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Reference for:

FULLY
ACCOMPLISH YOUR
MINISTRY
-- 2 Timothy 4:5

You, though, keep your senses in all things, endure hardship, do the work of an evangelizer, fully accomplish your ministry.
-- 2 Timothy 4:5

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Pioneer Service School
Textbook

From the Library of:

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and speak to himself and to God. 29 Let two or three prophets
speak, and let the others discern the meaning. 30 But if another
Page 3 Unit 1 (a)
one receives a revelation while sitting there, let the first
Explanations of Pioneer Service School Course speaker keep silent. 31 For you can all prophesy one at a time,
so that all may learn and all may be encouraged.
OPENING DISCUSSION (Matthew 24:45-47) Who really is the faithful and discreet
(Isaiah 30:20) Though Jehovah will give you bread in the
slave whom his master appointed over his domestics, to give
form of distress and water in the form of oppression, your
them their food at the proper time? 46 Happy is that slave if
Grand Instructor will no longer hide himself, and you will see
his master on coming finds him doing so! 47 Truly I say to
your Grand Instructor with your own eyes.
you, he will appoint him over all his belongings.
(John 8:28) Jesus then said: After you have lifted up the
(John 17:3) This means everlasting life, their coming to
Son of man, then you will know that I am he and that I do
know you, the only true God, and the one whom you sent,
nothing of my own initiative; but just as the Father taught me,
Jesus Christ.
I speak these things.
(1 Peter 2:17) Honor men of all sorts, have love for the
(Isaiah 48:17, 18) This is what Jehovah says, your
whole association of brothers, be in fear of God, honor the
Repurchaser, the Holy One of Israel: I, Jehovah, am your
king.
God, The One teaching you to benefit yourself, The One
guiding you in the way you should walk. 18 If only you would (2 Timothy 3:17) so that the man of God may be fully
pay attention to my commandments! Then your peace would competent, completely equipped for every good work.
become just like a river And your righteousness like the
waves of the sea. Page 4 Unit 1 (a)
(2 Timothy 3:14, 15) You, however, continue in the things
(Colossians 1:9, 10) That is also why from the day we heard
that you learned and were persuaded to believe, knowing
of it, we have never stopped praying for you and asking that
from whom you learned them 15 and that from infancy you
you may be filled with the accurate knowledge of his will in
have known the holy writings, which are able to make you
all wisdom and spiritual comprehension, 10 so as to walk
wise for salvation through faith in Christ Jesus.
worthily of Jehovah in order to please him fully as you go on
(Deuteronomy 4:10) On the day that you stood before bearing fruit in every good work and increasing in the
Jehovah your God in Horeb, Jehovah said to me, accurate knowledge of God;
Congregate the people together to me so that I may let them
(Luke 6:38b) For with the measure that you are measuring
hear my words, in order that they may learn to fear me all the
out, they will measure out to you in return.
days that they are alive on the ground and that they may teach
*** w80 6/15 p. 12 pars. 5-6 Sowing with Gods Kingdom
their sons.
in View ***
(Deuteronomy 6:4-9) Listen, O Israel: Jehovah our God is
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one Jehovah. 5 You must love Jehovah your God with all your A rule oft stated is that we get out of a thing what we put
heart and all your soul and all your strength. 6 These words into it. Jesus indicated the benefit that we would get from
that I am commanding you today must be on your heart, 7 and paying the deserved attention to what he was saying. He did
you must inculcate them in your sons and speak of them this by adding to his admonition on attention the words:
when you sit in your house and when you walk on the road With the measure that you are measuring out, you will have
and when you lie down and when you get up. 8 Tie them as a it measured out to you, yes, you will have more added to you.
reminder on your hand, and they must be like a headband on For he that has will have more given to him; but he that does
your forehead. 9 Write them on the doorposts of your house not have, even what he has will be taken away from him.
and on your gates. Mark 4:24, 25.
(1 Corinthians 14:23-31) So if the whole congregation 6
Consequently, if we measure out to Jesus little interest
comes together to one place and they all speak in tongues, but and attention, we cannot expect to get much from him, at
ordinary people or unbelievers come in, will they not say that least from what he is saying for our guidance, for our benefit.
you have lost your minds? 24 But if you are all prophesying But if we show that we do appreciate him as our Teacher and
and an unbeliever or an ordinary person comes in, he will be we deal out to him our fullest measure of attention, then he
reproved and closely examined by them all. 25 The secrets of will respond by giving us a comparative amount of
his heart then become evident, so that he will fall facedown information and enlightenment. In this regard, however, he is
and worship God, declaring: God is really among you. not concerned with just evening up things and balancing
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What is to be done, then, brothers? When you come accounts. Rather, in his generosity and according to his
together, one has a psalm, another has a teaching, another has ability, he will favor us with more than we expected. Thus we
a revelation, another has a tongue, and another has an are enriched and are more able to share with others our own
interpretation. Let all things take place for building up. 27 And abundance, imparting to them the understanding of things.
if someone speaks in a tongue, let it be limited to two or three
at the most, and in turns, and someone must interpret. 28 But if
there is no interpreter, he must keep silent in the congregation

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Page 5 Unit 1 (1 Peter 2:2) As newborn infants, form a longing for the
unadulterated milk of the word, so that by means of it you
(Romans 1:11, 12) For I am longing to see you, that I may may grow to salvation,
impart some spiritual gift to you for you to be made firm; (Joshua 1:8) This book of the Law should not depart from
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or, rather, that we may have an interchange of your mouth, and you must read it in an undertone day and
encouragement by one anothers faith, both yours and mine. night, in order to observe carefully all that is written in it; for
(Galatians 6:4) But let each one examine his own actions, then your way will be successful and then you will act wisely.
and then he will have cause for rejoicing in regard to himself (2 Chronicles 15:2) So he went out to meet Asa and said to
alone, and not in comparison with the other person. him: Hear me, O Asa and all Judah and Benjamin! Jehovah
(Proverbs 9:9) Share with a wise person, and he will become is with you as long as you remain with him; and if you search
wiser. Teach someone righteous, and he will add to his for him, he will let himself be found by you, but if you
learning. abandon him, he will abandon you.
(2 Timothy 4:5) You, though, keep your senses in all things, (Psalm 19:14) May the words of my mouth and the
endure hardship, do the work of an evangelizer, fully meditation of my heart Be pleasing to you, O Jehovah, my
accomplish your ministry. Rock and my Redeemer.
(Psalm 77:12) And I will meditate on all your activity And
Page 6 Unit 1 (b) ponder over your dealings.
Fortify Your Relationship With Jehovah (1 Timothy 4:13-15) Until I come, continue applying
OPENING DISCUSSION yourself to public reading, to exhortation, to teaching. 14 Do
not neglect the gift in you that was given you through a
(Psalm 63:3) Because your loyal love is better than life, My prophecy when the body of elders laid their hands on you.
own lips will glorify you. 15
Ponder over these things; be absorbed in them, so that your
(1 John 4:19) We love, because he first loved us. advancement may be plainly seen by all people.
*** cf chap. 13 pp. 132-133 par. 11 I Love the Father *** it-2 pp. 363-364 Meditation ***
***
The kind of deep, concentrated thinking in which a person
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In many ways, it is helpful to think of the love in our seriously reflects on past experiences, ponders and muses
heart as a living thing. Like a beautiful houseplant, love needs over current matters, or thoughtfully contemplates possible
to be nourished and cared for if it is to grow and to thrive. future events.
Neglected, deprived of nourishment, it weakens and dies.
Jesus did not take his love for Jehovah for granted. He kept it In order to meditate properly, a person needs to be free
strong and thriving throughout his earthly sojourn. Let us see from distractions, alone with his thoughts, so to speak. Isaac,
how. for example, went out walking alone in the early evening to
meditate, possibly about his coming marriage to Rebekah.
Page 7 Unit 1 (b) (Ge 24:63) It was during the solitude of the night watches
QUESTION OUTLINE that the psalmist meditated on the greatness of his Grand
Creator. (Ps 63:6) The meditations of the heart should be
Study and Meditation focused on beneficial things, on Jehovahs splendor and
(Isaiah 50:4, 5) The Sovereign Lord Jehovah has given me activities, on things pleasing to him (Ps 19:14; 49:3; 77:12;
the tongue of those taught, So that I may know how to answer 143:5; Php 4:8), and not on the devices of the wicked.Pr
the tired one with the right word. He awakens me morning by 24:1, 2.
morning; He awakens my ear to listen like the taught ones. By engaging in profitable meditation, one will not be
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The Sovereign Lord Jehovah has opened my ear, And I was inclined to give foolish answers. He will seriously think out
not rebellious. I did not turn in the opposite direction. these matters of importance, and as a result, the answers
(Matthew 22:37) He said to him: You must love Jehovah given will be from the heart and will not be something to
your God with your whole heart and with your whole soul regret later on.Pr 15:28.
and with your whole mind.
When Joshua was appointed as the overseer of the nation
(Deuteronomy 17:18-20) When he takes his seat on the of Israel, he was instructed to make a copy of Jehovahs law,
throne of his kingdom, he must write for himself in a book a and he was told (as rendered in many Bible versions) to
copy of this Law, taken from the one kept by the Levitical meditate thereon day and night. (Jos 1:8; AS, KJ, JB, RS)
priests. 19 It is to remain with him, and he must read from it The Hebrew word here for meditate is haghah. It basically
all the days of his life, so that he may learn to fear Jehovah means utter inarticulate sounds and is rendered moan,
his God and observe all the words of this Law and these growl, coo, and mutter. (Isa 16:7; 31:4; 38:14; 59:3)
regulations by carrying them out. 20 Thus his heart will not Haghah also has the meanings utter in an undertone and
exalt itself above his brothers, and he will not deviate from meditate. (Ps 35:28; Pr 15:28) The New World Translation
the commandment, either to the right or to the left, so that he appropriately renders the Hebrew term haghah, appearing in
may remain a long time over his kingdom, he and his sons in Joshua 1:8, you must in an undertone read. (See also Ps
the midst of Israel. 1:2.) Reading in an undertone would impress more indelibly
on the mind the material on which one was meditating.
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Geseniuss Hebrew and Chaldee Lexicon (translated by purpose. Knowing Jehovah includes having a close bond of
S. Tregelles, 1901, p. 215) says of haghah: Prop[erly] to love with him and with fellow believers. He that does not
speak with oneself, murmuring and in a low voice, as is often love, explains the Bible, has not come to know God.
done by those who are musing.Compare Ps 35:28; 37:30; (1 John 4:8) Thus, knowing God includes being obedient to
71:24; Isa 8:19; 33:18. him. (Read 1 John 2:3-5.) What a great privilege it is to be
counted as one knowing Jehovah! But as in the case of Judas
The apostle Paul told Timothy that he should ponder over
Iscariot, this precious relationship can be lost. Let us work
or be meditating on his conduct, ministry, and teaching. As an
hard to maintain it. Then we will eventually qualify for the
overseer, Timothy had to be unusually careful that he taught
undeserved gift of everlasting life.Matt. 24:13.
sound doctrine and that his way of life was exemplary.1Ti
(1 Samuel 3:7) (Now Samuel had not yet come to know
4:15. Jehovah, and the word of Jehovah had not yet been revealed
Wrong Meditation. After the apostles Peter and John had to him.)
*** w10 10/1 He Continued Growing Up With Jehovah
been arrested by the captain of the temple and the Jewish
***
rulers had threatened them and charged them not to teach
Imitate Their Faith
further on the basis of Jesus name, the apostles returned to
He Continued Growing Up With Jehovah
the other disciples. These prayed to God, referring to Davids
prophetic words, saying: Why did nations become
SAMUEL looked into the faces of his people. The nation
tumultuous and peoples meditate upon empty things? . . .
had gathered at the town of Gilgal, summoned by this faithful
Even so, both Herod and Pontius Pilate with men of nations
man who had served as prophet and judge for decades. It was
and with peoples of Israel were in actuality gathered together
May or June by modern reckoning; the dry season was well
in this city against your holy servant Jesus, whom you
along. The fields in the region were golden with wheat ready
anointed, in order to do what things your hand and counsel
for harvest. Silence fell over the crowd. How could Samuel
had foreordained to occur.Ac 4:1-3, 18, 21, 23-28.
reach their hearts?
The empty things here spoken of are shown by the
The people did not understand how serious their situation
context to be, not the things that people ordinarily seek in
was. They had insisted on having a human king to rule over
life, but things that are devoid of all goodactually thinking,
them. They did not grasp that they had shown gross
speaking, and attempting to fight against Jehovah and his
disrespect to their God, Jehovah, and to his prophet. They
servantsutterly futile things.Ac 4:25.
were, in effect, rejecting Jehovah as their King! How could
King David said of those who hated him and sought his Samuel move them to repentance?
death: Deceptions they keep muttering [form of haghah] all
Samuel spoke. I have grown old and gray, he told the
day long. (Ps 38:12) These meditations were not mere
crowd. His whitening hair added weight to his words. He then
passing thoughts. They were deeply rooted in the heart, their
said: I have walked before you from my youth until this
inclination being toward that wicked pursuit. The writer of
day. (1 Samuel 11:14, 15; 12:2) Though Samuel was old, he
Proverbs says of such men: Despoiling is what their heart
had not forgotten his youth. His memories of those early days
keeps meditating, and trouble is what their own lips keep
were still vivid. The decisions he had made back then, as a
speaking.Pr 24:2.
growing boy, had led him to a life of faith and devotion to his
Jesus said to those hating him: Why are you reasoning God, Jehovah.
these things in your hearts? (Mr 2:8) Of all who would
Again and again, Samuel had to build and maintain faith,
suppress the truth in an unrighteous way, the apostle Paul
although surrounded by people who were faithless and
says: They became empty-headed in their reasonings and
disloyal. Today, it is just as challenging to build faith, for we
their unintelligent heart became darkened. Such meditation
live in a faithless and corrupt world. Let us see what we can
proves fatal to those indulging in it.Ro 1:18, 21.
learn from Samuels example, starting in his early boyhood.
(John 17:3) This means everlasting life, their coming to
know you, the only true God, and the one whom you sent, Ministering Before Jehovah, as a Boy
Jesus Christ.
Samuel had an unusual childhood. Shortly after he was
*** w13 10/15 pp. 27-28 par. 7 Act in Harmony With weaned, at perhaps four years of age or so, he began a life of
Jesus Loving Prayer *** service at the sacred tabernacle of Jehovah at Shiloh, over
7 20 miles [30 km] from his home in Ramah. His parents,
According to Greek-language scholars, the Greek
Elkanah and Hannah, dedicated their boy to Jehovah in a
expression translated taking in knowledge can also be
special form of service, making him a lifelong Nazirite. Did
translated should keep on knowing or should continue
this mean that Samuel was cast off, unloved by his parents?
knowing. The two meanings are complementary, and both
are important. The footnote to John 17:3 in the Reference Far from it! They knew that their son would be cared for
Bible gives the alternative rendering their knowing you. at Shiloh. High Priest Eli no doubt supervised matters, for
Thus, taking in knowledge refers to an ongoing process that Samuel worked closely with him. There were also a number
results in the privileged state of knowing God. Knowing of women who served in some connection with the
the greatest Person in the universe, however, involves much tabernacle, evidently in an organized way.Exodus 38:8.
more than having a mental grasp of Gods qualities and

