur-
2 Engine and operation

faces of the inlet valves with a sufficient damping effect).


Compressor wheel cooling The high-pressure version (as a rule of thumb pressure ratio approximately
1:4.5 and higher) of the turbochargers requires compressor wheel cooling.
This water cooling is integrated in the bearing casing and lowers the temper-
ature in the relevant areas of the compressor.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

28 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds


2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds

2.3.1 General remark


The engine power which is stated on the type plate derives from the follow-
ing sections and corresponds to POperating as described in section Derating,
definition of P Operating, Page 31.

2.3.2 Standard engine ratings

PISO, standard: ISO standard output (as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1)
1,200 kW/cyl., 500/514 rpm
No. of Engine rating, PISO, standard1) 2)
cylinders,
config. 500 rpm 514 rpm
Available turning direction kW Available turning direc- kW
CW/CCW3) tion CW/CCW3)
6L Yes/Yes 7,200 Yes/Yes 7,200

7L Yes/Yes 8,400 Yes/Yes 8,400

8L Yes/Yes 9,600 Yes/Yes 9,600

9L Yes/Yes 10,800 Yes/Yes 10,800

12V Yes/Yes 14,400 Yes/Yes 14,400

14V Yes/Yes 16,800 Yes/Yes 16,800

16V Yes/Yes 19,200 Yes/Yes 19,200

18V Yes/Yes 21,600 Yes/Yes 21,600

Note:
Power take-off on engine free end up to 100 % of rated output.
1)
PISO, standard as specified in DIN ISO 3046-1, see paragraph Reference conditions for engine rating, Page 29.
Engine fuel: Distillate according to ISO 8217 DMA/DMB/DMZ-grade fuel or
2)

RM-grade fuel, fulfilling the stated quality requirements.


3)
CW clockwise; CCW counter clockwise.
Table 5: Engine ratings
2 Engine and operation

Reference conditions for engine rating


According to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1: 2002

Air temperature before turbocharger tr K/C 298/25


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Total barometric pressure pr kPa 100

Relative humidity r % 30

Cooling water temperature inlet charge air cooler (LT stage) K/C 298/25
Table 6: Reference conditions for engine rating

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 29 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds

2.3.3 Engine ratings (output) for different applications

PApplication, ISO: Available rating (output) under ISO conditions dependent on


application
P Application P Application Max. fuel Max. permis- Tropic condi- Notes Optional
admission sible speed tions (tr/tcr/ power take-
Available output Available (blocking) reduction at off in per-
in percentage of output pr=100kPa)2)
maximum tor- centage of
ISO standard que1) ISO standard
output output
Kind of application % kW/cyl. % % C %

Marine main engines with mechanical or electric propulsion

Main drive with electric 100 1,200 110 - 45/38 3)


Up to 100
propulsion

Main drive with control- 100 1,200 100 - 45/38 - Up to 100


lable pitch propeller

Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Main drive with speed 90 1,080 100 20 45/38 4) 5)


Up to 100
reduction at maximum
torque
1)
Maximum torque given by available output and nominal speed.
2)
tr = Air temperature at compressor inlet of turbocharger.
tcr = Cooling water temperature before charge air cooler.
pr = Barometric pressure.
Fouling of charging components lead in the long term to an increase of the engine exhaust gas temperatures. These
high exhaust gas temperatures might then at tropic conditions, in HFO operation affect engine performance in a way
that load reduction is required. As short term action to maintain 100 % MCR either MGO or MDO can be used or the
operator has to limit the engine output at app. 90 % MCR.
3)
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated engine output is permissible only for a short time to pro-
vide additional engine power for governing purpose only (e.g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied load).
This additional power shall not be used for the supply of electrical consumers.
4)
According to DIN ISO 3046-1 MAN Diesel & Turbo has specified a maximum continuous rating for marine engines
listed in the column P Application.
2 Engine and operation

5)
Special turbocharger matching required.
Table 7: Available outputs/related reference conditions
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30 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds


2.3.4 Derating, definition of POperating

POperating: Available rating (output) under local conditions and dependent on


application

Dependent on local conditions or special application demands a further load


reduction of PApplication, ISO might be required.
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.

1. No derating
No derating necessary, provided that the conditions listed are met:

No derating up to stated reference


conditions (tropic), see 1.
Air temperature before turbocharger Tx 318 K (45 C)

Ambient pressure 100 kPa (1 bar)

Cooling water temperature inlet charge air cooler (LT stage) 311 K (38 C)

Intake pressure before compressor 2 kPa1)

Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger 5 kPa1)

Relative humidity r 60 %
1)
Below/above atmospheric pressure.
Table 8: Derating Limits of ambient conditions

2. Derating
Contact MAN Diesel & Turbo:
If limits of ambient conditions mentioned in the upper table Derating
Limits of ambient conditions, Page 31 are exceeded. A special calcula-
tion is necessary.
If higher requirements for the emission level exist. For the permissible
requirements see section Exhaust gas emission, Page 118.
If special requirements of the plant for heat recovery exist.
2 Engine and operation

If special requirements on media temperatures of the engine exist.


If any requirements of MAN Diesel & Turbo mentioned in the Project
Guide cannot be met.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 31 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.3 Ratings (output) and speeds

2.3.5 Engine speeds and related main data

Rated speed rpm 500 514

Mean piston speed m/s 10.0 10.3

Ignition speed rpm V engine: 65


(starting device deactivated) L engine: 65

Engine running rpm 200


(activation of alarm- and safety system)

Speed set point Deactivation prelubrication pump rpm 250


(engines with attached lube oil pump)

Speed set point Deactivation external cooling water rpm 350


pump
(engines with attached cooling water pump)

Minimum engine operating speed1) rpm


CPP (60 % of nominal speed) 300 308
Electric propulsion (100 % of nominal speed) 500 514

Clutch rpm
Minimum engine speed for activation (CPP) "Minimum engine "Minimum engine
operating speed" x 1.1 operating speed" x 1.1
Maximum engine speed for activation 500 2) 514 2)

Highest engine operating speed rpm 520 535

Alarm overspeed (110 % of nominal speed) rpm 550 565

Auto shutdown overspeed (115 % of nominal speed) 575 3)


591 3)
via control module/alarm

Speed adjusting range See section Speed adjusting range, Page 33

Alternator frequency Hz 50 60

Number of pole pairs - 6 7


1)
In rare occasions it might be necessary that certain engine speed intervals have to be barred for continuous opera-
tion. For FPP applications as well as for applications using resilient mounted engines, the admissible engine speed
range has to be confirmed (preferably at an early project phase) by a torsional vibration calculation, by a dimensioning
of the resilient mounting, and, if necessary, by an engine operational vibration calculation.
2)
May possibly be restricted by manufacturer of clutch.
2 Engine and operation

This concession may possibly be restricted, see section Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations,
3)

Page 59.
Table 9: Engine speeds and related main data
2017-03-03 - 4.4

32 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.4 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas


after treatment installations
2.3.6 Speed adjusting range
The following specification represents the standard settings. For special
applications, deviating settings may be necessary.
Drive Speed droop Maximum speed at Maximum speed at Minimum speed
full load idle running
Electronic 1 main engine with control- 0% 100 % (+0.5 %) 100 % (+0.5 %) 60 %
speed lable pitch propeller and
control without PTO

1 main engine with control- 0% 100 % (+0.5 %) 100 % (+0.5 %) 60 %


lable pitch propeller and
with PTO

Parallel operation of 2
engines driving 1 shaft with/
without PTO:
Load sharing via speed 5% 100 % (+0.5 %) 105 % (+0.5 %) 60 %
droop
or
master/slave operation 0% 100 % (+0.5 %) 100 % (+0.5 %) 60 %

GenSets/diesel-electric
plants:
With load sharing via speed 5% 100 % (+0.5 %) 105 % (+0.5 %) 60 %
droop
or
isochronous operation 0% 100 % (+0.5 %) 100 % (+0.5 %) 60 %
Table 10: Electronic speed control

2.4 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment
installations

Resulting installation demands

If the recommended exhaust gas back pressure as stated in section Operat-


ing/service temperatures and pressures, Page 107 cannot be met due to
2 Engine and operation

exhaust gas after treatment installations following limit values need to be


considered.
Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger
Operating pressure pexh, standard 0 50 mbar
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Operating pressure pexh, range with increase of fuel consumption 50 80 mbar

Operating pressure pexh, where a customised engine matching is required > 80 mbar

Table 11: Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 33 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Intake air pressure before turbocharger


2.4 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas
after treatment installations

Operating pressure pintake, standard 0 20 mbar

Operating pressure pintake, range with increase of fuel consumption 20 40 mbar

Operating pressure pintake, where a customised engine matching is required < 40 mbar

Table 12: Intake air pressure before turbocharger

Sum of the exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger and the absolute value of the intake air pressure before
turbocharger
Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), standard 0 70 mbar

Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), range with increase of fuel consumption 70 120 mbar

Operating pressure pexh + Abs(pintake), where a customised engine matching is required > 120 mbar

Table 13: Sum of the exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger and the absolute value of the intake air
pressure before turbocharger

Maximum exhaust gas pressure drop Layout


Shipyard and supplier of equipment in exhaust gas line have to ensure
that pressure drop pexh over entire exhaust gas piping incl. pipe work,
scrubber, boiler, silencer, etc. must stay below stated standard operating
pressure at all operating conditions.
It is recommended to consider an additional 10 mbar for consideration of
aging and possible fouling/staining of the components over lifetime.
A proper dimensioning of the entire flow path including all installed com-
ponents is advised or even the installation of an exhaust gas blower if
necessary.
At the same time the pressure drop pintake in the intake air path must be
kept below stated standard operating pressure at all operating conditions
and including aging over lifetime.
For significant overruns in pressure losses even a reduction in the rated
power output may become necessary.
On plant side it must be prepared, that pressure sensors directly after
turbine outlet and directly before compressor inlet may be installed to
verify above stated figures.
By-pass for emergency operation
Evaluate if the chosen exhaust gas after treatment installation demands a
by-pass for emergency operation.
For scrubber application, a by-pass is recommended to ensure emer-
gency operation in case that the exhaust gas cannot flow through the
2 Engine and operation

scrubber freely.
The by-pass needs to be dimensioned for the same pressure drop as the
main installation that is by-passed otherwise the engine would oper-
ated on a differing operating point with negative influence on the per-
formance, e.g. a lower value of the pressure drop may result in too high
2017-03-03 - 4.4

turbocharger speeds.
Single streaming per engine recommended/multi-streaming to be evaluated
project-specific
In general each engine must be equipped with a separate exhaust gas
line as single streaming installation. This will prevent reciprocal influencing
of the engine as e.g. exhaust gas backflow into an engine out of opera-

34 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

tion or within an engine running at very low load (negative pressure drop
over the cylinder can cause exhaust gas back flow into intake manifold

2.4 Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas


after treatment installations
during valve overlap).
In case a multi-streaming solution is realised (i.e. only one combined
scrubber for multiple engines) this needs to be stated on early project
stage. Hereby air/exhaust gas tight flaps need to be provided to safe-
guard engines out of operation. A specific layout of e.g. sealing air mass
flow will be necessary and also a power management may become nec-
essary in order to prevent operation of several engines at very high loads
while others are running on extremely low load. A detailed analysis as
HAZOP study and risk analysis by the yard becomes mandatory.
Engine to be protected from backflow of media out of exhaust gas after
treatment installation
A backflow of e.g. urea, scrubbing water, condensate or even rain from
the exhaust gas after treatment installation towards the engine must be
prevented under all operating conditions and circumstances, including
engine or equipment shutdown and maintenance/repair work.
Turbine cleaning
Both wet and dry turbine cleaning must be possible without causing mal-
functions or performance deterioration of the exhaust system incl. any
installed components such as boiler, scrubber, silencer, etc.
White exhaust plume by water condensation
When a wet scrubber is in operation, a visible exhaust plume has to be
expected under certain conditions. This is not harmful for the environ-
ment. However, countermeasures like reheating and/or a demister
should be considered to prevent condensed water droplets from leaving
the funnel, which would increase visibility of the plume.
The design of the exhaust system including exhaust gas after treatment
installation has to make sure that the exhaust flow has sufficient velocity
in order not to sink down directly onboard the vessel or near to the plant.
At the same time the exhaust pressure drop must not exceed the limit
value.
Vibrations
There must be a sufficient decoupling of vibrations between engine and
exhaust gas system incl. exhaust gas after treatment installation, e.g. by
compensators.
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 35 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.5 Starting

2.5 Starting

2.5.1 General remarks


Engine and plant installation need to be in accordance to the below stated
requirements and the required starting procedure.
Note:
Statements are relevant for non arctic conditions.
For arctic conditions consider relevant sections and clarify undefined details
with MAN Diesel & Turbo.

2.5.2 Requirements on engine and plant installation

General requirements on engine and plant installation


As a standard and for the start-up in normal starting mode (preheated
engine) following installations are required:
Engine Lube oil service pump (attached)
Plant Prelubrication pump (free-standing)
Preheating HT cooling water system (60 90 C)
Preheating lube oil system (> 40 C). For maximum admissible value see
table Lube oil, Page 109

Requirements on engine and plant installation for "Stand-by Operation"


capability
To enable in addition to the normal starting mode also an engine start from
stand-by mode with thereby shortened start-up time following installations
are required:
Engine Lube oil service pump (attached)
Plant Prelubrication pump (free-standing) with low pressure before engine
(0.3 bar < pOil before engine < 0.6 bar)
Preheating HT cooling water system (60 90 C)
Preheating lube oil system (> 40 C). For maximum admissible value see
table Lube oil, Page 109
Power management system with supervision of stand-by times engines

Additional requirements on engine and plant installation for "Black-Start"


capability
2 Engine and operation

Following additional installations to the above stated ones are required to


enable in addition a "Black Start":
Engine HT CW service pump (attached) recommended.
LT CW service pump (attached) recommended.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Attached fuel oil supply pump recommended (if applicable).


Plant Equipment to ensure fuel oil pressure of > 0.6 bar for engines with con-
ventional injection system and > 3.0 bar for engines with common rail
system.
If fuel oil supply pump is not attached to the engine:
Air driven fuel oil supply pump or fuel oil service tanks at sufficient height
or pressurised fuel oil tank.

36 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.5 Starting
2.5.3 Starting conditions

Kind of start: After blackout or "Dead Ship" From stand-by mode After stand-still ("Normal
("Black-Start") Start")
Start-up time until load < 1 minute < 1 minute > 2 minutes
application
General notes

- Engine start-up only within 1 h Maximum stand-by time 7 days Standard


after stop of engine that has Supervised by power
been faultless in operation or management system plant.
within 1 h after end of stand-by
mode. Stand-by mode is only possible
after engine has been faultless in
Note: operation and has been faultless
In case of "Dead Ship" condition stopped.
a main engine has to be put
back to service within max.
30 min. according to IACS UR
M61.
Table 14: Starting conditions General notes

Kind of start: After blackout or "Dead Ship" From stand-by mode After stand-still ("Normal
("Black-Start") Start")
General engine status Engine in proper condition Engine in proper condition Engine in proper
No start-blocking active No start-blocking active condition
Note: No start-blocking active
Start-blocking of engine leads to
withdraw of "Stand-by
Operation".

Slow turn to be No No Yes1)


conducted?

Engine to be prehea- No2) Yes Yes


ted and prelubricated?
1)
It is recommended to install slow turn. Otherwise the engine has to be turned by turning gear.
2)
Valid only, if mentioned above conditions (see table Starting conditions General notes, Page 37) have been con-
sidered. Non-observance endangers the engine or its components.
2 Engine and operation

Table 15: Starting conditions Required engine conditions

Kind of start: After blackout or "Dead Ship" From stand-by mode After stand-still ("Normal
("Black-Start") Start")
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Lube oil system

Prelubrication period No1) Permanent Yes, previous to engine


start

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 37 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Kind of start: After blackout or "Dead Ship" From stand-by mode After stand-still ("Normal
2.5 Starting

("Black-Start") Start")
Prelubrication pres- - see section Operating/service see section Operating/
sure before engine temperatures and pressures, service temperatures
Page 107 limits according figure and pressures, Page
"Prelubrication/postlubrication 107 limits according
lube oil pressure (duration > 10 figure "Prelubrication/
min)" postlubrication lube oil
pressure (duration 10
min)"

Lube oil to be prehea- No1) Yes Yes


ted?

HT cooling water

HT cooling water to be No1) Yes Yes


preheated?

Fuel system

For MDO operation If fuel oil supply pump is not Supply pumps in operation or with starting command to
attached to the engine: engine.
Air driven fuel oil supply pump
or fuel oil service tanks at suffi-
cient height or pressurised fuel
oil tank required.

For HFO operation If fuel oil supply pump is not Supply and booster pumps in operation, fuel preheated to
attached to the engine: operating viscosity.
Air driven fuel oil supply pump In case of permanent stand-by of liquid fuel engines or
or fuel oil service tanks at suffi- during operation of an DF engine in gas mode a periodical
cient height or pressurised fuel exchange of the circulating HFO has to be ensured to
oil tank required. avoid cracking of the fuel. This can be done by releasing a
certain amount of circulating HFO into the day tank and
substituting it with "fresh" fuel from the tank.
1)
Valid only, if mentioned above conditions (see table Starting conditions General notes, Page 37) have been con-
sidered. Non-observance endangers the engine or its components.
Table 16: Starting conditions Required system conditions
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

38 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.6 Low load operation


2.6 Low load operation

Definition
Basically, the following load conditions are distinguished:

Overload: > 100 % of the full load power


Full load: 100 % of the full load power
Part load: < 100 % of the full load power
Low load: < 25 % of the full load power

Correlations The best operating conditions for the engine prevail under even loading in the
range of 60 % to 90 % of full load power.
During idling or engine operation at a low load, combustion in the combus-
tion chamber is incomplete.
This may result in the forming of deposits in the combustion chamber, which
will lead to increased soot emission and to increasing cylinder contamination.
This process is more acute in low load operation and during manoeuvring
when the cooling water temperatures are not kept at the required level, and
are decreasing too rapidly. This may result in too low charge air and com-
bustion chamber temperatures, deteriorating the combustion at low loads
especially in heavy fuel operation.
Operation with heavy fuel oil Based on the above, the low load operation in the range of < 25 % of the full
(fuel of RM quality) or with load is subjected to specific limitations. According to Fig. Time limitations for
MGO (DMA, DMZ) or low load operation (left), duration of "relieving operation" (right), Page 39
MDO(DMB) immediately after a phase of low load operation the engine must be operated
at > 70 % of full load for some time in order to reduce the deposits in the
cylinders and the exhaust gas turbocharger again.
There are no restrictions at loads > 25 % of the full load, provided that
the specified engine operating values are not exceeded.
Continuous operation at < 25 % of the full load should be avoided when-
ever possible.
No-load operation, particularly at nominal speed (alternator operation) is
only permissible for one hour maximum.
After 500 hours of continuous operation with liquid fuel, at a low load in the
range of 20 % to 25 % of the full load, the engine must be run-in again.
See section Engine running in, Page 411.
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 39 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.6 Low load operation

* Generally, the time limits in heavy fuel oil operation apply to all HFO grades according to the des-
ignated fuel specification. In certain rare cases, when HFO grades with a high ignition delay
together with a high coke residues content are used, it may be necessary to raise the total level
of the limiting curve for HFO from 20% up to 30%.
P Full load performance in % t Operating time in hours (h)

Figure 13: Time limitation for low load operation (left), duration of "relieving operation" (right)

Example for heavy fuel oil (HFO)


Line a Time limits for low load operation with heavy fuel oil:
At 10 % of the full load, operation on heavy fuel oil is allowable for 19 hours
maximum.
Line b Duration of "relieving operation":
Let the engine run at a load > 70 % of the full load appr. within 1.2 hours to
burn the deposits formed.
Note:
The acceleration time from the actual load up to 70 % of the full load must
be at least 15 minutes.
2 Engine and operation

Example for MGO/MDO


Line A Time limits for low load operation with MGO/MDO:
At 17 % of the full load, operation on MGO/MDO is allowable appr. for 200
hours maximum.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Line B Duration of "relieving operation":


Let the engine run at a load > 70 % of the full load appr. within 18 minutes to
burn the deposits formed.
Note:
The acceleration time from the actual load up to 70 % of the full load must
be at least 15 minutes.

40 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.7 Start-up and load application


2.7 Start-up and load application

2.7.1 General remarks


In the case of highly supercharged engines, load application is limited. This is
due to the fact that the charge-air pressure build-up is delayed by the turbo-
charger run-up. Besides, a low load application promotes uniform heating of
the engine.
In general, requirements of the International Association of Classification
Societies (IACS) and of ISO 8528-5 are valid.
According to performance grade G2 concerning:
Dynamic speed drop in % of the nominal speed: 10 %
Remaining speed variation in % of the nominal speed: 5 %
Recovery time until reaching the tolerance band 1 % of nominal speed:
5 seconds
Clarify any higher project-specific requirements at an early project stage with
MAN Diesel & Turbo. They must be part of the contract.
In a load drop of 100 % nominal engine power, the dynamic speed variation
must not exceed:
10 % of the nominal speed
The remaining speed variation must not surpass 5 % of the nominal
speed
To limit the effort regarding regulating the media circuits, also to ensure an
uniform heat input it always should be aimed for longer load application times
by taking into account the realistic requirements of the specific plant.
All questions regarding the dynamic behaviour should be clarified in close
cooperation between the customer and MAN Diesel & Turbo at an early
project stage.
Requirements for plant design:
The load application behaviour must be considered in the electrical sys-
tem design of the plant.
The system operation must be safe in case of graduated load applica-
tion.
The load application conditions (E-balance) must be approved during the
planning and examination phase.
The possible failure of one engine must be considered, see section Gen-
erator operation/electric propulsion Power management, Page 60.
2 Engine and operation

2.7.2 Start-up time


General remark Prior to the start-up of the engine it must be ensured that the emergency
stop of the engine is working properly. Additionally all required supply sys-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

tems must be in operation or in standby operation.


Start-up Preheated engine For the start-up of the engine it needs to be preheated:
Lube oil temperature 40 C
Cooling water temperature 60 C

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 41 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

The required start-up time in normal starting mode (preheated engine), with
2.7 Start-up and load application

the required time for starting up the lube oil system and prelubrication of the
engine is shown in figure below.
Start-up Cold engine In case of emergency, it is possible to start the cold engine provided the
required media temperatures are present:
Lube oil > 20 C, cooling water > 20 C.
Distillate fuel must be used until warming up phase is completed.
The engine is prelubricated. Due to the higher viscosity of the lube oil of a
cold engine the prelubrication phase needs to be increased.
The engine is started and accelerated up to 100 % engine speed within
1 3 minutes.
Before further use of the engine a warming up phase is required to reach at
least the level of the regular preheating temperatures (lube oil temperature
> 40 C, cooling water temperature > 60 C), see figure below.

Figure 14: Start-up time (not stand-by mode) for preheated engine and cold engine (emergency case)
2 Engine and operation

Start-up Engine in stand- For engines in stand-by mode the required start-up time is shortened
by mode accordingly to figure below. Engines in stand-by mode can be started with
normal starting procedure at any time.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

42 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.7 Start-up and load application


Figure 15: Start-up time from stand-by mode

Emergency start-up In case of emergency, the run-up time of the engine may be shortened
according to following figure. Be aware that this is near to the maximum
capability of the engine, so exhaust gas will be visible (opacity > 60 %). The
shortest possible run-up time can only be achieved with Jet Assist.
Note:
Emergency start-up only can be applied if following is provided:
Engine to be equipped with Jet Assist.
External signal from plant to be provided for request to SaCoS for emer-
gency start-up.
Explanation: Required to distinguish from normal start-up.
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 43 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.7 Start-up and load application

Figure 16: Emergency start-up (stand-by mode)

General remark Relevance of the specific starting phases depends on the application and on
layout of the specific plant.
Specified minimum run up time is based on the value "Required minimum
total moment of inertia" in the table(s) in section Moments of inertia Crank-
shaft, damper, flywheel, Page 134. If the moment of inertia of the GenSet is
higher as the stated value in that table, then also the run-up time is extended
accordingly.

2.7.3 Load application Cold engine (emergency case)


Cold engine Warming up If the cold engine has been started and runs at nominal speed as prescribed
following procedure is relevant:
Distillate fuel must be used until warming up phase is completed.
Loading the engine gradually up to 30 % engine load within 6 to 8
minutes.
Keep the load at 30 % during the warming up phase until oil temperature
2 Engine and operation

> 40 C and cooling water temperature > 60 C are reached.


The necessary time span for this process depends on the actual media tem-
peratures and the specific design of the plant. After these prescribed media
temperatures are reached the engine can be loaded up according the dia-
gram for a preheated engine.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

44 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.7 Start-up and load application


Figure 17: Load application, emergency case; cold engines

2.7.4 Load application for electric propulsion/auxiliary GenSet


Load application Preheated In general it is recommended to apply the load according to curve "Normal
engine loading" see figure below. This ensures uniform heat input to the engine
and exhaust gas below the limit of visibility (opacity below 10 %). Jet Assist is
not required in this case.
Load application Engine at Even after the engine has reached normal engine operating temperatures it is
normal operating recommended to apply the load according to curve "Normal loading". Jet
temperatures Assist is not required in this case. Even for "Short loading" no Jet Assist is
required. Load application according the "Short loading" curve may be affec-
ted by visible exhaust gas (opacity up to 30 %).
Emergency loading "Emergency loading" is the shortest possible load application time for contin-
Preheated engine uously loading, applicable only in emergency case.
Note:
Stated load application times within figure(s) Load application, Page 46 is
valid after nominal speed is reached and synchronisation is done.
2 Engine and operation

For this purpose, the power management system should have an own emer-
gency operation programme for quickest possible load application. Be aware
that this is near to the maximum capability of the engine, so exhaust gas will
be visible. The shortest possible load application time can only be achieved
with Jet Assist.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 45 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.7 Start-up and load application

Figure 18: Load application

Load application DP-mode For engines specified for DP-applications after these has reached normal
operating temperature the respective curves are relevant.
Please be aware that the typical load range of 15 % to 90 % is visualized.
The load application curves for DP-mode are near to the maximum capability
of the engine, so exhaust gas may be visible (Opacity up to 60 %). Recom-
mended to operate on DMA, DMZ or DMB-grade fuel. If low opacity values
are required the time for load application needs to be increased.
Note:
Stated values are for engine plus standard generator.
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

46 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.7 Start-up and load application


Figure 19: Load application DP-mode

2.7.5 Load application Load steps (for electric propulsion/auxiliary GenSet)

Minimum requirements of The specification of the IACS (Unified Requirement M3) contains first of all
classification societies and guidelines for suddenly applied load steps. Originally two load steps, each
ISO rule 50 %, were described. In view of the technical progress regarding increasing
mean effective pressures, the requirements were adapted. According to
IACS and ISO 8528-5 following diagram is used to define based on the
mean effective pressure of the respective engine the load steps for a load
application from 0 % load to 100 % load. This diagram serves as a guideline
for four stroke engines in general and is reflected in the rules of the classifica-
tion societies.
Be aware, that for marine engines load application requirements must be
2 Engine and operation

clarified with the respective classification society as well as with the shipyard
and the owner.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 47 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.7 Start-up and load application

Figure 20: Load application in steps as per IACS and ISO 8528-5

P [%] Engine load 1 1st Step

pme [bar] Mean effective pressure 2 2nd Step

3 3rd Step

4 4th Step

5 5th Step

Exemplary requirements
Minimum requirements concerning dynamic speed drop, remaining speed
variation and recovery time during load application are listed below.
Classification society Dynamic speed Remaining speed Recovery time until
drop in % of the variation in % of reaching the tolerance
nominal speed the nominal speed band 1 % of nominal
speed
Germanischer Lloyd 10 % 5% 5 sec.

RINA

Lloyds Register 5 sec., max 8 sec.

American Bureau of 5 sec.


Shipping
2 Engine and operation

Bureau Veritas

Det Norske Veritas

ISO 8528-5
Table 17: Minimum requirements of some classification societies plus ISO
2017-03-03 - 4.4

rule

In case of a load drop of 100 % nominal engine power, the dynamic speed
variation must not exceed 10 % of the nominal speed and the remaining
speed variation must not surpass 5 % of the nominal speed.

48 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine specific load steps If the engine has reached normal operating temperature, load steps can be

2.7 Start-up and load application


Normal operating applied according to the diagram below. The load step has to be chosen
temperature depending on the desired recovery time. These curves are for engine plus
standard generator plant specific details and additional moments of inertia
need to be considered. If low opacity values (below 30 % opacity) are
required, load steps should be maximum 20 % (without Jet Assist), maxi-
mum 25 % (with Jet Assist).
Before an additional load step will be applied, at least 20 seconds waiting
time after initiation of the previous load step needs to be considered.