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Furthermore, Hannah and Elkanah never forgot their spiritual comfort and strength, only to leave disappointed,
beloved firstborn, whose very birth was an answer to a hurt, or humiliated? And how did he feel when he learned that
prayer. Hannah had asked God for a son, promising to Hophni and Phinehas also disregarded Jehovahs laws on
dedicate the boy to God in a life of sacred service. When sexual morality, as they had relations with some of the
visiting each year, Hannah brought Samuel a new sleeveless women who were serving there at the tabernacle? (1 Samuel
coat she had made for his tabernacle service. The little boy 2:22) Perhaps he looked hopefully to Eli to do something
surely cherished those visits. He no doubt thrived on his about it.
parents loving encouragement and guidance as they taught
Eli was in the best position to address the growing
him what a privilege it was to serve Jehovah in that unique
disaster. As high priest, he was responsible for what took
place.
place at the tabernacle. As a father, he had an obligation to
Parents today can learn a lot from Hannah and Elkanah. It correct his sons. After all, they were hurting themselves as
is common for parents to focus all their childrearing efforts well as countless others in the land. However, Eli failed on
on material concerns while ignoring spiritual needs. But both counts, as father and as high priest. He offered his sons
Samuels parents put spiritual matters first, and that had a only a bland, weak scolding. (1 Samuel 2:23-25) But his sons
great bearing on the kind of man their son grew up to be. needed far stronger discipline. They were committing sins
Proverbs 22:6. worthy of death!
We can picture the boy growing bigger and exploring the Matters reached such a point that Jehovah sent a man of
hills around Shiloh. As he gazed down on the town and the God, an unnamed prophet, to Eli with a strong message of
valley that spread out below it on one side, his heart likely judgment. Jehovah told Eli: You keep honoring your sons
swelled with joy and pride when he caught sight of Jehovahs more than me. God thus foretold that Elis wicked sons
tabernacle. That tabernacle was a sacred place indeed. Built would die on the same day and that Elis family would suffer
nearly 400 years earlier under the direction of Moses himself, greatly, even losing its privileged position in the priestly
it was the one center for the pure worship of Jehovah in all class. Did this powerful warning bring about a change in that
the world. family? The record reveals no such change of heart.
1 Samuel 2:273:1.
Young Samuel grew to love the tabernacle. In the account
he later wrote, we read: Samuel was ministering before How did all this corruption affect young Samuel? From
Jehovah, as a boy, having a linen ephod girded on. time to time in this dark account, we find bright rays of light,
(1 Samuel 2:18) That simple sleeveless garment was good news about Samuels growth and progress. Recall that
evidently a mark that Samuel assisted the priests at the at 1 Samuel 2:18, we read that Samuel was faithfully
tabernacle. Although not of the priestly class, Samuel had ministering before Jehovah, as a boy. Even at that early
duties that included opening the doors to the tabernacle age, Samuel centered his life on his service to God. In verse
courtyard in the morning and attending to elderly Eli. As 21 of the same chapter, we read something even more
much as he enjoyed the privileges, though, in time his heartwarming: The boy Samuel continued growing up with
innocent heart became troubled. Something was terribly Jehovah. As he grew, his bond with his heavenly Father got
wrong in Jehovahs house. stronger. Such a close personal relationship with Jehovah is
the surest protection against any form of corruption.
Staying Pure in the Face of Corruption
It would have been easy for Samuel to reason that if the
At a young age, Samuel witnessed genuine wickedness
high priest and his sons can give in to sin, he might as well do
and corruption. Eli had two sons, named Hophni and
whatever he wished. But the corruption of others, including
Phinehas. Samuels account reads: The sons of Eli were
those in positions of authority, is never an excuse to sin.
good-for-nothing men; they did not acknowledge Jehovah.
Today, many Christian youths follow Samuels example and
(1 Samuel 2:12) The two thoughts in this verse go hand in
keep growing up with Jehovaheven when some around
hand. Hophni and Phinehas were good-for-nothing men
them fail to set a good example.
literally sons of worthlessnessbecause they had no regard
for Jehovah. They thought nothing of his righteous standards How did such a course work out for Samuel? We read:
and requirements. From that one failing sprang all their other All the while the boy Samuel was growing bigger and more
sins. likable both from Jehovahs standpoint and from that of
men. (1 Samuel 2:26) So Samuel was well-liked, at least by
Gods Law was specific about the priests duties and the
those whose opinions mattered. Jehovah himself cherished
way they were to offer sacrifices at his tabernacle. For good
this boy for his faithful course. And Samuel surely knew that
reason! Those sacrifices represented Gods provisions to
his God would act against all the badness going on in Shiloh,
forgive sins so that people could be clean in his eyes, eligible
but perhaps he wondered when.
for his blessing and guidance. But Hophni and Phinehas led
their fellow priests to treat the offerings with great disrespect. Speak, for Your Servant Is Listening
Imagine young Samuel watching, wide-eyed, as such One night, such questions met an answer. It was nearing
gross abuses went on uncorrected. How many people did he morning but still dark; the flickering light of the tents great
seeincluding poor, humble, downtrodden folk lamp was still burning. In the stillness, Samuel heard a voice
approaching that sacred tabernacle in hopes of finding some calling his name. He thought it was Eli, who was now very

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old and nearly blind. Samuel got up and went running to suddenly darkened with clouds. The winds battered the wheat
the old man. Can you see the boy in your minds eye, in the fields. The thunder let out its booming, deafening roars.
hurrying barefoot to see what Eli needed? It is touching to And the rain fell. The response? The people were greatly in
note that Samuel treated Eli with respect and kindness. In fear of Jehovah and of Samuel. At last, they saw how
spite of all his sins, Eli was still Jehovahs high priest. seriously they had sinned.1 Samuel 12:18, 19.
1 Samuel 3:2-5.
Not Samuel, but his God, Jehovah, had reached their
Samuel woke Eli, saying: Here I am, for you called me. rebellious hearts. From his youth to his old age, Samuel put
But Eli said that he had not called and sent the boy back to faith in his God. And Jehovah rewarded him. To this day,
bed. Well, the same thing happened again and then again! Jehovah has not changed. He still supports those who imitate
Finally, Eli realized what was going on. It had become rare the faith of Samuel.
for Jehovah to send a vision or a prophetic message to his
[Footnotes]
people, and it is not hard to see why. But Eli knew that
Jehovah was speaking againnow to this boy! Eli told Nazirites were under a vow that included a ban on drinking
Samuel to go back to bed and instructed him on how to alcoholic beverages and on cutting their hair. Most
answer properly. Samuel obeyed. Soon he heard the voice undertook such vows for only a set period of time, but a
calling: Samuel, Samuel! The boy answered: Speak, for few, such as Samson, Samuel, and John the Baptist, were
your servant is listening.1 Samuel 3:1, 5-10. lifelong Nazirites.
Jehovah did, at last, have a servant in Shiloh who was The sanctuary was a rectangular structure, basically a great
listening. That became Samuels life pattern. Is it yours? We tent on a wooden framework. However, it was made of
do not have to wait for a supernatural voice in the night to the finest of materialssealskins, beautifully
speak to us. Today, Gods voice is always there for us in a embroidered cloths, and costly woods plated with silver
sense. It is there in his completed Word, the Bible. The more and gold. The sanctuary sat within a rectangular courtyard
we listen to God and respond, the more our faith will grow. that included an impressive altar for sacrifices. Over time,
So it was with Samuel. other chambers evidently were erected at the sides of the
tabernacle for the use of the priests. Samuel, it seems,
That night in Shiloh was a milestone in Samuels life, for
slept in such a chamber.
then he began to know Jehovah in a special sense, becoming
Gods own prophet and spokesman. At first, the boy was The account provides two examples of disrespect. For one
afraid to deliver Jehovahs message to Eli, for it was a final thing, the Law specified which pieces of a sacrificial
pronouncement that the prophecy against that family was offering were to go to the priests to eat. (Deuteronomy
soon to come true. But Samuel mustered the courageand 18:3) But at the tabernacle, the wicked priests had set up a
Eli humbly acquiesced to the divine judgment. Before long, very different practice. They would have their attendants
everything Jehovah had said was fulfilled. Israel went to war simply jab a great fork into the cauldron where the meat
with the Philistines, and Hophni and Phinehas were killed on was boiling, taking whatever choice morsel came out! For
the same day. Eli himself died upon learning that Jehovahs another thing, when people brought their sacrifices to be
sacred Ark had been captured.1 Samuel 3:10-18; 4:1-18. burned at the altar, the wicked priests would have an
attendant bully the offerer, demanding the raw meat even
However, Samuels reputation as a faithful prophet only
before the fat of the sacrifice was offered to Jehovah.
grew. Jehovah himself proved to be with him, the account
Leviticus 3:3-5; 1 Samuel 2:13-17.
says, adding that Jehovah let none of Samuels prophecies
(Acts 4:13) Now when they saw the outspokenness of Peter
fail.1 Samuel 3:19.
and John, and perceived that they were uneducated and
Samuel Called to Jehovah ordinary men, they were astonished. And they began to
realize that they had been with Jesus.
Did that mean, though, that the Israelites followed
Samuels lead and became spiritual, faithful people? No. In (Hebrews 5:12-14) For although by now you should be
time, they decided that they did not want a mere prophet to teachers, you again need someone to teach you from the
judge them. They wanted to be like other nations and have a beginning the elementary things of the sacred
human king rule over them. At Jehovahs direction, Samuel pronouncements of God, and you have gone back to needing
complied. But he had to convey to Israel the magnitude of milk, not solid food. 13 For everyone who continues to feed on
their sin. They were rejecting, not a mere man, but Jehovah milk is unacquainted with the word of righteousness, for he is
himself! So he summoned the people to Gilgal. a young child. 14 But solid food belongs to mature people, to
those who through use have their powers of discernment
Let us rejoin him in that tense moment of addressing trained to distinguish both right and wrong.
Israel at Gilgal. There, elderly Samuel reminded Israel of his
faithful record of integrity. Then, we read: Samuel called to Page 8 Unit 1 (b)
Jehovah. He asked Jehovah for a thunderstorm.1 Samuel
12:17, 18. (Psalm 25:4) Make me know your ways, O Jehovah; Teach
me your paths.
A thunderstorm? In the dry season? Why, such a thing
was unheard of! If there was even a trace of skepticism or
scoffing among the people, it did not last long. The sky
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4
(Matthew 24:45) Who really is the faithful and discreet Jesus was even more concerned about providing
slave whom his master appointed over his domestics, to give spiritual food to his followers. He knew that taking in
them their food at the proper time? spiritual food, the truths found in Gods Word, leads to
(Acts 8:26-31) However, Jehovahs angel spoke to Philip, everlasting life. (John 6:26, 27; 17:3) Moved by the same
saying: Get up and go to the south to the road that runs compassion that impelled him to feed bread and fish to the
down from Jerusalem to Gaza. (This is a desert road.) crowds, Jesus spent many hours personally teaching his
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With that he got up and went, and look! an Ethiopian followers. (Mark 6:34) But he was aware that his time on
eunuch, a man who had authority under Candace, queen of earth would be short and that he would return to heaven.
the Ethiopians, and who was in charge of all her treasure. (Matt. 16:21; John 14:12) How would the heavenly Jesus
He had gone to Jerusalem to worship, 28 and he was returning keep his followers on earth well-fed spiritually? He would
and was sitting in his chariot, reading aloud the prophet follow a similar patternhe would feed many through the
Isaiah. 29 So the spirit said to Philip: Go over and approach hands of a few. Who, though, would be the few? Let us see
this chariot. 30 Philip ran alongside and heard him reading how Jesus used a few to feed his many first-century anointed
aloud Isaiah the prophet, and he said: Do you actually know followers. Then, in the next article, we will discuss this
what you are reading? 31 He said: Really, how could I ever question of vital importance to each one of us: How can we
do so unless someone guided me? So he urged Philip to get identify the few through whom Christ feeds us today?
on and sit down with him.

*** w13 7/15 pp. 15-19 Feeding Many Through the Hands JESUS CHOOSES THE FEW
of a Few *** 5
A responsible family head makes arrangements so that
Feeding Many Through the Hands of a Few his family will be cared for in the event of his death.
Similarly, Jesuswho would become Head of the Christian
After breaking the loaves, [Jesus] distributed congregationmade arrangements to ensure that his
them to the disciples, the disciples in turn to followers would be cared for spiritually after his death. (Eph.
the crowds.MATT. 14:19. 1:22) For example, about two years before he died, Jesus
made a weighty decision. He selected the first of the few
HOW WOULD YOU ANSWER? through whom he would later feed the many. Consider what
What pattern did Jesus follow when feeding happened.
the crowds? 6
After praying all night, Jesus gathered his disciples and
How did Jesus use the apostles and older men from among them chose 12 apostles. (Luke 6:12-16) For the
in Jerusalem? next two years, he was especially close to the 12, teaching
them both by word and by example. He knew that they had
When was it time for Christ to appoint one much to learn; in fact, they continued to be called disciples.
organized channel to dispense spiritual food? (Matt. 11:1; 20:17) He gave them valuable personal counsel
IMAGINE the scene. (Read Matthew 14:14-21.) It is just and extensive training in the ministry. (Matt. 10:1-42; 20:20-
before the Passover of 32 C.E. A crowd of some 5,000 men, 23; Luke 8:1; 9:52-55) He was evidently preparing them for a
besides women and young children, are with Jesus and his key role after his death and return to heaven.
disciples at a deserted place in the vicinity of Bethsaida, a 7
What would be the role of the apostles? As Pentecost
village on the north shore of the Sea of Galilee. 33 C.E. drew near, it was clear that the apostles would serve
2
Upon seeing the crowd, Jesus is moved with pity for the in an office of oversight. (Acts 1:20) What, though, would
people, so he heals the sick among them and teaches them be their primary concern? Following his resurrection, Jesus
many things about Gods Kingdom. When it gets late, the provided a clue in a conversation he had with the apostle
disciples urge Jesus to dismiss the people so that they might Peter. (Read John 21:1, 2, 15-17.) In the presence of some of
go to nearby villages and buy some food for themselves. But the other apostles, Jesus told Peter: Feed my little sheep.
Jesus tells his disciples: You give them something to eat. Jesus thereby indicated that his apostles would be among the
His words must seem puzzling to them, for the provisions at few through whom he would provide spiritual food to the
hand are meager at bestfive loaves and two small fish. many. What a touching and telling indication of how Jesus
feels about his little sheep!
3
Moved by compassion, Jesus performs a miraclethe
only miracle that is recorded by all four Gospel writers. FEEDING THE MANY FROM PENTECOST ONWARD
(Mark 6:35-44; Luke 9:10-17; John 6:1-13) Jesus has his 8
Starting at Pentecost 33 C.E., the resurrected Christ used
disciples tell the crowd to recline on the green grass in groups his apostles as the channel through which he fed the rest of
of 50 and of 100. After saying a blessing, he begins breaking his anointed disciples. (Read Acts 2:41, 42.) That channel
the bread and dividing up the fish. Then, rather than giving was clearly recognized by the Jews and proselytes who
the food to the people directly, Jesus distributes it to the became spirit-anointed Christians that day. Unhesitatingly,
disciples, the disciples in turn to the crowds. Miraculously, they continued devoting themselves to the teaching of the
there is more than enough for everyone to eat! Just think: apostles. According to one scholar, the Greek verb rendered
Jesus has fed thousands through the hands of a fewhis continued devoting themselves can mean having a
disciples.
8
13
steadfast and singleminded fidelity to a certain course of Jesus foretold that the Christian congregation would
action. The new believers had a deep hunger for spiritual come under attack. Remember, in his prophetic illustration of
food, and they knew exactly where to get it. With unwavering the wheat and the weeds, Jesus warned that a newly planted
loyalty, they looked to the apostles to explain the words and field of wheat (anointed Christians) would be oversown with
deeds of Jesus and to shed fresh light on the meaning of the weeds (imitation Christians). The groups, he said, would be
scriptures pertaining to him.Acts 2:22-36. allowed to grow side by sideundisturbed until the harvest,
9 which would come at a conclusion of a system of things.
The apostles kept their responsibility to feed Jesus
(Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43) It was not long before Jesus words
sheep clearly in focus. For example, notice how they handled
began to come true.
a sensitive and potentially divisive issue that arose in the
14
newly formed congregation. Ironically, the matter involved The apostasy made some inroads in the first century, but
foodmaterial food. Greek-speaking widows were being Jesus faithful apostles acted as a restraint, holding back the
overlooked in the daily food distribution, but Hebrew- contamination and influence of false teachings. (2 Thess. 2:3,
speaking widows were not being overlooked. How did the 6, 7) However, once the last of the apostles died, the apostasy
apostles resolve this delicate issue? The twelve appointed took root and flourished during a long growing season that
seven qualified brothers to oversee the necessary business, lasted for many centuries. Additionally, during that time, the
the food distribution. The apostlesmost of whom had no weeds became many and the blades of wheat were few. There
doubt shared in distributing food to the crowds whom Jesus was no consistent, organized channel for dispensing spiritual
had miraculously fedsaw that it was more important for food. That would eventually change. But the question is,
them to focus on spiritual feeding. Thus, they devoted When?
themselves to the ministry of the word.Acts 6:1-6.
10
By 49 C.E., the surviving apostles had been joined by
HARVESTTIMEWHO WOULD DO THE FEEDING?
certain other qualified elders. (Read Acts 15:1, 2.) The
apostles and older men in Jerusalem served as a governing 15
As the end of the growing season neared, there were
body. As the Head of the congregation, Christ used this small strong stirrings of interest in Bible truth. Recall that in the
group of qualified men to settle doctrinal issues and to 1870s, a small group of sincere truth-seekers got together
oversee and direct the preaching and teaching of the and formed Bible classes apart from the weedsimitation
Kingdom good news.Acts 15:6-29; 21:17-19; Col. 1:18. Christians within the churches and sects of Christendom.
11 With humble hearts and open minds, those sincere Bible
Did Jehovah bless the arrangement by means of which
Students, as they called themselves, made a careful and
his Son fed the first-century congregations? Most definitely!
prayerful search of the Scriptures.Matt. 11:25.
How can we be sure? The book of Acts gives us this report:
Now as they [the apostle Paul and his traveling companions] 16
The Bible Students diligent study of the Scriptures
traveled on through the cities they would deliver to those yielded rich results. Those loyal men and women exposed
there for observance the decrees that had been decided upon false doctrines and spread spiritual truths, publishing and
by the apostles and older men who were in Jerusalem. distributing Bible literature far and wide. Their work won the
Therefore, indeed, the congregations continued to be made hearts and convinced the minds of many who were hungering
firm in the faith and to increase in number from day to day. and thirsting for spiritual truth. An intriguing question
(Acts 16:4, 5) Notice that those congregations prospered as a therefore arises: Were the Bible Students in the years that led
result of their loyal cooperation with the governing body in up to 1914 the appointed channel through which Christ would
Jerusalem. Is that not proof of Jehovahs blessing on the feed his sheep? No. They were still in the growing season,
arrangement by means of which his Son fed the and the arrangement for a channel to provide spiritual food
congregations? Let us remember that spiritual prosperity is was still taking shape. The time had not yet come for the
possible only with Jehovahs rich blessing.Prov. 10:22; weedlike imitation Christians to be separated from the true
1 Cor. 3:6, 7. Christian wheat.
12
Thus far we have seen that Jesus followed a pattern 17
As we learned in the preceding article, the harvest
when feeding his followers: He fed many through the hands season began in 1914. In that year, a number of important
of a few. The channel he used for spiritual feeding was developments began to unfold. Jesus was enthroned as King,
clearly recognizable. After all, the apostlesthe original and the last days began. (Rev. 11:15) From 1914 to the early
members of the governing bodycould provide visible proof part of 1919, Jesus accompanied his Father to the spiritual
of heavenly backing. Through the hands of the apostles temple to do a much-needed inspection and cleansing work.
many signs and portents continued to occur among the (Mal. 3:1-4) Then, starting in 1919, it was time to begin
people, states Acts 5:12. Hence, there was no reason for gathering the wheat. Was it finally the time for Christ to
those who became Christians to wonder, Who really are the appoint one organized channel to dispense spiritual food?
ones through whom Christ is feeding his sheep? But by the Yes, indeed!
end of the first century, the situation changed. 18
In his prophecy about the time of the end, Jesus foretold
WHEN THE WEEDS WERE MANY AND THE that he would appoint a channel to give out spiritual food at
BLADES OF WHEAT FEW the proper time. (Matt. 24:45-47) Which channel would he
use? True to the pattern he set in the first century, Jesus

9
would once again feed many through the hands of a few. But inhabit it? Learning the answer to that question can help you to draw
as the last days were just getting under way, the critical closer to the God whose invisible qualities are clearly seen in the
question was, Who will be the few? That and other questions world around us.
about Jesus prophecy will be discussed in the next artic
Showing Our Love for Jehovah
(Matthew 4:4) But he answered: It is written: Man must
live, not on bread alone, but on every word that comes from
(Philippians 1:9, 10) And this is what I continue praying,
Jehovahs mouth.
that your love may abound still more and more with accurate
(Hebrews 12:2) as we look intently at the Chief Agent and knowledge and full discernment; 10 that you may make sure
Perfecter of our faith, Jesus. For the joy that was set before of the more important things, so that you may be flawless and
him he endured a torture stake, despising shame, and has sat not stumbling others up to the day of Christ;
down at the right hand of the throne of God.
(1 John 2:5) But whoever does observe his word, in this
(Romans 1:20) For his invisible qualities are clearly seen person the love of God has truly been made perfect. By this
from the worlds creation onward, because they are perceived we know that we are in union with him.
by the things made, even his eternal power and Godship, so
(1 John 5:3) For this is what the love of God means, that we
that they are inexcusable.
observe his commandments; and yet his commandments are
*** w13 8/1 p. 11 His Invisible Qualities Are Clearly Seen ***
DRAW CLOSE TO GOD not burdensome,
His Invisible Qualities Are Clearly Seen (Romans 10:10) For with the heart one exercises faith for
righteousness, but with the mouth one makes public
Do you believe in God? If so, can you point to proof of his declaration for salvation.
existence? The truth is that we are surrounded by evidence of a (2 Corinthians 7:1) Therefore, since we have these promises,
Creator who is wise, powerful, and loving. What is this evidence, beloved ones, let us cleanse ourselves of every defilement of
and how compelling is it? For the answer, consider the words of the flesh and spirit, perfecting holiness in the fear of God.
apostle Paul recorded in his letter to Christians in Rome.
(Ephesians 4:15) But speaking the truth, let us by love grow
Paul said: His [Gods] invisible qualities are clearly seen from up in all things into him who is the head, Christ.
the worlds creation onward, because they are perceived by the
things made, even his eternal power and Godship, so that they are Page 9 Unit 1 (b)
inexcusable. (Romans 1:20) The Creator left his imprint on his
handiwork, as Paul pointed out. Let us take a closer look at Pauls
words. (1 Timothy 1:5) Really, the objective of this instruction is
love out of a clean heart and out of a good conscience and out
Gods qualities could be seen from the worlds creation of faith without hypocrisy.
onward, notes Paul. In this context the Greek word rendered
world does not refer to the planet Earth. Rather, it refers to (Hebrews 10:23-25) Let us hold firmly the public declaration
humankind. Hence, Paul is saying that from the moment humans of our hope without wavering, for the one who promised is
were created, they could see evidence of the Creators qualities in faithful. 24 And let us consider one another so as to incite to
the things he made. love and fine works, 25 not forsaking our meeting together, as
some have the custom, but encouraging one another, and all
That evidence is all around us. It is not hidden in nature but is the more so as you see the day drawing near.
clearly seen. From the largest to the smallest, creation clearly
reveals not only that there is a Creator but also that he has wonderful (1 John 3:17, 18) But whoever has the material possessions
qualities. Does not the intelligent design so obvious in nature reveal of this world and sees his brother in need and yet refuses to
to us Gods wisdom? Do not the starry heavens and the pounding show him compassion, in what way does the love of God
surf reveal his power? Does not the variety of foods that delight our remain in him? 18 Little children, we should love, not in word
palate and the beauty of sunrises and sunsets reveal his love for or with the tongue, but in deed and truth.
mankind?Psalm 104:24; Isaiah 40:26.
(John 17:6-8) I have made your name manifest to the men
How plain is the evidence? It is so clear that those who do not whom you gave me out of the world. They were yours, and
see it and who thus refuse to believe in God are inexcusable. One you gave them to me, and they have observed your word.
scholar illustrates it this way: Imagine a driver who ignores a sign 7
Now they have come to know that all the things you gave
that says DetourTurn Left. A police officer stops him and starts me are from you; 8 because I have given them the sayings that
writing him a ticket. The driver tries to argue that he did not see the
you gave me, and they have accepted them and have certainly
sign. But his words carry little weight because the sign is in plain
view and there is nothing wrong with the drivers vision. Besides, as
come to know that I came as your representative, and they
a driver, the responsibility for seeing and heeding such signs is his. have believed that you sent me.
So it is with the evidence of God in nature. That sign is in plain (John 17:26) I have made your name known to them and will
view. As reasoning creatures, we are capable of seeing it. There is no make it known, so that the love with which you loved me
excuse for ignoring it. may be in them and I in union with them.
Indeed, the book of creation reveals much about our Creator. (Revelation 2:1-5) To the angel of the congregation in Eph
But there is another book that reveals far more about himthe esus write: These are the things that he says who holds the
Bible. Through its pages we can learn the answer to this vital seven stars in his right hand and walks among the seven
question: What is Gods purpose for our earth and the humans who golden lampstands: 2 I know your deeds, and your labor and
10
endurance, and that you cannot tolerate bad men, and that you w14 2/15 p. 25 pars. 18-21
put to the test those who say they are apostles, but they are
not, and you found them to be liars. 3 You are also showing 18. What might we ask ourselves regarding our
endurance, and you have persevered for the sake of my name communication with Jehovah?
and have not grown weary. 4 Nevertheless, I hold this against
you, that you have left the love you had at first. 5 Therefore
remember from where you have fallen, and repent and do the 18 Friendship deepens when good communication
deeds you did at first. If you do not, I will come to you, and I exists. Social networking and text messaging are very
will remove your lampstand from its place, unless you repent. popular in this age of Internet and telecommunications
technology. By comparison, though, how do we
Draw Close to God Through Prayer individually rate our personal communication with our
(Psalm 145:18, 19) Jehovah is near to all those calling on best Friend, Jehovah? True, he is the Hearer of
him, To all who call on him in truth. 19 He satisfies the desire prayer. (Ps. 65:2) But how often do we take the
of those who fear him; He hears their cry for help, and he initiative to speak to him?
rescues them.
(Philippians 4:6, 7) Do not be anxious over anything, but in 19. We have access to what help if we find it difficult to
everything by prayer and supplication along with open our hearts to our heavenly Father?
thanksgiving, let your petitions be made known to God; 7 and
the peace of God that surpasses all understanding will guard 19 Some servants of God do not find it easy to open
your hearts and your mental powers by means of Christ Jesus. their hearts and express their deep emotions. Yet, that is
(Mark 14:36) And he said: Abba, Father, all things are what Jehovah wants us to do when we pray. (Ps.
possible for you; remove this cup from me. Yet, not what I 119:145; Lam. 3:41) Even if we find such heartfelt
want, but what you want. expressions difficult to put into words, we are not
without help. Paul wrote to Christians in Rome: The
*** cf chap. 13 p. 134 pars. 14-15 I Love the Father *** problem is that we do not know what we should pray
14
for as we need to, but the spirit itself pleads for us with
Jesus also kept his love for Jehovah strong by praying unuttered groanings. But the one who searches the
regularly. Although he was a friendly, gregarious man, it is hearts knows what the meaning of the spirit is, because
striking to note that he valued solitude. For example, Luke it is pleading in harmony with God for the holy ones.
5:16 says: He continued in retirement in the deserts and (Rom. 8:26, 27) Our meditating on the words recorded
praying. Similarly, Matthew 14:23 states: Eventually, in such Bible books as Job, Psalms, and Proverbs will
having sent the crowds away, he went up into the mountain help us to express our inmost feelings to Jehovah.
by himself to pray. Though it became late, he was there
alone. Jesus sought solitude on these and other occasions,
not because he was a recluse or hated the company of others, 20, 21. What comfort do Pauls words at Philippians
but because he wanted to be alone with Jehovah, to speak 4:6, 7 provide?
freely with his Father in prayer.
15 20 When distressing situations confront us, let us heed
When he prayed, Jesus would at times use the
Pauls inspired advice to the Philippians: Do not be
expression Abba, Father. (Mark 14:36) In Jesus day,
anxious over anything, but in everything by prayer and
Abba was an intimate word for father, a family word. It
supplication along with thanksgiving, let your petitions
was often among the first words that a child would learn. Yet,
be made known to God. Such open communication
it was respectful. While the word revealed the intimacy of the
with our best Friend will surely bring us comfort and
Son speaking to his beloved Father, it also conveyed
consolation, for Paul adds: The peace of God that
profound respect for Jehovahs fatherly authority. We find
surpasses all understanding will guard your hearts and
that combination of intimacy and respect throughout Jesus
your mental powers by means of Christ Jesus. (Phil.
recorded prayers. For example, in John chapter 17, the
4:6, 7) May we always cherish the incomparable
apostle John recorded the long and heartfelt prayer that Jesus
peace of God that really does guard our hearts and
offered on His final night. It is truly moving for us to study
mental powers.
that prayer and vital that we imitate itnot by repeating
Jesus words, of course, but by finding ways to speak from
the heart to our heavenly Father as often as we can. Doing so How does prayer strengthen our friendship with
will keep our love for him alive and strong. God? (See paragraph 21)
(James 4:8) Draw close to God, and he will draw close to
you. Cleanse your hands, you sinners, and purify your hearts, 21 Prayer helps us to cultivate a friendship with
you indecisive ones Jehovah. Therefore, let us pray constantly. (1 Thess.
5:17) May this study strengthen our precious
relationship with God and our determination to comply
with his righteous requirements. And let us take time to
meditate on the blessings we enjoy because Jehovah
truly is our Father, our God, and our Friend.
11
life even now in the twilight of this dying system of things. A
*** w02 10/15 pp. 17-18 par. 16 Jehovah Cares for You watchful course will also ensure that when your Master
*** comes to bring this system to its end, he will find you alert
16
Are you convinced of Jehovahs saving power? Are you and active, doing his Fathers will. How delighted Jehovah
aware of his angelic protection? Have you personally tasted will be to reward you for your faithful course!Rev. 16:15.
and seen that Jehovah is good? When was the last time that
you were particularly conscious that Jehovah had been good *** cf chap. 7 p. 72 pars. 15-16 Consider Closely the One
to you? Try to recall. Was it at that last home you visited in Who Has Endured ***
the ministry, just as you were feeling you could do no more? 15
Jesus, although the perfect Son of God, did not rely on
Perhaps you then had a wonderful conversation with the his own strength to endure. Instead, he turned to his heavenly
householder. Did you remember to thank Jehovah for having Father and prayed for help from above. The apostle Paul
given you the extra strength you needed and for blessing you? wrote: Christ offered up supplications and also petitions to
(2 Corinthians 4:7) On the other hand, you may have trouble the One who was able to save him out of death, with strong
recalling some particular act of goodness that Jehovah outcries and tears. (Hebrews 5:7) Notice that Jesus offered
performed in your behalf. You may have to think back a up not just petitions but also supplications. The term
week, a month, a year, or more. If this is the case, why not supplication refers to an especially heartfelt and earnest
make a conscious effort to draw closer to Jehovah and try to entreatyyes, a begging for help. The use of the plural
see how he guides and directs you? The apostle Peter supplications indicates that Jesus implored Jehovah more
admonished Christians: Humble yourselves . . . under the than once. Indeed, in the garden of Gethsemane, Jesus prayed
mighty hand of God . . . while you throw all your anxiety repeatedly and fervently.Matthew 26:36-44.
upon him, because he cares for you. (1 Peter 5:6, 7) Indeed,
16
you will be amazed at how much he cares for you!Psalm Jesus had complete confidence that Jehovah would
73:28. Psalm 73:28. answer his supplications, for he knew that his Father is the
Hearer of prayer. (Psalm 65:2) During his prehuman
existence, the firstborn Son had seen how his Father responds
Page 10 Unit 1 (b)
to the prayers of loyal worshippers. For example, the Son was
an eyewitness in the heavens when Jehovah dispatched an
(Matthew 4:7) Jesus said to him: Again it is written: You
angel to answer the heartfelt prayer of the prophet Daniel
must not put Jehovah your God to the test.
even before Daniel had finished praying. (Daniel 9:20, 21)
(Matthew 4:10) Then Jesus said to him: Go away, Satan! How, then, could the Father fail to answer when his only-begotten
For it is written: It is Jehovah your God you must worship, Son poured out his heart with strong outcries and tears? Jehovah
and it is to him alone you must render sacred service. did respond to the entreaties of his Son and sent an angel to
strengthen him to bear up under the ordeal.Luke 22:43.
*** w12 2/15 p. 7 pars. 16-17 Imitate Jesus Example of (John 11:41, 42) So they took the stone away. Then Jesus
Watchfulness *** raised his eyes heavenward and said: Father, I thank you that
16 you have heard me. 42 True, I knew that you always hear me;
When Jesus was under trial, he resolutely refused to but I spoke on account of the crowd standing around, so that
lean on his own understanding. Think of it! The wisest man they may believe that you sent me.
ever to live on this earth chose not to draw on his own
wisdom for answers. For instance, when Satan tempted him, (Hebrews 11:6) Moreover, without faith it is impossible to
Jesus repeatedly answered with the phrase: It is written. please God well, for whoever approaches God must believe
(Matt. 4:4, 7, 10) He relied on his Fathers wisdom to ward that he is and that he becomes the rewarder of those earnestly
off temptation, showing the humility that Satan despises and seeking him.
utterly lacks. Do we do the same? A family head who imitates Continue Fortifying Your Relationship With Jehovah
Jesus watchfulness lets Gods Word guide him, especially in (Romans 11:33-36) O the depth of Gods riches and wisdom
trialsome times. Around the world, thousands of family heads and knowledge! How unsearchable his judgments are and
are doing just that. They are steadfastly putting Gods beyond tracing out his ways are! 34 For who has come to
Kingdom and pure worship first in life, even ahead of know Jehovahs mind, or who has become his adviser? 35 Or,
material concerns. Thereby, they take the best care of their who has first given to him, so that it must be repaid to him?
families. Jehovah responds by blessing their efforts to 36
Because from him and by him and for him are all things. To
provide for material needs, just as his Word promises.Matt. him be the glory forever. Amen.
6:33.
17
Without question, Jesus set the best possible example of Page 11 Unit 2 (a)
watchfulness. His example is practical, beneficial, and even Using the New World Translation-Part 1
lifesaving. Remember, Satan is eager to lull you into spiritual OPENING DISCUSSION
sleepa state of weak faith, lackadaisical worship, and
compromised integrity. (1 Thess. 5:6) Do not let him (2 Timothy 2:15) Do your utmost to present yourself
succeed! Remain watchful as Jesus didwatchful in your approved to God, a workman with nothing to be ashamed of,
handling the word of the truth aright.
prayers, in your ministry, and in dealing with trials. By
following that course, you will enjoy a rich, happy, fulfilling