Figure 21: Load application by load steps Speed drop and recovery time

2.7.6 Load application for mechanical propulsion (CPP)

Acceleration times for controllable pitch propeller plants


General remark Stated acceleration times in the following figure are valid for the engine itself.
Depending on the project specific propulsion train (moments of inertia, vibra-
2 Engine and operation

tion calculation etc.) project specific this may differ. Of course, the accelera-
tion times are not valid for the ship itself, due to the fact, that the time con-
stants for the dynamic behavior of the engine and the vessel may have a
ratio of up to 1:100, or even higher (dependent on the type of vessel). The
effect on the vessel must be calculated separately.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Propeller control For remote controlled propeller drives for ships with unmanned or centrally
monitored engine room operation in accordance to IACS Requirements
concerning MACHINERY INSTALLATIONS, M43, a single control device for
each independent propeller has to be provided, with automatic performance
preventing overload and prolonged running in critical speed ranges of the
propelling machinery. Operation of the engine according to the relevant and
specific operating range (e.g. Operating range for controllable pitch propeller

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 49 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

(CPP)) has to be ensured. In case of a manned engine room and manual


2.7 Start-up and load application

operation of the propulsion drive, the engine room personnel are responsible
for the soft loading sequence, before control is handed over to the bridge.
Load control programme The lower time limits for normal and emergency manoeuvres are given in our
diagrams for application and shedding of load. We strongly recommend that
the limits for normal manoeuvring are observed during normal operation. An
automatic change-over to a shortened load programme is required for emer-
gency manoeuvres. The final design of the programme should be jointly
determined by all the parties involved, considering the demands for manoeu-
vring and the actual service capacity.
2 Engine and operation

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50 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.7 Start-up and load application


2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 22: Control lever setting and corresponding engine specific acceleration times (for guidance)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 51 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.8 Engine load reduction

2.8 Engine load reduction

Sudden load shedding


For the sudden load shedding from 100 % to 0 % engine load, several
requirements of the classification societies regarding the dynamic and per-
manent change of engine speed have to be fulfilled.
In case of a sudden load shedding and related compressor surging, check
the proper function of the turbocharger silencer filter mat.

Recommended load reduction/stopping the engine


Figure Engine ramping down, generally, Page 52 shows the shortest possi-
ble times for continuously ramping down the engine and a sudden load
shedding.
To limit the effort regarding regulating the media circuits and also to ensure
an uniform heat dissipation it always should be aimed for longer ramping
down times by taking into account the realistic requirements of the specific
plant.
Before final engine stop, the engine has to be operated for a minimum of
1 minute at idling speed.

Run-down cooling
In order to dissipate the residual engine heat, the system circuits should be
kept in operation after final engine stop for a minimum of 15 minutes.
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 23: Engine ramping down, generally

52 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions


2.9 Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure

Requirements for the power management system/propeller control


In case of a load reduction request due to predefined abnormal engine
parameter (e.g. high exhaust gas temperature, high turbine speed, high lube
oil temperature) the power output (load) must be ramped down as fast as
possible to 60 % load.
Therefore the power management system/propeller control has to meet the
following requirements:
After a maximum of 5 seconds after occurrence of the load reduction
signal, the engine load must be reduced by at least 5 %.
Then, within the next time period of maximum 30 sec. an additional
reduction of engine load by at least 35 % needs to be applied.
The prohibited range shown in figure Engine load reduction as a pro-
tective safety measure, Page 53 has to be avoided.

Figure 24: Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure


2 Engine and operation

2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Arctic condition is defined as:


Air intake temperatures of the engine below +5 C.
If engines operate under arctic conditions (intermittently or permanently), the
engine equipment and plant installation have to hold certain design features
and meet special requirements. They depend on the possible minimum air
intake temperature of the engine and the specification of the fuel used.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 53 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Minimum air intake temperature of the engine, tx:


2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions

Category A
+5 C > tx > 15 C
Category B
15 C tx > 35 C
Category C
tx 35 C

Special engine design requirements


Charge air blow-off according to categories A, B or C.
If arctic fuel (with very low lubricating properties) is used, the following actions
are required:
The maximum permissible fuel temperatures and the minimum permissi-
ble viscosity before engine have to be kept.
Fuel injection pump with sealing oil
The low viscosity of the arctic fuel can cause an increased leakage inside
conventional injection pumps, that may contaminate the lube oil. There-
fore sealing oil needs to be installed at the engine and must be activated
(dependent on engine type).
Fuel injection valve
Switch off nozzle cooling to avoid corrosion caused by temperatures
below the dew point.
Valve seat lubrication
Has to be equipped to the engine and to be activated to avoid increased
wear of the inlet valves (dependent on engine type).

Engine equipment
SaCoSone SaCoSone equipment is suitable to be stored at minimum ambient tem-
peratures of 15 C.
In case these conditions cannot be met, protective measures against cli-
matic influences have to be taken for the following electronic compo-
nents:
EDS Databox APC620
TFT-touchscreen
Emergency switch module BD5937
These components have to be stored at places, where the temperature
is above 15 C.

2 Engine and operation

A minimum operating temperature of 0 C has to be ensured. The use


of an optional electric heating is recommended.

Alternators
Alternator operation is possible according to suppliers specification.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Plant installation
Intake air conditioning Air intake of the engine and power house/engine room ventilation have to
be two different systems to ensure that the power house/engine room
temperature is not too low caused by the ambient air temperature.
It is necessary to ensure that the charge air cooler cannot freeze when
the engine is out of operation (and the cold air is at the air inlet side).

54 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Category A, B

2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions


No additional actions are necessary. The charge air before the cylinder is
preheated by the HT circuit of the charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
Category C
An air intake temperature 35 C has to be ensured by preheating.
Additionally the charge air before the cylinder is preheated by the HT cir-
cuit of the charge air cooler (LT circuit closed).
Instruction for minimum In general the minimum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must not be
admissible fuel temperature undershoot.
The fuel specific characteristic values pour point and cold filter plug-
ging point have to be observed to ensure pumpability respectively filter-
ability of the fuel oil.
Fuel temperatures of 10 C are to be avoided, due to temporarily
embrittlement of seals used in the engines fuel oil system. As a result
they may suffer a loss of function.
Minimum engine room Ventilation of engine room.
temperature The air of the engine room ventilation must not be too cold (preheating is
necessary) to avoid the freezing of the liquids in the engine room sys-
tems.
Minimum powerhouse/engine room temperature for design +5 C.
Coolant and lube oil systems Coolant and lube oil system have to be preheated for each individual
engine, see section Starting conditions, Page 37.
Design requirements for the preheater of HT systems:
Category A
Standard preheater.
Category B
50 % increased capacity of the preheater.
Category C
100 % increased capacity of the preheater.
Maximum permissible antifreeze concentration (ethylene glycol) in the
engine cooling water.
An increasing proportion of antifreeze decreases the specific heat
capacity of the engine cooling water, which worsens the heat dissipation
from the engine and will lead to higher component temperatures.
The antifreeze concentration of the engine cooling water systems (HT
and NT) within the engine room respectively power house is therefore
limited to a maximum concentration of 40 % glycol. For systems that
require more than 40 % glycol in the cooling water an intermediate heat
exchanger with a low terminal temperature difference should be provi-
2 Engine and operation

ded, which separates the external cooling water system from the internal
system (engine cooling water).
If a concentration of anti-freezing agents of > 50 % in the cooling water
systems is required, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for approval.
For information regarding engine cooling water see section Specification
2017-03-03 - 4.4

for engine supplies, Page 201.


Insulation The design of the insulation of the piping systems and other plant parts
(tanks, heat exchanger, external intake air duct etc.) has to be modified and
designed for the special requirements of arctic conditions.
Heat tracing To support the restart procedures in cold condition (e.g. after unmanned sur-
vival mode during winter), it is recommended to install a heat tracing system
in the pipelines to the engine.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 55 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Note:
2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions

A preheating of the lube oil has to be ensured. If the plant is not equipped
with a lube oil separator (e.g. plants only operating on MGO) alternative
equipment for preheating of the lube oil must be provided.
For plants taken out of operation and cooled down below temperatures of
+5 C additional special measures are required in this case contact MAN
Diesel & Turbo.

Minimum load
The minimum engine load corresponds to the current intake air temperature
at compressor inlet (TC) and prevents too high heat loss and the resulting
risk of engine damage.
After engine start it is necessary to ramp up the engine to the below speci-
fied minimum engine load. Thereby Range I must be passed as quick as
possible to reach Range II. Be aware that within Range II low load operation
restrictions may apply.
If operation within Range I is required, the preheater size within the plant
must be capable to preheat the intake air to the level, where heat extraction
from the HT system is not longer possible.
Example 1:
Operation at 20 % engine load and 45 C intake air temperature wanted
Preheating of intake air from 45 C up to minimum 16.5 C required
Air amount of the engine at 45 C to be determined and preheater out-
put to be calculated to preheat this air amount from 45 C up to
16.5 C
Ensure that this preheater size is installed, otherwise this operation point
is not permissible
All preheaters need to be operated in parallel to engine operation until mini-
mum engine load is reached.
2 Engine and operation

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56 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.10 Engine operation under arctic conditions


Figure 25: Required minimum load to avoid heat extraction from HT system

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 57 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.11 Generator operation

2.11 Generator operation

2.11.1 Operating range for generator operation/electric propulsion

Figure 26: Operating range for generator operation/electric propulsion



2 Engine and operation

MCR
Maximum continuous rating.
Range I
Operating range for continuous service.
Range II
2017-03-03 - 4.4

No continuous operation permissible.


Maximum operating time less than 2 minutes.
Range III

58 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated output is per-
missible only for a short time to provide additional engine power for gov-

2.11 Generator operation


erning purposes only (e.g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied
load). This additional power shall not be used for the supply of electrical
consumers.

IMO certification for engines with operating range for electric propulsion
Test cycle type E2 will be applied for the engines certification for compliance
with the NOx limits according to NOx technical code.

2.11.2 Available outputs and permissible frequency deviations

General
Generating sets, which are integrated in an electricity supply system, are
subjected to the frequency fluctuations of the mains. Depending on the
severity of the frequency fluctuations, output and operation respectively have
to be restricted.

Frequency adjustment range


According to DIN ISO 8528-5: 1997-11, operating limits of > 2.5 % are
specified for the lower and upper frequency adjustment range.

Operating range
Depending on the prevailing local ambient conditions, a certain maximum
continuous rating will be available.
In the output/speed and frequency diagrams, a range has specifically been
marked with No continuous operation permissible in this area. Operation in
this range is only permissible for a short period of time, i.e. for less than 2
minutes. In special cases, a continuous rating is permissible if the standard
frequency is exceeded by more than 4 %.

Limiting parameters
Max. torque In case the frequency decreases, the available output is limited by the maxi-
mum permissible torque of the generating set.
Max. speed for continuous An increase in frequency, resulting in a speed that is higher than the maxi-
rating mum speed admissible for continuous operation, is only permissible for a
short period of time, i.e. for less than 2 minutes.
For engine-specific information see section Ratings (output) and speeds,
Page 29 of the specific engine.
2 Engine and operation

Overload
According to DIN ISO 8528-1 load > 100 % of the rated engine output is
permissible only for a short time to provide additional engine power for gov-
erning purpose only (e.g. transient load conditions and suddenly applied
2017-03-03 - 4.4

load). This additional power shall not be used for the supply of electrical con-
sumers.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 59 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.11 Generator operation

Figure 27: Permissible frequency deviations and corresponding max. output

2.11.3 Generator operation/electric propulsion Power management

Operation of vessels with electric propulsion is defined as parallel operation


of main engines with generators forming a closed system.
The power supply of the plant as a standard is done by auxilliary GenSets
also forming a closed system.
In the design/layout of the plant a possible failure of one engine has to be
considered in order to avoid overloading and under-frequency of the remain-
ing engines with the risk of an electrical blackout.
Therefore we recommend to install a power management system. This
ensures uninterrupted operation in the maximum output range and in case
one engine fails the power management system reduces the propulsive out-
put or switches off less important energy consumers in order to avoid under-
frequency.
According to the operating conditions it is the responsibility of the ship's
operator to set priorities and to decide which energy consumer has to be
switched off.
The base load should be chosen as high as possible to achieve an optimum
engine operation and lowest soot emissions.
The optimum operating range and the permissible part loads are to be
2 Engine and operation

observed (see section Low load operation, Page 39).

Load application in case one engine fails


In case one engine fails, its output has to be made up for by the remaining
engines in the system and/or the load has to be decreased by reducing the
2017-03-03 - 4.4

propulsive output and/or by switching off electrical consumers.


The immediate load transfer to one engine does not always correspond with
the load reserve that the particular engine has available at the respective
moment. That depends on the engine's base load.

60 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Be aware that the following section only serves as an example and is defi-

2.11 Generator operation


nitely not valid for this engine type. For the engine specific capability please
see figure(s) Load application by load steps Speed drop and recovery time,
Page 49.

Figure 28: Maximum load step depending on base load (example may not be valid for this engine type)

Based on the above stated exemplary figure and on the total number of
engines in operation the recommended maxium load of these engines can
be derived. Observing this limiting maximum load ensures that the load from
one failed engine can be transferred to the remaining engines in operation
without power reduction.
Number of engines in parallel operation 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Recommended maximum load in (%) of Pmax 50 75 80 83 86 87.5 89 90

Table 18: Exemplary Recommended maximum load in (%) of Pmax dependend on number of engines in
parallel operation

2.11.4 Alternator Reverse power protection

Definition of reverse power


If an alternator, coupled to a combustion engine, is no longer driven by this
engine, but is supplied with propulsive power by the connected electric grid
and operates as an electric motor instead of working as an alternator, this is
2 Engine and operation

called reverse power. The speed of a reverse power driven engine is accord-
ingly to the grid frequency and the rated engine speed.

Demand for reverse power protection


2017-03-03 - 4.4

For each alternator (arranged for parallel operation) a reverse power protec-
tion device has to be provided because if a stopped combustion engine (fuel
admission at zero) is being turned it can cause, due to poor lubrication,
excessive wear on the engines bearings. This is also a classifications
requirement.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 61 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Examples for possible reverse power occurences


2.11 Generator operation

Due to lack of fuel the combustion engine no longer drives the alternator,
which is still connected to the mains.
Stopping of the combustion engine while the driven alternator is still con-
nected to the electric grid.
On ships with electric drive the propeller can also drive the electric trac-
tion motor and this in turn drives the alternator and the alternator drives
the connected combustion engine.
Sudden frequency increase, e.g. because of a load decrease in an isola-
ted electrical system -> if the combustion engine is operated at low load
(e.g. just after synchronising).

Adjusting the reverse power protection relay


The necessary power to drive an unfired diesel or gas engine at nominal
speed cannot exceed the power which is necessary to overcome the internal
friction of the engine. This power is called motoring power. The setting of the
reverse-power relay should be, as stated in the classification rules, 50 % of
the motoring power. To avoid false tripping of the alternator circuit breaker a
time delay has to be implemented. A reverse power >> 6 % mostly indicates
serious disturbances in the generator operation.
Table Adjusting the reverse power relay, Page 62 below provides a sum-
mary.
Admissible reverse power Pel [%] Time delay for tripping the alternator circuit
breaker [sec]
Pel < 3 30

3 Pel < 8 3 to 10

Pel 8 No delay

Table 19: Adjusting the reverse power relay


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

62 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.11 Generator operation


2.11.5 Earthing measures of diesel engines and bearing insulation on alternators

General
The use of electrical equipment on diesel engines requires precautions to be
taken for protection against shock current and for equipotential bonding.
These measures not only serve as shock protection but also for functional
protection of electric and electronic devices (EMC protection, device protec-
tion in case of welding, etc.).

Earthing connections on the engine


Threaded bores M12, 20 mm deep, marked with the earthing symbol are
provided in the engine foot on both ends of the engine.
It has to be ensured that earthing is carried out immediately after engine set-
up. If this cannot be accomplished any other way, at least provisional earth-
ing is to be effected right after engine set-up.

Figure 29: Earthing connection on engine (are arranged diagonally opposite each other)

Measures to be taken on the alternator


2 Engine and operation

Shaft voltages, i.e. voltages between the two shaft ends, are generated in
electrical machines because of slight magnetic unbalances and ring excita-
tions. In the case of considerable shaft voltages (e.g. > 0.3 V), there is the
risk that bearing damage occurs due to current transfers. For this reason, at
least the bearing that is not located on the drive end is insulated (valid for
2017-03-03 - 4.4

alternators > 1 MW output). For verification, the voltage available at the shaft
(shaft voltage) is measured while the alternator is running and excited. With
proper insulation, a voltage can be measured. In order to protect the prime
mover and to divert electrostatic charging, an earthing brush is often fitted on
the coupling side.
Observation of the required measures is the alternator manufacturers
responsibility.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 63 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Consequences of inadequate bearing insulation on the alternator and


2.11 Generator operation

insulation check
In case the bearing insulation is inadequate, e.g., if the bearing insulation was
short-circuited by a measuring lead (PT100, vibration sensor), leakage cur-
rents may occur, which result in the destruction of the bearings. One possi-
bility to check the insulation with the alternator at standstill (prior to coupling
the alternator to the engine; this, however, is only possible in the case of sin-
gle-bearing alternators) would be:
Raise the alternator rotor (insulated, in the crane) on the coupling side.
Measure the insulation by means of the megger test against earth.
Note:
Hereby the max. voltage permitted by the alternator manufacturer is to be
observed.
If the shaft voltage of the alternator at rated speed and rated voltage is
known (e.g. from the test record of the alternator acceptance test), it is also
possible to carry out a comparative measurement.
If the measured shaft voltage is lower than the result of the earlier measure-
ment (test record), the alternator manufacturer should be consulted.

Earthing conductor
The nominal cross section of the earthing conductor (equipotential bonding
conductor) has to be selected in accordance with DIN VDE 0100, part 540
(up to 1 kV) or DIN VDE 0141 (in excess of 1 kV).
Generally, the following applies:
The protective conductor to be assigned to the largest main conductor is to
be taken as a basis for sizing the cross sections of the equipotential bonding
conductors.
Flexible conductors have to be used for the connection of resiliently mounted
engines.

Execution of earthing
The earthing must be executed by the shipyard respectively plant owner,
since generally it is not scope of supply of MAN Diesel & Turbo.
Earthing strips are also not included in the MAN Diesel & Turbo scope of
supply.

Additional information regarding the use of welding equipment


In order to prevent damage on electrical components, it is imperative to earth
2 Engine and operation

welding equipment close to the welding area, i.e., the distance between the
welding electrode and the earthing connection should not exceed 10 m.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

64 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)


2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)

2.12.1 General remark for operating ranges


Please be advised that engines with several operational demands, always the
stricter limitations need to be applied and is valid for all operational tasks.
E.g. mechanical dredger applications need to be classified in following man-
ner:
Engine only dredge pump drive.
Operating range for pump drive valid.
Engine driving dredge pump and on counter side a fixed pitch propeller.
Operating range for fixed pitch propeller valid.
Engine driving dredge pump and on counter side a controllable pitch
propeller.
Operating range for pump drive valid.
Engine driving dredge pump and on counter side a controllable pitch
propeller and a small generator.
Operating range for pump drive valid.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 65 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)

2.12.2 Operating range for controllable pitch propeller (CPP)

Figure 30: Operating range for controllable pitch propeller


Note:
In rare occasions it might be necessary that certain engine speed intervals
2 Engine and operation

have to be barred for continuous operation.


For applications using resiliently mounted engines, the admissible engine
speed range has to be confirmed (preferably at an early project phase) by a
torsional vibration calculation, by a dimensioning of the resilient mounting,
and, if necessary, by an engine operational vibration calculation.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MCR = Maximum continuous rating


Range I: Operating range for continuous operation.
Range II: Operating range which is temporarily admissible e.g. during accel-
eration and manoeuvring.
The combinator curve must be placed at a sufficient distance to the load limit
curve. For overload protection, a load control has to be provided.

66 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Transmission losses (e.g. by gearboxes and shaft power) and additional

2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)


power requirements (e.g. by PTO) must be taken into account.

IMO certification for engines with operating range for controllable pitch
propeller (CPP)
Test cycle type E2 will be applied for the engines certification for compliance
with the NOx limits according to NOx technical code.

2.12.3 General requirements for the CPP propulsion control

Pitch control of the propeller plant


General A distinction between constant-speed operation and combinator-curve oper-
ation has to be ensured.
Failure of propeller pitch control:
In order to avoid overloading of the engine upon failure of the propeller pitch
control the propeller pitch must be adjusted to a value < 60 % of the maxi-
mum possible pitch.
4 20 mA load indication As a load indication a 4 20 mA signal from the engine control is supplied to
from engine control the propeller control.
Combinator-curve operation:
The 4 20 mA signal has to be used for the assignment of the propeller
pitch to the respective engine speed. The operation curve of engine speed
and propeller pitch (for power range, see section Operating range for control-
lable pitch propeller (CPP), Page 66) has to be observed also during acceler-
ation/load increase and unloading.

Acceleration/load increase
The engine speed has to be increased prior to increasing the propeller pitch
(see figure Example to illustrate the change from one load step to another,
Page 68).
When increasing propeller pitch and engine speed synchronously, the speed
has to be increased faster than the propeller pitch.
The engine should not be operated in the area above the combinator curve
(Range II in figure Operating range for controllable pitch propeller, Page 66).
Automatic limitation of the rate of load increase must be implemented in the
propulsion control.

Deceleration/unloading the engine


2 Engine and operation

The engine speed has to be reduced later than the propeller pitch (see figure
Example to illustrate the change from one load step to another, Page 68).
When decreasing propeller pitch and engine speed synchronously, the pro-
peller pitch has to be decreased faster than the speed.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

The engine should not be operated in the area above the combinator curve
(Range II in figure Operating range for controllable pitch propeller, Page 66).

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 67 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Example of illustration of the change from one load step to another


2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)

Figure 31: Example to illustrate the change from one load step to another

Windmilling protection
If a stopped engine (fuel admission at zero) is being turned by the propeller,
this is called windmilling. The permissible period for windmilling is short,
because windmilling can cause excessive wear of the engine bearings, due
2 Engine and operation

to poor lubrication at low propeller speed.


Single-screw ship The propeller control has to ensure that the windmilling time is less than
40 seconds.
Multiple-screw ship The propeller control has to ensure that the windmilling time is less than
40 seconds. In case of plants without shifting clutch, it has to be ensured
2017-03-03 - 4.4

that a stopped engine cannot be turned by the propeller.


For maintenance work a shaft interlock has to be provided for each propeller
shaft.

68 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Binary signals from engine control

2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)


Overload contact The overload contact will be activated when the engine's fuel admission rea-
ches the maximum position. At this position, the control system has to stop
the increase of the propeller pitch. If this signal remains longer than the pre-
determined time limit, the propeller pitch has to be decreased.
Contact "Operation close to This contact is activated when the engine is operated close to a limit curve
the limit curve" (torque limiter, charge air pressure limiter, etc.). When the contact is activa-
ted, the control system has to stop the increase of the propeller pitch. If this
signal remains longer than the predetermined time limit, the propeller pitch
has to be decreased.
Propeller pitch reduction This contact is activated when disturbances in engine operation occur, for
contact example too high exhaust-gas mean-value deviation. When the contact is
activated, the propeller control system has to reduce the propeller pitch to
60 % of the rated engine output, without change in engine speed.
In section Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure, Page 53 the
requirements for the response time are stated.

Distinction between normal manoeuvre and emergency manoeuvre


The propeller control system has to be able to distinguish between normal
manoeuvre and emergency manoeuvre (i.e., two different acceleration curves
are necessary).

MAN Diesel & Turbo's guidelines concerning acceleration times and power
range have to be observed
The power range (see section Operating range for controllable pitch propeller
(CPP), Page 66) and the acceleration times (see section Load application for
mechanical propulsion (CPP), Page 49) have to be observed. In section
Engine load reduction as a protective safety measure, Page 53 the require-
ments for the response time are stated.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 69 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.12 Propeller operation, suction dredger (pump drive)

2.12.4 Operating range for mechanical pump drive

Figure 32: Operating range for mechanical pump drive


MCR
Maximum continuous rating, fuel stop power
2 Engine and operation

Range I
Operating range for continuous operation
For dredge applications with dredge pumps directly mechanically driven
by the engines there is a requirement for full constant torque operation
between 80 % and 100 % of nominal engine speed. This specific operat-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

ing range results in a reduced output of the engine according to table


Available outputs/related reference conditions, Page 30.

70 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

IMO certification for engines with operating range for mechanical pump

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
drive
Test cycle type C1 for auxiliary engine application will be applied for the
engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according to NOx
technical code.

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air consumption

2.13.1 Fuel oil consumption for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Engine MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.)


1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25


Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 183 185 199.5 181 173 181 181 183 197.5
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 183 185 199.5 181 173 181 181 183 197.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 test cycle.

Table 20: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.)

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 71 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Engine MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.), part load optimised


2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption

1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm


MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25


Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 178 185.5 178 182 199.5 181 176 183.5 176 180 197.5
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 178 185.5 178 182 199.5 181 176 183.5 176 180 197.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 test cycle.

Table 21: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.), part load optimised

Engine MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.), enviro version1


1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 50 25 100 85 1) 75 50 25


Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 189 201 181 173 181 187 199
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 189 201 181 173 181 187 199
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 test cycle.
2 Engine and operation

Table 22: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion (n = const.), enviro version

1
CR map adapted for minimum smoke emission at low load. See accord-
ingly section Smoke emission index (FSN), Page 118.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

72 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with CPP

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25


Speed constant = 500 rpm or 514 rpm
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 183 185 199.5 181 173 181 181 183 197.5
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 183 183 185 199.5 181 173 181 181 183 197.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Due to engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 (Test cycle for "constant-speed main
propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all controllable-pitch propeller installations) factory accept-
ance test will be done with constant speed only.
Table 23: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propeller
Constant speed

MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25 100 85 1) 75 65 50 25


Speeds (rpm) according recom- 514 514 501 487 462 402 514 514 501 487 462 402
mended combinator curve (500) (500) (488) (474) (450) (391) (500) (500) (488) (474) (450) (391)
(5 rpm)
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 177.5 180 184 197 181 173 175.5 178 182 195
with HFO without attached (183) (175) (177.5) (180) (184) (197) (181) (173) (175.5) (178) (182) (195)
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 183 175 177 180 184 197 181 173 175.5 178 182 195
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO (183) (175) (177.5) (180) (184) (197) (181) (173) (175.5) (178) (182) (195)
(DMB) without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2 Engine and operation

2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Due to engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 (Test cycle for "constant-speed main
2017-03-03 - 4.4

propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all controllable-pitch propeller installations) factory accept-
ance test will be done with constant speed only.
Table 24: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propeller
Speeds according combinator curve

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 73 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Engine MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with CPP, extended


2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption

operating range (similar to mechanical pump drive)


1,080 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 50 25 100 85 1) 75 50 25


Speed constant = 500 rpm or 514 rpm
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 177.5 182.5 189 206.5 178.5 176.5 181.5 188 205.5
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 177.5 182.5 189 206.5 178.5 176.5 181.5 188 205.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Due to engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 (Test cycle for "constant-speed main
propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all controllable-pitch propeller installations) factory accept-
ance test will be done with constant speed only.
Table 25: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propeller,
extended operating range Constant speed

1,080 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm


MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 50 25 100 85 1) 75 50 25


Speeds (rpm) according to theoretical 514 487 468 411 324 514 487 468 411 324
propeller curve (5 rpm) (500) (474) (455) (400) (315) (500) (474) (455) (400) (315)
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 176 177.5 181 191.5 178.5 175 176.5 180 190.5
with HFO without attached (179.5) (176) (177.5) (181) (191.5) (178.5) (175) (176.5) (180) (190.5)
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 176 177.5 181 191.5 178.5 175 176.5 180 190.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO (179.5) (176) (177.5) (181) (191.5) (178.5) (175) (176.5) (180) (190.5)
(DMB) without attached pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2 Engine and operation

2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Due to engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according E2 (Test cycle for "constant-speed main
propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all controllable-pitch propeller installations) factory accept-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

ance test will be done with constant speed only.


Table 26: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with controllable pitch propeller,
extended operating range Speeds according to theoretical propeller curve

74 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine MAN 48/60CR Suction dredge/pumps (mechanical drive)

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
1,080 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 50 25 100 85 1) 75 50 25


Speed constant = 500 rpm or 514 rpm
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 177.5 182.5 189 206.5 178.5 176.5 181.5 188 205.5
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 179.5 177.5 182.5 189 206.5 178.5 176.5 181.5 188 205.5
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
Clarification needed on early project stage if engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits needs to be
4)

done according C1 test cycle.