12
19
QUESTION OUTLINE Releasing the New World Translation in Its Parts. It
was on Wednesday, August 2, 1950, on the fourth day of their
Superiority of the Translation international assembly at Yankee Stadium, New York, that a
*** jv chap. 27 p. 608 Printing and Distributing Gods totally surprised audience of 82,075 of Jehovahs Witnesses
Own Sacred Word *** heartily accepted the release of the New World Translation of
the Christian Greek Scriptures. Encouraged by the initial
Was there really need for another translation? Already at enthusiastic reception, as well as by later expressions of
that time, the complete Bible had been published in 190 appreciation for the translations merits, the Committee next
languages, and at least part of it had been translated into 928 undertook the extensive work of translating the Hebrew
additional languages and dialects. Jehovahs Witnesses have Scriptures. This appeared in five additional volumes, released
at various times used most of these translations. But the fact successively from 1953 to 1960. The set of six volumes
is that most of these were made by clergymen and formed a library of the entire Bible in modern English. Each
missionaries of Christendoms religious sects, and to varying volume also contained valuable aids to Bible study. A vast
degrees their translations were influenced by the pagan storehouse of Scriptural information was thus made available
philosophies and unscriptural traditions that their religious to the modern-day student of the Bible. Diligent effort had
systems had inherited from the past as well as by the bias of been made to draw on every reliable source of textual
higher criticism. Furthermore, older and more reliable Bible information so that the New World Translation would express
manuscripts were becoming available. The Greek language of clearly and accurately the powerful message of the original
the first century was becoming more clearly understood as a inspired Scriptures.
result of archaeological discoveries. Also, the languages into
which translations are made undergo changes over the years. *** jv chap. 27 p. 609 Printing and Distributing Gods
Own Sacred Word ***
*** jv chap. 27 p. 608 Printing and Distributing Gods
Own Sacred Word *** One of the outstanding features of this translation is its
restoration of the divine name, the personal name of God,
Was there really need for another translation? Already at Jehovah, 237 times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. This
that time, the complete Bible had been published in 190 was not the first translation to restore the name. But it may
languages, and at least part of it had been translated into 928 have been the first to do it consistently in the main text from
additional languages and dialects. Jehovahs Witnesses have Matthew through Revelation. An extensive discussion of this
at various times used most of these translations. But the fact matter in the foreword showed the sound basis for what was
is that most of these were made by clergymen and done.
missionaries of Christendoms religious sects, and to varying
degrees their translations were influenced by the pagan Thereafter, the Hebrew Scriptures were translated into
philosophies and unscriptural traditions that their religious English and were released progressively, in five separate
systems had inherited from the past as well as by the bias of volumes, beginning in 1953. As had been done with the
higher criticism. Furthermore, older and more reliable Bible Christian Greek Scriptures, care was exercised to convey as
manuscripts were becoming available. The Greek language of literally as possible what was in the original-language text.
the first century was becoming more clearly understood as a Special attention was given to making the renderings
result of archaeological discoveries. Also, the languages into uniform, conveying accurately the action or state expressed in
which translations are made undergo changes over the years. the verbs, and using simple language that would be readily
understood by modern-day readers. Wherever the
Tetragrammaton appeared in the Hebrew text, it was
*** si p. 324 pars. 18-19 Study Number 7The Bible in appropriately rendered as the personal name of God, instead
Modern Times *** of being replaced by some other term as had become common
18
On September 3, 1949, at the Brooklyn headquarters of in many other translations. Appendix articles and footnotes in
the Society, the president announced to the Board of these volumes enabled careful students to examine the basis
Directors the existence of the New World Bible Translation for the renderings used.
Committee and that it had completed a modern translation of
the Christian Greek Scriptures. The committees document *** nwt p. 39 Foreword ***
was read, by which the committee assigned the possession, FOREWORD
control, and publication of the translation manuscript to the
Society, in recognition of the Societys unsectarian work of The Holy Bible is Gods written communication to all of
promoting Bible education throughout the earth. Portions of us. We must study it to get to know its Author. (John 17:3;
the manuscript were also read, as examples of the nature and 2 Timothy 3:16) Within its pages, Jehovah God reveals his
quality of the translation. The directors were unanimous in purpose for humans and for their earthly home.Genesis
accepting the gift of the translation, and arrangements were 3:15; Revelation 21:3, 4.
made for its immediate printing. Typesetting began on No other book has such an impact on peoples lives. The
September 29, 1949, and by early summer of 1950, tens of Bible inspires us to reflect Jehovahs qualities of love, mercy,
thousands of copies were completed in bound form. and compassion. It gives hope, helping people to endure even
the worst suffering. And it continues to expose the elements

13
of this world that are out of harmony with the perfect will of closest to what was expressed in the original languages.
God.Psalm 119:105; Hebrews 4:12; 1 John 2:15-17. However, that is not always the case. Consider a few of the
reasons:
Originally composed in Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, the
Bible has been translated, in whole or in part, into about No two languages are exactly alike in grammar, vocabulary,
2,600 languages. It is by far the most widely translated and and sentence structure. A professor of Hebrew,
distributed book in history. We should expect nothing less. S. R. Driver, wrote that languages differ not only in
Bible prophecy states: This good news of the Kingdom [the grammar and roots, but also . . . in the manner in which
key message contained in the Bible] will be preached in all ideas are built up into a sentence. Different languages
the inhabited earth for a witness to all the nations, and then require quite different thought patterns. Consequently,
the end will come.Matthew 24:14. continues Professor Driver, the forms taken by the
sentence in different languages are not the same.
Recognizing the importance of the Bibles message, we
have undertaken the revision of this text with a profound No modern language exactly mirrors the vocabulary and
respect for the content of the Bible. We feel the full weight of grammar of Biblical Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek, so a
our responsibility to convey its message accurately. This word-for-word translation of the Bible could be unclear or
revised edition has built on the fine foundation laid in at times could even convey the wrong meaning.
previous editions of the New World Translation of the Holy
The meaning of a word or an expression may vary
Scriptures, a Bible that was first released more than 60 years
depending on the context in which it is used.
ago. However, the English language has changed during the
past half century. Such change prompted current members of A translator may be able to mirror the literal rendering of
the New World Bible Translation Committee to initiate this the original language in some passages, but this must be done
comprehensive revision. Our goal has been to produce a very carefully.
translation that is not only faithful to the original texts but
Here are some examples of how word-for-word
also clear and easy to read. The Appendix articles Principles
translation can be misunderstood:
of Bible Translation, Features of This Revision, and How
the Bible Came to Us discuss some of the linguistic The Scriptures use the expressions sleep and fall asleep
refinements that were made in this edition. to refer both to physical sleep and to the sleep of death.
(Matthew 28:13; Acts 7:60) When these expressions are
Those who love Jehovah God and worship him desire an
used in contexts that refer to death, Bible translators can
accurate, understandable translation of Gods Word.
use such wording as fall asleep in death, which helps
(1 Timothy 2:4) To that end, we have made this revision
the modern reader avoid confusion.1 Corinthians 7:39;
available in English, with the intention of translating it into as
1 Thessalonians 4:13; 2 Peter 3:4.
many languages as possible. It is our hope and prayer that
you, dear reader, will find this edition of the Holy Scriptures The apostle Paul used an expression found at Ephesians
beneficial as you endeavor to seek God . . . and really find 4:14 that can be literally translated in the playing of dice
him.Acts 17:27. New World Bible Translation Committee of men. This ancient idiom alludes to the practice of
August 2013 cheating others when using dice. In most languages, a
literal rendering of this allusion makes little sense.
Page 12 Translating this expression as the trickery of men is a
clearer way to convey the meaning.
APPENDIX A
A1 Principles of Bible Translation At Romans 12:11, a Greek expression is used that literally
means to the spirit boiling. This wording does not
*** nwt pp. 1718-1721 A1 Principles of Bible Translation convey the intended meaning in English, so it is rendered
*** aglow with the spirit in this translation.
A1 During his famous Sermon on the Mount, Jesus used an
Principles of Bible Translation expression that is often translated Blessed are the poor in
spirit. (Matthew 5:3, King James Version) But in many
The Bible was originally written in ancient languages, a literal rendering of this expression is
Hebrew, Aramaic, and Greek. Today it is obscure. In some cases, a strictly literal translation could
available in whole or in part in about 2,600 imply that the poor in spirit are mentally unbalanced or
languages. The vast majority of people who lacking in vitality and determination. However, Jesus was
read the Bible do not understand the original here teaching people that their happiness depended, not
languages and therefore must rely on a on satisfying their physical needs, but on recognizing
translation. What principles should guide how their need for Gods guidance. (Luke 6:20) Thus, such
the Bible is translated, and how did these renderings as those conscious of their spiritual need or
govern the rendering of the New World those who know their need for God convey more
Translation of the Holy Scriptures? accurately the meaning of the original expression.
Matthew 5:3; The New Testament in Modern English.
Some might conclude that a strict, word-for-word,
interlinear-style translation would enable the reader to get
14
In many contexts, the Hebrew word translated jealousy 17:26 reads: I made you known to them, and at John 17:6,
corresponds to the common meaning of the English word, I have revealed you to those whom you gave me. However,
namely, to feel anger over the apparent unfaithfulness of a a faithful rendering of Jesus prayer reads: I have made your
close associate or to envy others for their possessions. name known to them, and I have made your name manifest
(Proverbs 6:34; Isaiah 11:13) However, the same Hebrew to the men whom you gave me.
word also has a positive connotation. For example, it may
As stated in the foreword to the original English edition of
be used of the zeal, or protective ardor, that Jehovah
the New World Translation: We offer no paraphrase of the
shows for his servants or of his requiring exclusive
Scriptures. Our endeavor all through has been to give as
devotion. (Exodus 34:14; 2 Kings 19:31; Ezekiel 5:13;
literal a translation as possible, where the modern English
Zechariah 8:2) It may also be used of the zeal that his
idiom allows and where a literal rendition does not for any
faithful servants have for God and his worship or of their
clumsiness hide the thought. Thus, the New World Bible
tolerating no rivalry toward him.Psalm 69:9; 119:139;
Translation Committee has endeavored to strike a balance
Numbers 25:11.
between using words and phrasing that mirror the original
The Hebrew expression that usually refers to the human and, at the same time, avoiding wording that reads
hand has a wide variety of meanings. Depending on the awkwardly or hides the intended thought. As a result, the
context, this word may be rendered authority, Bible can be read with ease and the reader can have full
generosity, or power. (2 Samuel 8:3; 1 Kings 10:13; confidence that its inspired message has been transmitted
Proverbs 18:21) In fact, this particular word is translated faithfully.1 Thessalonians 2:13.
over 40 different ways in the English edition of the New
[Box on pages 1742, 1743]
World Translation of the Holy Scriptures.
A reliable translation must:
In view of these factors, Bible translation involves more
than simply rendering an original-language word with the Sanctify Gods name by restoring it to its rightful place in
same term each time it occurs. A translator must use good the Scriptures.Matthew 6:9.
judgment in order to select words in the target language that
Accurately convey the original message that was inspired by
best represent the ideas of the original-language text. In
God.2 Timothy 3:16.
addition, there is a need to structure the sentences in a way
that conforms to the rules of grammar of the target language, Translate expressions literally when the wording and
making the text easy to read. structure of the target language allow for such renderings
of the original-language text.
At the same time, extremes in rewording the text must be
avoided. A translator who liberally paraphrases the Bible Communicate the correct sense of a word or a phrase when
according to how he interprets the overall idea could distort a literal rendering would distort or obscure the meaning.
the meaning of the text. How so? The translator may
erroneously insert his opinion of what the original text means Use natural, easy-to-understand language that encourages
or may omit important details contained in the original text. reading.Nehemiah 8:8, 12.
So while paraphrases of the Bible may be easy to read, their [Picture on page 1719]
very freeness at times may prevent the reader from getting the MATTHEW 5:3
true message of the text. Literal English: the poor in spirit
Doctrinal bias can easily color a translators work. For Idea: those conscious of their spiritual need
example, Matthew 7:13 says: Spacious is the road leading [Picture on page 1720]
off into destruction. Some translators, perhaps affected by The Hebrew word yadh is usually rendered hand, but
doctrinal bias, have used the term hell rather than what the depending on the context, this word may be rendered
Greek term really means, namely, destruction. authority, generosity, power, and many other ways
A Bible translator must also consider that the Bible was
written using the common, everyday language of average A2 Features of This Revision
people, such as farmers, shepherds, and fishermen. *** nwt pp. 1722-1725 A2 Features of This Revision ***
(Nehemiah 8:8, 12; Acts 4:13) Therefore, a good translation A2
of the Bible makes the message it contains understandable to Features of This Revision
sincere people, regardless of their background. Clear,
common, readily understood expressions are preferred over The New World Translation of the Christian Greek
terms that are rarely used by the average person. Scriptures was released in English in 1950, and the complete
New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures was published
Quite a number of Bible translators have taken the in 1961. Since then, tens of millions of readers in well over
unjustifiable liberty of omitting Gods name, Jehovah, from 100 languages have benefited from this accurate yet readable
modern translations even though that name is found in rendering of the Holy Scriptures from the original languages.
ancient Bible manuscripts. (See Appendix A4.) Many
translations replace the name with a title, such as Lord, and Over the past half century, however, languages have
some even obscure the fact that God has a name. For changed. The current New World Bible Translation
example, in some translations, Jesus prayer recorded at John Committee recognized the need to respond to those changes

15
in order to touch the heart of todays reader. For this reason, a desires and appetite of a person or, in some cases, (5)
number of style and vocabulary changes have been made in even to dead individuals. However, since such use of
this revision, with the following objectives in mind: the word soul is not common in English, the
decision was made to render these original-language
Use of modern, understandable language. For example,
words according to their intended meaning, usually
the expression long-suffering can be misunderstood to
with a footnote that reads Or soul. (See, for
mean someone who suffers for a long time. However,
example, Genesis 1:20; 2:7; Leviticus 19:28; Psalm
the intended idea is that of deliberate restraint, which is
3:2; Proverbs 16:26; Matthew 6:25.) However, in
better expressed by the term patience. (Galatians 5:22)
some poetic or well-known contexts, the word soul
The now obsolete meaning of dumb was replaced with
was retained in the main text, along with a footnote
speechless. (Matthew 9:32, 33) The term harlot was
referring to the Glossary or showing another possible
changed to prostitute. (Genesis 38:15) In this revision,
rendering.Deuteronomy 6:5; Psalm 131:2; Proverbs
fornication is usually rendered as sexual immorality;
2:10; Matthew 22:37.
loose conduct as brazen conduct; and revelries as
wild parties. (Galatians 5:19-21) The expression time Similarly, the word kidney was retained when it
indefinite was replaced with such terms as forever, refers to the literal organ. However, when it is used
lasting, everlasting, or long ago, to convey the figuratively in such verses as Psalm 7:9 and 26:2 and
intended meaning in each context.Genesis 3:22; Revelation 2:23, the intended idea of deepest
Exodus 31:16; Psalm 90:2; Ecclesiastes 1:4; Micah 5:2. emotions or innermost thoughts is conveyed in the
main text, and the literal idea is given in a footnote.
The term seed in ancient Hebrew and Greek could
refer to plant seed as well as to human offspring, or Like its Hebrew and Greek equivalents, the English
descendants, or to semen. Because it is no longer expression heart has both a literal and a figurative
common in English to use the term seed when meaning, so it was usually retained in the main text.
referring to humans, it was replaced with expressions However, in a few contexts where the sense was not
that convey the intended idea according to the context. clear, a more explicit rendering was used. For
(Genesis 1:11; 22:17; 48:4; Matthew 22:24; John example, in the book of Proverbs, in want of heart
8:37) In most cases, the term offspring is now used now reads lacking good sense, and the literal idea is
when referring to the Edenic promise, found at given in a footnote. Other expressions, for instance,
Genesis 3:15. fat, flesh, and horn, were handled similarly,
according to the context. (Genesis 45:18; Ecclesiastes
The English verb impale was used in previous
5:6; Job 16:15) Some of these expressions are
versions of this Bible in connection with the execution
discussed in the Glossary of Bible Terms.
of Jesus. While this term could refer to the way that
Jesus was nailed to the torture stake, it is more often Enhanced readability. In previous editions of the English
used in reference to the ancient method of execution New World Translation, auxiliary expressions were used
by running a sharp stake through the body and fixing to indicate whether the Hebrew verb is in the imperfect or
the victim on it. Since Jesus was not impaled with the the perfect state. For example, the continuous action often
torture stake, this revision uses such expressions as expressed by imperfect verbs was indicated by means of
executed on a stake and nailed to the stake with the expressions proceeded to, went on to, came to
regard to the manner in which Jesus was fastened to be, and so forth. The emphasis often conveyed by the
the torture stake.Matthew 20:19; 27:31, 35. Hebrew perfect verb was denoted by the added
expressions certainly, must, actually, and similar
Biblical expressions clarified. Some terms used in
ones. As a result, these terms were used thousands of
previous editions of the English New World Translation
times in the text. In this revision, auxiliary terms were
often needed to be explained in order to be properly
retained in certain contexts by using such expressions as
understood. For example, the Hebrew term Sheol and
kept, keep on, and used to when there was a valid
the Greek term Hades are used in the Bible to refer to
reason to express continuous action. (Genesis 3:9; 34:1;
the common grave of mankind. Those terms are unknown
Proverbs 2:4) However, they were omitted to enhance
to many, and Hades has a dual meaning as a result of its
readability when the auxiliary expressions were not
usage in Greek mythology. Therefore, both terms were
critical for conveying the original meaning.
replaced with what was meant by the Bible writers, the
Grave. The terms Sheol and Hades are now given in Conveying the correct idea of words involving gender.
footnotes.Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:27. Hebrew and Greek nouns indicate male or female gender,
and in Greek, also neuter. At times, though, reflecting the
In past editions, the Hebrew word nephesh and the
gender of the original-language term may obscure the
Greek word psykhe were consistently rendered
intended meaning. In both Hebrew and Greek, plural
soul. In view of the many misconceptions regarding
nouns are generally masculine, not only when referring
the meaning of the word soul, this approach helped
exclusively to males but also when referring to both males
the reader to see how the inspired Bible writers used
and females. For example, though the expression the
these original-language terms. Depending on the
sons of Israel may refer to the 12 sons of Jacob, it more
context, those words may refer (1) to a person, (2) to
often refers to the entire nation of Israel, both men and
the life of a person, (3) to living creatures, (4) to the
16
women. (Genesis 46:5; Exodus 35:29) So in the revision, Judah and of Israel, and Main Events of Jesus Earthly
this phrase was often rendered Israelites to show that it Life. Appendix B contains maps, charts, and other
refers to the entire nation. Similarly, the expression information useful to diligent Bible students.
fatherless boy was rendered fatherless child or
In the main text of the Bible, each book features an
orphan to show that it may refer to a boy or a girl. On
outline of its chapter contents, along with the related verses,
the other hand, since the Bible uses the male gender in
giving the reader an overview of the entire book. The center
reference to God and to his Son, as well as to various
column of each page contains the most relevant marginal
angels and demons, there is no basis for using genderless
references from previous editions, pointing to related Bible
terms as is done in some modern translations.
verses
Omission of indicators for second person plural. Past
editions also indicated whether the pronouns you and Page 13
your and second person verbs were singular or plural by Unit 2 (a)
using small capital letters to show plurality. This feature
was not retained in this revision, but readers may consult A3 how the Bible Came to Us
earlier editions of this translation for this information. *** nwt pp. 1726-1730 A3 How the Bible Came to Us ***
How the Bible Came to Us
All adjustments in the Bible text were made
prayerfully, carefully, and with deep respect for the The Author and Originator of the Bible is also
fine work of the original New World Bible Translation its Preserver. He is the One who caused this
Committee. statement to be recorded:
Other features of this revision: The word of our God endures forever.
This Bible edition contains a limited number of footnotes. Isaiah 40:8.
The footnotes generally fall into the following categories:
That statement is true, even though no original Bible
Or Alternative ways the text could be manuscript of the Hebrew and Aramaic Scriptures or of the
rendered from Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek that Christian Greek Scriptures has survived to our day.
would give the same overall idea.Genesis Therefore, how can we be so certain that the contents of the
1:2, footnote on active force; Joshua 1:8, Bible we have today truly reflect the original inspired
undertone. writings?
Or possibly Alternative ways the text could COPYISTS PRESERVE GODS WORD
be rendered that would convey a valid yet
different overall idea.Genesis 21:6, laugh Regarding the Hebrew Scriptures, part of the answer lies
with me; Zechariah 14:21, Canaanite. in an ancient tradition that was established by God, who said
that the text should be copied. For example, Jehovah
Lit. A word-for-word translation from the instructed the kings of Israel to make their own copies of the
Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek or the basic written Law. (Deuteronomy 17:18) Additionally, God made
meaning of an original-language expression. the Levites responsible for preserving the Law and teaching it
Genesis 30:22, pregnant; Exodus 32:9, to the people. (Deuteronomy 31:26; Nehemiah 8:7) After the
obstinate. exile of the Jews to Babylon, a class of copyists, or scribes
Meaning and background information (Sopherim), developed. (Ezra 7:6, footnotes) Over time, those
Meaning of names (Genesis 3:17, Adam; scribes made numerous copies of the 39 books of the Hebrew
Exodus 15:23, Marah); details about weights Scriptures.
and measures (Genesis 6:15, cubits); the Through the centuries, scribes meticulously copied these
antecedent of a pronoun (Genesis 38:5, He); books. During the Middle Ages, a group of Jewish scribes
helpful information in the Appendix and the known as the Masoretes carried on that tradition. The oldest
Glossary.Genesis 37:35, Grave; Matthew complete Masoretic manuscript is the Leningrad Codex,
5:22, Gehenna. which dates from 1008/1009 C.E. However, in the middle of
The front section, entitled An Introduction to Gods the 20th century, some 220 Biblical manuscripts or fragments
Word, contains an outline of basic teachings found in the were discovered among the Dead Sea Scrolls. Those Biblical
Bible. Immediately following the Bible text is the Table of manuscripts were more than a thousand years older than the
the Books of the Bible, the Bible Words Index, and the Leningrad Codex. A comparison of the Dead Sea Scrolls with
Glossary of Bible Terms. The Glossary helps the reader the Leningrad Codex confirms a vital point: While the Dead
understand selected expressions according to their Bible- Sea Scrolls contain some variations in wording, none of those
specific usage. Appendix A contains the following sections: variations affect the message itself.
Principles of Bible Translation, Features of This What about the 27 books of the Christian Greek
Revision, How the Bible Came to Us, The Divine Name Scriptures? Those books were first penned by some of the
in the Hebrew Scriptures, The Divine Name in the apostles of Jesus Christ and by a few other early disciples.
Christian Greek Scriptures, Chart: Prophets and Kings of Following the tradition of the Jewish scribes, early Christians
17
made copies of those books. (Colossians 4:16) Despite second and third centuries C.E., were also used. Since then,
attempts by Roman Emperor Diocletian and others to destroy more papyri have become available. In addition, master texts
all early Christian literature, thousands of ancient fragments such as those by Nestle and Aland and by the United Bible
and manuscripts have been preserved until our day. Societies reflect recent scholarly studies. Some of the
findings of this research were incorporated into this present
Christian writings were also translated into other
revision.
languages. Early translations of the Bible include those in
such ancient languages as Armenian, Coptic, Ethiopic, Based on those master texts, it is evident that some verses
Georgian, Latin, and Syriac. of the Christian Greek Scriptures found in older translations,
such as the King James Version, were actually additions made
ESTABLISHING THE HEBREW AND GREEK TEXTS
by later copyists and were never part of the inspired
FOR TRANSLATION
Scriptures. However, because the verse division generally
Not all copies of ancient Bible manuscripts contain accepted in Bible translations was already established in the
identical wording. How, then, can we know what the original 16th century, the omission of these verses now creates gaps in
text contained? the verse numbering in most Bibles. The verses are Matthew
17:21; 18:11; 23:14; Mark 7:16; 9:44, 46; 11:26; 15:28; Luke
The situation could be likened to that of a teacher who 17:36; 23:17; John 5:4; Acts 8:37; 15:34; 24:7; 28:29; and
asks 100 students to copy a chapter of a book. Even if the Romans 16:24. In this revised edition, those omitted verses
original chapter was later lost, a comparison of the 100 copies are indicated by a footnote at the location of the omission.
would still reveal the original text. While each student might
make some errors, it is highly unlikely that all the students Regarding the long conclusion for Mark 16 (verses 9-20),
would make exactly the same ones. Similarly, when scholars the short conclusion for Mark 16, and the wording found at
compare the thousands of fragments and copies of ancient John 7:538:11, it is evident that none of these verses were
Bible books available to them, they can detect copyist error included in the original manuscripts. Therefore, those
and determine the original wording. spurious texts have not been included in this revision.
How confident can we be that the thoughts contained in Some other wording has been adjusted to incorporate
the original Bible texts have been accurately transmitted to what scholars generally accept as the most authentic
us? Commenting on the text of the Hebrew Scriptures, reflection of the original writings. For instance, according to
scholar William H. Green stated: It may be safely said that some manuscripts, Matthew 7:13 reads: Go in through the
no other work of antiquity has been so accurately narrow gate because broad is the gate and spacious is the
transmitted. Regarding the Christian Greek Scriptures, or so- road leading off into destruction. In previous editions of the
called New Testament, Bible scholar F. F. Bruce wrote: The New World Translation, is the gate was not included in the
evidence for our New Testament writings is ever so much text. However, further study of the manuscript evidence led to
greater than the evidence for many writings of classical the conclusion that is the gate was in the original text. So it
authors, the authenticity of which no one dreams of was included in this present edition. There are a number of
questioning. He also said: If the New Testament were a similar refinements. However, these adjustments are minor,
collection of secular writings, their authenticity would and none of them change the basic message of Gods Word.
generally be regarded as beyond all doubt.
[Footnotes]
Hebrew Text: The New World Translation of the Hebrew
Referred to simply as the Hebrew Scriptures from here on.
Scriptures (1953-1960) was based on Biblia Hebraica, by
Rudolf Kittel. Since that time, updated editions of the One reason the manuscripts needed to be copied was that the
Hebrew text, namely, Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and originals were written on perishable materials.
Biblia Hebraica Quinta, have included recent research based
Further details on why these verses are viewed as spurious
on the Dead Sea Scrolls and other ancient manuscripts. These
can be found in the footnotes of the New World
scholarly works reproduce the Leningrad Codex in the main
Translation of the Holy ScripturesWith References,
text along with footnotes that contain comparative wording
published in 1984.
from other sources, including the Samaritan Pentateuch, the
Dead Sea Scrolls, the Greek Septuagint, the Aramaic [Blurb on page 1727]
Targums, the Latin Vulgate, and the Syriac Peshitta. Both It may be safely said that no other work of antiquity has
Biblia Hebraica Stuttgartensia and Biblia Hebraica Quinta been so accurately transmitted
were consulted when preparing the present revision of the
[Picture on page 1728]
New World Translation.
Chapter 40 of Isaiahs book in the Dead Sea Scrolls (dated
Greek Text: In the late 19th century, scholars from 125 to 100 B.C.E.)
B. F. Westcott and F.J.A. Hort compared existing Bible When compared with Hebrew manuscripts from about a
manuscripts and fragments as they prepared the Greek master thousand years later, only minor differences were found,
text that they felt most closely reflected the original writings. mostly in spelling
In the mid-20th century, the New World Bible Translation
[Picture on page 1728]
Committee used that master text as the basis for its
Chapter 40 of Isaiahs book in the Aleppo Codex, an
translation. Other early papyri, thought to date back to the
important Hebrew Masoretic manuscript from about 930 C.E.
18
[Picture on page 1730] the title LORD in capital letters. But the question
A papyrus manuscript of 2 Corinthians 4:135:4 from about remains, Why have these translators felt free to substitute
200 C.E. or remove Gods name from the Bible when they
acknowledge that it is found in the Bible text thousands of
Page 14 Unit 2 (a) times? Who do they believe gave them authority to make
See previous page for nwt p. 179 such a change? Only they can say.