Table 27: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Suction dredge/pumps (mechanical drive)

Engine MAN 48/60CR Auxiliary GenSet


1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm
MAN L48/60CR MAN V48/60CR

% Load 100 85 1) 75 50 25 10 100 85 1) 75 50 25 10


Speed constant = 500 rpm or 514 rpm
Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 185 176.5 184 185 201 242 184 175.5 183 184 200 241
with HFO without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)

Spec. fuel consumption (g/kWh) 185 176.5 184 185 201 242 184 175.5 183 184 200 241
with MGO (DMA, DMZ) or MDO
(DMB) without attached
pumps2) 3) 4)
1)
Warranted fuel consumption at 85 % MCR.
2)
Tolerance +5 %.
2 Engine and operation

Note: The additions to fuel consumption must be considered before the tolerance for warranty is taken into account.
3)
Based on reference conditions, see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.
4)
Relevant for engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits according D2 test cycle.

Table 28: Fuel oil consumption MAN 48/60CR Auxiliary GenSet


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 75 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Additions to fuel consumption (g/kWh)


2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption

1. Engine driven pumps increase the fuel oil consumption by:


(A percentage addition to the load specific fuel consumption for the specific
load [%] and the specific speed n has to be considered).
For HT CW service pump (attached)

For LT CW service pump (attached)


2 Engine and operation

Figure 33: Derivation of factor a

Note:
Formula is relevant for centrifugal pumps and is valid for the nominal flow
rate. Due to linear influence of engine speed on flow capacity of attached
2017-03-03 - 4.4

water pump and quadratic influence of engine speed on water pressure of


attached water pump, the required drive power is influenced by the engine
speed to the power of three.

76 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

For all lube oil service pumps (attached)

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
GenSet, electric propulsion:

Mechanical propulsion CPP:

Suction dredger/pumps:

Note:
Due to pressure regulating valve and the different type of pump, the lube oil
service pump/s (attached) will be calculated by a different formula compared
to the water pumps.

load % Actual load in [%] referred to the nominal output 100 %


nx To actual load corresponding actual speed in [rpm]

nn Nominal speed in [rpm]

2. For exhaust gas back pressure after turbine > 50 mbar


Every additional 1 mbar (0.1 kPa) backpressure addition of 0.025 g/kWh to
be calculated.
3. For exhaust gas temperature control by adjustable waste gate
For every increase of the exhaust gas temperature by 1 C, due to activation
of adjustable waste gate, an addition of 0.07 g/kWh to be calculated.

Fuel oil consumption at idle running


Fuel oil consumption at idle running (kg/h)
No. of cylinders, 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V
config.
2 Engine and operation

Speed 100 120 140 160 200 230 265 300


500/514 rpm
Table 29: Fuel oil consumption at idle running
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 77 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption

Reference conditions for fuel consumption


According to ISO 15550: 2002; ISO 3046-1: 2002

Air temperature before turbocharger tr K/C 298/25

Total barometric pressure pr kPa 100

Relative humidity r % 30

Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger1) kPa 5

Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder tbar 2)
K/C 310/37

Net calorific value NCV kJ/kg 42,700


1)
Measured at 100 % load, accordingly lower for loads < 100 %.
2)
Specified reference charge air temperature corresponds to a mean value for all cylinder numbers that will be ach-
ieved with 25 C LT cooling water temperature before charge air cooler (according to ISO).
Table 30: Reference conditions for fuel consumption MAN 48/60CR

IMO Tier II requirements:


For detailed information see section Cooling water system description, Page
276.
IMO: International Maritime Organization
MARPOL 73/78; Revised Annex VI-2008, Regulation 13.
Tier II: NOx technical code on control of emission of nitrogen oxides from die-
sel engines.

2.13.2 Lube oil consumption


1,200 kW/cyl.; 500/514 rpm
Specific lube oil consumption 0.5 g/kWh
Total lube oil consumption [kg/h]1)
No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V
Speed 500/514 rpm 3.6 4.2 4.8 5.4 7.2 8.4 9.6 10.8
1)
Tolerance for warranty +20 %.
Table 31: Total lube oil consumption
2 Engine and operation

Note:
As a matter of principle, the lube oil consumption is to be stated as total lube
oil consumption related to the tabulated ISO full load output (see section Rat-
ings (output) and speeds, Page 29).
2017-03-03 - 4.4

78 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
2.13.3 Starting air and control air consumption

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L 12V 14V 16V 18V


Swept volume of engine litre 651 760 868 977 1,303 1,520 1,737 1,955

Control air consumption Nm3 2) The control air consumption highly depends on the specific engine opera-
tion and is less than 1 % of the engines air consumption per start.

Air consumption per start1) Nm3 2) 4.2 3.5 3.5 4.4 5.0 5.0 6.0 6.0

Air consumption per Jet Assist Nm3 2) 4.0 4.0 5.5 5.5 7.9 7.9 7.9 11.3
activation3)

Air consumption per slow turn Nm3 2) 5.6 6.4 7.0 7.6 9.6 11.0 12.0 13.4
manoeuvre1) 4)
1)
The air consumption per starting manoeuvre/slow turn activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. The
stated air consumption refers only to the engine. For the electric propulsion an higher air consumption needs to be
considered due to the additional inertia moment of the generator (approximately increased by 50 %).
2)
Nm3 corresponds to one cubic meter of gas at 20 C and 100.0 kPa.
3)
The mentioned above air consumption per Jet Assist activation is valid for a jet duration of 5 seconds. The jet dura-
tion may vary between 3 sec. and 10 sec., depending on the loading (average jet duration 5 sec.).
4)
Required for plants with Power Management System demanding automatic engine start. The air consumption per
slow turn activation depends on the inertia moment of the unit. This value does not include air consumption required
for the automatically activated engine start after the end of the slow turn manoeuvre.
Table 32: Starting air and control air consumption

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 79 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption

2.13.4 Recalculation of fuel consumption dependent on ambient conditions

In accordance to ISO standard ISO 3046-1:2002 "Reciprocating internal


combustion engines Performance, Part 1: Declarations of power, fuel and
lube oil consumptions, and test methods Additional requirements for
engines for general use" MAN Diesel & Turbo has specified the method for
recalculation of fuel consumption for liquid fuel dependent on ambient condi-
tions for single-stage turbocharged engines as follows:

= 1 + 0.0006 x (tx tr) + 0.0004 x (tbax tbar) + 0.07 x (pr px)

The formula is valid within the following limits:


Ambient air temperature 5 C 55 C

Charge air temperature before cylinder 25 C 75 C

Ambient air pressure 0.885 bar 1.030 bar


Table 33: Limit values for recalculation of liquid fuel consumption

Fuel consumption factor

tbar Engine type specific reference charge air temperature before cylinder
see table Reference conditions for fuel consumption, Page 78.

Unit Reference At test run or


at site
Specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] br bx

Ambient air temperature [C] tr tx

Charge air temperature before cylinder [C] tbar tbax

Ambient air pressure [bar] pr px

Table 34: Recalculation of liquid fuel consumption Units and references

Example
2 Engine and operation

Reference values:
br = 200 g/kWh, tr = 25 C, tbar = 40 C, pr = 1.0 bar
At site:
tx = 45 C, tbax = 50 C, px = 0.9 bar
2017-03-03 - 4.4

= 1+ 0.0006 (45 25) + 0.0004 (50 40) + 0.07 (1.0 0.9) = 1.023
bx = x br = 1.023 x 200 = 204.6 g/kWh

80 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.13 Fuel oil, lube oil, starting air and control air con-
sumption
2.13.5 Influence of engine aging on fuel consumption
The fuel oil consumption will increase over the running time of the engine.
Timely service can reduce or eliminate this increase. For dependencies see
figure Influence of total engine running time and service intervals on fuel oil
consumption, Page 81.

Figure 34: Influence of total engine running time and service intervals on fuel oil consumption

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 81 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion

2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Electric propulsion

2.14.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
propulsion
Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 35: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Engine output kW 7,200 8,400 9,600 10,800

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2,747 3,141 3,517 3,879
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 845 1,052 1,277 1,519

Lube oil cooler2) kW 679 792 905 1,019

Jacket cooling kW 741 865 989 1,112

Nozzle cooling kW 24 28 32 36

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. 55 C) kW 216 252 287 323
2 Engine and operation

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m3/h 85 100 110 125

Lube oil m3/h 140 158 176 194


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Nozzle cooling water m /h


3
1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m3/h 2.3 2.3 3.3 3.3

Pumps

a) Attached

82 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Electric propulsion
HT CW service pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW service pump 85 100 110 125

Lube oil service pump for application with constant speed 182 182 218 252

b) Free-standing 4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design

Lube oil stand-by pump m3/h 147 + z 166 + z 185 + z 204 + z

Prelubrication pump m3/h 30 35 40 45

Nozzle CW pump m3/h 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

HFO supply pump m3/h 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6

HFO circulating pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
Table 36: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR Electric propulsion

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.
Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page
280.

2.14.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
2 Engine and operation

propulsion
Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Electric propulsion

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 83 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Reference conditions: Tropics


2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 37: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Engine output kW 14,400 16,800 19,200 21,600

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated 1)

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 5,493 6,282 7,035 7,759
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 1,690 2,103 2,554 3,038

Lube oil cooler2) kW 1,358 1,584 1,811 2,037

Jacket cooling kW 1,483 1,730 1,977 2,224

Nozzle cooling kW 48 56 64 72

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. 55 C) kW 431 503 575 647

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m3/h 170 200 220 250

Lube oil m /h 3
340 370 400 430

Nozzle cooling water m3/h 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m /h 3


4.6 4.6 4.6 6.4

Pumps

a) Attached

HT CW service pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW service pump m3/h 170 200 220 250

Lube oil service pump for application with constant speed m3/h 364 408 436 504
2 Engine and operation

b) Free-standing4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design

Lube oil stand-by pump m /h 3


357 + z 389 + z 420 + z 451 + z
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Prelubrication pump m3/h 65 70 75 80

Nozzle CW pump m /h 3
3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4

HFO supply pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

84 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Electric propulsion
HFO circulating pump m3/h 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
Table 38: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Electric propulsion

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.
Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page
280.

2.14.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 39: Reference conditions: Tropics
2 Engine and operation

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Engine output kW 7,200 8,400 9,600 10,800

Speed rpm 500/514

Temperature basis
2017-03-03 - 4.4

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 85 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L


2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate3) m3/h 45,285 52,832 60,380 67,928

Mass flow t/h 49.6 57.8 66.1 74.3

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m3/h 69,230 80,768 92,306 103,845
(t2 t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 93,496 109,077 124,657 140,253

Mass flow t/h 51.0 59.5 68.0 76.5

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 365 365 366

Heat content (190 C) kW 2,681 3,128 3,574 4,022

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger mbar 50


1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 40: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR Electric propulsion

2.14.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45
2 Engine and operation

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 41: Reference conditions: Tropics
2017-03-03 - 4.4

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Engine output kW 14,400 16,800 19,200 21,600

Speed rpm 500/514

86 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Electric propulsion
Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate3) m3/h 90,570 105,664 120,759 135,855

Mass flow t/h 99.1 115.6 132.2 148.7

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m3/h 138,460 161,536 184,613 207,689
(t2 t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 186,935 218,089 249,238 280,421

Mass flow t/h 101.9 118.9 135.9 152.9

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 365 365 366

Heat content (190 C) kW 5,358 6,251 7,144 8,040

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50


charger
1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 42: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR Electric propulsion

2.14.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
propulsion
2 Engine and operation

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Reference conditions: ISO


Air temperature C 25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 87 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Reference conditions: ISO


2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Electric propulsion

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 30
Table 43: Reference conditions: ISO

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2)
1,126 933 1,001 473
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 364 342 391 374

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 310 379 390 513

Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 333 352 372 447

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 139 143 158 194

Air data

Temperature of charge air C


at compressor outlet 236 211 205 144
at charge air cooler outlet 34 34 34 34

Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.19 7.03 7.95 8.12

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.90 4.13 4.02 2.56

Exhaust gas data 4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.38 7.21 8.14 7.73

Temperature at turbine outlet C 325 303 302 357

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,068 871 972 1,388

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 7L.
2 Engine and operation

3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 44: Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Electric propulsion
2017-03-03 - 4.4

2.14.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Electric
propulsion
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.

88 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm

2.14 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Electric propulsion
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 45: Reference conditions: Tropics

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated 1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2)
1,346 1,143 1,237 677
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 451 341 375 177

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 340 415 427 562

Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 371 392 414 498

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 108 112 123 151

Air data

Temperature of charge air: C


At compressor outlet 268 242 235 170
At charge air cooler outlet 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.88 6.73 7.61 7.22

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.17 4.06 2.59

Exhaust gas data4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.08 6.92 7.81 7.42

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 342 341 400

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,340 1,131 1,264 1,683

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger
2 Engine and operation

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 7L.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 46: Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Electric propulsion

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 89 (433)


2 Mechanical propulsion with CPP MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II

2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Mechanical propulsion with
CPP

2.15.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
propulsion with CPP
Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 47: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Engine output kW 7,200 8,400 9,600 10,800

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2,747 3,141 3,517 3,879
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 845 1,052 1,277 1,519

Lube oil cooler2) kW 679 792 905 1,019

Jacket cooling kW 741 865 989 1,112

Nozzle cooling kW 24 28 32 36

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. kW 216 252 287 323
55 C)
2 Engine and operation

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m3/h 85 100 110 125
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Lube oil m3/h 140 158 176 194

Nozzle cooling water m3/h 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m3/h 2.3 2.3 3.3 3.3

Pumps

a) Attached

90 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Mechanical propulsion with CPP


2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
HT CW service pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW service pump m /h
3
85 100 110 125

Lube oil service pump for application with constant speed m3/h 182 182 218 252

b) Free-standing 4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design

Lube oil stand-by pump m3/h 147 + z 166 + z 185 + z 204 + z

Prelubrication pump m3/h 30 35 40 45

Nozzle CW pump m3/h 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

HFO supply pump m3/h 2.4 2.8 3.2 3.6

HFO circulating pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
Table 48: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.
Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page
280.

2.15.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
2 Engine and operation

propulsion with CPP


Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 91 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Reference conditions: Tropics


Mechanical propulsion with CPP
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 49: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Engine output kW 14,400 16,800 19,200 21,600

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated 1)

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 5,493 6,282 7,035 7,759
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 1,690 2,103 2,554 3,038

Lube oil cooler2) kW 1,358 1,584 1,811 2,037

Jacket cooling kW 1,483 1,730 1,977 2,224

Nozzle cooling kW 48 56 64 72

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. kW 431 503 575 647
55 C)

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m3/h 170 200 220 250

Lube oil m /h
3
340 370 400 430

Nozzle cooling water m3/h 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m /h


3
4.6 4.6 4.6 6.4

Pumps

a) Attached

HT CW service pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW service pump m3/h 170 200 220 250

Lube oil service pump (8.0 bar) for application with con- m3/h 364 408 436 504
2 Engine and operation

stant speed

b) Free-standing4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Lube oil stand-by pump m /h


3
357 + z 389 + z 420 + z 451 + z

Prelubrication pump m3/h 65 70 75 80

Nozzle CW pump m /h
3
3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4

92 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Mechanical propulsion with CPP


2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
HFO supply pump m3/h 4.8 5.6 6.4 7.2

HFO circulating pump m /h


3
9.6 11.2 12.8 14.4
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
Table 50: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with CPP

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.
Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page
280.

2.15.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 51: Reference conditions: Tropics
2 Engine and operation

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Engine output kW 7,200 8,400 9,600 10,800

Speed rpm 500/514


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 93 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L


Mechanical propulsion with CPP
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate 3)


m /h
3
45,285 52,823 60,380 67,928

Mass flow t/h 49.6 57.8 66.1 74.3

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m3/h 69,230 80,768 92,306 103,845
(t2 t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 93,496 109,077 124,657 140,253

Mass flow t/h 51.0 59.5 68.0 76.5

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 365 365 365

Heat content (190 C) kW 2,681 3,128 3,574 4,022

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50


charger
1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 52: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR Mechanical propulsion
with CPP

2.15.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Mechanical propulsion with CPP
2 Engine and operation

Reference conditions: Tropics


Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 53: Reference conditions: Tropics

94 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Mechanical propulsion with CPP


2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Engine output kW 14,400 16,800 19,200 21,600

Speed rpm 500/514

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 54 55

Air flow rate3) m3/h 90,570 105,664 120,759 135,855

Mass flow t/h 99.1 115.6 132.2 148.7

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.95 4.95 4.95

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m /h


3
138,460 161,536 184,613 207,689
(t2 t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 186,935 218,089 249,238 280,421

Mass flow t/h 101.9 118.9 135.9 152.9

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 365 365 366

Heat content (190 C) kW 5,358 6,251 7,144 8,040

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50


charger
1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 54: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR Mechanical propulsion
with CPP
2 Engine and operation

2.15.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Mechanical
propulsion with CPP, constant speed
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 95 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Reference conditions: ISO


Mechanical propulsion with CPP
2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II

Air temperature C 25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 30
Table 55: Reference conditions: ISO

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage)2) 1,126 933 1,001 473
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 364 342 391 374

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 310 379 390 513

Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 333 352 372 447

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 139 143 158 194

Air data

Temperature of charge air C


at compressor outlet 236 211 205 144
at charge air cooler outlet 34 34 34 34

Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.19 7.03 7.95 8.12

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.90 4.13 4.02 2.56

Exhaust gas data4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.38 7.21 8.14 7.73

Temperature at turbine outlet C 325 303 302 357

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,068 871 972 1,388

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


2 Engine and operation

1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 7L.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
2017-03-03 - 4.4

4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 56: Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with CPP

96 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Mechanical propulsion with CPP


2.15 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
2.15.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Mechanical propulsion with CPP, constant speed
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,200 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 57: Reference conditions: Tropics

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage)2) 1,346 1,143 1,237 677
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 451 341 375 177

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 340 415 427 562

Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 371 392 414 498

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 108 112 123 151

Air data

Temperature of charge air: C


At compressor outlet 268 242 235 170
At charge air cooler outlet 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.88 6.73 7.61 7.22

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.17 4.06 2.59

Exhaust gas data4)


2 Engine and operation

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.08 6.92 7.81 7.42

Temperature at turbine outlet C 365 342 341 400

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,340 1,131 1,264 1,683


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 97 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Speed rpm 500/514


Tolerances refer to 100 % load.
1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 18V.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 58: Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Mechanical propulsion with
CPP, constant speed

2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II Suction dredger/pumps
(mechanical drive)

2.16.1 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,080 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 59: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L


2 Engine and operation

Engine output kW 6,480 7,560 8,640 9,720

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated1)
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2,522 2,891 3,246 3,587
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 756 935 1,132 1,336

Lube oil cooler2) kW 791 922 1,054 1,186

Jacket cooling kW 655 764 874 983

98 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN


MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Nozzle cooling kW 22 25 29 32

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. kW 194 226 259 291
55 C)

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m3/h 85 100 110 125

Lube oil m3/h 140 158 176 194

Nozzle cooling water m3/h 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m3/h 2.3 2.3 3.3 3.3

Pumps

a) Attached

HT CW service pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW service pump m3/h 85 100 110 125

Lube oil service pump for application with constant speed m /h


3
182 204 252 286

b) Free-standing4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 70 80 90 100

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design

Lube oil stand-by pump m /h


3
147 + z 166 + z 185 + z 204 + z

Prelubrication pump m3/h 30 35 40 45

Nozzle CW pump m3/h 1.7 2.0 2.2 2.5

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 4.3 5.0 5.8 6.5

HFO supply pump m3/h 2.2 2.5 2.9 3.2

HFO circulating pump m3/h 4.3 5.0 5.8 6.5


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
2 Engine and operation

Table 60: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN L48/60CR Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
2017-03-03 - 4.4

sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 99 (433)


2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page


280.
2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

2.16.2 Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
If an advanced HT cooling water system for increased freshwater generation
is to be applied, contact MAN Diesel & Turbo for corresponding planning
data.
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,080 kW/cyl., 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 61: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Engine output kW 12,960 15,120 17,280 19,440

Speed rpm 500/514

Heat to be dissipated1)

Charge air: kW
Charge air cooler (HT stage) 5,044 5,782 6,492 7,173
Charge air cooler (LT stage) 1,513 1,870 2,263 2,673

Lube oil cooler2) kW 1,581 1,845 2,108 2,372

Jacket cooling kW 1,311 1,529 1,747 1,966

Nozzle cooling kW 43 50 58 65

Heat radiation engine (based on engine room temp. kW 388 453 517 582
55 C)
2 Engine and operation

Flow rates3)

HT circuit (Jacket cooling + charge air cooler HT) m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT circuit (lube oil cooler + charge air cooler LT) m /h


3
170 200 220 250

Lube oil m3/h 340 370 400 430


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Nozzle cooling water m3/h 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

LT cooling water turbocharger compressor wheel m3/h 4.6 4.6 4.6 6.4

Pumps

a) Attached

100 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
HT CW service pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW service pump m /h
3
170 200 220 250

Lube oil service pump for application with constant speed m3/h 408 504 504 572

b) Free-standing 4)

HT CW stand-by pump m3/h 140 160 180 200

LT CW stand-by pump m3/h Depending on plant design

Lube oil stand-by pump m3/h 357 + z 389 + z 420 + z 451 + z

Prelubrication pump m3/h 65 70 75 80

Nozzle CW pump m3/h 3.5 4.1 4.8 5.4

MGO/MDO supply pump m3/h 8.6 10.1 11.5 13.0

HFO supply pump m3/h 4.3 5.0 5.8 6.5

HFO circulating pump m3/h 8.6 10.1 11.5 13.0


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers; 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
3)
Basic values for layout design of the coolers.
4)
Tolerances of the pumps delivery capacities must be considered by the pump manufacturer.
z = flushing oil of the automatic filter.
Table 62: Nominal values for cooler specification MAN V48/60CR Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)

Note:
You will find further planning data for the listed subjects in the corresponding
sections.
Minimal heating power required for preheating HT cooling water see
paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page 280.
Minimal heating power required for preheating lube oil see paragraph
H-002/Lube oil heater, Page 255.
Additional information of prelubrication/postlubrication pumps see sec-
tion Prelubrication/postlubrication, Page 266.
Capacities of preheating pumps see paragraph H-001/Preheater, Page
280.
2 Engine and operation

2.16.3 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

1,080 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical


drive)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 101 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Reference conditions: Tropics


2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 63: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 6L 7L 8L 9L

Engine output kW 6,480 7,560 8,640 9,720

Speed rpm 500/514

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate3) m3/h 40,700 47,483 54,266 61,049

Mass flow t/h 44.5 52.0 59.4 66.8

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m3/h 62,307 72,691 83,076 93,460
(t2 t1 = 10 C)

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 82,372 96,100 109,826 123,555

Mass flow t/h 45.8 53.5 61.1 68.7

Temperature at turbine outlet C 353 353 353 353

Heat content (190 C) kW 2,232 2,604 2,975 3,347

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50


charger
2 Engine and operation

1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 64: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN L48/60CR Suction dredger/
pumps (mechanical drive)

102 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
2.16.4 Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,080 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
Table 65: Reference conditions: Tropics

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V

Engine output kW 12,960 15,120 17,280 19,440

Speed rpm 500/514

Temperature basis

HT cooling water engine outlet1) C 90

LT cooling water air cooler inlet C 38 (setpoint 32 C)2)

Lube oil engine inlet C 55

Nozzle cooling water engine inlet C 60

Air data

Temperature of charge air at charge air cooler outlet C 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate3) m3/h 81,399 94,966 108,532 122,099

Mass flow t/h 89.1 103.9 118.8 133.6

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 5.00 5.00 5.00 5.00

Air required to dissipate heat radiation (engine) m3/h 124,614 145,382 166,151 186,920
(t2 t1 = 10 C)
2 Engine and operation

Exhaust gas data4)

Volume flow (temperature turbocharger outlet)5) m3/h 164,693 192,142 219,585 247,035

Mass flow t/h 91.6 106.9 122.2 137.4

Temperature at turbine outlet C 353 353 353 353


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Heat content (190 C) kW 4,461 5,204 5,947 6,691

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 103 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. of cylinders, config. 12V 14V 16V 18V


2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50


charger
1)
HT cooling water flow first through water jacket and cylinder head, then through HT stage charge air cooler.
2)
For design see section Cooling water system diagram.
3)
Under mentioned above reference conditions.
4)
All exhaust gas data values relevant for HFO operation. Tolerances: Quantity 5 %; temperature 20 C.
Calculated based on stated temperature at turbine outlet and total barometric pressure according mentioned
5)

above reference conditions.


Table 66: Temperature basis, nominal air and exhaust gas data MAN V48/60CR Suction dredger/
pumps (mechanical drive)

2.16.5 Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,080 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)
Reference conditions: ISO
Air temperature C 25

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 25

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 30
Table 67: Reference conditions: ISO

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
Heat to be dissipated 1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage)2) 1,153 945 928 453
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 357 352 376 379
2 Engine and operation

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 401 421 454 686

Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 327 335 359 439

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 139 143 150 194


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Air data

Temperature of charge air C


at compressor outlet 239 210 200 142
at charge air cooler outlet 34 34 34 34

104 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine output % 100 85 75 50

2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II


Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Speed rpm 500/514
Air flow rate kg/kWh 7.18 7.19 7.67 7.55

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 4.95 4.16 3.88 2.56

Exhaust gas data 4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.37 7.38 7.86 7.75

Temperature at turbine outlet C 313 297 298 341

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 971 843 906 1,255

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 7L.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 68: Load specific values at ISO conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Suction dredger/pumps
(mechanical drive)

2.16.6 Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR IMO Tier II Suction
dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)
Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
1,080 kW/cyl.; 500 rpm or 514 rpm Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical
drive)
Reference conditions: Tropics
Air temperature C 45

Cooling water temp. before charge air cooler (LT stage) 38

Total barometric pressure mbar 1,000

Relative humidity % 60
2 Engine and operation

Table 69: Reference conditions: Tropics

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


Speed rpm 500/514
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Heat to be dissipated 1)

Charge air: kJ/kWh


Charge air cooler (HT stage) 2)
1,377 1,161 1,155 657
Charge air cooler (LT stage)2) 445 354 336 182

Lube oil cooler3) kJ/kWh 439 461 497 751

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 105 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Engine output % 100 85 75 50


2.16 Planning data for emission standard: IMO Tier II
Suction dredger/pumps (mechanical drive)

Speed rpm 500/514


Jacket cooling kJ/kWh 364 373 400 489

Nozzle cooling kJ/kWh 12 12 12 12

Heat radiation (engine) kJ/kWh 108 112 116 151

Air data

Temperature of charge air: C


At compressor outlet 271 241 230 168
At charge air cooler outlet 58 58 58 58

Air flow rate kg/kWh 6.87 6.88 7.34 7.23

Charge air pressure (absolute) bar 5.00 4.20 3.92 2.59

Exhaust gas data4)

Mass flow kg/kWh 7.07 7.07 7.54 7.43

Temperature at turbine outlet C 353 336 337 383

Heat content (190 C) kJ/kWh 1,240 1,106 1,187 1,545

Permissible exhaust gas back pressure after turbo- mbar 50 - - -


charger

Tolerances refer to 100 % load.


1)
Tolerance: +10 % for rating coolers, 15 % for heat recovery.
2)
The values of the particular cylinder numbers can differ depending on the charge air cooler specification. These
figures are calculated for 7L.
3)
Addition required for separator heat (e.g. 30 kJ/kWh).
4)
Tolerances: Quantity 5 %, temperature 20 C.
Table 70: Load specific values at tropical conditions MAN L/V48/60CR Suction dredger/pumps
(mechanical drive)
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

106 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures


2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.

Intake air (conditions before compressor of turbocharger)


Min. Max.

Intake air temperature compressor inlet 5 C1) 45 C2)

Intake air pressure compressor inlet 20 mbar -

Conditions below this temperature are defined as "arctic conditions" see section Engine operation under arctic
1)

conditions, Page 53.


2)
In accordance with power definition. A reduction in power is required at higher temperatures/lower pressures.
Table 71: Intake air (conditions before compressor of turbocharger)

Charge air (conditions within charge air pipe before cylinder)


Min. Max.

Charge air temperature cylinder inlet1) 34 C 75 C


1)
Aim for a higher value in conditions of high air humidity (to reduce condensate amount).
Table 72: Charge air (conditions within charge air pipe before cylinder)

HT cooling water Engine


Min. Max.

HT cooling water temperature engine outlet1) 90 C2) 95 C3)

HT cooling water temperature engine inlet Preheated before start 60 C 90 C

HT cooling water pressure engine inlet4) 3 bar 4 bar

Pressure loss engine (total, for nominal flow rate) - 1.3 bar

Only for information:


+ Pressure loss engine (without charge air cooler) 0.3 bar 0.5 bar
2 Engine and operation

+ Pressure loss HT piping engine 0.2 bar 0.4 bar


+ Pressure loss charge air cooler (HT stage) 0.2 bar 0.4 bar

Pressure rise attached HT cooling water pump (optional) 3.2 bar 3.8 bar
1)
SaCoSone measuring point is outlet cylinder cooling of the engine.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

2)
Regulated temperature.
3)
Operation at alarm level.
4)
SaCoSone measuring point is inlet cylinder cooling of the engine.