A4 The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures Those who say that the divine name should not be used
because it is not known exactly how to pronounce it will
*** nwt pp. 1731-1735 A4 The Divine Name in the nevertheless freely use the name Jesus. However, Jesus
Hebrew Scriptures *** first-century disciples said his name quite differently from
A4 the way most Christians do today. To Jewish Christians,
The Divine Name in the Hebrew Scriptures the name Jesus was probably pronounced Yeshua. And
the title Christ was Mashiach, or Messiah. Greek-
The divine name, represented by the four Hebrew speaking Christians called him Iesous Khristos, and
consonants , appears nearly 7,000 times in the Hebrew Latin-speaking Christians Iesus Christus. Under
Scriptures. This translation renders those four letters, known inspiration, the Greek translation of his name was
as the Tetragrammaton, Jehovah. That name is by far the recorded in the Bible, showing that first-century
most frequently occurring name in the Bible. While the Christians followed the sensible course of using the form
inspired writers refer to God by many titles and descriptive of the name common in their language. Similarly, the
terms, such as Almighty, Most High, and Lord, the New World Bible Translation Committee feels that it is
Tetragrammaton is the only personal name they use to reasonable to use the form Jehovah, even though that
identify God. rendering is not exactly the way the divine name would
have been pronounced in ancient Hebrew.
Jehovah God himself directed Bible writers to use his
name. For example, he inspired the prophet Joel to write: Why does the New World Translation use the form
Everyone who calls on the name of Jehovah will be saved. Jehovah? In English, the four letters of the
(Joel 2:32) And God caused one psalmist to write: May Tetragrammaton ( )are represented by the consonants
people know that you, whose name is Jehovah, you alone are YHWH. As was true of all written words in ancient Hebrew,
the Most High over all the earth. (Psalm 83:18) In fact, the the Tetragrammaton contained no vowels. When ancient
divine name appears some 700 times in the book of Psalms Hebrew was in everyday use, readers easily provided the
alonea book of poetic writings that were to be sung and appropriate vowels.
recited by Gods people. Why, then, is Gods name missing About a thousand years after the Hebrew Scriptures were
from many Bible translations? Why does this translation use completed, Jewish scholars developed a system of
the form Jehovah? And what does the divine name, pronunciation points, or signs, by which to indicate what
Jehovah, mean? vowels to use when reading Hebrew. By that time, though,
Why is the name missing from many Bible many Jews had the superstitious idea that it was wrong to say
translations? The reasons vary. Some feel that Almighty God Gods personal name out loud, so they used substitute
does not need a unique name to identify him. Others appear expressions. Thus, it seems that when they copied the
to have been influenced by the Jewish tradition of avoiding Tetragrammaton, they combined the vowels for the substitute
the use of the name, perhaps out of fear of desecrating it. Still expressions with the four consonants representing the divine
others believe that since no one can be sure of the exact name. Therefore, the manuscripts with those vowel points do
pronunciation of Gods name, it is better just to use a title, not help in determining how the name was originally
such as Lord or God. Such objections, however, lack pronounced in Hebrew. Some feel that the name was
merit for the following reasons: pronounced Yahweh, whereas others suggest different
possibilities. A Dead Sea Scroll containing a portion of
Those who argue that Almighty God does not need a unique Leviticus in Greek transliterates the divine name Iao. Besides
name ignore evidence that early copies of his Word, that form, early Greek writers also suggest the pronunciations
including those preserved from before the time of Christ, Iae, Iabe, and Iaoue. However, there is no reason to be
contain Gods personal name. As noted above, God dogmatic. We simply do not know how Gods ancient
directed that his name be included in his Word some servants pronounced this name in Hebrew. (Genesis 13:4;
7,000 times. Obviously, he wants us to know and use his Exodus 3:15) What we do know is that God used his name
name. repeatedly in communication with his people, that they
Translators who remove the name out of deference to addressed him by that name, and that they used it freely in
Jewish tradition fail to recognize a key fact. While some speaking with others.Exodus 6:2; 1 Kings 8:23; Psalm
Jewish scribes refused to pronounce the name, they did 99:9.
not remove it from their copies of the Bible. Ancient Why, then, does this translation use the form Jehovah?
scrolls found in Qumran, near the Dead Sea, contain the Because that form of the divine name has a long history in the
name in many places. Some Bible translators hint that the English language.
divine name appeared in the original text by substituting
19
The first rendering of Gods personal name in an English Judah, and I am going to the house of Jehovah, but nobody is
Bible appeared in 1530 in William Tyndales translation of taking me into his house.
the Pentateuch. He used the form Iehouah. Over time, the (1 Samuel 2:25) If a man should sin against another man,
English language changed, and the spelling of the divine someone may appeal to Jehovah for him; but if a man should
name was modernized. For example, in 1612, Henry sin against Jehovah, who can pray for him? But they refused
Ainsworth used the form Iehovah throughout his to listen to their father, for Jehovah had determined to put
translation of the book of Psalms. Then, in 1639, when that them to death.
work was revised and printed with the Pentateuch, the form
(1 Samuel 6:3) They replied: If you send the ark of the
Jehovah was used. In 1901, the translators who produced
covenant of Jehovah the God of Israel away, do not send it
the American Standard Version of the Bible used the form
back without an offering. You should by all means return to
Jehovah where the divine name appeared in the Hebrew
him a guilt offering. Only then will you be healed, and it will
text.
be made known to you why his hand has not turned away
Explaining why he used Jehovah instead of Yahweh from you.
in his 1911 work Studies in the Psalms, respected Bible (1 Samuel 10:26) Saul also went to his home in Gibeah,
scholar Joseph Bryant Rotherham said that he wanted to accompanied by the warriors whose hearts Jehovah had
employ a form of the name more familiar (while perfectly touched.
acceptable) to the general Bible-reading public. In 1930
(1 Samuel 23:14) David stayed in the wilderness in places
scholar A. F. Kirkpatrick made a similar point regarding the
difficult to approach, in the mountainous region of the
use of the form Jehovah. He said: Modern grammarians
wilderness of Ziph. Saul searched for him constantly, but
argue that it ought to be read Yahveh or Yahaveh; but
Jehovah did not give him into his hand.
JEHOVAH seems firmly rooted in the English language, and
the really important point is not the exact pronunciation, but (1 Samuel 23:16) Jonathan the son of Saul now went out to
the recognition that it is a Proper Name, not merely an David at Horesh, and he helped him find strength in Jehovah.
appellative title like Lord.
A5 The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures
What is the meaning of the name Jehovah? In Hebrew, *** nwt pp. 1736-1741 A5 The Divine Name in the
the name Jehovah comes from a verb that means to Christian Greek Scriptures ***
become, and a number of scholars feel that it reflects the A5
causative form of that Hebrew verb. Thus, the understanding The Divine Name in the Christian Greek Scriptures
of the New World Bible Translation Committee is that Gods
name means He Causes to Become. Scholars hold varying Bible scholars acknowledge that Gods personal name, as
views, so we cannot be dogmatic about this meaning. represented by the Tetragrammaton (), appears almost
However, this definition well fits Jehovahs role as the 7,000 times in the original text of the Hebrew Scriptures.
Creator of all things and the Fulfiller of his purpose. He not However, many feel that it did not appear in the original text
only caused the physical universe and intelligent beings to of the Christian Greek Scriptures. For this reason, most
exist, but as events unfold, he continues to cause his will and modern English Bibles do not use the name Jehovah when
purpose to be realized. translating the so-called New Testament. Even when
Therefore, the meaning of the name Jehovah is not limited translating quotations from the Hebrew Scriptures in which
to the related verb found at Exodus 3:14, which reads: I Will the Tetragrammaton appears, most translators use Lord
Become What I Choose to Become or, I Will Prove to Be rather than Gods personal name.
What I Will Prove to Be. In the strictest sense, those words The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures does
do not fully define Gods name. Rather, they reveal an aspect not follow this common practice. It uses the name Jehovah a
of Gods personality, showing that he becomes what is total of 237 times in the Christian Greek Scriptures. In
needed in each circumstance to fulfill his purpose. So while deciding to do this, the translators took into consideration two
the name Jehovah may include this idea, it is not limited to important factors: (1) The Greek manuscripts we possess
what he himself chooses to become. It also includes what he today are not the originals. Of the thousands of copies in
causes to happen with regard to his creation and the existence today, most were made at least two centuries after
accomplishment of his purpose. the originals were composed. (2) By that time, those copying
the manuscripts either replaced the Tetragrammaton with Ky
(Exodus 3:14) So God said to Moses: I Will Become What I rios, the Greek word for Lord, or they copied from
Choose to Become. And he added: This is what you are to manuscripts where this had already been done.
say to the Israelites, I Will Become has sent me to you.
The New World Bible Translation Committee determined
Page 15 that there is compelling evidence that the Tetragrammaton did
Unit 2 (a) appear in the original Greek manuscripts. The decision was
based on the following evidence:
(Judges 19:18) He replied: We are traveling from Beth
lehem in Judah to a remote area of the mountainous region Copies of the Hebrew Scriptures used in the days of
of Ephraim, where I am from. I went to Bethlehem in Jesus and his apostles contained the Tetragrammaton
throughout the text. In the past, few people disputed that