Table 73: HT cooling water Engine

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 107 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

HT cooling water Plant


2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Min. Max.

Permitted pressure loss of external HT system (plant) - 1.9 bar

Minimum required pressure rise of free-standing HT cooling water stand-by pump 3.2 bar -
(plant)

Cooling water expansion tank


+ Pre-pressure due to expansion tank at suction side of cooling water pump 0.6 bar 0.9 bar
+ Pressure loss from expansion tank to suction side of cooling water pump - 0.1 bar
Table 74: HT cooling water Plant

LT cooling water Engine


Min. Max.

LT cooling water temperature charge air cooler inlet (LT stage) 32 C1) 38 C2)

LT cooling water pressure charge air cooler inlet (LT stage) 2 bar 4 bar

Pressure loss charge air cooler (LT stage, for nominal flow rate) - 0.8 bar
Only for information:
+ Pressure loss LT piping engine - 0.3 bar
+ Pressure loss charge air cooler (LT stage) - 0.5 bar

Pressure rise attached LT cooling water pump (optional) 3.2 bar 3.8 bar
1)
Regulated temperature.
2)
In accordance with power definition. A reduction in power is required at higher temperatures/lower pressures.
Table 75: LT cooling water Engine

LT cooling water Plant


Min. Max.

Permitted pressure loss of external LT system (plant) - 2.4 bar

Minimum required pressure rise of free-standing LT cooling water stand-by pump 3.2 bar -
(plant)

Cooling water expansion tank


+ Pre-pressure due to expansion tank at suction side of cooling water pump 0.6 bar 0.9 bar
+ Pressure loss from expansion tank to suction side of cooling water pump - 0.1 bar
Table 76: LT cooling water Plant
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

108 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Nozzle cooling water

2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures


Min. Max.

Nozzle cooling water temperature engine inlet 55 C 70 C1)

Nozzle cooling water pressure engine inlet


+ Open system 2 bar 3 bar
+ Closed system 3 bar 5 bar

Pressure loss engine (fuel nozzles, for nominal flow rate) - 1.5 bar
1)
Operation at alarm level.
Table 77: Nozzle cooling water

Lube oil
Min. Max.

Lube oil temperature engine inlet 50 C1) 60 C2)

Lube oil temperature engine inlet Preheated before start 40 C 50 C3)

Lube oil pressure (during engine operation)


L engine inlet 4 bar 5 bar
V engine inlet 5 bar 5.5 bar
Turbocharger inlet 1.2 bar 2.2 bar

Prelubrication/postlubrication (duration 10 min) lube oil pressure


L engine inlet 0.3 bar4) 5 bar
V engine inlet 0.3 bar4) 5.5 bar
Turbocharger inlet 0.2 bar 2.2 bar

Prelubrication/postlubrication (duration > 10 min) lube oil pressure


Engine inlet 0.3 bar4) 0.6 bar
Turbocharger inlet 0.2 bar 0.6 bar

Lube oil pump (attached, free-standing)


Design pressure 7 bar -
Opening pressure safety valve - 8 bar
1)
Regulated temperature.
2)
Operation at alarm level.
2 Engine and operation

3)
If higher temperatures of lube oil in system will be reached, e.g. due to separator operation, at engine start this
temperature needs to be reduced asap below alarm level to avoid a start failure.
4)
Note: Oil pressure > 0.3 bar must be ensured also for lube oil temperatures up to 80 C.
Table 78: Lube oil
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 109 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Fuel
2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures

Min. Max.

Fuel temperature engine inlet


MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO (DMB) according ISO 8217-2012 10 C1) 45 C2)
HFO according ISO 8217-2012 - 150 C2)

Fuel viscosity engine inlet


MGO (DMA, DMZ) and MDO (DMB) according ISO 8217-2012 1.9 cSt 14.0 cSt
HFO according ISO 8217-2012, recommended viscosity 12.0 cSt 14.0 cSt

Fuel pressure engine inlet (before high pressure pumps) 11.0 bar 12.0 bar

Fuel pressure engine inlet (before high pressure pumps) in case of black out 3 bar -
(only engine start idling)

Differential pressure (engine inlet/engine outlet) 5 bar -

Maximum pressure variation at engine inlet - 1.5 bar

HFO supply system


+ Minimum required pressure rise of free-standing HFO supply pump (plant) 8.0 bar -
+ Minimum required pressure rise of free-standing HFO circulating pump 10.0 bar -
(booster pumps, plant)
+ Minimum required absolute design pressure free-standing HFO circulating 14.0 bar -
pump (booster pumps, plant)

MDO/MGO supply system


+ Minimum required pressure rise of free-standing MDO/MGO supply pump 14.0 bar -
(plant)

Fuel temperature within HFO day tank (preheating) 75 C 90 C3)


1)
Maximum viscosity not to be exceeded. Pour point and Cold filter plugging point have to be observed.
2)
Not allowed to fall below minimum viscosity.
3)
If flash point is below 100 C, than the limit is: 10 degree distance to the flash point.
Table 79: Fuel

Setting

Safety valve/pressure limiting valve in CR system 1,850 bar + 100 bar

Shut-off valve (opening pressure) 100 bar 3 bar


2 Engine and operation

Table 80: Fuel injection valve

Compressed air in the starting air system


Min. Max.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Starting air pressure within vessel/pressure regulating valve inlet 10.0 bar 30.0 bar
Table 81: Compressed air in the starting air system

110 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Compressed air in the control air system

2.17 Operating/service temperatures and pressures


Min. Max.

Control air pressure engine inlet 5.5 bar 8.0 bar


Table 82: Compressed air in the control air system

Crankcase pressure (engine)


Min. Max.

Pressure within crankcase 2.5 mbar 3.0 mbar


Table 83: Crankcase pressure (engine)

Setting

Safety valve attached to the crankcase (opening pressure) 50 70 mbar


Table 84: Safety valve

Exhaust gas
Min. Max.

Exhaust gas temperature turbine outlet (normal operation under tropic conditions) - 495 C

Exhaust gas temperature turbine outlet (with SCR within regeneration mode) 360 C 400 C

Exhaust gas temperature turbine outlet (emergency operation According classifi- - 589 C
cation rules One failure of TC)

Recommended design exhaust gas temperature turbine outlet for layout of 500 C1) -
exhaust gas line (plant)

Exhaust gas back pressure after turbocharger (static) - 50.0 mbar2)


1)
Project specific evaluation required, figure given as minimum value for guidance only.
2)
If this value is exceeded by the total exhaust gas back pressure of the designed exhaust gas line, sections Derat-
ing, definition of P Operating, Page 31 and Increased exhaust gas pressure due to exhaust gas after treatment instal-
lations, Page 33 need to be considered.
Table 85: Exhaust gas
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 111 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.18 Filling volumes

2.18 Filling volumes

Note:
Operating pressure data without further specification are given below/above
atmospheric pressure.
Cooling water and oil volume of engine1)
No. of cylinders 6 7 8 9 12 14 16 18
Cooling water litres 470 540 615 685 1,250 1,400 1,550 1,700
approximately

Lube oil 170 190 220 240 325 380 435 490
1)
Be aware: This is just the amount inside the engine. By this amount the level in the service or expansion tank will be
lowered when media systems are put in operation.
Table 86: Cooling water and oil volume of engine

Service tanks Installation Minimum effective capacity


height1)
m m3
No. of cylinders 6 7 8 9 12 14 16 18

Cooling water cylinder 69 1.0 1.5

Required diameter for expansion - DN50 2)


pipeline

Cooling water fuel nozzles 58 0.5 0.75

Lube oil in lube oil service tank - 7.5 8.5 10.0 11.0 14.5 17.0 19.5 22.0
1)
Installation height refers to tank bottom and crankshaft centre line.
2)
Cross sectional area should correspond to that of the venting pipes.
Table 87: Service tanks capacities
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

112 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary


2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary

Internal cooling water system Exemplary

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 35: Internal cooling water system Exemplary

Note:
The drawing shows the basic internal media flow of the engine in general.
Project-specific drawings thereof dont exist.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 113 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Internal lube oil system Exemplary


2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 36: Internal lube oil system Exemplary

Note:
The drawing shows the basic internal media flow of the engine in general.
Project-specific drawings thereof dont exist.

114 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Internal fuel system Exemplary

2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary


2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 37: Internal fuel system Exemplary

Note:
The drawing shows the basic internal media flow of the engine in general.
Project-specific drawings thereof dont exist.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 115 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Internal pressure air system Exemplary


2.19 Internal media systems Exemplary
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 38: Internal pressure air system Exemplary

Note:
The drawing shows the basic internal media flow of the engine in general.
Project-specific drawings thereof dont exist.

116 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger


2.20 Venting amount of crankcase and turbocharger
A ventilation of the engine crankcase and the turbochargers is required, as
described in section Crankcase vent and tank vent, Page 275.
For the layout of the ventilation system guidance is provided below:
Due to normal blow-by of the piston ring package small amounts of combus-
tion chamber gases get into the crankcase and carry along oil dust.
The amount of crankcase vent gases is approximately 0.1 % of the
engines air flow rate.
The temperature of the crankcase vent gases is approximately 5 K higher
than the oil temperature at the engines oil inlet.
The density of crankcase vent gases is 1.0 kg/m (assumption for calcu-
lation).
In addition, the sealing air of the turbocharger needs to be vented.
The amount of turbocharger sealing air is approximately 0.2 % of the
engines air flow rate.
The temperature of turbocharger sealing air is approximately 5 K higher
than the oil temperature at the engines oil inlet.
The density of turbocharger sealing air is 1.0 kg/m (assumption for cal-
culation).

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 117 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.21 Exhaust gas emission

2.21 Exhaust gas emission

2.21.1 Maximum permissible NOx emission limit value IMO Tier II

IMO Tier II: Engine in standard version1


Rated speed 500 rpm 514 rpm
NOx 1) 2) 3)

IMO Tier II cycle D2/E2/E3 10.54 g/kWh4) 10.47g/kWh4)

Note:
The engines certification for compliance with the NOx limits will be carried out during factory acceptance test as a
single or a group certification.
1)
Cycle values as per ISO 8178-4: 2007, operating on ISO 8217 DM grade fuel (marine distillate fuel: MGO or MDO).
2)
Calculated as NO2.
D2: Test cycle for "constant-speed auxiliary engine application".
E2: Test cycle for "constant-speed main propulsion application" including diesel-electric drive and all controllable
pitch propeller installations.
E3: Test cycle for "propeller-law-operated main and propeller-law-operated auxiliary engine application.
3)
Based on a LT charge air cooling water temperature of max. 32 C at 25 C sea water temperature.
4)
Maximum permissible NOx emissions for marine diesel engines according to IMO Tier II:
130 n 2,000 44 * n0.23 g/kWh (n = rated engine speed in rpm).
Table 88: Maximum permissible NOx emission limit value

1
Marine engines are guaranteed to meet the revised International Convention
for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, "Revised MARPOL Annex VI (Reg-
ulations for the Prevention of Air Pollution from Ships), Regulation 13.4 (Tier
II)" as adopted by the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

2.21.2 Smoke emission index (FSN)

Valid for normal engine operation.

Engine MAN 48/60CR


2 Engine and operation

Smoke emission index of FSN < 0.30 0.10 is valid for engine loads 25 %
MCR. Valid for distillate according to ISO 8217 DMA/DMB/DMZ-grade fuel or
RM-grade fuel, fulfilling the stated quality requirements.

Engine MAN 48/60CR Electric propulsion, enviro version


2017-03-03 - 4.4

With adapted CR map for minimum smoke emission and charge air by-pass,
smoke emission index of FSN < 0.20 0.10 will be valid for engine loads
25 % MCR. Valid for distillate according to ISO 8217 DMA/DMB/DMZ-grade
fuel or RM-grade fuel, fulfilling the stated quality requirements.

118 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.21 Exhaust gas emission


2.21.3 Exhaust gas components of medium speed four-stroke diesel engines
The exhaust gas of a medium speed four-stroke diesel engine is composed
of numerous constituents. These are derived from either the combustion air
and fuel oil and lube oil used, or they are reaction products, formed during
the combustion process see table below. Only some of these are to be con-
sidered as harmful substances.
For a typical composition of the exhaust gas of an MAN Diesel & Turbo four-
stroke diesel engine without any exhaust gas treatment devices see table
below.

Main exhaust gas constituents Approx. [% by volume] Approx. [g/kWh]

Nitrogen N2 74.0 76.0 5,020 5,160

Oxygen O2 11.6 13.2 900 1,030

Carbon dioxide CO2 5.2 5.8 560 620

Steam H2O 5.9 8.6 260 370

Inert gases Ar, Ne, He... 0.9 75

Total > 99.75 7,000

Additional gaseous exhaust gas con- Approx. [% by volume] Approx. [g/kWh]


stituents considered as pollutants

Sulphur oxides SOx1) 0.07 10.0

Nitrogen oxides NOx2) 0.07 0.15 8.0 16.0

Carbon monoxide CO3) 0.006 0.011 0.4 0.8

Hydrocarbons HC 4)
0.1 0.04 0.4 1.2

Total < 0.25 26

Additionally suspended exhaust gas Approx. [mg/Nm ] 3


Approx. [g/kWh]
constituents, PM5)
Operating on Operating on

MGO6) HFO7) MGO6) HFO7)

Soot (elemental carbon)8) 50 50 0.3 0.3

Fuel ash 4 40 0.03 0.25


2 Engine and operation

Lube oil ash 3 8 0.02 0.04


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 119 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Note:
2.21 Exhaust gas emission

At rated power and without exhaust gas treatment.


1)
SOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 6C, with a sulphur content in the fuel oil of 2.5 % by weight.
2)
NOx according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 7E, total NOx emission calculated as NO2.
3)
CO according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 10.
4)
HC according to ISO-8178 or US EPA method 25 A.
5)
PM according to VDI-2066, EN-13284, ISO-9096 or US EPA method 17; in-stack filtration.
6)
Marine gas oil DM-A grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.01 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 1.5 %.
7)
Heavy fuel oil RM-B grade with an ash content of the fuel oil of 0.1 % and an ash content of the lube oil of 4.0 %.
8)
Pure soot, without ash or any other particle-borne constituents.
Table 89: Exhaust gas constituents of the engine (before an exhaust gas aftertreatment installation) for
liquid fuel (for guidance only)

Carbon dioxide CO2


Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a product of combustion of all fossil fuels.
Among all internal combustion engines the diesel engine has the lowest spe-
cific CO2 emission based on the same fuel quality, due to its superior effi-
ciency.

Sulphur oxides SOx


Sulphur oxides (SOx) are formed by the combustion of the sulphur contained
in the fuel.
Among all systems the diesel process results in the lowest specific SOx emis-
sion based on the same fuel quality, due to its superior efficiency.

Nitrogen oxides NOx (NO + NO2)


The high temperatures prevailing in the combustion chamber of an internal
combustion engine cause the chemical reaction of nitrogen (contained in the
combustion air as well as in some fuel grades) and oxygen (contained in the
combustion air) to nitrogen oxides (NOx).

Carbon monoxide CO
Carbon monoxide (CO) is formed during incomplete combustion.
In MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines, optimisation of mixture
formation and turbocharging process successfully reduces the CO content of
2 Engine and operation

the exhaust gas to a very low level.

Hydrocarbons HC
The hydrocarbons (HC) contained in the exhaust gas are composed of a
multitude of various organic compounds as a result of incomplete combus-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

tion.
Due to the efficient combustion process, the HC content of exhaust gas of
MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines is at a very low level.

Particulate matter PM
Particulate matter (PM) consists of soot (elemental carbon) and ash.

120 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.22 Noise
2.22 Noise

2.22.1 Airborne noise

L engine
Sound pressure level Lp
Measurements
Approximately 20 measuring points at 1 meter distance from the engine sur-
face are distributed evenly around the engine according to ISO 6798. The
noise at the exhaust outlet is not included, but provided separately in the fol-
lowing sections.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound pressure level Lp is below 107 dB(A) at 100 % MCR.
The octave level diagram below represents an envelope of averaged meas-
ured spectra for comparable engines at the testbed and is a conservative
spectrum consequently. No room correction is performed. The data will
change depending on the acoustical properties of the environment.
Blow-off noise
Blow-off noise is not considered in the measurements, see below.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 39: Airborne noise Sound pressure level Lp Octave level diagram

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 121 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

V engine
2.22 Noise

Sound pressure level Lp


Measurements
Approximately 20 measuring points at 1 meter distance from the engine sur-
face are distributed evenly around the engine according to ISO 6798. The
noise at the exhaust outlet is not included, but provided separately in the fol-
lowing sections.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound pressure level Lp is below 110 dB(A) at 100 % MCR.
The octave level diagram below represents an envelope of averaged meas-
ured spectra for comparable engines at the testbed and is a conservative
spectrum consequently. No room correction is performed. The data will
change depending on the acoustical properties of the environment.
Blow-off noise
Blow-off noise is not considered in the measurements, see below.
2 Engine and operation

Figure 40: Airborne noise Sound pressure level Lp Octave level diagram
2017-03-03 - 4.4

122 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.22 Noise
2.22.2 Intake noise

L/V engine
Sound power level Lw
Measurements
The (unsilenced) intake air noise is determined based on measurements at
the turbocharger test bed and on measurements in the intake duct of typical
engines at the test bed.
Octave level diagram
The expected sound power level Lw of the unsilenced intake noise in the
intake duct is below 150 dB at 100 % MCR.
The octave level diagram below represents an envelope of averaged meas-
ured spectra for comparable engines and is a conservative spectrum conse-
quently. The data will change depending on the acoustical properties of the
environment.
Charge air blow-off noise
Charge air blow-off noise is not considered in the measurements, see below.
These data are required and valid only for ducted air intake systems. The
data are not valid if the standard air filter silencer is attached to the turbo-
charger.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 41: Unsilenced intake noise Sound power level Lw Octave level diagram

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 123 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.22 Noise

2.22.3 Exhaust gas noise

L engine
Sound power level Lw at 100 % MCR
Measurements
The (unsilenced) exhaust gas noise is measured according to internal MAN
Diesel & Turbo guidelines at several positions in the exhaust duct.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced exhaust gas noise in the
exhaust pipe is shown at 100 % MCR.
The octave level diagram below represents an envelope of averaged meas-
ured spectra for comparable engines and is a conservative spectrum conse-
quently. The data will change depending on the acoustical properties of the
environment.
Acoustic design
To ensure an appropriate acoustic design of the exhaust gas system, the
yard, MAN Diesel & Turbo, supplier of silencer and where necessary acoustic
consultant have to cooperate.
Waste gate blow-off noise
Waste gate blow-off noise is not considered in the measurements, see
below.
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 42: Unsilenced exhaust gas noise Sound power level Lw Octave level diagram

124 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

V engine

2.22 Noise
Sound power level Lw at 100 % MCR
Measurements
The (unsilenced) exhaust gas noise is measured according to internal MAN
Diesel & Turbo guidelines at several positions in the exhaust duct.
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced exhaust gas noise in the
exhaust pipe is shown at 100 % MCR.
The octave level diagram below represents an envelope of averaged meas-
ured spectra for comparable engines and is a conservative spectrum conse-
quently. The data will change depending on the acoustical properties of the
environment.
Acoustic design
To ensure an appropriate acoustic design of the exhaust gas system, the
yard, MAN Diesel & Turbo, supplier of silencer and where necessary acoustic
consultant have to cooperate.
Waste gate blow-off noise
Waste gate blow-off noise is not considered in the measurements, see
below.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 43: Unsilenced exhaust gas noise Sound power level Lw Octave level diagram

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 125 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.22 Noise

2.22.4 Blow-off noise example


Sound power level Lw
Measurements
The (unsilenced) charge air blow-off noise is measured according to DIN
45635, part 47 at the orifice of a duct.
Throttle body with bore size 135 mm
Expansion of charge air from 3.4 bar to ambient pressure at 42 C
Octave level diagram
The sound power level Lw of the unsilenced charge air blow-off noise is
approximately 141 dB for the measured operation point.

Figure 44: Unsilenced charge air blow-off noise Sound power level Lw Octave level diagram
2 Engine and operation

2.22.5 Noise and vibration Impact on foundation

Noise and vibration is emitted by the engine to the surrounding (see figure
Noise and vibration Impact on foundation, Page 127). The engine impact
2017-03-03 - 4.4

transferred through the engine mounting to the foundation is focussed sub-


sequently.

126 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.22 Noise
Figure 45: Noise and vibration Impact on foundation
The foundation is excited to vibrations in a wide frequency range by the
engine and by auxiliary equipment (from engine or plant). The engine is
vibrating as a rigid body. Additionally, elastic engine vibrations are superim-
posed. Elastic vibrations are either of global (e.g. complete engine bending)
or local (e.g. bending engine foot) character. If the higher frequency range is
involved, the term "structure borne noise" is used instead of "vibrations".
Mechanical engine vibrations are mainly caused by mass forces of moved
drive train components and by gas forces of the combustion process. For
structure borne noise, further excitations are relevant as well, e.g. impacts
from piston stroke and valve seating, impulsive gas force components, alter-
nating gear train meshing forces and excitations from pumps.
For the analysis of the engine noise- and vibration-impact on the surround-
ing, the complete system with engine, engine mounting, foundation and plant
has to be considered.
Engine related noise and vibration reduction measures cover e.g. counterbal-
ance weights, balancing, crankshaft design with firing sequence, component
2 Engine and operation

design etc. The remaining, inevitable engine excitation is transmitted to the


surrounding of the engine but not completely in case of a resilient engine
mounting, which is chosen according to the application-specific require-
ments. The resilient mounting isolates engine noise and vibration from its sur-
rounding to a large extend. Hence, the transmitted forces are considerably
reduced compared with a rigid mounting. Nevertheless, the engine itself is
2017-03-03 - 4.4

vibrating stronger in the low frequency range in general especially when


driving through mounting resonances.
In order to avoid resonances, it must be ensured that eigenfrequencies of
foundation and coupled plant structures have a sufficient safety margin in
relation to the engine excitations. Moreover, the foundation has to be
designed as stiff as possible in all directions at the connections to the engine.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 127 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Thus, the foundation mobility (measured according to ISO 7262) has to be as


2.22 Noise

low as possible to ensure low structure borne noise levels. For low frequen-
cies, the global connection of the foundation with the plant is focused for that
matter. The dynamic vibration behaviour of the foundation is mostly essential
for the mid frequency range. In the high frequency range, the foundation
elasticity is mainly influenced by the local design at the engine mounts. E.g.
for steel foundations, sufficient wall thicknesses and stiffening ribs at the con-
nection positions shall be provided. The dimensioning of the engine founda-
tion also has to be adjusted to other parts of the plant. For instance, it has to
be avoided that engine vibrations are amplified by alternator foundation vibra-
tions. Due to the scope of supply, the foundation design and its connection
with the plant is mostly within the responsibility of the costumer. Therefore,
the customer is responsible to involve MAN Diesel & Turbo for consultancy in
case of system-related questions with interaction of engine, foundation and
plant. The following information is available for MAN Diesel & Turbo custom-
ers, some on special request:
Residual external forces and couples (Project Guide)
Resulting from the summation of all mass forces from the moving drive
train components. All engine components are considered rigidly in the
calculation. The residual external forces and couples are only transferred
completely to the foundation in case of a rigid mounting, see above.
Static torque fluctuation (Project Guide)
Static torque fluctuations result from the summation of gas and mass
forces acting on the crank drive. All components are considered rigidly in
the calculation. These couples are acting on the foundation dependent
on the applied engine mounting, see above.
Mounting forces (project-specific)
The mounting dimensioning calculation is specific to a project and
defines details of the engine mounting. Mounting forces acting on the
foundation are part of the calculation results. Gas and mass forces are
considered for the excitation. The engine is considered as one rigid body
with elastic mounts. Thus, elastic engine vibrations are not implemented.
Reference measurements for engine crankcase vibrations according to
ISO 108166 (project-specific)
Reference testbed measurements for structure borne noise (project-spe-
cific)
Measuring points are positioned according to ISO 13332 on the engine
feet above and below the mounting elements. Structure borne noise lev-
els above elastic mounts mainly depend on the engine itself. Whereas
structure borne noise levels below elastic mounts strongly depend on the
foundation design. A direct transfer of the results from the testbed foun-
dation to the plant foundation is not easily possible even with the con-
2 Engine and operation

sideration of testbed mobilities. The results of testbed foundation mobility


measurements according to ISO 7626 are available as a reference on
request as well.
Dynamic transfer stiffness properties of resilient mounts (supplier infor-
mation, project-specific)
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Beside the described interaction of engine, foundation and plant with transfer
through the engine mounting to the foundation, additional transfer paths
need to be considered. For instance with focus on the elastic coupling of the
drive train, the exhaust pipe, other pipes and supports etc. Besides the
engine, other sources of noise and vibration need to be considered as well
(e.g. auxiliary equipment, propeller, thruster).

128 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.23 Vibration
2.23 Vibration

2.23.1 Torsional vibrations

Data required for torsional vibration calculation


MAN Diesel & Turbo calculates the torsional vibrations behaviour for each
individual engine plant of their supply to determine the location and severity
of resonance points. If necessary, appropriate measures will be taken to
avoid excessive stresses due to torsional vibration. These investigations
cover the ideal normal operation of the engine (all cylinders are firing equally)
as well as the simulated emergency operation (misfiring of the cylinder exert-
ing the greatest influence on vibrations, acting against compression). Besides
the natural frequencies and the modes also the dynamic response will be
calculated, normally under consideration of the 1st to 24th harmonic of the
gas and mass forces of the engine.
Beyond that also further exciting sources such as propeller, pumps etc. can
be considered if the respective manufacturer is able to make the corre-
sponding data available to MAN Diesel & Turbo.
If necessary, a torsional vibration calculation will be worked out which can be
submitted for approval to a classification society or a legal authority.
To carry out the torsional vibration calculation following particulars and/or
documents are required.

General
Type (GenSet, diesel-mechanic, diesel-electric)
Arrangement of the whole system including all engine-driven equipment
Definition of the operating modes
Maximum power consumption of the individual working machines

Engine
Rated output, rated speed
Kind of engine load (fixed pitch propeller, controllable pitch propeller,
combinator curve, operation with reduced speed at excessive load)
Kind of mounting of the engine (can influence the determination of the
flexible coupling)
Operational speed range
2 Engine and operation

Flexible coupling
Make, size and type
Rated torque (Nm)
Possible application factor

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Maximum speed (rpm)


Permissible maximum torque for passing through resonance (Nm)
Permissible shock torque for short-term loads (Nm)
Permanently permissible alternating torque (Nm) including influencing
factors (frequency, temperature, mean torque)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 129 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Permanently permissible power loss (W) including influencing factors (fre-


quency, temperature)
2.23 Vibration

Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad) including influencing factors (load,


frequency, temperature), if applicable
Relative damping () including influencing factors (load, frequency, tem-
perature), if applicable
Moment of inertia (kgm2) for all parts of the coupling
Dynamic stiffness in radial, axial and angular direction
Permissible relative motions in radial, axial and angular direction, perma-
nent and maximum
Maximum permissible torque which can be transferred through a get-
you-home-device/torque limiter if foreseen

Clutch coupling
Make, size and type
Rated torque (Nm)
Permissible maximum torque (Nm)
Permanently permissible alternating torque (Nm) including influencing
factors (frequency, temperature, mean torque)
Dynamic torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Damping factor
Moments of inertia for the operation conditions, clutched and declutched
Course of torque versus time during clutching in
Permissible slip time (s)
Slip torque (Nm)
Maximum permissible engagement speed (rpm)

Gearbox
Make and type
Torsional multi mass system including the moments of inertia and the
torsional stiffness, preferably related to the individual speed; in case of
related figures, specification of the relation speed is required
Gear ratios (number of teeth, speeds)
Possible operating conditions (different gear ratios, clutch couplings)
Permissible alternating torques in the gear meshes

Shaft line
2 Engine and operation

Drawing including all information about length and diameter of the shaft
sections as well as the material
Alternatively torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)

Propeller
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Kind of propeller (fixed pitch or controllable pitch propeller)


Moment of inertia in air (kgm2)
Moment of inertia in water (kgm2); for controllable pitch propellers also in
dependence on pitch; for twin-engine plants separately for single- and
twin-engine operation
Relation between load and pitch

130 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Number of blades

2.23 Vibration
Diameter (mm)
Possible torsional excitation in % of the rated torque for the 1st and the
2nd blade-pass frequency

Pump
Kind of pump (e.g. dredging pump)
Drawing of the pump shaft with all lengths and diameters
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Moment of inertia in air (kgm2)
Moment of inertia in operation (kgm2) under consideration of the con-
veyed medium
Number of blades
Possible torsional excitation in % of the rated torque for the 1st and the
2nd blade-pass frequency
Power consumption curve

Alternator for diesel-electric plants


Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths and diameters
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Moment of inertia of the parts mounted to the shaft (kgm2)
Electrical output (kVA) including power factor cos and efficiency
Or mechanical output (kW)
Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling and full load in dependence
on frequency, reference torque
Island or parallel mode
Load profile (e.g. load steps)
Frequency fluctuation of the net

Alternator for diesel-mechanical parts (e.g. PTO/PTH)


Drawing of the alternator shaft with all lengths and diameters
Torsional stiffness, if available
Moment of inertia of the parts mounted to the shaft (kgm2)
Electrical output (kVA) including power factor cos and efficiency
Or mechanical output (kW)
Complex synchronizing coefficients for idling and full load in dependence
2 Engine and operation

on frequency, reference torque

Secondary power take-off


Kind of working machine

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Kind of drive
Operational mode, operation speed range
Power consumption
Drawing of the shafts with all lengths and diameters
Alternatively, torsional stiffness (Nm/rad)
Moments of inertia (kgm2)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 131 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Possible torsional excitation in size and frequency in dependence on load


and speed
2.24 Requirements for power drive connection (static)

2.24 Requirements for power drive connection (static)

Limit values of masses to be coupled after the engine


Evaluation of permissible
theoretical bearing loads

Figure 46: Case A: Overhung arrangement

Figure 47: Case B: Rigid coupling

Mmax = F * a = F3 * x3 + F4 * x4 F1 = (F3 * x2 + F5 * x1)/l

F1 Theoretical bearing force at the external engine bearing

F2 Theoretical bearing force at the alternator bearing


2 Engine and operation

F3 Flywheel weight

F4 Coupling weight acting on the engine, including reset forces

F5 Rotor weight of the alternator


2017-03-03 - 4.4

a Distance between end of coupling flange and centre of outer crankshaft


bearing

l Distance between centre of outer crankshaft bearing and alternator bearing

132 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine Distance a Case A Case B

2.24 Requirements for power drive connection (static)


Mmax = F * a F1 max
mm kNm kN
L engine 530 80 1) 140

V engine 560 105 180


1)
Inclusive of couples resulting from restoring forces of the coupling.
Table 90: Example calculation case A and B

Distance between engine seating surface and crankshaft centre line:


L engine: 700 mm
V engine: 830 mm
Note:
Changes may be necessary as a result of the torsional vibration calculation
or special service conditions.