20
conclusion. Now that copies of the Hebrew Scriptures on other days of the week, one cuts out the references to
dating back to the first century have been discovered near the Divine Name which are in them [understood to refer
Qumran, the point has been proved beyond any doubt. to the Christian writings] and stores them away, and the
rest burns.
In the days of Jesus and his apostles, the
Tetragrammaton also appeared in Greek translations Some Bible scholars acknowledge that it seems likely
of the Hebrew Scriptures. For centuries, scholars that the divine name appeared in Hebrew Scripture
thought that the Tetragrammaton was absent from quotations found in the Christian Greek Scriptures.
manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint translation of the Under the heading Tetragrammaton in the New
Hebrew Scriptures. Then, in the mid-20th century, some Testament, The Anchor Bible Dictionary states: There is
very old fragments of the Greek Septuagint version that some evidence that the Tetragrammaton, the Divine
existed in Jesus day were brought to the attention of Name, Yahweh, appeared in some or all of the O[ld]
scholars. Those fragments contain the personal name of T[estament] quotations in the N[ew] T[estament] when
God, written in Hebrew characters. So in Jesus day, the NT documents were first penned. Scholar George
copies of the Scriptures in Greek did contain the divine Howard says: Since the Tetragram was still written in the
name. However, by the fourth century C.E., major copies of the Greek Bible [the Septuagint] which made up
manuscripts of the Greek Septuagint, such as the Codex the Scriptures of the early church, it is reasonable to
Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus, did not contain the divine believe that the N[ew] T[estament] writers, when quoting
name in the books from Genesis through Malachi (where from Scripture, preserved the Tetragram within the
it had been in earlier manuscripts). Hence, it is not biblical text.
surprising that in texts preserved from that time period,
Recognized Bible translators have used Gods name in
the divine name is not found in the so-called New
the Christian Greek Scriptures. Some of these
Testament, or Greek Scripture portion of the Bible.
translators did so long before the New World Translation
The Christian Greek Scriptures themselves report that was produced. These translators and their works include:
Jesus often referred to Gods name and made it known A Literal Translation of the New Testament . . . From the
to others. (John 17:6, 11, 12, 26) Jesus plainly stated: I Text of the Vatican Manuscript, by Herman Heinfetter
have come in the name of my Father. He also stressed (1863); The Emphatic Diaglott, by Benjamin Wilson
that his works were done in his Fathers name.John (1864); The Epistles of Paul in Modern English, by
5:43; 10:25. George Barker Stevens (1898); St. Pauls Epistle to the
Romans, by W. G. Rutherford (1900); The New Testament
Since the Christian Greek Scriptures were an inspired
Letters, by J.W.C. Wand, Bishop of London (1946). In
addition to the sacred Hebrew Scriptures, the sudden
addition, in a Spanish translation in the early 20th century,
disappearance of Jehovahs name from the text would
translator Pablo Besson used Jehov at Jude 14, and
seem inconsistent. About the middle of the first century
nearly 100 footnotes in his translation suggest the divine
C.E., the disciple James said to the elders in Jerusalem:
name as a likely rendering. Long before those
Symeon has related thoroughly how God for the first
translations, Hebrew versions of the Christian Greek
time turned his attention to the nations to take out of them
Scriptures from the 16th century onward used the
a people for his name. (Acts 15:14) It would not be
Tetragrammaton in many passages. In the German
logical for James to make such a statement if no one in
language alone, at least 11 versions use Jehovah (or the
the first century knew or used Gods name.
transliteration of the Hebrew Yahweh) in the Christian
The divine name appears in its abbreviated form in the Greek Scriptures, while four translators add the name in
Christian Greek Scriptures. At Revelation 19:1, 3, 4, 6, parentheses after Lord. More than 70 German
the divine name is embedded in the word Hallelujah. translations use the divine name in footnotes or
This comes from a Hebrew expression that literally means commentaries.
Praise Jah. Jah is a contraction of the name Jehovah.
Bible translations in over one hundred different
Many names used in the Christian Greek Scriptures were
languages contain the divine name in the Christian
derived from the divine name. In fact, reference works
Greek Scriptures. Many African, Native American,
explain that Jesus own name means Jehovah Is
Asian, European, and Pacific-island languages use the
Salvation.
divine name liberally. (See the list on pages 1742 and
Early Jewish writings indicate that Jewish Christians 1743.) The translators of these editions decided to use the
used the divine name in their writings. The Tosefta, a divine name for reasons similar to those stated above.
written collection of oral laws that was completed by Some of these translations of the Christian Greek
about 300 C.E., says with regard to Christian writings that Scriptures have appeared recently, such as the Rotuman
were burned on the Sabbath: The books of the Bible (1999), which uses Jihova 51 times in 48 verses,
Evangelists and the books of the minim [thought to be and the Batak (Toba) version (1989) from Indonesia,
Jewish Christians] they do not save from a fire. But they which uses Jahowa 110 times.
are allowed to burn where they are, they and the
Without a doubt, there is a clear basis for restoring the
references to the Divine Name which are in them. This
divine name, Jehovah, in the Christian Greek Scriptures. That
same source quotes Rabbi Yos the Galilean, who lived at
is exactly what the translators of the New World Translation
the beginning of the second century C.E., as saying that
21
have done. They have a deep respect for the divine name and (Genesis 25:8) Then Abraham breathed his last and died at a
a healthy fear of removing anything that appeared in the good old age, old and satisfied, and was gathered to his
original text.Revelation 22:18, 19 people.
(Joshua 3:4) But keep a distance of about 2,000 cubits from
Page 16 Unit 2 (b) it; do not come any nearer to it, so that you may know which
Using the New World Translation-Part 2
is the way to go, for you have not traveled on this way
OPENING DISCUSSION before.
(Psalm 119:97) How I do love your law! I ponder over it all
day long. (Judges 7:19) Gideon and the 100 men who were with him
came to the edge of the camp at the start of the middle night
QUESTION OUTLINE watch, just after the sentries were posted. They blew the
Footnotes (Appendix A2) horns and smashed the large water jars that were in their
hands.
*** nwt p. 1725 A2 Features of This Revision ***
(Acts 15:20) but to write them to abstain from things polluted
This Bible edition contains a limited number of footnotes. by idols, from sexual immorality, from what is strangled, and
The footnotes generally fall into the following categories: from blood.
Or Alternative ways the text could be (Acts 15:29) to keep abstaining from things sacrificed to
rendered from Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek that idols, from blood, from what is strangled, and from sexual
would give the same overall idea.Genesis immorality. If you carefully keep yourselves from these
1:2, footnote on active force; Joshua 1:8, things, you will prosper. Good health to you!
undertone. (Matthew 24:3) While he was sitting on the Mount of
Olives, the disciples approached him privately, saying: Tell
Or possibly Alternative ways the text could
us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of
be rendered that would convey a valid yet
your presence and of the conclusion of the system of things?
different overall idea.Genesis 21:6, laugh
with me; Zechariah 14:21, Canaanite. (Mark 8:34) He now called the crowd to him with his
disciples and said to them: If anyone wants to come after
Lit. A word-for-word translation from the me, let him disown himself and pick up his torture stake and
Hebrew, Aramaic, or Greek or the basic keep following me.
meaning of an original-language expression.
Genesis 30:22, pregnant; Exodus 32:9,
obstinate. *** nwt pp. 1723-1724 A2 Features of This Revision ***
Meaning and background information Biblical expressions clarified. Some terms used in
Meaning of names (Genesis 3:17, Adam; previous editions of the English New World Translation
Exodus 15:23, Marah); details about weights often needed to be explained in order to be properly
and measures (Genesis 6:15, cubits); the understood. For example, the Hebrew term Sheol and
antecedent of a pronoun (Genesis 38:5, He); the Greek term Hades are used in the Bible to refer to
helpful information in the Appendix and the the common grave of mankind. Those terms are
Glossary.Genesis 37:35, Grave; Matthew unknown to many, and Hades has a dual meaning as a
5:22, Gehenna result of its usage in Greek mythology. Therefore, both
terms were replaced with what was meant by the Bible
(Job 21:13) They spend their days in contentment And go writers, the Grave. The terms Sheol and Hades are
down peacefully to the Grave. now given in footnotes.Psalm 16:10; Acts 2:27.
(Psalm 51:5) Look! I was born guilty of error, And my In past editions, the Hebrew word nephesh and the
mother conceived me in sin. Greek word psykhe were consistently rendered
(Luke 14:26) If anyone comes to me and does not hate his soul. In view of the many misconceptions
father and mother and wife and children and brothers and regarding the meaning of the word soul, this
sisters, yes, and even his own life, he cannot be my disciple. approach helped the reader to see how the inspired
(Ecclesiastes 7:9) Do not be quick to take offense, for the Bible writers used these original-language terms.
taking of offense lodges in the bosom of fools. Depending on the context, those words may refer (1)
to a person, (2) to the life of a person, (3) to living
(Galatians 5:14) For the entire Law has been fulfilled in one creatures, (4) to the desires and appetite of a person
commandment, namely: You must love your neighbor as or, in some cases, (5) even to dead individuals.
yourself. However, since such use of the word soul is not
(John 2:4) But Jesus said to her: Woman, why is that of common in English, the decision was made to render
concern to me and to you? My hour has not yet come. these original-language words according to their
(Genesis 24:32) With that the man came into the house, and intended meaning, usually with a footnote that reads
he unharnessed the camels and gave straw and fodder to the Or soul. (See, for example, Genesis 1:20; 2:7;
camels and water to wash his feet and the feet of the men Leviticus 19:28; Psalm 3:2; Proverbs 16:26;
who were with him. Matthew 6:25.) However, in some poetic or well-
22
known contexts, the word soul was retained in the (Exodus 23:19) You are to bring the best of the first ripe
main text, along with a footnote referring to the fruits of your ground to the house of Jehovah your God. You
Glossary or showing another possible rendering. must not boil a young goat in its mothers milk.
Deuteronomy 6:5; Psalm 131:2; Proverbs 2:10; (1 Corinthians 15:20) But now Christ has been raised from
Matthew 22:37. the dead, the firstfruits of those who have fallen asleep in
Similarly, the word kidney was retained when it death.
refers to the literal organ. However, when it is used
figuratively in such verses as Psalm 7:9 and 26:2 and Bible Words Index
Revelation 2:23, the intended idea of deepest
emotions or innermost thoughts is conveyed in *** nwt p. 1667 Bible Words Index ***
the main text, and the literal idea is given in a COMFORT, Job 2:11 sympathize with Job, c. him
footnote. Isa 61:2 to c. all who mourn
Like its Hebrew and Greek equivalents, the English Ro 15:4 through the c. from the Scriptures
expression heart has both a literal and a figurative 2Co 1:3 God of all c.
meaning, so it was usually retained in the main text. 2Co 1:4 that we be able to c. others
However, in a few contexts where the sense was not Glossary of Bible Terms
clear, a more explicit rendering was used. For See glossary nwt pp. 1692-1716
example, in the book of Proverbs, in want of heart
Page 18 Unit 2 (b)
now reads lacking good sense, and the literal idea
is given in a footnote. Other expressions, for
A6 Chart: Prophets and Kings of Judah and of Israel
instance, fat, flesh, and horn, were handled
similarly, according to the context. (Genesis 45:18;
See nwt pp. 1744-1747
Ecclesiastes 5:6; Job 16:15) Some of these See chart in Bible
expressions are discussed in the Glossary of Bible
Terms. A7 Main Events of Jesus Earthly Life
See nwt pp. 1748-1763
(John 12:38) so that the word of Isaiah the prophet might be Appendix B
fulfilled, who said: Jehovah, who has put faith in the thing
heard from us? And as for the arm of Jehovah, to whom has it See nwt p. 1765-1767
been revealed?
(1 Corinthians 7:17) Nevertheless, just as Jehovah has given
each one a portion, let each one so walk as God has called Page 19 Unit 2 (b)
him. And so I give this directive in all the congregations.
An introduction to Gods Word
Page 17 Unit 2 (b) *** nwt p. 1725 A2 Features of This Revision ***
The front section, entitled An Introduction to Gods
Marginal References Word, contains an outline of basic teachings found in the
Bible.
(Matthew 4:1) Then Jesus was led by the spirit up into the
wilderness to be tempted by the Devil. *** nwt p. 1725 A2 Features of This Revision ***
(Luke 4:1) Then Jesus, full of holy spirit, turned away from
the Jordan, and he was led about by the spirit in the In the main text of the Bible, each book features an
wilderness outline of its chapter contents, along with the related verses,
giving the reader an overview of the entire book. The center
(Psalm 22:1) My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?
column of each page contains the most relevant marginal
Why are you far from saving me, Far from my cries of
references from previous editions, pointing to related Bible
anguish?
verses.
(Matthew 27:46) About the ninth hour, Jesus called out with
a loud voice, saying: Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani? that Page 20
is, My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? Unit 3 (a)
(Deuteronomy 8:3) So he humbled you and let you go
hungry and fed you with the manna, which neither you had Keep Pace With Spritual Enlightenment
known nor your fathers had known, in order to make you
know that man does not live by bread alone but man lives by OPENING DISCUSSION
every expression from Jehovahs mouth. (Acts 10:45) And the circumcised believers who had come
with Peter were amazed, because the free gift of the holy
(Matthew 4:4) But he answered: It is written: Man must
spirit was being poured out also on people of the nations.
live, not on bread alone, but on every word that comes from
Jehovahs mouth.
23
(Luke 12:12) for the holy spirit will teach you in that very illuminate them with the glorious knowledge of God by the
hour the things you should say. face of Christ.
(John 16:12, 13) I still have many things to say to you, but
you are not able to bear them now. 13 However, when that one True Worshippers in the First Century
comes, the spirit of the truth, he will guide you into all the (Acts 15:7-12) After much intense discussion had taken
truth, for he will not speak of his own initiative, but what he place, Peter rose and said to them: Men, brothers, you well
hears he will speak, and he will declare to you the things to know that from early days God made the choice among you
come. that through my mouth people of the nations should hear the
(Proverbs 4:18) But the path of the righteous is like the word of the good news and believe. 8 And God, who knows
bright morning light That grows brighter and brighter until the heart, bore witness by giving them the holy spirit, just as
full daylight. he did to us also. 9 And he made no distinction at all between
(1 Corinthians 2:9, 10) But just as it is written: Eye has not us and them, but purified their hearts by faith. 10 So why are
seen and ear has not heard, nor have there been conceived in you now making a test of God by imposing on the neck of the
the heart of man the things that God has prepared for those disciples a yoke that neither our forefathers nor we were
who love him. 10 For it is to us God has revealed them capable of bearing? 11 On the contrary, we have faith that we
through his spirit, for the spirit searches into all things, even are saved through the undeserved kindness of the Lord Jesus
the deep things of God. in the same way that they are. 12 At that the entire group
became silent, and they began to listen to Barnabas and Paul
QUESTION OUTLINE relate the many signs and wonders that God had done through
(Psalm 43:3) Send out your light and your truth. May these them among the nations.
lead me; May they guide me to your holy mountain and to (Acts 16:4) As they traveled on through the cities, they would
your grand tabernacle. deliver to them for observance the decrees that had been
(Isaiah 42:6, 7) I, Jehovah, have called you in decided on by the apostles and the elders who were in
righteousness; I have taken hold of your hand. I will Jerusalem.
safeguard you and give you as a covenant for the people And (Acts 15:25-31) we have come to a unanimous decision to
as a light of the nations, 7 For you to open the blind eyes, To choose men to send to you together with our beloved Bar
bring the prisoner out of the dungeon And those sitting in nabas and Paul, 26 men who have given up their lives for the
darkness out of the prison. name of our Lord Jesus Christ. 27 We are therefore sending
Judas and Silas, so that they also may report the same things
*** w00 3/15 pp. 10-11 par. 1 O God, Send Out Your by word of mouth. 28 For the holy spirit and we ourselves
Light *** have favored adding no further burden to you except these
necessary things: 29 to keep abstaining from things sacrificed
JEHOVAH is very considerate in the way he makes his to idols, from blood, from what is strangled, and from sexual
purposes known to his servants. Instead of revealing the truth immorality. If you carefully keep yourselves from these
all at once in one blinding flash of light, he enlightens us things, you will prosper. Good health to you! 30 So when
progressively. Our trek along lifes pathway might be these men were dismissed, they went down to Antioch, and
compared to a walk that a hiker takes down a long trail. He they gathered the whole group together and handed them the
starts out early in the morning and sees little. As the sun letter. 31 After reading it, they rejoiced over the
begins to rise slowly over the horizon, the hiker is able to encouragement.
distinguish a few features of his surroundings. The rest he
sees in hazy outline. But as the sun continues its ascent, he (Acts 16:4, 5) As they traveled on through the cities, they
can see farther and farther into the distance. So it is with the would deliver to them for observance the decrees that had
spiritual light that God provides. He allows us to discern a been decided on by the apostles and the elders who were in
few things at a time. Gods Son, Jesus Christ, provided Jerusalem. 5 Then, indeed, the congregations continued to be
spiritual enlightenment in a similar manner. Let us consider made firm in the faith and to increase in number day by day.
how Jehovah enlightened his people in ancient times and how True Worshippers Today
he does so today. W14 1/15 p. 13 par. 6
Jesus then used his kingly authority to appoint a faithful and
Page 21 Unit 3 (a) discreet slave. This slave would provide a regular supply of
wholesome spiritual food to all who make up the one flock
under Jesus care. (Matt. 24:45-47; John 10:16) Since 1919, a
(John 9:5) As long as I am in the world, I am the worlds small group of anointed brothers have loyally carried out the
light. weighty responsibility to feed the domestics. The abundant
(John 12:35) So Jesus said to them: The light will be among spiritual food provided through this channel nourishes us so
that we can grow in the faith. It fortifies our resolve to remain
you a little while longer. Walk while you still have the light, spiritually, morally, mentally, and physically clean. This
so that darkness does not overpower you; whoever walks in spiritual food also educates us and equips us to have a full
the darkness does not know where he is going. share in the most important work being done on earth today.
Are you taking full advantage of these provisions?
(2 Corinthians 4:6) For God is the one who said: Let the
light shine out of darkness, and he has shone on our hearts to