Note:
Masses which are connected downstream of the engine in the case of an
overhung or rigidly coupled, arrangement result in additional crankshaft
bending stress, which is mirrored in a measured web deflection during
engine installation.
Provided the limit values for the masses to be coupled downstream of the
engine (permissible values for Mmax and F1max) are complied with, the permit-
ted web deflections will not be exceeded during assembly.
Observing these values ensures a sufficiently long operating time before a
realignment of the crankshaft has to be carried out.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 133 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

2.25.1 Moments of inertia Crankshaft, damper, flywheel

Propeller operation (CPP)


Marine main engines
Engine Plant
No. of Maximum Moment of Moment of Mass of fly- Required minimum Required minimum
cylinders, continuous inertia crank- inertia fly- wheel total moment of iner- additional moment of
config. rating shaft + wheel tia1) inertia after flywheel2)
damper
[kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] [kgm2] [kgm2]
n = 500 rpm
6L 7,200 2,633 3,102 5,324 3,290 -

7L 8,400 3,412 3,840 -

8L 9,600 3,737 1,259 2,308 4,390 -

9L 10,800 3,565 3,102 5,324 4,940 -

12V 14,400 4,624 2,935 4,309 6,580 -

14V 16,800 5,196 2,935 4,309 7,670 -

16V 19,200 5,768 2,935 4,309 8,770 67

18V 21,600 6,340 2,935 4,309 9,860 585


1)
Required minimum moment of inertia of engine, flywheel and arrangement after flywheel in total.
2)
Required additional moment of inertia after flywheel to achieve the required minimum total moment of inertia.
Table 91: Moments of inertia for marine main engine MAN 48/60CR Crankshaft, damper, flywheel

For flywheels dimensions see section Power transmission, Page 142.


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

134 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Constant speed

2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)


Marine main engine
Engine Required Plant
minimum
No. of Maximum Moment of Moment of Mass of fly- Cyclic irregu- total moment Required minimum
cylinders, continuous inertia crank- inertia fly- wheel larity of inertia1) additional moment
config. rating shaft + wheel of inertia after fly-
damper wheel2)
[kW] [kgm2] [kgm2] [kg] [kgm2] [kgm2]
n = 500 rpm

6L 7,200 2,633 3,102 5,324 1/49 8,760 3,025

7L 8,400 3,412 1/52 10,220 3,706

8L 9,600 3,737 1,259 2,308 1/27 11,680 6,473

9L 10,800 3,565 3,102 5,324 1/57 13,140 6,548

12V 14,400 4,624 2,935 4,309 1/83 17,520 9,961

14V 16,800 5,196 2,935 4,309 1/111 20,430 12,299

16V 19,200 5,768 2,935 4,309 1/76 23,350 14,647

18V 21,600 6,340 2,935 4,309 1/93 26,270 16,995

n = 514 rpm

6L 7,200 2,633 3,102 5,324 1/52 8,290 2,555

7L 8,400 3,412 1/57 9,670 3,156

8L 9,600 3,737 1,259 2,308 1/27 11,050 6,054

9L 10,800 3,565 3,102 5,324 1/62 12,430 5,763

12V 14,400 4,624 2,935 4,309 1/89 16,570 9,011

14V 16,800 5,196 2,935 4,309 1/108 19,340 11,209

16V 19,200 5,768 2,935 4,309 1/79 22,100 13,397

18V 21,600 6,340 2,935 4,309 1/98 24,860 15,585


1)
Required minimum moment of inertia of engine, flywheel and arrangement after flywheel in total.
2)
Required additional moment of inertia after flywheel to achieve the required minimum total moment of inertia.
Table 92: Moments of inertia for diesel-electric plants Crankshaft, damper, flywheel

For flywheels dimensions see section Power transmission, Page 142.


2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 135 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

2.25.2 Balancing of masses Firing order


Certain cylinder numbers have unbalanced forces and couples due to crank
diagram. These forces and couples cause dynamic effects on the foundation.
Due to a balancing of masses the forces and couples are reduced. In the fol-
lowing tables the remaining forces and couples are displayed.

L engine
Rotating crank balance: 100 %
No. of Firing order Residual external couples
cylinders,
config. Mrot (kNm) + Mosc 1st order (kNm) Mosc 2nd order (kNm)

Engine speed (rpm) 500


vertical horizontal

6L A 0 0

7L C 93.4

8L B 0

9L B 28.9 28.9 158.2


Table 93: Residual external couples L engine 500 rpm

No. of Firing order Residual external couples


cylinders,
config. Mrot (kNm) + Mosc 1st order (kNm) Mosc 2nd order (kNm)

Engine speed (rpm) 514


vertical horizontal

6L A 0 0 0

7L C - - 98.7

8L B 0

9L B 30.6 30.6 167.1


Table 94: Residual external couples L engine 514 rpm

For engines of type MAN 48/60CR the external mass forces are equal to
zero.
Mrot is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted
2 Engine and operation

engines.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

136 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Firing order: Counted from

2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)


coupling side
No. of Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation
cylinders,
config.
6L A 1-3-5-6-4-2 1-2-4-6-5-3

7L C1) 1-2-4-6-7-5-3 1-3-5-7-6-4-2

8L B 1-4-7-6-8-5-2-3 1-3-2-5-8-6-7-4

9L B 1-6-3-2-8-7-4-9-5 1-5-9-4-7-8-2-3-6
1)
Irregular firing order.
Table 95: Firing order L engine

V engine
Rotating crank balance: 99 %

No. of Firing order Residual external couples


cylinders,
config. Mrot (kNm) + Mosc 1st order (kNm) Mosc 2nd order (kNm)

Engine speed (rpm) 500


vertical horizontal vertical horizontal

12V A 0 0

14V C 133.9 74.4

16V B 0

18V A 70.1 70.1 78.7 43.7


Table 96: Residual external couples V engine 500 rpm

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 137 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. of Firing order Residual external couples


2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

cylinders,
config. Mrot (kNm) + Mosc 1st order (kNm) Mosc 2nd order (kNm)

Engine speed (rpm) 514


vertical horizontal vertical horizontal

12V A 0 0

14V C 141.5 78.6

16V B 0

18V A 74.1 74.1 83.2 46.2


Table 97: Residual external couples V engine 514 rpm

For engines of type MAN 48/60CR the external mass forces are equal to
zero.
Mrot is eliminated by means of balancing weights on resiliently mounted
engines.
Firing order: Counted from
coupling side
No. of Firing order Clockwise rotation Counter clockwise rotation
cylinders,
config.
12V A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A6-B6-A4-B4-A2-B2 A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B5-A5-B3-A3-B1

14V C 1)
A1-B1-A2-B2-A4-B4-A6-B6-A7-B7-A5- A1-B3-A3-B5-A5-B7-A7-B6-A6-B4-A4-
B5-A3-B3 B2-A2-B1

16V B A1-B1-A4-B4-A7-B7-A6-B6-A8-B8-A5- A1-B3-A3-B2-A2-B5-A5-B8-A8-B6-A6-


B5-A2-B2-A3-B3 B7-A7-B4-A4-B1

18V A A1-B1-A3-B3-A5-B5-A7-B7-A9-B9-A8- A1-B2-A2-B4-A4-B6-A6-B8-A8-B9-A9-


B8-A6-B6-A4-B4-A2-B2 B7-A7-B5-A5-B3-A3-B1
1)
Irregular firing order.
Table 98: Firing order V engine
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

138 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)


2.25.3 Static torque fluctuation

General
The static torque fluctuation is the summation of the torques acting at all
cranks around the crankshaft axis taking into account the correct phase-
angles. These torques are created by the gas and mass forces acting at the
crankpins, with the crank radius being used as the lever. An rigid crankshaft
is assumed.
The values Tmax. and Tmin. listed in the following table(s) represent a measure
for the reaction forces of the engine. The reaction forces generated by the
torque fluctuation are dependent on speed and cylinder number and give a
contribution to the excitations transmitted into the foundation see figure
Static torque fluctuation, Page 139 and the table(s) in this section. According
to different mountings these forces are reduced.
In order to avoid local vibration excitations in the vessel, it must be ensured
that the natural frequencies of important part structures (e.g. panels, bulk-
heads, tank walls and decks, equipment and its foundation, pipe systems)
have a sufficient safety margin (if possible 30 %) in relation to all engine
excitation frequencies.

Figure 48: Static torque fluctuation


2 Engine and operation

L Distance between foundation bolts


2017-03-03 - 4.4

z Number of cylinders

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 139 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequencies


2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)

L engine Example to
declare abbreviations

Figure 49: Example to declare abbreviations L engine

No. of Output Speed Tn Tmax. Tmin. Main exciting components1)


cylinders,
config. Order Frequency T
kW rpm kNm kNm kNm rpm Hz kNm
6L 7,200 500 137.5 311.6 37.2 3.0 25.0 128.8
6.0 50.0 68.1

7L 8,400 160.4 478.9 127.0 3.5 29.2 283.6


7.0 58.3 42.6

8L 9,600 183.3 446.3 62.5 4.0 33.3 244.9


8.0 66.7 21.7

9L 10,800 206.3 440.3 9.9 4.5 37.5 226.5


9.0 75.0 10.9

6L 7,200 514 133.8 298.0 33.7 3.0 25.7 118.0


6.0 51.4 69.5

7L 8,400 156.1 480.9 128.7 3.5 30.0 280.7


2 Engine and operation

7.0 60.0 43.5

8L 9,600 178.4 437.6 64.1 4.0 34.3 241.8


8.0 68.5 22.9

9L 10,800 200.6 434.4 14.1 4.5 38.5 225.1


2017-03-03 - 4.4

9.0 77.1 11.7


1)
Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components.
Table 99: Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequency L engine

140 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

V engine Example to

2.25 Requirements for power drive connection (dynamic)


declare abbreviations

Figure 50: Example to declare abbreviation V engine

No. of Output Speed Tn Tmax. Tmin. Main exciting components


cylinders,
config. Order Frequency1) T
kW rpm kNm kNm kNm rpm Hz kNm
12V 14,400 500 275.0 448.5 117.6 3.0 25.0 68.8
6.0 50.0 117.7

14V 16,800 320.9 430.8 193.7 3.5 29.2 24.5


7.0 58.3 78.7

16V 19,200 366.7 459.7 255.9 4.0 33.3 83.8


8.0 66.7 34.9

18V 21,600 412.5 577.9 231.8 4.5 37.5 174.3


9.0 75.0 8.4

12V 14,400 514 267.5 438.3 115.8 3.0 25.7 62.7


6.0 51.4 118.9

14V 16,800 312.1 424.1 183.9 3.5 30.0 24.3


2 Engine and operation

7.0 60.0 80.6

16V 19,200 356.7 451.6 244.8 4.0 34.3 83.1


8.0 68.5 37.0
2017-03-03 - 4.4

18V 21,600 401.3 565.7 220.7 4.5 38.5 174.0


9.0 77.1 9.3
1)
Exciting frequency of the main harmonic components.
Table 100: Static torque fluctuation and exciting frequency V engine

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 141 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.26 Power transmission

2.26 Power transmission

2.26.1 Flywheel arrangement

Flywheel with flexible coupling

Figure 51: Flywheel with flexible coupling

No. of A1) A2) E E Fmin Fmax No. of through bolts No. of fitted bolts
cylinders,
config. mm

6L Dimensions will result from clarification of technical details 9 3


of propulsion drive
7L

8L
2 Engine and operation

9L
1)
Without torsional limit device.
2)
With torsional limit device.
For mass of flywheel see section Moments of inertia Crankshaft, damper, flywheel, Page 134.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Note:
The flexible coupling will be part of MAN Diesel & Turbo supply and thus we
will produce a contract specific flywheel/coupling/driven machine arrange-
ment drawing giving all necessary installation dimensions. Final dimensions
of flywheel and flexible coupling will result from clarification of technical
details of drive and from the result of the torsional vibration calculation. Fly-
wheel diameter must not be changed.

142 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.26 Power transmission


Figure 52: Flywheel with flexible coupling

No. of A1) A2) E1) E2) Fmin Fmax No. of through bolts No. of fitted bolts
cylinders,
config. mm

12V Dimensions will result from clarification of technical details 12 2


of propulsion drive
14V

16V

18V 14
1)
Without torsional limit device.
2 Engine and operation

2)
With torsional limit device.
For mass of flywheel Moments of inertia Crankshaft, damper, flywheel, Page 134.

Note:
The flexible coupling will be part of MAN Diesel & Turbo supply and thus we
2017-03-03 - 4.4

will produce a contract specific flywheel/coupling/driven machine arrange-


ment drawing giving all necessary installation dimensions. Final dimensions
of flywheel and flexible coupling will result from clarification of technical
details of drive and from the result of the torsional vibration calculation. Fly-
wheel diameter must not be changed.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 143 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Flywheel arrangement coupling and gearbox


2.26 Power transmission

Figure 53: Example for an arrangement of flywheel, coupling and gearbox


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

144 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Flywheel arrangement coupling and alternator

2.27 Arrangement of attached pumps


Figure 54: Example for an arrangement of flywheel, coupling and alternator

2.27 Arrangement of attached pumps

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 55: Attached pumps L engine

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 145 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

Figure 56: Attached pumps V engine

Note:
The final arrangement of the lube oil and cooling water pumps will be made
at inquiry or order.

2.28 Foundation

2.28.1 General requirements for engine foundation

Plate thicknesses
The stated material dimensions are recommendations, calculated for steel
plates. Thicknesses smaller than these are not permissible. When using other
materials (e.g. aluminium), a sufficient margin has to be added.

Top plates
Before or after having been welded in place, the bearing surfaces should be
machined and freed from rolling scale. Surface finish corresponding to Ra
2 Engine and operation

3.2 peak-to-valley roughness in the area of the chocks shall be accom-


plished.
The thickness given is the finished size after machining.
Downward inclination outwards, not exceeding 0.7 %.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Prior to fitting the chocks, clean the bearing surfaces from dirt and rust that
may have formed. After the drilling of the foundation bolt holes, spotface the
lower contact face normal to the bolt hole.

146 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Foundation girders

2.28 Foundation
The distance of the inner girders must be observed. We recommend that the
distance of the outer girders (only required for larger types) is observed as
well.
The girders must be aligned exactly above and underneath the tank top.

Floor plates
No manholes are permitted in the floor plates in the area of the box-shaped
foundation. Welding is to be carried out through the manholes in the outer
girders.

Top plate supporting


Provide support in the area of the frames from the nearest girder below.

Dynamic foundation requirements


The eigenfrequencies of the foundation and the supporting structures,
including GenSet weight (without engine) shall be higher than 20 Hz. Occa-
sionally, even higher foundation eigenfrequencies are required. For further
information refer to section Noise and vibration Impact on foundation, Page
126.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 147 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

2.28.2 Rigid seating

L engine
Recommended configuration
of foundation
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 57: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine

148 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Recommended configuration

2.28 Foundation
of foundation Number of
bolts

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 58: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine Number of bolts

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 149 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Arrangement of foundation
2.28 Foundation

bolt holes
2 Engine and operation

Figure 59: Arrangement of foundation bolt holes L engine


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on starboard side or portside.


In any case they have to be positioned on the coupling side.
Number and position of the stoppers have to be provided according to the
figure above.

150 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

12V, 14V, 16V engine

2.28 Foundation
Recommended configuration
of foundation

2 Engine and operation

Figure 60: Recommended configuration of foundation 12V, 14V, 16V engine


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 151 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

18V engine
2.28 Foundation

Recommended configuration
of foundation
2 Engine and operation

Figure 61: Recommended configuration of foundation 18V engine


2017-03-03 - 4.4

152 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

V engine

2.28 Foundation
Recommended configuration
of foundation Number of
bolts

2 Engine and operation

Figure 62: Recommended configuration of foundation V engine Number of bolts


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 153 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Arrangement of foundation
2.28 Foundation

bolt holes

Figure 63: Arrangement of foundation bolt holes V engine


2 Engine and operation

Two fitted bolts have to be provided either on starboard side or portside.


In any case they have to be positioned on the coupling side.
Number and position of the stoppers have to be provided according to the
figure above.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

154 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
2.28.3 Chocking with synthetic resin
Most classification societies permit the use of the following synthetic resins
for chocking diesel engines:
Chockfast Orange
(Philadelphia Resins Corp. U.S.A)
Epocast 36
(H.A. Springer, Kiel)
MAN Diesel & Turbo accepts engines being chocked with synthetic resin
provided:
If processing is done by authorised agents of the above companies.
If the classification society responsible has approved the synthetic resin
to be used for a unit pressure (engine weight + foundation bolt preload-
ing) of 450 N/cm2 and a chock temperature of at least 80 C.
The loaded area of the chocks must be dimensioned in a way, that the pres-
sure effected by the engines dead weight does not exceed 70 N/cm2
(requirement of some classification societies).
The pretensioning force of the foundation bolts was chosen so that the per-
missible total surface area load of 450 N/cm2 is not exceeded. This will
ensure that the horizontal thrust resulting from the mass forces is safely
transmitted by the chocks.
The shipyard is responsible for the execution and must also grant the war-
ranty.
Tightening of the foundation bolts only permissible with hydraulic tensioning
device. The point of application of force is the end of the thread with a length
of 173 mm. Nuts definitely must not be tightened with hook spanner and
hammer, even for later inspections.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 155 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Tightening of foundation bolts


2.28 Foundation

Figure 64: Hydraulic tension device

Hydraulic tension device L engine V engine

Tool number - 009.062 009.010


055.125 021.089

Piston area cm 130.18 78.5

Maximum pump pressure bar 1200 800


Table 101: Hydraulic tension tool

The tensioning tools with tensioning nut and pressure sleeve are included in
the standard scope of supply of tools for the engine
Dedicated installation values (e.g. pre-tensioning forces) will be given in the
costumer documentation specific to each project.
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

156 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 65: Chocking with synthetic resin L engine

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 157 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 66: Chocking with synthetic resin 12V, 14V, 16V

158 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
Figure 67: Chocking with synthetic resin 18V
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 159 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

2.28.4 Resilient seating

General
The vibration of the engine causes dynamic effects on the foundation. These
effects are attributed to the pulsating reaction forces due to the fluctuating
torque. Additionally, in engines with certain cylinder numbers these effects
are increased by unbalanced forces and couples brought about by rotating
or reciprocating masses which considering their vector sum do not
equate to zero.
The direct resilient support makes it possible to reduce the dynamic forces
acting on the foundation, which are generated by every reciprocating engine
and may under adverse conditions have harmful effects on the environ-
ment of the engine.
With respect to large engines (bore > 400 mm) MAN Diesel & Turbo offers
two different versions of the resilient mounting (one using conical the other
inclined sandwich elements).
The inclined resilient mounting was developed especially for ships with high
comfort demands, e.g. passenger ferries and cruise vessels. This mounting
system is characterised by natural frequencies of the resiliently supported
engine being lower than approximately 7 Hz. The resonances are located
away from the excitation frequencies related to operation at nominal speed.
For average demands of comfort, e.g. for merchant ships, and for smaller
engines (bore < 400 mm) mountings using conical mounts can be judged as
being fully sufficient. Because of the stiffer design of the elements the natural
frequencies of the system are significantly higher than in case of the inclined
resilient mounting. The natural frequencies of engines mounted with this kind
of mounts are lower than approximately 18 Hz. The vibration isolation is thus
of lower quality. It is however, still considerably better than a rigid or semi
resilient engine support.
The appropriate design of the resilient support will be selected in accordance
with the demands of the customer, i.e. it will be adjusted to the special
requirements of each plant.
In both versions the supporting elements will be connected directly to the
engine feet by special brackets.
The number, rubber hardness and distribution of the supporting elements
depend on:
The weight of the engine
The centre of gravity of the engine
2 Engine and operation

The desired natural frequencies


Where resilient mounting is applied, the following has to be taken into con-
sideration when designing a propulsion plant:
Resilient mountings always feature several resonances resulting from the
natural mounting frequencies. In spite of the endeavour to keep resonan-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

ces as far as possible from nominal speed the lower bound of the speed
range free from resonances will rarely be lower than 70 % of nominal
speed for mountings using inclined mounts and rarely lower than 85 %
for mountings using conical mounts. It must be pointed out that these
percentages are only guide values. The speed interval being free from
resonances may be larger or smaller. These restrictions in speed will
mostly require the deployment of a controllable pitch propeller.

160 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Between the resiliently mounted engine and the rigidly mounted gearbox
or alternator, a flexible coupling with minimum axial and radial elastic

2.28 Foundation
forces and large axial and radial displacement capacities should be provi-
ded.
The media connections (compensators) to and from the engine must be
highly flexible whereas the fixations of the compensators on the one
hand with the engine and on the other hand with the environment must
be realised as stiff as possible.
For the inclined resilient support, provision for stopper elements has to
be made because of the sea-state-related movement of the vessel. In
the case of conical mounting, these stoppers are integrated in the ele-
ment.
In order to achieve a good vibration isolation, the lower brackets used to
connect the supporting elements with the ship's foundation are to be fit-
ted at sufficiently rigid points of the foundation. Influences of the founda-
tion's stiffness on the natural frequencies of the resilient support of the
engine will not be considered in the mounting design calculation.
The yard must specify with which inclination related to the plane keel the
engine will be installed in the ship. The inclination must be defined and
communicated before entering the dimensioning process.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 161 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

2.28.5 Recommended configuration of foundation

Engine mounting using inclined sandwich elements


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 68: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine, resilient seating 1

162 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation

Figure 69: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine, resilient seating 2


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 163 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo

12V, 14V and 16V engine


2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 70: Recommended configuration of foundation 12V, 14V and 16V engine, resilient seating

164 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

18 V engine

2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 71: Recommended configuration of foundation 18 V engine, resilient seating

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 165 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

Figure 72: Recommended configuration of foundation V engine, resilient seating


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

166 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

Engine mounting using conical mounts

2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 73: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine, resilient seating 1

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 167 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation

Figure 74: Recommended configuration of foundation L engine, resilient seating 2


2 Engine and operation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

168 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 75: Recommended configuration of foundation V engine Resilient seating 1

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 169 (433)
2 MAN Diesel & Turbo
2.28 Foundation
2 Engine and operation

Figure 76: Recommended configuration of foundation V engine Resilient seating 2


2017-03-03 - 4.4

170 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 2

2.28 Foundation
2.28.6 Engine alignment
The alignment of the engine to the attached power train is crucial for trouble-
free operation.
Dependent on the plant installation influencing factors on the alignment might
be:
Thermal expansion of the foundations
Thermal expansion of the engine, alternator or the gearbox
Thermal expansion of the rubber elements in the case of resilient mount-
ing
The settling behaviour of the resilient mounting
Shaft misalignment under pressure
Necessary axial pre-tensioning of the flex-coupling
Therefore take care that a special alignment calculation, resulting in align-
ment tolerance limits will be carried out.
Follow the relevant working instructions of this specific engine type. Align-
ment tolerance limits must not be exceeded.

2 Engine and operation


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 171 (433)
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

3 Engine automation

3.1 SaCoSone system overview


3.1 SaCoSone system overview

Figure 77: SaCoSone system overview

1 Control Unit 4 Local Operating Panel

2 Injection Unit (for common rail engines) 5 Interface Cabinet

3 System Bus 6 Remote Operating Panel (Optional)

The monitoring and safety system SaCoSone is responsible for complete


engine operation, control, alarming and safety. All sensors and operating
3 Engine automation

devices are wired to the engine-attached units. The interface to the plant is
done by means of an Interface Cabinet.
During engine installation, only the bus connections, the power supply and
safety-related signal cables between the Control Unit and the Interface Cabi-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

net are to be laid, as well as connections to external modules, electrical


motors on the engine and parts on site.
The SaCoSone design is based on highly reliable and approved components
as well as modules specially designed for installation on medium speed
engines. The used components are harmonised to an homogenous system.
The system has already been tested and parameterised in the factory.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 173 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

SaCoSone Control Unit


3.1 SaCoSone system overview

The Control Unit is attached to the engine cushioned against any vibration. It
includes two identical, highly integrated Control Modules: One for safety
functions and the other one for engine control and alarming.
The modules work independently of each other and collect engine measuring
data by means of separate sensors.

Figure 78: SaCoSone Control Unit


3 Engine automation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

174 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

SaCoSone Injection Unit

3.1 SaCoSone system overview


The Injection Unit is attached to the engine cushioned against any vibration.
Depending on the usage of the engine, it includes one or two identical, highly
integrated Injection Modules.
The Injection Module is used for speed control and for the actuation of the
injection valves.
For engines supplied with two modules, the second one serves as backup
and takes over the speed control and the control of the injection valves with-
out interruption in case of an error in the first module.

Figure 79: SaCoSone Injection Unit

3 Engine automation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 175 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

SaCoSone System Bus


3.1 SaCoSone system overview

The SaCoSone System Bus connects all system modules. This redundant field
bus system provides the basis of data exchange between the modules and
allows the takeover of redundant measuring values from other modules in
case of a sensor failure.
SaCoSone is connected to the plant by the Gateway Module. This module is
equipped with decentral input and output channels as well as with different
interfaces for connection to the plant/ship automation, the Remote Operating
Panel and the online service.

Figure 80: SaCoSone System Bus


3 Engine automation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

176 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

Local Operating Panel

3.1 SaCoSone system overview


The engine is equipped with a Local Operating Panel cushioned against
vibration. This panel is equipped with a TFT display for visualisation of all
engine operating and measuring data. At the Local Operating Panel the
engine can be fully operated. Additional hardwired switches are available for
relevant functions.
Propulsion engines are equipped with a backup display as shown on top of
the Local Operating Panel. Generator engines are not equipped with this
backup display.

Figure 81: Local Operating Panel

3 Engine automation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 177 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Interface Cabinet
3.1 SaCoSone system overview

The Interface Cabinet is the interface between the engine electronics and the
plant control. It is the central connecting point for 24 V DC power supply to
the engine from the vessel's power distribution.
Besides, it connects the engine safety and control system with the power
management, propulsion control and other periphery parts.
The supply of the SaCoSone subsystems is done by the Interface Cabinet.
The Interface Cabinet also includes the starters for the engine-attached cylin-
der lube oil pump(s) and the temeprature control valves .

Figure 82: Interface Cabinet


3 Engine automation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

178 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

Remote Operating Panel (optional)

3.1 SaCoSone system overview


The Remote Operating Panel serves for engine operation from a control
room. The Remote Operating Panel has the same functions as the Local
Operating Panel.
From this operating device it is possible to transfer the engine operation
functions to a superior automatic system (propulsion control system, power
management).
In plants with integrated automation systems, this panel can be replaced by
IAS.
The panel can be delivered as loose supply for installation in the control room
desk or integrated in the front door of the Interface Cabinet.

Figure 83: Remote Operating Panel (optional)


3 Engine automation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 179 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Extension Unit
3.2 Power supply and distribution

The Extension Unit provides additional I/O for the leakage monitoring sensors
and the sensors of the Variable Valve Timing. The Extension Unit is directly
mounted on the engine.

Figure 84: Extension Unit

3.2 Power supply and distribution


The plant has to provide electric power for the automation and monitoring
system. In general an uninterrupted 24 V DC power supply is required for
SaCoSone.
For marine main engines, an uninterrupted power supply (UPS) is required
which must be provided by two individual supply networks. According to
classification requirements it must be designed to guarantee the power sup-
ply to the connected systems for a sufficiently long period if both supply net-
works fail.
3 Engine automation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

180 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

3.2 Power supply and distribution


Figure 85: Supply diagram

Galvanic isolation
It is important that at least one of the two 24 V DC power supplies per
engine is foreseen as isolated unit with earth fault monitoring to improve the
localisation of possible earth faults. This isolated unit can either be the UPS-
buffered 24 V DC power supply or the 24 V DC power supply without UPS.
Example:
The following overviews shows the exemplary layout for a plant consisting of
four engines. In this example the 24 V DC power supply without UPS is the
isolated unit. The UPS-buffered 24 V DC power supply is used for several
3 Engine automation

engines. In this case there must be the possibility to disconnect the UPS
from each engine (e.g. via double-pole circuit breaker) for earth fault detec-
tion.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 181 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo
3.2 Power supply and distribution

Figure 86: Wrong installation of the 24 V DC power supplies


3 Engine automation

2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 87: Correct installation of the 24 V DC power supplies

182 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

Required power supplies

3.3 Operation
Voltage Consumer Notes
24 V DC SaCoSone All SaCoSone components in the Interface
Cabinet and on the engine

230 V 50/60 Hz SaCoSone Interface Cabinet Cabinet illumination, socket, anticondensa-


tion heater

440 V 50/60 Hz SaCoSone Interface Cabinet Power supply for consumers on engine (e.g.
cylinder lubricator)
Table 102: Required power supplies

3.3 Operation

Control Station Changeover


The operation and control can be done from both operating panels. Selec-
tion and activation of the control stations is possible at the Local Operating
Panel. On the displays, all the measuring points acquired by means of
SaCoSone can be shown in clearly arranged drawings and figures. It is not
necessary to install additional speed indicators separately.
The operating rights can be handed over from the Remote Operating Panel
to another Remote Operating Panel or to an external automatic system.
Therefore a handshake is necessary.
For applications with Integrated Automation Systems (IAS) also the function-
ality of the Remote Operating Panel can be taken over by the IAS.

3 Engine automation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Figure 88: Control station changeover

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 183 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Speed setting
3.4 Functionality

In case of operating with one of the SaCoSone panels, the engine speed set-
ting is carried out manually by a decrease/increase switch button. If the oper-
ation is controlled by an external system, the speed setting can be done
either by means of binary contacts (e.g. for synchronisation) or by an active
4 20 mA analogue signal alternatively. The signal type for this is to be
defined in the project planning period.

Operating modes
For alternator applications:
Droop (5-percent speed increase between nominal load and no load)
For propulsion engines:
Isochronous
Master/Slave Operation for operation of two engines on one gear box
The operating mode is pre-selected via the SaCoSone interface and has to be
defined during the application period.
Details regarding special operating modes on request.

3.4 Functionality

Safety functions
The safety system monitors all operating data of the engine and initiates the
required actions, i.e. load reduction or engine shutdown, in case any limit val-
ues are exceeded. The safety system is separated into Control Module and
Gateway Module. The Control Module supervises the engine, while the Gate-
way Module examines all functions relevant for the security of the connected
plant components.
The system is designed to ensure that all functions are achieved in accord-
ance with the classification societies' requirements for marine main engines.
The safety system directly influences the emergency shut-down and the
speed control.
In addition to the provisions made to permit the internal initiation of demands,
binary and analogue channels have been provided for the initiation of safety
functions by external systems.
Load reduction After the exceeding of certain parameters the classification societies demand
a load reduction to 60 %. The safety system supervises these parameters
and requests a load reduction, if necessary. The load reduction has to be
carried out by an external system (IAS, PMS, PCS). For safety reasons,
SaCoSone will not reduce the load by itself.
3 Engine automation

Auto shutdown Auto shutdown is an engine shutdown initiated by any automatic supervision
of either engine internal parameters or mentioned above external control sys-
tems. If an engine shutdown is triggered by the safety system, the emer-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

gency stop signal has an immediate effect on the emergency shutdown


device, and the speed control. At the same time the emergency stop is trig-
gered, SaCoSone issues a signal resulting in the alternator switch to be
opened.
Some auto shutdowns may also be initiated redundantly by the alarm sys-
tem.

184 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

Emergency stop Emergency stop is an engine shutdown initiated by an operator's manual

3.4 Functionality
action like pressing an emergency stop button.
Override During operation, safety actions can be suppressed by the override function
for the most parameters. The override has to be activated preventively. The
scope of parameters prepared for override are different and depend to the
chosen classification society. The availability of the override function depends
on the application.

Alarming
The alarm function of SaCoSone supervises all necessary parameters and
generates alarms to indicate discrepancies when required. The alarm func-
tions are likewise separated into Control Module and Gateway Module. In the
Gateway Module the supervision of the connected external systems takes
place. The alarm functions are processed in an area completely independent
of the safety system area in the Gateway Module.

Self-monitoring
SaCoSone carries out independent self-monitoring functions. Thus, for exam-
ple the connected sensors are checked constantly for function and wire
break. In case of a fault SaCoSone reports the occurred malfunctions in single
system components via system alarms.

Speed control
The engine speed control is realised by software functions of the Control
Module/Alarm and the Injection Modules. Engine speed and crankshaft turn
angle indication is carried out by means of redundant pick ups at the gear
drive.
Load distribution in multi- With electronic speed control, the load distribution is carried out by speed
engine plants droop, isochronously by load sharing lines or master/slave operation.
Load limit curves Start fuel limiter
Charge air pressure dependent fuel limiter
Torque limiter
Jump-rate limiter
Note:
In the case of controllable pitch propeller (CPP) units with combinator mode,
the combinator curves must be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo for assessment
in the design stage. If load control systems of the CPP-supplier are used, the
load control curve is to be sent to MAN Diesel & Turbo in order to check
whether it is below the load limit curve of the engine.
3 Engine automation

Shutdown
The engine shutdown, initiated by safety functions and manual emergency
stops, is carried out by opening the flushing valve and closing the injection
valves.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Note:
The engine shutdown may have impact on the function of the plant. These
effects can be very diverse depending on the overall design of the plant and
must already be considered in early phase of the project planning.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 185 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Overspeed protection
3.4 Functionality

The engine speed is monitored in both Control Modules independently. In


case of overspeed each Control Module actuates the shutdown device by a
separate hardware channel.

Control
SaCoSone controls all engine-internal functions as well as external compo-
nents, for example:
Start/stop sequences Requests of lube oil and cooling water pumps
Monitoring of the prelubrication and post-cooling period
Monitoring of the acceleration period
Request of start-up air blower
Fuel changeover Control of the switch-over from one type of fuel to another.
Fuel injection flow is controlled by the electric fuel injection.
Release of the gas operating mode.
Control station switch-over Switch-over from local operation in the engine room to remote control from
the engine control room.
External functions Electrical lube oil pump
Electrical driven HT cooling water pump
Electrical driven LT cooling water pump
Nozzle cooling water module
HT preheating unit
Clutches
The scope of control functions depends on plant configuration and must be
coordinated during the project engineering phase.

Media Temperature Control


Various media flows must be controlled to ensure trouble-free engine opera-
tion.
The temperature controllers are available as software functions inside the
Gateway Module of SaCoSone. The temperature controllers are operated by
the displays at the operating panels as far as it is necessary. From the Inter-
face Cabinet the relays actuate the control valves.
The cylinder cooling water (HT) temperature control is equipped with per-
formance-related feed forward control, in order to guarantee the best
control accuracy possible (refer also to section Water systems, Page
276).
The low temperature (LT) cooling water temperature control works simi-
3 Engine automation

larly to the HT cooling water temperature control and can be used if the
LT cooling water system is designed as one individual cooling water sys-
tem per engine.
In case several engines are operated with a combined LT cooling water
2017-03-03 - 4.4

system, it is necessary to use an external temperature controller.


This external controller must be mounted on the engine control room
desk and is to be wired to the temperature control valve (refer also to
section Water systems, Page 276).
The charge air temperature control is designed identically with the HT
cooling water temperature control.

186 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

The cooling water quantity in the LT part of the charge air cooler is regu-
lated by the charge air temperature control valve (refer also to section

3.5 Interfaces
Water systems, Page 276).
The design of the lube oil temperature control depends on the engine
type. It is designed either as a thermostatic valve (waxcartridge type) or
as an electric driven control valve with electronic control similar to the HT
temperature controller. Refer also to section Lube oil system description,
Page 255.

Starters
For engine attached pumps and motors the starters are installed in the Inter-
face Cabinet. Starters for external pumps and consumers are not included in
the SaCoSone scope of supply in general.

3.5 Interfaces

Data Bus Interface (Machinery Alarm System)


This interface serves for data exchange to ship alarm systems or Integrated
Automation Systems (IAS).
The interface is actuated with MODBUS protocol and is available as:
Ethernet interface (MODBUS over TCP) or as
Serial interface (MODBUS RTU) RS422/RS485, Standard 5 wire with
electrical isolation (cable length 100 m)
Only if the Ethernet interface is used, the transfer of data can be handled with
timestamps from SaCoSone.
The status messages, alarms and safety actions, which are generated in the
system, can be transferred. All measuring values acquired by SaCoSone are
available for transfer.

Alternator Control
Hardwired interface, used for example for synchronisation, load indication,
etc.

Alternator electric power (active power) signal


To keep, despite natural long-term deterioration effects, engine operation
within its optimum range MAN Diesel & Turbo's engine safety and control
system SaCoSone must be provided with an alternator electric power (active
power) signal. Interface and signal shall comply with the following require-
ments:
1. The electric power of the generator (active power) shall be measured
3 Engine automation

with the following components:


Current transformer with accuracy class: cl. 0.2 s
Voltage transformer with accuracy class: cl. 0.2 s
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Measuring transducer with accuracy class: cl. 0.5


2. Measuring transducer shall provide the current active power as 4 20
mA signal and shall provide 0 90 % of measured value with response
time 300 ms (EN 60688).

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 187 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

3. The 4 20 mA generator power signal shall be hard-wired with shielded


3.6 Technical data

cable. The analogue value of 4 mA shall be equivalent to 0 % generator


power, the value of 20 mA shall be equivalent to nominal generator
power, plus 10 %. Furthermore the signal for Generator CB is closed
from power management system to SaCoSone Interface Cabinet shall be
provide.

Power Management
Hardwired interface, for remote start/stop, load setting, etc.

Propulsion Control System


Standardized hardwired interface including all signals for control and safety
actions between SaCoSone and the propulsion control system.

Others
In addition, interfaces to auxiliary systems are available, such as:
Nozzle cooling water module
HT preheating unit
Electric driven pumps for lube oil, HT and LT cooling water
Start-up air blower
Clutches
Gearbox
Propulsion control system
On request additional hard wired interfaces can be provided for special appli-
cations.

Cables Scope of supply


The bus cables between engine and interface are scope of the MAN Diesel &
Turbo supply.
The control cables and power cables are not included in the scope of the
MAN Diesel & Turbo supply. This cabling has to be carried out by the cus-
tomer.

3.6 Technical data

Interface Cabinet
Design Floor-standing cabinet
Cable entries from below through cabinet base
3 Engine automation

Accessible by front doors


Doors with locks
Opening angle: 90
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN Diesel & Turbo standard color light grey (RAL7035)


Weight: Approximately 300 kg
Ingress of protection: IP55
Dimensions: 1,200 x 2,100 x 400 mm1) (preliminary)
1)
width x height x depth (including base)
Environmental Conditions Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C

188 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

Relative humidity: < 96 %

3.7 Installation requirements


Vibrations: < 0.7 g

Remote Operating Panel (optional)


Design Panel for control desk installation with 3 m cable to terminal bar for
installation inside control desk
Front color: White aluminium (RAL9006)
Weight: 15 kg
Ingress of protection: IP23
Dimensions: 370 x 480 x 150 mm1)
1)
width x height x depth (including base)
Environmental Conditions Ambient air temperature: 0 C to +55 C
Relative humidity: < 96 %
Vibrations: < 0.7 g

Electrical own consumption


Consumer Supply system Notes
Pn (kVA) Ub (V) F (Hz) Phase Fuse/
Starter by
yard
SaCoSone Interface Cabinet 0.540.66 24 DC +/- 35 1) Power supply from ship
1)
40 2) battery distribution (two line
0.650.77 redundant power supply)
2)

SaCoSone Auxiliary Cabinet 0.251 400480 50/60 3 6A Power supply for consumers
on engine

SaCoSone Interface Cabinet 2.7 230 50/60 2 16A Cabinet illumination, socket,
anticondensation heater,tem-
SaCoSone the Control Unit
perature controller incl. regu-
and the Interface Cabinet
lating valve drive, for each
temperature control system
1)
9L
2)
18V
Table 103: Electrical own consumption

3.7 Installation requirements


3 Engine automation

Location
The Interface Cabinet and the Auxiliary Cabinet are designed for installation in
engine rooms or engine control rooms. Both cabinets should be located side
2017-03-03 - 4.4

by side.
The cabinet must be installed at a location suitable for service inspection.
Do not install the cabinet close to heat-generating devices.
In case of installation at walls, the distance between the cabinet and the wall
has to be at least 100 mm in order to allow air convection.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 189 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Regarding the installation in engine rooms, the cabinet should be supplied


3.7 Installation requirements

with fresh air by the engine room ventilation through a dedicated ventilation
air pipe near the engine.
Note:
If the restrictions for ambient temperature can not be kept, the cabinet must
be ordered with an optional air condition system.

Ambient air conditions


For restrictions of ambient conditions, refer to the section Technical data,
Page 188.

Cabling
The interconnection cables between the engine and the Interface Cabinet
have to be installed according to the rules of electromagnetic compatibility.
Control cables and power cables have to be routed in separate cable ducts.

Maximum cable length


Connection Max. cable length
Cables between engine and Interface 60 m
Cabinet

MODBUS cable between Interface 100 m


Cabinet and superordinated automation
system (only for ethernet)

Cable between Interface Cabinet and 100 m


Remote Operating Panel
Table 104: Maximum cable length

The cables for the connection of sensors and actuators which are not moun-
ted on the engine are not included in the scope of MAN Diesel & Turbo sup-
ply. Shielded cables have to be used for the cabling of sensors. For electrical
noise protection, an electric ground connection must be made from the cabi-
net to the hull of the ship.
All cabling between the Interface Cabinet and the controlled device is scope
of yard supply.
The cabinet is equipped with spring loaded terminal clamps. All wiring to
external systems should be carried out without conductor sleeves.
The redundant CAN cables are MAN Diesel & Turbo scope of supply. If the
customer provides these cables, the cable must have a characteristic impe-
dance of 120 .
3 Engine automation

Installation works
During the installation period the yard has to protect the cabinet against
water, dust and fire. It is not permissible to do any welding near the cabinet.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

The cabinet has to be fixed to the floor by screws.


If it is inevitable to do welding near the cabinet, the cabinet and panels have
to be protected against heat, electric current and electromagnetic influences.
To guarantee protection against current, all of the cabling must be discon-
nected from the affected components.

190 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

The installation of additional components inside the cabinet is only permissi-

3.7 Installation requirements


ble after approval by the responsible project manager of MAN Diesel &
Turbo.

Installation of sensor 1TE6000 Ambient air temp


The sensor 1TE6000 Ambient air temp (double Pt1000) measures the tem-
perature of the (outdoor) ambient air. The temperature of the ambient air will
typically differ from that in the engine room.
The sensor may be installed in the ventilation duct of the fan blowing the
(outdoor) ambient air into the engine room. Ensure to keep the sensor away
from the influence of heat sources or radiation. The image below shows two
options of installing the sensors correctly:

Figure 89: Possible locations for installing the sensor 1TE6000

1 Hole drilled into the duct of the engine room venti- 2 Self-designed holder in front of the duct.
lation. Sensor measuring the temperature of the
3 Engine automation

airstream.

The sensor 1TE6100 Intake air temp is not suitable for this purpose.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 191 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo
3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices


Exemplary list for project planning
No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending
point Range on option
Speed pickups

1 1SE1004A/ speed pickup turbo- indication, - turbo- Control Module/ -


B1) charger speed supervision charger Safety

2 1SE1005 speed pickup engine camshaft 0900 rpm/ camshaft Control Module/ -
speed speed and 01,800 Hz drive wheel Alarm
position
input for
CR

3 2SE1005 speed pickup engine camshaft 0900 rpm/ camshaft Control Module/ -
speed speed and 01,800 Hz drive wheel Safety
position
input for
CR

Start and stop of engine

4 1SSV1011 solenoid valve engine actuated - engine Control Module/ -


start during Alarm
engine
start and
slowturn

5 1SSV1075 solenoid valve engine actuated - engine Control Module/ -


start during Alarm
engine
start and
slowturn

6 1HOZ1012 push button local emergency - Local Gateway Module -


emergency stop stop from Operating
local con- Panel
trol station

7 1SZV1012 solenoid valve engine manual - engine Control Module/ -


shutdown and auto- Safety
emergency
shutdown

8 1PS1012 pressure switch feedback 010 bar emergency Control Module/ -


3 Engine automation

emergency stop air emergency stop air Safety


stop, start- pipe on
blocking engine
active
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Variable Valve Timing

9 3EM1024A/ electric motor Variable - engine Interface Cabinet VVT


B1) VVT setting row A/B Valve Tim-
ing

192 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices


point Range on option
10 1GOS1024A/ limit switch feedback - engine cs Extension Unit VVT
B1) VVT part load posi- VVT part
tion row A/B, CS load posi-
tion
reached

11 2GOS1024A/ limit switch feedback - engine ccs Extension Unit VVT


B1) VVT full load position VVT full
row A/B, CS load posi-
tion
reached

12 3GOS1024A/ limit switch feedback - engine ccs Extension Unit VVT


B1) VVT part load posi- VVT part
tion row A/B, CCS load posi-
tion
reached

13 4GOS1024A/ limit switch feedback - engine ccs Extension Unit VVT


B1) VVT full load position VVT full
row A/B, CCS load posi-
tion
reached

14 1GSV1024A/ solenoid valve activation - engine Extension Unit VVT


B-11) for activation of of hydraulic
hydraulic valve VVT valve VVT
position "part load",
row A/B

15 1GSV1024A/ solenoid valve deactiva- - engine Extension Unit VVT


B-21) for deactivation of tion of
hydraulic valve VVT hydraulic
position "part load", valve VVT
row A/B

16 2GSV1024A/ solenoid valve activation - engine Extension Unit VVT


B-11) for activation of of hydraulic
hydraulic valve VVT valve VVT
position "full load",
row A/B

17 2GSV1024A/ solenoid valve deactiva- - engine Extension Unit VVT


B-21) for deactivation of tion of
hydraulic valve VVT hydraulic
3 Engine automation

position "full load", valve VVT


row A/B

18 1PT1024A/ pressure transmitter monitoring, - engine Extension Unit VVT


B1) VVT hydraulic system alarm
2017-03-03 - 4.4

"part load", row A/B

19 2PT1024A/ pressure transmitter monitoring, - engine Extension Unit VVT


B1) VVT hydraulic system alarm
"part load", row A/B

Charge air by-pass

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 193 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending


3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

point Range on option


20 1XSV1030 solenoid valve charge blow by - engine Control Module/ charge air
air by-pass flap while part- Alarm by-pass
load or low
speed

Charge air blow-off

21 1XSV1031 solenoid valve charge charge air - engine Control Module/ charge air
air blow-off flap A/B blow-off at Alarm blow-off
low suction
air temper-
ature

Main bearings

22 xTE1064 double temp sensors, indication, 0120 C engine Control Modules main bear-
main bearings alarm, ing temp
engine pro- monitoring
tection

Turning gear

23 1GOS1070 limit switch turning indication - engine Control Module/ -


gear engaged and start Alarm
blocking

Slow turn

24 1SSV1075 solenoid valve turning - engine Control Module/ -


M329 for slow turn engine with Alarm
reduced
start air
pressure

25 2SSV1075 solenoid valve turning - engine Control Module/ -


M371/2 for slow turn engine with Alarm
reduced
start air
pressure

Jet Assist

26 1SSV1080 solenoid valve for Jet turbo- - engine Control Module/ Jet Assist
Assist charger Alarm
accelera-
tion by Jet
Assist
3 Engine automation

Lube oil system

27 1PT2170 pressure transmitter, alarm at 010 bar engine Control Module/ -


lube oil pressure low lube oil Alarm
2017-03-03 - 4.4

engine inlet pressure

28 2PT2170 pressure transmitter, auto shut- 010 bar Local Control Module/ -
lube oil pressure down at Operating Safety
engine inlet low pres- Panel
sure

194 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices


point Range on option
29 1TE2170 double temp sensor, alarm at 0120 C engine Control Modules -
lube oil temp engine high temp
inlet

30 1EM2470 electric motor cylin- cylinder - engine Auxiliary Cabinet -


der lubrication lubrication

31 1FE2470A/ limit switch cylinders function 0.11 Hz engine Control Module/ -


B1) lubricator line A/B control of Alarm
cylinder
lubricator
line A

32 1PT2570A/ pressure transmitter, alarm at 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


B1) lube oil pressure tur- low lube oil Alarm
bocharger inlet pressure

33 2PT2570A/ pressure transmitter, auto shut- 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


B1) lube oil pressure tur- down at Safety
bocharger inlet low lube oil
pressure

34 1TE2580A/ double temp sensor, alarm at 0120 C engine Control Modules -


B1) lube oil temp turbo- high temp
charger drain

Oil mist detection

35 1QTIA2870 oilmist detector, oil- oilmist - engine - oil mist


mist concentration in supervision detection
crankcase

Splash oil

36 xTE2880 double temp sensors, splash oil 0120 C engine Control Modules -
splash oil temp rod supervision
bearings

Cooling water systems

37 1TE3168 double temp sensor for EDS 0120 C engine Control Module/ -
HT water temp visualisa- Alarm
charge air cooler inlet tion and
control of
preheater
valve

38 1PT3170 pressure transmitter, alarm at 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


3 Engine automation

HT cooling water low pres- Alarm


pressure engine inlet sure

39 2PT3170 pressure transmitter, detection 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


2017-03-03 - 4.4

HT cooling water of low Alarm


pressure engine inlet cooling
water pres-
sure

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 195 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending


3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

point Range on option


40 1TE3170 double temp sensor, alarm, indi- 0120 C engine Control Modules -
HTCW temp engine cation
inlet

41 1TE3180 temp sensor, HT - 0120 C engine Control Modules -


water temp engine
outlet

42 1PT3470 pressure transmitter, alarm at 010 bar engine Control Module/ -


nozzle cooling water low cooling Alarm
pressure engine inlet water pres-
sure

43 2PT3470 pressure transmitter, alarm at 010 bar engine Control Module/ -


nozzle cooling water low cooling Safety
pressure engine inlet water pres-
sure

44 1TE3470 double temp sensor, alarm at 0120 C engine Control Modules -


nozzle cooling water high cool-
temp engine inlet ing water
temp

45 1PT4170 pressure transmitter, alarm at 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


LT water pressure low cooling Alarm
charge air cooler inlet water pres-
sure

46 2PT4170 pressure transmitter, alarm at 06 bar engine Control Unit -


LT water pressure low cooling
charge air cooler inlet water pres-
sure

47 1TE4170 double temp sensor, alarm, indi- 0120 C LT pipe Control Modules -
LT water temp cation charge air
charge air cooler inlet cooler inlet

Fuel system

48 1PT5070 pressure transmitter, remote 016 bar engine Control Module/ -


fuel pressure engine indication Alarm
inlet and alarm

49 2PT5070 pressure transmitter, remote 016 bar engine Control Module/ -


fuel pressure engine indication Safety
inlet and alarm
3 Engine automation

50 1TE5070 double temp sensor, alarm at 0200 C engine Control Modules -


fuel temp engine inlet high temp
in MDO-
mode and
2017-03-03 - 4.4

for EDS
use

51 xFCV5075A/ suction throttle valves volume - engine Injection -


B1) row A/B control of Module/CR
low pres-
sure fuel

196 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices


point Range on option
52 1LS5076A/ level switch fuel pipe high pres- 02,000 bar engine Control Unit -
B1) break leakage sure fuel
system
leakage
detection

53 xLS5077A/ level switch rail seg- rail leakage - engine Extension Unit -
B1) ment 1-5A/B detection

54 2PT5076A/ rail pressure sensors pressure of 02,000 bar engine Injection -


B1) 2 row A/B high pres- Module/CR
sure fuel
system
common
rail

55 xLS5077A/ level switch rail seg- rail leakage - engine Extension Unit -
B1) ment 15A/B detection

56 xFSV5078A/ valve group for fuel fuel injec- - engine Injection -


B1) injection tion Module/CR

57 1FSV5080A/ flushing valve unloading - engine emergency stop -


B1) of common valve 1SZV1012
rail high
pressure
fuel system
A

58 1LS5080A/ level switch pump- alarm at - leakage Control Module/ -


B1) and nozzle leakage high level fuel oil Alarm
row A/B monitoring
tank
FSH-001

59 2LS5080A/ level switch dirty oil alarm at - pump bank Extension Unit -
B1) leakage pump bank high level leakage
CS row A/B monitoring
CS

60 3LS5080A/ level switch dirty oil alarm at - pump bank Extension Unit -
B1) leakage pump bank high level leakage
CCS row A/B monitoring
CCS

61 4LS5080A/ level switch dirty oil alarm at - pump bank Extension Unit -
3 Engine automation

B1) leakage pump bank high level leakage


CCS row A/B monitoring
CCS

62 1TE5080A/ double temp sensor, remote 0200 C engine Extension Unit -


2017-03-03 - 4.4

B1) fuel temp after flush- indication


ing valve, row A/B and alarm

63 1TE5081A/ double temp sensor, remote 0200 C engine Extension Unit -


B1) fuel temp after safety indication
valve, row A/B and alarm

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 197 (433)
3 MAN Diesel & Turbo

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending


3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices

point Range on option


63 1PZV5081 pressure relief valve mechanical - engine - -
limitation of
rail pres-
sure

Charge air system

64 1PT6100 pressure transmitter, for EDS 20 +20 intake air Control Module/ -
intake air pressure visualisa- mbar duct after Alarm
tion filter

65 1TE6100 double temp sensor, temp input 0120 C intake air Control Module/ -
intake air temp for charge duct after Alarm
air blow-off filter
and EDS
visualisa-
tion

66 1TE6170A/ double temp sensor, for EDS 0300 C engine Control Modules -
B1) charge air temp visualisa-
charge air cooler A/B tion
inlet

67 1PT6180A/ pressure transmitter, engine 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


B1) charge air pressure control Alarm
before cylinders row
A/B

68 2PT6180A/ pressure transmitter, - 06 bar engine Control Module/ -


B1) charge air pressure Safety
before cylinders row
A/B

69 1TE6180A/ double temp sensor, alarm at 0120 C engine Control Modules -


B1) charge air temp after high temp
charge air cooler A/B

Exhaust gas system

70 xTE6570A/ double thermocou- indication, 0800 C engine Control Modules -


B1) ples, exhaust gas alarm,
temp cylinders A/B engine pro-
tection

71 1TE6575A/ double thermocou- indication, 0800 C engine Control Modules -


B1) ples, exhaust gas alarm,
temp before turbo- engine pro-
3 Engine automation

charger A/B tection

72 1TE6580A/ double thermocou- indication 0800 C engine Control Modules -


B1) ples, exhaust gas
2017-03-03 - 4.4

temp after turbo-


charger A/B

Control air, start air, stop air

198 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 3

No. Measuring Description Function Measuring Location Connected to Depending

3.8 Engine-located measuring and control devices


point Range on option
73 1PT7170 pressure transmitter, engine 040 bar engine Control Module/ -
starting air pressure control, Alarm
remote
indication

74 2PT7170 pressure transmitter, engine 040 bar engine Control Module/ -


starting air pressure control, Safety
remote
indication

75 1PT7180 pressure transmitter, alarm at 040 bar engine Control Module/ -


emergency stop air low air Alarm
pressure pressure

76 2PT7180 pressure transmitter, alarm at 040 bar engine Control Module/ -


emergency stop air low air Safety
pressure pressure

77 1PT7400 pressure transmitter, remote 010 bar engine Control Module/ -


control air pressure indication Alarm

78 2PT7400 pressure transmitter, remote 010 bar engine Control Module/ -


control air pressure indication Safety
1)
A-sensors: all engines; B-sensors: V engines only.
Table 105: List of engine-located measuring and control devices

3 Engine automation
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 199 (433)
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

4 Specification for engine supplies

4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel


engines
4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel engines
Temperatures and pressures stated in section Planning data for emission
standard, Page 82 must be considered.

4.1.1 Lube oil

Main fuel Lube oil type Viscosity class Base No. (BN)
MGO (class DMA or DMZ) Doped (HD) + additives SAE 40 12 16 mg KOH/g Depending on
sulphur content
MDO (ISO-F-DMB) 12 20 mg KOH/g

HFO Medium-alkaline + 20 55 mg KOH/g


additives
Table 106: Main fuel/lube oil type

Selection of the lube oil must be in accordance with the relevant sections.
The lube oil must always match the worst fuel oil quality.
A base number (BN) that is too low is critical due to the risk of corrosion.
A base number that is too high, could lead to deposits/sedimentation.

4.1.2 Fuel
The engine is designed for operation with HFO, MDO (DMB) and MGO (DMA,
DMZ) according to ISO 8217-2012 in the qualities quoted in the relevant sec-
tions.
Additional requirements for HFO before engine:
Water content before engine: Max. 0.2 %
Al + Si content before engine: Max. 15 mg/kg

Engine operation with DM-grade fuel according to ISO 8217-2012, viscosity


4 Specification for engine supplies
2 cSt at 40 C
A) Short-term operation, Engines that are normally operated with heavy fuel, can also be operated
max. 72 hours with DM-grade fuel for short periods.
Boundary conditions:
DM-grade fuel in accordance with stated specifications and a viscosity of
2 cSt at 40 C
MGO-operation maximum 72 hours within a two-week period (cumula-
tive with distribution as required)
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Fuel oil cooler switched on and fuel oil temperature before engine
45 C. In general, the minimum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must
not be undershoot!
B) Long-term (> 72 h) or For long-term (> 72 h) or continuous operation with DM-grade fuel special
continuous operation engine- and plant-related planning prerequisites must be set and special
actions are necessary during operation.
Following features are required on engine side:

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 201 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Valve seat lubrication with possibility to be turned off and on manually


4.1 Explanatory notes for operating supplies Diesel
engines

In case of conventional injection system, injection pumps with sealing oil


system, which can be activated and cut off manually, are necessary
Following features are required on plant side:
Layout of fuel system to be adapted for low-viscosity fuel (capacity and
design of fuel supply and booster pump)
Cooler layout in fuel system for a fuel oil temperature before engine of
45 C (min. permissible viscosity before engine 1.9 cSt)
Nozzle cooling system with possibility to be turned off and on during
engine operation
Boundary conditions for operation:
Fuel in accordance with MGO (DMA, DMZ) and a viscosity of 2 cSt at
40 C
Fuel oil cooler activated and fuel oil temperature before engine 45 C.
In general the minimum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must not be
undershoot!
Valve seat lubrication turned on
In case of conventional injection system, sealing oil of injection pumps
activated
Nozzle cooling system switched off
Continuous operation with MGO (DMA, DMZ):
Lube oil for diesel operation (BN10-BN16) has to be used

Operation with heavy fuel oil of a sulphur content of < 1.5 %


Previous experience with stationary engines using heavy fuel of a low sulphur
content does not show any restriction in the utilisation of these fuels, provi-
ded that the combustion properties are not affected negatively.
This may well change if in the future new methods are developed to produce
low sulphur-containing heavy fuels.
If it is intended to run continuously with low sulphur-containing heavy fuel,
lube oil with a low BN (BN30) has to be used. This is required, in spite of
experiences that engines have been proven to be very robust with regard to
4 Specification for engine supplies

the continuous usage of the standard lube oil (BN40) for this purpose.

Instruction for minimum admissible fuel temperature


In general the minimum viscosity before engine of 1.9 cSt must not be
undershoot.
The fuel specific characteristic values pour point and cold filter plug-
ging point have to be observed to ensure pumpability respectively filter-
ability of the fuel oil.
Fuel temperatures of approximately minus 10 C and less have to be
avoided, due to temporarily embrittlement of seals used in the engines
fuel oil system and as a result their possibly loss of function.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

4.1.3 Engine cooling water


The quality of the engine cooling water required in relevant section has to be
ensured.

202 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Nozzle cooling system activation

4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation


with MGO/MDO and biofuels
Kind of fuel Activated
MGO (DMA, DMZ) No, see section Fuel, Page 201

MDO (DMB) No

HFO Yes
Table 107: Nozzle cooling system activation

4.1.4 Intake air


The quality of the intake air as stated in the relevant sections has to be
ensured.

4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation with MGO/MDO and
biofuels

General
The specific output achieved by modern diesel engines combined with the
use of fuels that satisfy the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the lubricating oil which must
therefore be carefully selected.
Doped lubricating oils (HD oils) have a proven track record as lubricants for
the drive, cylinder, turbocharger and also for cooling the piston. Doped lubri-
cating oils contain additives that, amongst other things, ensure dirt absorp-
tion capability, cleaning of the engine and the neutralisation of acidic com-
bustion products.
Only lubricating oils that have been approved by MAN Diesel & Turbo may be
used. These are listed in the tables below.

Specifications
Base oil The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + additives) must have a narrow
distillation range and be refined using modern methods. If it contains paraf-
fins, they must not impair the thermal stability or oxidation stability. 4 Specification for engine supplies
The base oil must comply with the following limit values, particularly in terms
of its resistance to ageing.
Properties/Characteristics Unit Test method Limit value
Make-up Ideally paraffin based

Low-temperature behaviour, still flowable C ASTM D 2500 15

Flash point (Cleveland) C ASTM D 92 > 200

Ash content (oxidised ash) Weight % ASTM D 482 < 0.02


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Coke residue (according to Conradson) Weight % ASTM D 189 < 0.50

Ageing tendency following 100 hours of heating MAN Diesel &


up to 135 C Turbo ageing
oven1)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 203 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Properties/Characteristics Unit Test method Limit value


4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation
with MGO/MDO and biofuels

Insoluble n-heptane Weight % ASTM D 4055 < 0.2


or DIN 51592

Evaporation loss Weight % - <2

Spot test (filter paper) MAN Diesel & Precipitation of resins or


Turbo test asphalt-like ageing products
must not be identifiable.
1)
Works' own method
Table 108: Target values for base oils

Compounded lubricating oils The base oil to which the additives have been added (doped lubricating oil)
(HD oils) must have the following properties:
Additives The additives must be dissolved in the oil, and their composition must ensure
that as little ash as possible remains after combustion.
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not met, it is likely the rate of dep-
osition in the combustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the outlet
valves and at the turbocharger inlet housing. Hard additive ash promotes pit-
ting of the valve seats, and causes valve burn-out, it also increases mechani-
cal wear of the cylinder liners.
Additives must not increase the rate, at which the filter elements in the active
or used condition are blocked.
Washing ability The washing ability must be high enough to prevent the accumulation of tar
and coke residue as a result of fuel combustion.
Dispersion capability The selected dispersibility must be such that commercially-available lubricat-
ing oil cleaning systems can remove harmful contaminants from the oil used,
i.e. the oil must possess good filtering properties and separability.
Neutralisation capability The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must be high enough to neutral-
ise the acidic products produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process in the combustion cham-
ber.
Evaporation tendency The evaporation tendency must be as low as possible as otherwise the oil
consumption will be adversely affected.
4 Specification for engine supplies

Additional requirements The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index improver. Fresh oil must
not contain water or other contaminants.

Lubricating oil selection


Engine SAE class
16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40, 32/44, 35/44DF, 40/54, 40
45/60, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF
Table 109: Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Doped oil quality We recommend doped lubricating oils (HD oils) according to international
specifications MIL-L 2104 or API-CD with a base number of BN 10 16 mg
KOH/g. Military specification O-278 lubricating oils may be used.
The operating conditions of the engine and the quality of the fuel determine
the additive fractions the lubricating oil should contain. If marine diesel oil is
used, which has a high sulphur content of 1.5 up to 2.0 weight %, a base

204 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

number of appr. 20 should be selected. However, the operating results that

4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation


with MGO/MDO and biofuels
ensure the most efficient engine operation ultimately determine the additive
content.
Cylinder lubricating oil In engines with separate cylinder lubrication systems, the pistons and cylin-
der liners are supplied with lubricating oil via a separate lubricating oil pump.
The quantity of lubricating oil is set at the factory according to the quality of
the fuel to be used and the anticipated operating conditions.
Use a lubricating oil for the cylinder and lubricating circuit as specified above.
Oil for mechanicalhydraulic Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in mechanicalhydraulic control-
speed governor lers with a separate oil sump, unless the technical documentation for the
speed governor specifies otherwise. If this oil is not available when filling,
15W40 oil may be used instead in exceptional cases. In this case, it makes
no difference whether synthetic or mineral-based oils are used.
The military specification applied for these oils is NATO O-236.
Experience with the drive engine L27/38 has shown that the operating tem-
perature of the Woodward controller UG10MAS and corresponding actuator
for UG723+ can reach temperatures higher than 93 C. In these cases, we
recommend using synthetic oil such as Castrol Alphasyn HG150. The
engines supplied after March 2005 are already filled with this oil.
Lubricating oil additives The use of other additives with the lubricating oil, or the mixing of different
brands (oils by different manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
the performance of the existing additives which have been carefully harmon-
ised with each another, and also specially tailored to the base oil.
Selection of lubricating oils/ Most of the oil manufacturers are in close regular contact with engine manu-
warranty facturers, and can therefore provide information on which oil in their specific
product range has been approved by the engine manufacturer for the partic-
ular application. Irrespective of the above, the lubricating oil manufacturers
are in any case responsible for the quality and characteristics of their prod-
ucts. If you have any questions, we will be happy to provide you with further
information.
Oil during operation There are no prescribed oil change intervals for MAN Diesel & Turbo medium
speed engines. The oil properties must be regularly analysed. As long as the
oil properties are within the defined limit values the oil may be used further.
See table Limit values for used lubricating oil, Page 211.
An oil sample must be analysed every 1 3 months (see maintenance 4 Specification for engine supplies
schedule). The quality of the oil can only be maintained if it is cleaned using
suitable equipment (e.g. a separator or filter).
Temporary operation with Due to current and future emission regulations, heavy fuel oil cannot be used
gas oil in designated regions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in these regions
instead.
If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel fuel for less than 1,000 h, a
lubricating oil which is suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg KOH/g)
can be used during this period.
If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sulphur diesel fuel for more
2017-03-03 - 4.4

than 1,000 h and is subsequently operated once again with HFO, a lubricat-
ing oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the BN 20 lubricating oil from the
same manufacturer as the lubricating oil is used for HFO operation with
higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be required when effecting the
changeover. It will be sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the used
lubricating oil.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 205 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once again, it will be necessary to
4.2 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for operation
with MGO/MDO and biofuels

change over in good time to lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55). If the
lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same manufacturer as the BN 20 lubri-
cating oil, the changeover can also be effected without an oil change. In
doing so, the lubricating oil with higher BN (30 55) must be used to replen-
ish the used lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming HFO operation.

Tests
Regular analysis of lube oil samples is very important for safe engine opera-
tion. We can analyse samples for customers at MAN Diesel & Turbo Prime-
ServLab.
Note:
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can pose a danger to health,
safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by the supplier of
operating fluids must be observed.
Manufacturer Base number (10) 12 16 1) (mgKOH/g)
MAN Diesel & Turbo PrimeServeLube M Diesel T 40/15 1)

BP Energol DS 3-154

CASTROL Castrol MLC 40 / MHP 154


Seamax Extra 40

CHEVRON Taro 12XD40


(Texaco, Caltex) Delo 1000Marine 40
Delo SHP40

ENI Cladium 120 - SAE 40

EXXONMOBIL Mobilgard 412/MG 1SHC


Mobilgard ADL 40 2)
Delvac 1640 2)

PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-410


Marbrax CCD-415
4 Specification for engine supplies

Q8 Mozart DP40

REPSOL Neptuno NT 1540

SHELL Gadinia 40
Gadinia AL40
Gadinia S3
Sirius X40 2)
Rimula R3+40 2)

STATOIL MarWay 1540


MarWay 1040 2)
2017-03-03 - 4.4

206 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Manufacturer Base number (10) 12 16 1) (mgKOH/g)

4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel


operation (HFO)
TOTAL Lubmarine Caprano M40
Disola M4015
1)
Including PrimeServLab
2)
With a sulphur content of less than 1 %
Table 110: Lube oils approved for use in MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke Diesel engines that run on gas oil
and diesel fuel

Note:
MAN Diesel & Turbo SE does not assume liability for problems that occur
when using these oils.
Limit value Procedure
Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D445

Base number (BN) at least 50 % of fresh oil ISO 3771

Flash point (PM) At least 185 C ISO 2719

Water content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief peri- ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744
ods)

n-heptane insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316

Metal content depends on engine type and operat-


ing conditions

Guide value only .


Fe max. 50 ppm
Cr max. 10 ppm
Cu max. 15 ppm
Pb max. 20 ppm
Sn max. 10 ppm
Al max. 20 ppm

When operating with biofuels: max. 12 % FT-IR


biofuel fraction
Table 111: Limit values for used lubricating oil 4 Specification for engine supplies

4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel operation (HFO)

General
The specific output achieved by modern diesel engines combined with the
use of fuels that satisfy the quality requirements more and more frequently
increase the demands on the performance of the lubricating oil which must
therefore be carefully selected.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Medium alkalinity lubricating oils have a proven track record as lubricants for
the moving parts and turbocharger cylinder and for cooling the pistons.
Lubricating oils of medium alkalinity contain additives that, in addition to
other properties, ensure a higher neutralization reserve than with fully com-
pounded engine oils (HD oils).

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 207 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

International specifications do not exist for medium alkalinity lubricating oils.


4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel
operation (HFO)

A test operation is therefore necessary for a corresponding long period in


accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
Only lubricating oils that have been approved by MAN Diesel & Turbo may be
used. See table Approved lubricating oils for HFO-operated MAN Diesel &
Turbo four-stroke engines, Page 211.

Specifications
Base oil The base oil (doped lubricating oil = base oil + additives) must have a narrow
distillation range and be refined using modern methods. If it contains paraf-
fins, they must not impair the thermal stability or oxidation stability.
The base oil must comply with the limit values in the table below, particularly
in terms of its resistance to ageing:
Properties/Characteristics Unit Test method Limit value
Make-up Ideally paraffin based

Low-temperature behaviour, still flowable C ASTM D 2500 15

Flash point (Cleveland) C ASTM D 92 > 200

Ash content (oxidised ash) Weight % ASTM D 482 < 0.02

Coke residue (according to Conradson) Weight % ASTM D 189 < 0.50

Ageing tendency following 100 hours of heating MAN Diesel &


up to 135 C Turbo ageing
oven1)

Insoluble n-heptane Weight % ASTM D 4055 < 0.2


or DIN 51592

Evaporation loss Weight % - <2

Spot test (filter paper) MAN Diesel & Precipitation of resins or


Turbo test asphalt-like ageing products
must not be identifiable.
1)
Works' own method
4 Specification for engine supplies

Table 112: Target values for base oils

Medium alkalinity lubricating The prepared oil (base oil with additives) must have the following properties:
oil
Additives The additives must be dissolved in the oil and their composition must ensure
that after combustion as little ash as possible is left over, even if the engine is
provisionally operated with distillate oil.
The ash must be soft. If this prerequisite is not met, it is likely the rate of dep-
osition in the combustion chamber will be higher, particularly at the outlet
valves and at the turbocharger inlet housing. Hard additive ash promotes pit-
ting of the valve seats, and causes valve burn-out, it also increases mechani-
cal wear of the cylinder liners.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Additives must not increase the rate, at which the filter elements in the active
or used condition are blocked.
Washing ability The washing ability must be high enough to prevent the accumulation of tar
and coke residue as a result of fuel combustion.
The lubricating oil must not absorb the deposits produced by the fuel.

208 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Dispersion capability The selected dispersibility must be such that commercially-available lubricat-

4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel


operation (HFO)
ing oil cleaning systems can remove harmful contaminants from the oil used,
i.e. the oil must possess good filtering properties and separability.
Neutralisation capability The neutralisation capability (ASTM D2896) must be high enough to neutral-
ise the acidic products produced during combustion. The reaction time of
the additive must be harmonised with the process in the combustion cham-
ber.
For tips on selecting the base number, refer to the table entitled Base num-
ber to be used for various operating conditions, Page 209.
Evaporation tendency The evaporation tendency must be as low as possible as otherwise the oil
consumption will be adversely affected.
Additional requirements The lubricating oil must not contain viscosity index improver. Fresh oil must
not contain water or other contaminants.

Lube oil selection


Engine SAE class
16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 28/32S, 32/40, 32/44, 35/44DF, 40/54, 40
45/60, 48/60, 58/64, 51/60DF
Table 113: Viscosity (SAE class) of lubricating oils

Neutralisation properties Lubricating oils with medium alkalinity and a range of neutralization capabili-
(BN) ties (BN) are available on the market. At the present level of knowledge, an
interrelation between the expected operating conditions and the BN number
can be established. However, the operating results are still the overriding fac-
tor in determining which BN number provides the most efficient engine oper-
ation.
Table Base number to be used for various operating conditions, Page 209
indicates the relationship between the anticipated operating conditions and
the BN number.
Approx. BN Engines/Operating conditions
of fresh oil
(mg KOH/g oil)
20 Marine diesel oil (MDO) of a lower quality and high sulphur content or heavy fuel oil with a sulphur
content of less than 0.5 %. 4 Specification for engine supplies
30 generally 23/30H and 28/32H. 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S under normal operating conditions.
For engines 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 32/44K, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and
51/60DF for exclusively HFO operation only with a sulphur content < 1.5 %.

40 Under unfavourable operating conditions 23/30A, 28/32A and 28/32S, and where the corre-
sponding requirements for the oil service life and washing ability exist.
In general 16/24, 21/31, 27/38, 32/40, 32/44CR, 32/44K, 40/54, 48/60 as well as 58/64 and
51/60DF for exclusively HFO operation providing the sulphur content is over 1.5 %.

50 32/40, 32/44CR, 32/44K, 40/54, 48/60 and 58/64, if the oil service life or engine cleanliness is
2017-03-03 - 4.4

insufficient with a BN number of 40 (high sulphur content of fuel, extremely low lubricating oil
consumption).
Table 114: Base number to be used for various operating conditions

Operation with low-sulphur To comply with the emissions regulations, the sulphur content of fuels used
fuel nowadays varies. Fuels with low-sulphur content must be used in environ-
mentally-sensitive areas (e.g. SECA). Fuels with higher sulphur content may

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 209 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

be used outside SECA zones. In this case, the BN number of the lube oil
4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel
operation (HFO)

selected must satisfy the requirements for operation using fuel with high-sul-
phur content. A lube oil with low BN number may only be selected if fuel with
a low sulphur content is used exclusively during operation.
However, the practical results demonstrate that the most efficient engine
operation is the factor ultimately determining the permitted additive content.
Cylinder lubricating oil In engines with separate cylinder lubrication systems, the pistons and cylin-
der liners are supplied with lubricating oil via a separate lubricating oil pump.
The quantity of lubricating oil is set at the factory according to the quality of
the fuel to be used and the anticipated operating conditions.
Use a lubricating oil for the cylinder and lubricating circuit as specified above.
Oil for mechanicalhydraulic Multigrade oil 5W40 should ideally be used in mechanicalhydraulic control-
speed governor lers with a separate oil sump, unless the technical documentation for the
speed governor specifies otherwise. If this oil is not available when filling,
15W40 oil may be used instead in exceptional cases. In this case, it makes
no difference whether synthetic or mineral-based oils are used.
The military specification applied for these oils is NATO O-236.
Experience with the drive engine L27/38 has shown that the operating tem-
perature of the Woodward controller UG10MAS and corresponding actuator
for UG723+ can reach temperatures higher than 93 C. In these cases, we
recommend using synthetic oil such as Castrol Alphasyn HG150. The
engines supplied after March 2005 are already filled with this oil.
Lubricating oil additives The use of other additives with the lubricating oil, or the mixing of different
brands (oils by different manufacturers), is not permitted as this may impair
the performance of the existing additives which have been carefully harmon-
ised with each another, and also specially tailored to the base oil.
Selection of lubricating oils/ Most of the oil manufacturers are in close regular contact with engine manu-
warranty facturers, and can therefore provide information on which oil in their specific
product range has been approved by the engine manufacturer for the partic-
ular application. Irrespective of the above, the lubricating oil manufacturers
are in any case responsible for the quality and characteristics of their prod-
ucts. If you have any questions, we will be happy to provide you with further
information.
Oil during operation There are no prescribed oil change intervals for MAN Diesel & Turbo medium
4 Specification for engine supplies

speed engines. The oil properties must be regularly analysed. As long as the
oil properties are within the defined limit values the oil may be used further.
See table Limit values for used lubricating oil, Page 211.
An oil sample must be analysed every 1 3 months (see maintenance
schedule). The quality of the oil can only be maintained if it is cleaned using
suitable equipment (e.g. a separator or filter).
Temporary operation with Due to current and future emission regulations, heavy fuel oil cannot be used
gas oil in designated regions. Low-sulphur diesel fuel must be used in these regions
instead.
If the engine is operated with low-sulphur diesel fuel for less than 1,000 h, a
2017-03-03 - 4.4

lubricating oil which is suitable for HFO operation (BN 30 55 mg KOH/g)


can be used during this period.
If the engine is operated provisionally with low-sulphur diesel fuel for more
than 1,000 h and is subsequently operated once again with HFO, a lubricat-
ing oil with a BN of 20 must be used. If the BN 20 lubricating oil from the
same manufacturer as the lubricating oil is used for HFO operation with

210 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

higher BN (40 or 50), an oil change will not be required when effecting the

4.3 Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for heavy fuel


operation (HFO)
changeover. It will be sufficient to use BN 20 oil when replenishing the used
lubricating oil.
If you wish to operate the engine with HFO once again, it will be necessary to
change over in good time to lubricating oil with a higher BN (30 55). If the
lubricating oil with higher BN is by the same manufacturer as the BN 20 lubri-
cating oil, the changeover can also be effected without an oil change. In
doing so, the lubricating oil with higher BN (30 55) must be used to replen-
ish the used lubricating oil roughly 2 weeks prior to resuming HFO operation.
Limit value Procedure
Viscosity at 40 C 110 220 mm/s ISO 3104 or ASTM D 445

Base number (BN) at least 50 % of fresh oil ISO 3771

Flash point (PM) At least 185 C ISO 2719

Water content max. 0.2 % (max. 0.5 % for brief peri- ISO 3733 or ASTM D 1744
ods)

n-heptane insoluble max. 1.5 % DIN 51592 or IP 316

Metal content depends on engine type and operat-


ing conditions

Guide value only


Fe max. 50 ppm
Cr max. 10 ppm
Cu max. 15 ppm
Pb max. 20 ppm
Sn max. 10 ppm
Al max. 20 ppm
Table 115: Limit values for used lubricating oil

Tests
Regular analysis of lube oil samples is very important for safe engine opera-
tion. We can analyse samples for customers at MAN Diesel & Turbo Prime-
ServLab.
Base Number (mgKOH/g) 4 Specification for engine supplies
Manufacturer
2025 30 40 5055
MAN Diesel & PrimeServeLube PrimeServeLube PrimeServeLube PrimeServeLube
Turbo M Residual T 40/20 1) M Residual T 40/30 1) M Residual T 40/40 1) M Residual T 40/55 1)

AEGEAN Alfamar 430 Alfamar 440 Alfamar 450

AVIN OIL S.A. AVIN ARGO S 30 SAE AVIN ARGO S 40 SAE AVIN ARGO S 50 SAE
40 40 40

BP Energol IC-HFX 204 Energol IC-HFX 304 Energol IC-HFX 404 Energol IC-HFX 504
2017-03-03 - 4.4

CASTROL TLX Plus 204 TLX Plus 304 TLX Plus 404 TLX Plus 504

CEPSA Troncoil 3040 Plus Troncoil 4040 Plus Troncoil 5040 Plus

CHEVRON Taro 20DP40 Taro 30DP40 Taro 40XL40 Taro 50XL40


(Texaco, Caltex) Taro 20DP40X Taro 30DP40X Taro 40XL40X Taro 50XL40X

ENI Cladium 300 Cladium 400

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 211 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Base Number (mgKOH/g)


4.4 Specification of gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Manufacturer
2025 30 40 5055
EXXON MOBIL Mobilgard M430 Mobilgard M440 Mobilgard M50

Gulf Oil Marine GulfSea Power 4020 GulfSea Power 4030 GulfSea Power 4040 GulfSea Power 4055
Ltd. MDO Gulfgen Supreme 430 Gulfgen Supreme 440 Gulfgen Supreme 455
Gulfgen Supreme 420

Idemitsu Kosan Daphne Marine Oil Daphne Marine Oil Daphne Marine Oil
Co.,Ltd. SW30/SW40/MV30/ SA30/SA40 SH40
MV40

LPC S.A. CYCLON POSEIDON CYCLON POSEIDON CYCLON POSEIDON


HT 4030 HT 4040 HT 4050

LUKOIL Navigo TPEO 20/40 Navigo TPEO 30/40 Navigo TPEO 40/40 Navigo TPEO 50/40
Navigo TPEO 55/40

Motor Oil Hellas EMO ARGO S 30 SAE EMO ARGO S 40 SAE EMO ARGO S 50 SAE
S.A. 40 40 40

PETROBRAS Marbrax CCD-420 Marbrax CCD-430 Marbrax CCD-440

PT Pertamina Medripal 420 Medripal 430 Medripal 440 Medripal 450/455


(PERSERO)

REPSOL Neptuno NT 2040 Neptuno NT 3040 Neptuno NT 4040

SHELL Argina S 40 Argina T 40 Argina X 40 Argina XL 40


Argina XX 40

Sinopec Sinopec TPEO 4020 Sinopec TPEO 4030 Sinopec TPEO 4040 Sinopec TPEO 4050

TOTAL LUBMAR- Aurelia TI 4020 Aurelia TI 4030 Aurelia TI 4040 Aurelia TI 4055
INE
1)
Including PrimeServLab
Table 116: Approved lubricating oils for heavy fuel oil-operated MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke engines

Note:
MAN Diesel & Turbo SE does not assume liability for problems that occur
4 Specification for engine supplies

when using these oils.

4.4 Specification of gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)

Diesel oil
Other designations Gas oil, marine gas oil (MGO), diesel oil
Gas oil is a crude oil medium distillate and therefore must not contain any
residual materials.

Military specification
2017-03-03 - 4.4

Diesel oils that satisfy specification NATO F-75 or F-76 may be used.

Specification
The suitability of fuel depends on whether it has the properties defined in this
specification (based on its composition in the as-delivered state).

212 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

The DIN EN 590 and ISO 8217-2012 (Class DMA or Class DMZ) standards

4.4 Specification of gas oil/diesel oil (MGO)


have been extensively used as the basis when defining these properties. The
properties correspond to the test procedures stated.
Properties Unit Test procedure Typical value
Density at 15 C kg/m3 ISO 3675 820.0
890.0

Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm2/s (cSt) ISO 3104 2


6.0

Filterability 1)
in summer and C DIN EN 116 0
in winter C DIN EN 116 12

Flash point in closed cup C ISO 2719 60

Sediment content (extraction method) Weight % ISO 3735 0.01

Water content Vol. % ISO 3733 0.05

Sulphur content ISO 8754 1.5

Ash ISO 6245 0.01


Weight %
Coke residue (MCR) ISO CD 10370 0.10

Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 <2

Acid number mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5

Oxidation stability g/m3 ISO 12205 < 25

Lubricity m ISO 12156-1 < 520


(wear scar diameter)

Biodiesel content (FAME) % (v/v) EN 14078 not permissible

Cetane index ISO 4264 40

Other specifications:

ASTM D 975 1D/2D

The process for determining the filterability in accordance with DIN EN 116 is similar to the process for determining
4 Specification for engine supplies
1)

the cloud point in accordance with ISO 3015.


Table 117: Properties of diesel fuel (MGO) that must be complied with

Additional information
Use of diesel oil If distillate intended for use as heating oil is used with stationary engines
instead of diesel oil (EL heating oil according to DIN 51603 or Fuel No. 1 or
no. 2 according to ASTM D 396), the ignition behaviour, stability and behav-
iour at low temperatures must be ensured; in other words the requirements
for the filterability and cetane number must be satisfied.
Viscosity To ensure sufficient lubrication, a minimum viscosity must be ensured at the
2017-03-03 - 4.4

fuel pump. The maximum temperature required to ensure that a viscosity of


more than 1.9 mm2/s is maintained upstream of the fuel pump, depends on
the fuel viscosity. In any case, the fuel temperature upstream of the injection
pump must not exceed 45 C.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 213 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

The pour point indicates the temperature at which the oil stops flowing. To
4.5 Specification of diesel oil (MDO)

ensure the pumping properties, the lowest temperature acceptable to the


fuel in the system should be about 10 C above the pour point.
Lubricity Normally, the lubricating ability of diesel oil is sufficient to operate the fuel
injection pump. Desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubricity. If
the sulphur content is extremely low (< 500 ppm or 0.05%), the lubricity may
no longer be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sulphur content,
you should therefore ensure that their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if
the lubricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not exceed 520 m.
You can ensure that these conditions will be met by using motor vehicle die-
sel fuel in accordance with EN 590 as this characteristic value is an integral
part of the specification.
Note:
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can pose a danger to health,
safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by the supplier of
operating fluids must be observed.

Analyses
Analysis of fuel oil samples is very important for safe engine operation. We
can analyse fuel for customers at MAN Diesel & Turbo laboratory PrimeServ-
Lab.

4.5 Specification of diesel oil (MDO)

Marine diesel oil


Other designations Marine diesel oil, marine diesel fuel.
Origin Marine diesel oil (MDO) is supplied as heavy distillate (designation ISO-F-
DMB) exclusively for marine applications. MDO is manufactured from crude
oil and must be free of organic acids and non-mineral oil products.

Specification
The suitability of a fuel depends on the engine design and the available
4 Specification for engine supplies

cleaning options as well as compliance with the properties in the following


table that refer to the as-delivered condition of the fuel.
The properties are essentially defined using the ISO 8217-2012 standard as
the basis. The properties have been specified using the stated test proce-
dures.
Properties Unit Testing method Designation
ISO-F specification DMB

Density at 15 C kg/m3 ISO 3675 < 900

Kinematic viscosity at 40 C mm2/s cSt ISO 3104 > 2.0


2017-03-03 - 4.4

< 11 1)

Pour point (winter quality) C ISO 3016 <0

Pour point (summer quality) C ISO 3016 <6

Flash point (Pensky Martens) C ISO 2719 > 60

Total sediment content Weight % ISO CD 10307 0.10

214 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Properties Unit Testing method Designation

4.5 Specification of diesel oil (MDO)


Water content Vol. % ISO 3733 < 0.3

Sulphur content Weight % ISO 8754 < 2.0

Ash content Weight % ISO 6245 < 0.01

Coke residue (MCR) Weight % ISO CD 10370 < 0.30

Cetane index ISO 4264 > 35

Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg IP 570 <2

Acid number mg KOH/g ASTM D664 < 0.5

Oxidation resistance g/m3 ISO 12205 < 25

Lubricity m ISO 12156-1 < 520


(wear scar diameter)

Other specifications:

ASTM D 975 2D

ASTM D 396 No. 2


Table 118: Properties of marine diesel oil (MDO) that must be complied with

1)
For engines 27/38 with 350 resp. 365 kW/cyl the viscosity must not
exceed 6 mm2/s @ 40 C, as this would reduce the lifetime of the injection
system.

Additional information
During transshipment and transfer, MDO is handled in the same manner as
residual oil. This means that it is possible for the oil to be mixed with high-
viscosity fuel or heavy fuel oil with the remnants of these types of fuels in
the bunker ship, for example that could significantly impair the properties of
the oil.
Lubricity Normally, the lubricating ability of diesel oil is sufficient to operate the fuel
injection pump. Desulphurisation of diesel fuels can reduce their lubricity. If
the sulphur content is extremely low (< 500 ppm or 0.05%), the lubricity may
no longer be sufficient. Before using diesel fuels with low sulphur content,
you should therefore ensure that their lubricity is sufficient. This is the case if
4 Specification for engine supplies
the lubricity as specified in ISO 12156-1 does not exceed 520 m.
You can ensure that these conditions will be met by using motor vehicle die-
sel fuel in accordance with EN 590 as this characteristic value is an integral
part of the specification.
The fuel must be free of lubricating oil (ULO used lubricating oil, old oil).
Fuel is considered as contaminated with lubricating oil when the following
concentrations occur:
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15 ppm or Ca > 30 ppm and P > 15 ppm.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

The pour point specifies the temperature at which the oil no longer flows. The
lowest temperature of the fuel in the system should be roughly 10 C above
the pour point to ensure that the required pumping characteristics are main-
tained.
A minimum viscosity must be observed to ensure sufficient lubrication in the
fuel injection pumps. The temperature of the fuel must therefore not exceed
45 C.

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 215 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Seawater causes the fuel system to corrode and also leads to hot corrosion
4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

of the exhaust valves and turbocharger. Seawater also causes insufficient


atomisation and therefore poor mixture formation accompanied by a high
proportion of combustion residues.
Solid foreign matters increase mechanical wear and formation of ash in the
cylinder space.
We recommend the installation of a separator upstream of the fuel filter. Sep-
aration temperature: 40 50C. Most solid particles (sand, rust and catalyst
particles) and water can be removed, and the cleaning intervals of the filter
elements can be extended considerably.
Note:
If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can pose a danger to health,
safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by the supplier of
operating fluids must be observed.

Analyses
Analysis of fuel oil samples is very important for safe engine operation. We
can analyse fuel for customers at MAN Diesel & Turbo laboratory PrimeServ-
Lab.

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Prerequisites
MAN Diesel & Turbo four-stroke diesel engines can be operated with any
heavy fuel oil obtained from crude oil that also satisfies the requirements in
table The fuel specification and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel
oil, Page 217 providing the engine and fuel processing system have been
designed accordingly. To ensure that the relationship between the fuel, spare
parts and repair / maintenance costs remains favourable at all times, the fol-
lowing points should be observed.

Heavy fuel oil (HFO)


4 Specification for engine supplies

Origin/Refinery process The quality of the heavy fuel oil largely depends on the quality of crude oil
and on the refining process used. This is why the properties of heavy fuel oils
with the same viscosity may vary considerably depending on the bunker
positions. Heavy fuel oil is normally a mixture of residual oil and distillates.
The components of the mixture are normally obtained from modern refinery
processes, such as Catcracker or Visbreaker. These processes can
adversely affect the stability of the fuel as well as its ignition and combustion
properties. The processing of the heavy fuel oil and the operating result of
the engine also depend heavily on these factors.
Bunker positions with standardised heavy fuel oil qualities should preferably
be used. If oils need to be purchased from independent dealers, also ensure
2017-03-03 - 4.4

that these also comply with the international specifications. The engine oper-
ator is responsible for ensuring that suitable heavy fuel oils are chosen.
Specifications Fuels intended for use in an engine must satisfy the specifications to ensure
sufficient quality. The limit values for heavy fuel oils are specified in table The
fuel specification and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil, Page
217. The entries in the last column of this table provide important back-
ground information and must therefore be observed.

216 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Different international specifications exist for heavy fuel oils. The most impor-

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


tant specifications are ISO 8217-2012 and CIMAC-2003. These two specifi-
cations are more or less equivalent. Figure ISO 8217-2012 Specification for
heavy fuel oil indicates the ISO 8217 specifications. All qualities in these
specifications up to K700 can be used, provided the fuel system has been
designed for these fuels. To use any fuels, which do not comply with these
specifications (e.g. crude oil), consultation with Technical Service of MAN
Diesel & Turbo in Augsburg is required. Heavy fuel oils with a maximum den-
sity of 1,010 kg/m3 may only be used if up-to-date separators are installed.
Important Even though the fuel properties specified in the table entitled The fuel specifi-
cation and corresponding properties for heavy fuel oil, Page 217 satisfy the
above requirements, they probably do not adequately define the ignition and
combustion properties and the stability of the fuel. This means that the oper-
ating behaviour of the engine can depend on properties that are not defined
in the specification. This particularly applies to the oil property that causes
formation of deposits in the combustion chamber, injection system, gas
ducts and exhaust gas system. A number of fuels have a tendency towards
incompatibility with lubricating oil which leads to deposits being formed in the
fuel delivery pump that can block the pumps. It may therefore be necessary
to exclude specific fuels that could cause problems.
Blends The addition of engine oils (old lubricating oil, ULO used lubricating oil) and
additives that are not manufactured from mineral oils, (coal-tar oil, for exam-
ple), and residual products of chemical or other processes such as solvents
(polymers or chemical waste) is not permitted. Some of the reasons for this
are as follows: abrasive and corrosive effects, unfavourable combustion
characteristics, poor compatibility with mineral oils and, last but not least,
adverse effects on the environment. The order for the fuel must expressly
state what is not permitted as the fuel specifications that generally apply do
not include this limitation.
If engine oils (old lubricating oil, ULO used lubricating oil) are added to fuel,
this poses a particular danger as the additives in the lubricating oil act as
emulsifiers that cause dirt, water and catfines to be transported as fine sus-
pension. They therefore prevent the necessary cleaning of the fuel. In our
experience (and this has also been the experience of other manufacturers),
this can severely damage the engine and turbocharger components.
The addition of chemical waste products (solvents, for example) to the fuel is
prohibited for environmental protection reasons according to the resolution 4 Specification for engine supplies
of the IMO Marine Environment Protection Committee passed on 1st January
1992.
Leak oil collector Leak oil collectors that act as receptacles for leak oil, and also return and
overflow pipes in the lube oil system, must not be connected to the fuel tank.
Leak oil lines should be emptied into sludge tanks.

Viscosity (at 50 C) mm2/s (cSt) max. 700 Viscosity/injection viscosity

Viscosity (at 100 C) max. 55 Viscosity/injection viscosity

Density (at 15 C) g/ml max. 1.010 Heavy fuel oil processing


2017-03-03 - 4.4

Flash point C min. 60 Flash point


(ASTM D 93)

Pour point (summer) max. 30 Low-temperature behaviour


(ASTM D 97)

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 217 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Pour point (winter) max. 30 Low-temperature behaviour


4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

(ASTM D 97)

Coke residue (Conrad- Weight % max. 20 Combustion properties


son)

Sulphur content 5 or Sulphuric acid corrosion


legal requirements

Ash content 0.15 Heavy fuel oil processing

Vanadium content mg/kg 450 Heavy fuel oil processing

Water content Vol. % 0.5 Heavy fuel oil processing

Sediment (potential) Weight % 0.1

Aluminium and silicium mg/kg max. 60 Heavy fuel oil processing


content (total)

Acid number mg KOH/g 2.5

Hydrogen sulphide mg/kg 2

Used lubricating oil mg/kg The fuel must be free of lubri-


(ULO) cating oil (ULO = used lubricat-
ing oil, old oil). Fuel is consid-
ered as contaminated with
lubricating oil when the follow-
ing concentrations occur:
Ca > 30 ppm and Zn > 15
ppm or Ca > 30 ppm and P >
15 ppm.

Asphaltene content Weight % 2/3 of coke residue Combustion properties


(according to Conradson)

Sodium content mg/kg Sodium < 1/3 Vanadium, Heavy fuel oil processing
Sodium <100

The fuel must be free of admixtures that cannot be obtained from mineral oils, such as vegetable or coal-tar oils. It
must also be free of tar oil and lubricating oil (old oil), and also chemical waste products such as solvents or poly-
4 Specification for engine supplies

mers.
Table 119: The fuel specification and corresponding characteristics for heavy fuel oil

Please see section ISO 8217-2012 Specification of HFO, Page 227

Additional information
The purpose of the following information is to show the relationship between
the quality of heavy fuel oil, heavy fuel oil processing, the engine operation
and operating results more clearly.
Selection of heavy fuel oil Economical operation with heavy fuel oil within the limit values specified in
the table entitled The fuel specification and corresponding properties for
2017-03-03 - 4.4

heavy fuel oil, Page 217 is possible under normal operating conditions, provi-
ded the system is working properly and regular maintenance is carried out. If
these requirements are not satisfied, shorter maintenance intervals, higher
wear and a greater need for spare parts is to be expected. The required
maintenance intervals and operating results determine which quality of heavy
fuel oil should be used.

218 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

It is an established fact that the price advantage decreases as viscosity

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


increases. It is therefore not always economical to use the fuel with the high-
est viscosity as in many cases the quality of this fuel will not be the best.
Viscosity/injection viscosity Heavy fuel oils with a high viscosity may be of an inferior quality. The maxi-
mum permissible viscosity depends on the preheating system installed and
the capacity (flow rate) of the separator.
The prescribed injection viscosity of 12 14 mm2/s (for GenSets, L16/24,
L21/31, L23/30H, L27/38, L28/32H: 12 18 cSt) and corresponding fuel
temperature upstream of the engine must be observed. This is the only way
to ensure efficient atomisation and mixture formation and therefore low-resi-
due combustion. This also prevents mechanical overloading of the injection
system. For the prescribed injection viscosity and/or the required fuel oil tem-
perature upstream of the engine, refer to the viscosity temperature diagram.
Heavy fuel oil processing Whether or not problems occur with the engine in operation depends on how
carefully the heavy fuel oil has been processed. Particular care should be
taken to ensure that highly-abrasive inorganic foreign matter (catalyst parti-
cles, rust, sand) are effectively removed. It has been shown in practice that
wear as a result of abrasion in the engine increases considerably if the alumi-
num and silicium content is higher than 15 mg/kg.
Viscosity and density influence the cleaning effect. This must be taken into
account when designing and making adjustments to the cleaning system.
Settling tank Heavy fuel oil is precleaned in the settling tank. The longer the fuel remains in
the tank and the lower the viscosity of heavy fuel oil is, the more effective the
precleaning process will be (maximum preheating temperature of 75 C to
prevent the formation of asphalt in heavy fuel oil). A settling tank is sufficient
for heavy fuel oils with a viscosity of less than 380 mm2/s at 50 C. If the
heavy fuel oil has a high concentration of foreign matter, or if fuels in accord-
ance with ISO-F-RM, G/H/K380 or H/K700 are to be used, two settling tanks
will be required one of which must be sized for 24-hour operation. Before the
content is moved to the service tank, water and sludge must be drained from
the settling tank.
Separators A separator is particularly suitable for separating material with a higher spe-
cific density such as water, foreign matter and sludge. The separators must
be self-cleaning (i.e. the cleaning intervals must be triggered automatically).
Only new generation separators should be used. They are extremely effective
throughout a wide density range with no changeover required, and can sep-
4 Specification for engine supplies
arate water from heavy fuel oils with a density of up to 1.01 g/ml at 15 C.
Table Achievable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation),
Page 220 shows the prerequisites that must be met by the separator. These
limit values are used by manufacturers as the basis for dimensioning the sep-
arator and ensure compliance.
The manufacturer's specifications must be complied with to maximize the
cleaning effect.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 219 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo
4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

Application in ships and stationary use: parallel installation


One separator for 100% flow rate One separator (reserve) for 100%
flow rate

Figure 90: Arrangement of heavy fuel oil cleaning equipment and/or separator
The separators must be arranged according to the manufacturers' current
recommendations (Alfa Laval and Westphalia). The density and viscosity of
the heavy fuel oil in particular must be taken into account. If separators by
other manufacturers are used, MAN Diesel & Turbo should be consulted.
If the treatment is in accordance with the MAN Diesel & Turbo specifications
and the correct separators are chosen, it may be assumed that the results
stated in the table entitled Achievable contents of foreign matter and water,
Page 220 for inorganic foreign matter and water in heavy fuel oil will be ach-
ieved at the engine inlet.
Results obtained during operation in practice show that the wear occurs as a
result of abrasion in the injection system and the engine will remain within
acceptable limits if these values are complied with. In addition, an optimum
lube oil treatment process must be ensured.
Definition Particle size Quantity
Inorganic foreign matter < 5 m < 20 mg/kg
4 Specification for engine supplies

including catalyst particles

Al+Si content < 15 mg/kg

Water content < 0.2 vol.%


Table 120: Achievable contents of foreign matter and water (after separation)

Water It is particularly important to ensure that the water separation process is as


thorough as possible as the water takes the form of large droplets, and not a
finely distributed emulsion. In this form, water also promotes corrosion and
sludge formation in the fuel system and therefore impairs the supply, atomi-
sation and combustion of the heavy fuel oil. If the water absorbed in the fuel
2017-03-03 - 4.4

is seawater, harmful sodium chloride and other salts dissolved in this water
will enter the engine.
Water-containing sludge must be removed from the settling tank before the
separation process starts, and must also be removed from the service tank
at regular intervals. The tank's ventilation system must be designed in such a
way that condensate cannot flow back into the tank.

220 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Vanadium/Sodium If the vanadium/sodium ratio is unfavourable, the melting point of the heavy

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


fuel oil ash may fall in the operating area of the exhaust-gas valve which can
lead to high-temperature corrosion. Most of the water and water-soluble
sodium compounds it contains can be removed by pretreating the heavy fuel
oil in the settling tank and in the separators.
The risk of high-temperature corrosion is low if the sodium content is one
third of the vanadium content or less. It must also be ensured that sodium
does not enter the engine in the form of seawater in the intake air.
If the sodium content is higher than 100 mg/kg, this is likely to result in a
higher quantity of salt deposits in the combustion chamber and exhaust-gas
system. This will impair the function of the engine (including the suction func-
tion of the turbocharger).
Under certain conditions, high-temperature corrosion can be prevented by
using a fuel additive that increases the melting point of heavy fuel oil ash (also
see Additives for heavy fuel oils, Page 224).
Ash Fuel ash consists for the greater part of vanadium oxide and nickel sulphate
(see above section for more information). Heavy fuel oils containing a high
proportion of ash in the form of foreign matter, e.g. sand, corrosion com-
pounds and catalyst particles, accelerate the mechanical wear in the engine.
Catalyst particles produced as a result of the catalytic cracking process may
be present in the heavy fuel oils. In most cases, these catalyst particles are
aluminium silicates causing a high degree of wear in the injection system and
the engine. The aluminium content determined, multiplied by a factor of
between 5 and 8 (depending on the catalytic bond), is roughly the same as
the proportion of catalyst remnants in the heavy fuel oil.
Homogeniser If a homogeniser is used, it must never be installed between the settling tank
and separator as otherwise it will not be possible to ensure satisfactory sepa-
ration of harmful contaminants, particularly seawater.
Flash point (ASTM D 93) National and international transportation and storage regulations governing
the use of fuels must be complied with in relation to the flash point. In gen-
eral, a flash point of above 60 C is prescribed for diesel engine fuels.
Low-temperature behaviour The pour point is the temperature at which the fuel is no longer flowable
(ASTM D 97) (pumpable). As the pour point of many low-viscosity heavy fuel oils is higher
than 0 C, the bunker facility must be preheated, unless fuel in accordance
with RMA or RMB is used. The entire bunker facility must be designed in
such a way that the heavy fuel oil can be preheated to around 10 C above
4 Specification for engine supplies
the pour point.
Pump characteristics If the viscosity of the fuel is higher than 1000 mm2/s (cSt), or the temperature
is not at least 10 C above the pour point, pump problems will occur. For
more information, also refer to paragraph Low-temperature behaviour (ASTM
D 97, Page 221.
Combustion properties If the proportion of asphalt is more than two thirds of the coke residue (Con-
radson), combustion may be delayed which in turn may increase the forma-
tion of combustion residues, leading to such as deposits on and in the injec-
tion nozzles, large amounts of smoke, low output, increased fuel consump-
2017-03-03 - 4.4

tion and a rapid rise in ignition pressure as well as combustion close to the
cylinder wall (thermal overloading of lubricating oil film). If the ratio of asphalt
to coke residues reaches the limit 0.66, and if the asphalt content exceeds
8%, the risk of deposits forming in the combustion chamber and injection
system is higher. These problems can also occur when using unstable heavy
fuel oils, or if incompatible heavy fuel oils are mixed. This would lead to an
increased deposition of asphalt (see paragraph Compatibility, Page 224).

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 221 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Ignition quality Nowadays, to achieve the prescribed reference viscosity, cracking-process


4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

products are used as the low viscosity ingredients of heavy fuel oils although
the ignition characteristics of these oils may also be poor. The cetane num-
ber of these compounds should be > 35. If the proportion of aromatic hydro-
carbons is high (more than 35 %), this also adversely affects the ignition
quality.
The ignition delay in heavy fuel oils with poor ignition characteristics is longer;
the combustion is also delayed which can lead to thermal overloading of the
oil film at the cylinder liner and also high cylinder pressures. The ignition delay
and accompanying increase in pressure in the cylinder are also influenced by
the end temperature and compression pressure, i.e. by the compression
ratio, the charge-air pressure and charge-air temperature.
The disadvantages of using fuels with poor ignition characteristics can be
limited by preheating the charge air in partial load operation and reducing the
output for a limited period. However, a more effective solution is a high com-
pression ratio and operational adjustment of the injection system to the igni-
tion characteristics of the fuel used, as is the case with MAN Diesel & Turbo
piston engines.
The ignition quality is one of the most important properties of the fuel. This
value does not appear in the international specifications because a standar-
dised testing method has only recently become available and not enough
experience has been gathered at this point in order to determine limit values.
The parameters, such as the calculated carbon aromaticity index (CCAI), are
therefore aids that are derived from quantifiable fuel properties. We have
established that this method is suitable for determining the approximate igni-
tion quality of the heavy fuel oil used.
A testing instrument has been developed based on the constant volume
combustion method (fuel combustion analyser FCA) and is currently being
tested by a series of testing laboratories.
The instrument measures the ignition delay to determine the ignition quality
of fuel and this measurement is converted into an instrument-specific cetane
number (FIA-CN or EC). It has been established that in some cases, heavy
fuel oils with a low FIA cetane number or ECN number can cause operating
problems.
As the liquid components of the heavy fuel oil decisively influence the ignition
4 Specification for engine supplies

quality, flow properties and combustion quality, the bunker operator is


responsible for ensuring that the quality of heavy fuel oil delivered is suitable
for the diesel engine. Also see figure entitled Nomogram for determining the
CCAI assigning the CCAI ranges to engine types, Page 223.
2017-03-03 - 4.4

222 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


V Viscosity in mm2/s (cSt) A Normal operating condi-
at 50 C tions
D Density [in kg/m3] at 15 B The ignition characteris-
C tics can be poor and
require adapting the
engine or the operating
conditions. 4 Specification for engine supplies
CCAI Calculated Carbon C Problems identified may
Aromaticity Index lead to engine damage,
even after a short period
of operation.
1 Engine type 2 The CCAI is obtained
from the straight line
through the density and
viscosity of the heavy fuel
oils.
The CCAI can be calculated using the following formula:
2017-03-03 - 4.4

CCAI = D - 141 log log (V+0.85) - 81

Figure 91: Nomogram for determining the CCAI and assigning the CCAI ranges to
engine types

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 223 (433)
4 MAN Diesel & Turbo

Sulphuric acid corrosion The engine should be operated at the coolant temperatures prescribed in the
4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)

operating handbook for the relevant load. If the temperature of the compo-
nents that are exposed to acidic combustion products is below the acid dew
point, acid corrosion can no longer be effectively prevented, even if alkaline
lube oil is used.
The BN values specified in section Specification of lubricating oil (SAE 40) for
heavy fuel operation (HFO), Page 207 are sufficient, providing the quality of
lubricating oil and the engine's cooling system satisfy the requirements.
Compatibility The supplier must guarantee that the heavy fuel oil is homogeneous and
remains stable, even after the standard storage period. If different bunker oils
are mixed, this can lead to separation and the associated sludge formation in
the fuel system during which large quantities of sludge accumulate in the
separator that block filters, prevent atomisation and a large amount of resi-
due as a result of combustion.
This is due to incompatibility or instability of the oils. Therefore heavy fuel oil
as much as possible should be removed in the storage tank before bunker-
ing again to prevent incompatibility.
Blending the heavy fuel oil If heavy fuel oil for the main engine is blended with gas oil (MGO) to obtain
the required quality or viscosity of heavy fuel oil, it is extremely important that
the components are compatible (see paragraph Compatibility, Page 224).
Additives for heavy fuel oils MAN Diesel & Turbo SE engines can be operated economically without addi-
tives. It is up to the customer to decide whether or not the use of additives is
beneficial. The supplier of the additive must guarantee that the engine opera-
tion will not be impaired by using the product.
The use of heavy fuel oil additives during the warranty period must be avoi-
ded as a basic principle.
Additives that are currently used for diesel engines, as well as their probable
effects on the engine's operation, are summarised in the table below Addi-
tives for heavy fuel oils and their effects on the engine operation, Page 224.

Precombustion additives Dispersing agents/stabilisers


Emulsion breakers
Biocides
Combustion additives Combustion catalysts
4 Specification for engine supplies

(fuel savings, emissions)


Post-combustion additives Ash modifiers (hot corrosion)
Soot removers (exhaust-gas system)
Table 121: Additives for heavy fuel oils and their effects on the engine
operation

Heavy fuel oils with low From the point of view of an engine manufacturer, a lower limit for the sul-
sulphur content phur content of heavy fuel oils does not exist. We have not identified any
problems with the low-sulphur heavy fuel oils currently available on the mar-
ket that can be traced back to their sulphur content. This situation may
2017-03-03 - 4.4

change in future if new methods are used for the production of low-sulphur
heavy fuel oil (desulphurisation, new blending components). MAN Diesel &
Turbo will monitor developments and inform its customers if required.
If the engine is not always operated with low-sulphur heavy fuel oil, corre-
sponding lubricating oil for the fuel with the highest sulphur content must be
selected.

224 (433) MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN
MAN Diesel & Turbo 4

Note:

4.6 Specification of heavy fuel oil (HFO)


If operating fluids are improperly handled, this can pose a danger to health,
safety and the environment. The relevant safety information by the supplier of
operating fluids must be observed.

Tests
Sampling To check whether the specification provided and/or the necessary delivery
conditions are complied with, we recommend you retain at least one sample
of every bunker oil (at least for the duration of the engine's warranty period).
To ensure that the samples taken are representative of the bunker oil, a sam-
ple should be taken from the transfer line when starting up, halfway through
the operating period and at the end of the bunker period. "Sample Tec" by
Mar-Tec in Hamburg is a suitable testing instrument which can be used to
take samples on a regular basis during bunkering.
Analysis of samples To ensure sufficient cleaning of the fuel via the separator, perform regular
functional check by sampling up- and downstream of the separator.
Analysis of HFO samples is very important for safe engine operation. We can
analyse fuel for customers at MAN Diesel & Turbo laboratory PrimeServLab.

4 Specification for engine supplies


2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN 225 (433)
2017-03-03 - 4.4

MAN Diesel & Turbo


4.6.1 ISO 8217-2012 Specification of HFO

Characteristic Unit Limit Category ISO-F- Test method

RMA RMB RMD RME RMG RMK

10a 30 80 180 180 380 500 700 380 500 700

Kinematic mm2/s Max. 10.00 30.00 80.00 180.0 180.0 380.0 500.0 700.0 380.0 500.0 700.0 ISO 3104
viscosity
at 50 Cb

Density at 15 C kg/m3 Max. 920.0 960.0 975.0 991.0 991.0 1010.0 See 7.1
MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN

ISO 3675 or
ISO 12185

CCAI Max. 850 860 860 860 870 870 See 6.3 a)

Sulfurc % (m/m) Max. Statutory requirements See 7.2


ISO 8754
ISO 14596

Flash point C Min. 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 60.0 See 7.3
ISO 2719

Hydrogen sulfide mg/kg Max. 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 See 7.11
IP 570

Acid numberd mg Max. 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 ASTM D664
KOH/g

Total sediment % (m/m) Max. 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 0.10 See 7.5
aged ISO 10307-2

Carbon residue: % (m/m) Max. 2.50 10.00 14.00 15.00 18.00 20.00 ISO 10370
micro method

4 Specification for engine supplies 4.6.1 ISO 8217-2012 Specification of HFO


227 (433)

4
228 (433)
4 Specification for engine supplies 4.6.1 ISO 8217-2012 Specification of HFO

4
Characteristic Unit Limit Category ISO-F- Test method

RMA RMB RMD RME RMG RMK

10a 30 80 180 180 380 500 700 380 500 700

Pour point
(upper)e
Winter quality C Max. 0 0 30 30 30 30 ISO 3016
MAN 48/60CR IMO Tier II, Project Guide Marine, EN

Summer quality
C Max. 6 6 30 30 30 30 ISO 3016

Water % (V/V) Max. 0.30 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 0.50 ISO 3733

Ash % (m/m) Max. 0.040 0.070 0.070 0.070 0.100 0.150 ISO 6245

Vanadium mg/kg Max. 50 150 150 150 350 450 see 7.7
IP 501, IP 470
or ISO 14597

Sodium mg/kg Max. 50 100 100 50 100 100 see 7.8


IP 501, IP 470

Aluminium plus mg/kg Max. 25 40 40 50 60