24
*** w13 7/15 p. 22 par. 10 Who Really Is the Faithful (1 Thess. 4:15-17) But referring to the tabernacle, Paul wrote:
and Discreet Slave? *** This very tent is an illustration for the appointed time that is
10
now here.Heb. 9:9.
Who, then, is the faithful and discreet slave? In By carefully comparing these and other scriptures, it became
keeping with Jesus pattern of feeding many through the clear that the spiritual temple is not in the process of being
hands of a few, that slave is made up of a small group of built and that anointed Christians are not stones being
anointed brothers who are directly involved in preparing and fashioned on earth for inclusion in it. Rather, anointed
dispensing spiritual food during Christs presence. Christians are serving in the courtyard and in the Holy of the
Throughout the last days, the anointed brothers who make up spiritual temple, daily offering to God a sacrifice of
the faithful slave have served together at headquarters. In praise.Heb. 13:15.
recent decades, that slave has been closely identified with the
Governing Body of Jehovahs Witnesses. Note, however, that
the word slave in Jesus illustration is singular, indicating (Luke 21:26) People will become faint out of fear and
that this is a composite slave. The decisions of the Governing expectation of the things coming upon the inhabited earth, for
Body are thus made collectively. the powers of the heavens will be shaken.

*** w94 2/15 pp. 19-20 pars. 14-18 Tell Us, When Will
(1 Peter 1:10-12) Concerning this salvation, the prophets These Things Be? ***
who prophesied about the undeserved kindness meant for you 14
made a diligent inquiry and a careful search. 11 They kept on The fulfillment of Joels prophecy (in harmony with
investigating what particular time or what season the spirit other prophecies using similar language) helps us to
within them was indicating concerning Christ as it testified understand the words at Matthew 24:29. Clearly, what Jesus
beforehand about the sufferings meant for Christ and about said about the sun being darkened, the moon not giving light,
the glory that would follow. 12 It was revealed to them that and the stars falling does not refer to things occurring over
they were ministering, not to themselves, but to you, the many decades of the conclusion of the present system,
regarding what has now been announced to you by those who such as space rocketry, moon landings, and the like. No, he
declared the good news to you with holy spirit sent from pointed to things tied in with the great and fear-inspiring day
heaven. Into these very things, angels are desiring to peer. of Jehovah, the destruction yet to come.
15
This relates to our understanding of how the celestial
*** w10 7/15 p. 22 The Spirit Searches Into . . . the Deep phenomena would be immediately after the tribulation.
Things of God *** Jesus was not referring to the tribulation that culminated in
[Box on page 22] 70 C.E. Rather, he was pointing to the start of the great
How the Spirit Revealed the Meaning of the Spiritual tribulation to befall the world system in the future, climaxing
Temple his promised presence. (Matthew 24:3) That tribulation is
Among the deep things of God revealed during the first still ahead of us.
century was that the tabernacle and later the temples 16
What about the words at Mark 13:24: In those days,
foreshadowed a much greater spiritual reality. Paul called that after that tribulation, the sun will be darkened, and the moon
reality the true tent, which Jehovah put up, and not man. will not give its light? Here, both those and that are
(Heb. 8:2) This was a great spiritual temple, an arrangement forms of the Greek word ekeinos, a demonstrative pronoun
for approach to God made possible by the sacrifice and indicating something distant in time. Ekeinos can be used to
priesthood of Jesus Christ. indicate something long past (or previously mentioned) or
The true tent came into existence in 29 C.E. when Jesus something in the remote future. (Matthew 3:1; 7:22; 10:19;
was baptized and Jehovah accepted him as the one to become 24:38; Mark 13:11, 17, 32; 14:25; Luke 10:12;
a perfect sacrifice. (Heb. 10:5-10) After his death and 2 Thessalonians 1:10) Thus, Mark 13:24 points to that
resurrection, Jesus entered the Most Holy of the spiritual tribulation, not the tribulation stirred up by the Romans, but
temple and presented the value of his sacrifice before the Jehovahs mighty act at the end of the present system.
person of God.Heb. 9:11, 12, 24.
17
Elsewhere, the apostle Paul wrote of anointed Christians as Chapters 17 to 19 of Revelation fit and verify this
growing into a holy temple for Jehovah. (Eph. 2:20-22) adjusted understanding of Matthew 24:29-31, Mark 13:24-27,
Was this temple to be the same as the true tent that he later and Luke 21:25-28. In what way? The Gospels show that this
described in his letter to the Hebrews? For decades, Jehovahs tribulation will not start and end at one fell swoop. After it
servants thought that it was. It seemed that anointed begins, some of disobedient mankind will still be alive to see
Christians were being fitted on earth to become stones in the sign of the Son of man and to reactto lament and, as
the heavenly temple of Jehovah.1 Pet. 2:5. stated at Luke 21:26, to become faint out of fear and
Toward the year 1971, however, responsible members of the expectation of the things coming upon the inhabited earth.
slave class began to discern that the temple spoken of by Paul That overwhelming fear will be due to their seeing the sign
in Ephesians could not be Jehovahs great spiritual temple. If that betokens their imminent destruction.
the true tent were composed of resurrected anointed 18
Christians, it would first come into existence after their The account in Revelation shows that the future great
resurrection began during the presence of the Lord. tribulation will begin when the militarized horns of the
international wild beast turn on the great harlot, Babylon
25
the Great. (Revelation 17:1, 10-16) But many people will
remain, for kings, merchants, ship captains, and others mourn *** w13 7/15 Who Really Is the Faithful and Discreet
the end of false religion. Doubtless many will realize that Slave? ***
their judgment will be next.Revelation 18:9-19. Who Really Is the Faithful and Discreet Slave?

Who really is the faithful and discreet slave


Page 22 Unit 3 (a) whom his master appointed over his
domestics?MATT. 24:45.
(Romans 13:1, 2) Let every person be in subjection to the
superior authorities, for there is no authority except by God;
the existing authorities stand placed in their relative positions CAN YOU FIND THE ANSWERS?
by God. 2 Therefore, whoever opposes the authority has taken
a stand against the arrangement of God; those who have taken Who is the faithful and discreet slave?
a stand against it will bring judgment against themselves.
Who are the domestics, and when did Jesus
*** w95 5/15 pp. 21-22 pars. 4-5 Part 2Flashes of Light appoint the faithful slave over them?
Great and Small ***
When will Christ appoint the faithful slave
4
A bright flash of light was seen in 1962 in connection over all his belongings, and what will they
with Romans 13:1, which says: Let every soul be subject include?
unto the higher powers [superior authorities, New World
BROTHERS, I cannot begin to count the times you
Translation]. (King James Version) The early Bible Students
have put into my hands articles that contained just what I
understood that the higher powers mentioned there referred
needed when I needed it most. That is how one sister
to worldly authorities. They took this scripture to mean that if
expressed her appreciation in a letter to the brothers who
a Christian was drafted in wartime, he would be obligated to
work at our world headquarters. Can you identify with her?
put on a uniform, shoulder a gun, and go to the front, to the
Many of us can. Should that surprise us? Not really.
trenches. It was felt that since a Christian could not kill a
fellow human, he would be compelled to fire his gun into the 2
The timely spiritual food we receive is proof that Jesus,
air if worst came to worst. the Head of the congregation, is keeping his promise to feed
5 us. Through whom is he doing so? When giving the sign of
The Watchtower of November 15 and of December 1,
his presence, Jesus said that he would use the faithful and
1962, shed clear light on the subject in discussing Jesus
discreet slave to give food at the proper time to his
words at Matthew 22:21: Pay back . . . Caesars things to
domestics. (Read Matthew 24:45-47.) That faithful slave is
Caesar, but Gods things to God. Relevant were the apostles
the channel through which Jesus is feeding his true followers
words at Acts 5:29: We must obey God as ruler rather than
in this time of the end. It is vital that we recognize the faithful
men. Christians are subject to Caesarthe higher
slave. Our spiritual health and our relationship with God
powersonly so long as this does not require that the
depend on this channel.Matt. 4:4; John 17:3.
Christian go contrary to Gods law. Subjection to Caesar was
seen to be relative, not absolute. Christians pay back to 3
How, then, are we to understand Jesus illustration
Caesar only what does not conflict with Gods requirements. about the faithful slave? In the past, our publications have
How satisfying it was to have clear light on that subject said the following: At Pentecost 33 C.E., Jesus appointed the
faithful slave over his domestics. The slave represents all
(Matthew 6:9) You must pray, then, this way: Our Father anointed Christians on earth as a group at any one time since
in the heavens, let your name be sanctified. then. The domestics refer to the same anointed ones as
individuals. In 1919, Jesus appointed the faithful slave over
*** w95 5/15 p. 25 par. 17 Part 2Flashes of Light all his belongingsall his earthly Kingdom interests.
Great and Small *** However, further careful study and prayerful meditation
17
Similarly, for a long time, Witnesses spoke of the indicate that our understanding of Jesus words about the
vindication of Jehovahs name. But had Satan called faithful and discreet slave needs to be clarified. (Prov. 4:18)
Jehovahs name into question? For that matter, had any of Let us examine the illustration and how it involves us,
Satans agents done so, as if Jehovah did not have a right to whether we have the heavenly or the earthly hope.
that name? No, not at all. It was not the name of Jehovah that WHEN IS THE ILLUSTRATION FULFILLED?
was challenged and that needed to be vindicated. That is why
the Watch Tower Societys recent publications do not speak 4
The context of the illustration of the faithful and
of Jehovahs name as being vindicated. They speak of discreet slave shows that it began to be fulfilled, not at
Jehovahs sovereignty as being vindicated and of his name as Pentecost 33 C.E., but in this time of the end. Let us see how
being sanctified. This is in keeping with what Jesus told us to the Scriptures lead us to this conclusion.
pray: Let your name be sanctified. (Matthew 6:9) Time and 5
again, Jehovah said that he was going to sanctify his name, The illustration of the faithful slave is part of Jesus
which the Israelites had not challenged but had profaned. prophecy about the sign of [his] presence and of the
conclusion of the system of things. (Matt. 24:3) The first
Ezekiel 20:9, 14, 22; 36:23.
portion of the prophecy, recorded at Matthew 24:4-22, has
26
two fulfillmentsfirst, in the years from 33 C.E. through dispensing spiritual food during Christs presence.
70 C.E., and second, in a more far-reaching way in our day. Throughout the last days, the anointed brothers who make up
Does this mean that Jesus words about the faithful slave the faithful slave have served together at headquarters. In
would also have two fulfillments? No. recent decades, that slave has been closely identified with the
6
Governing Body of Jehovahs Witnesses. Note, however, that
Starting with the words recorded at Matthew 24:29, the word slave in Jesus illustration is singular, indicating
Jesus focused primarily on events that would happen in our that this is a composite slave. The decisions of the Governing
day. (Read Matthew 24:30, 42, 44.) Speaking about what will Body are thus made collectively.
happen during the great tribulation, he said that people will
see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven. Then, in WHO ARE THE DOMESTICS?
words meant for those living during the last days, he urged 11
vigilance, saying: You do not know on what day your Lord It is noteworthy that in Jesus illustration, the faithful
is coming and, At an hour that you do not think to be it, the and discreet slave receives two distinct appointments. The
Son of man is coming. In this contextwhen speaking first is over the domestics; the second is over all the masters
about events that would take place in the last daysJesus belongings. Since the illustration is fulfilled only in this time
related the illustration of the faithful slave. Therefore, we of the end, both appointments would have to come after
may conclude that his words about that faithful slave began to Jesus presence in kingly power began in 1914.
be fulfilled only after the last days began in 1914. Such a 12
When did Jesus appoint the faithful slave over his
conclusion makes sense. Why is that? domestics? To answer that, we need to go back to 1914the
7
Think, for a moment, about the question: Who really is beginning of the harvest season. As we learned earlier, at that
the faithful and discreet slave? In the first century, there was time many groups claimed to be Christian. From which group
hardly a reason to ask such a question. As we saw in the would Jesus select and appoint the faithful slave? That
preceding article, the apostles could perform miracles and question was answered after he and his Father came and
even transmit miraculous gifts as proof of divine backing. inspected the temple, or spiritual arrangement for worship,
(Acts 5:12) So why would anyone need to ask who really was from 1914 to the early part of 1919. (Mal. 3:1) They were
appointed by Christ to take the lead? In 1914, however, the pleased with a small band of loyal Bible Students who
situation was much different. The harvest season began in showed that their heart was with Jehovah and his Word. Of
that year. The time had finally arrived to separate the weeds course, they needed some cleansing, but they humbly
from the wheat. (Matt. 13:36-43) As the harvest season responded during a brief period of testing and refining. (Mal.
began, a vital question thus arose: With many imitation 3:2-4) Those faithful Bible Students were true Christian
Christians claiming to be Jesus true followers, how could the wheat. In 1919, a time of spiritual revival, Jesus selected
wheatanointed Christiansbe identified? The illustration capable anointed brothers from among them to be the faithful
of the faithful slave provided an answer. Christs anointed and discreet slave and appointed them over his domestics.
followers would be the ones who were well-fed spiritually. 13
Who, then, are the domestics? Put simply, they are
WHO IS THE FAITHFUL AND DISCREET SLAVE? those who are fed. Early in the last days, the domestics were
all anointed ones. Later, the domestics came to include the
8
The faithful slave must be made up of anointed great crowd of other sheep. The other sheep now make up the
Christians on earth. Such ones are called a royal priesthood vast majority of the one flock under Christs leadership.
and have been commissioned to declare abroad the (John 10:16) Both groups benefit from the same timely
excellencies of the one that called [them] out of darkness spiritual food that is dispensed by the faithful slave. What
into his wonderful light. (1 Pet. 2:9) It is only fitting that about the Governing Body members who today make up the
members of that royal priesthood have a direct share in faithful and discreet slave? Those brothers also need to be fed
teaching fellow believers the truth.Mal. 2:7; Rev. 12:17. spiritually. Hence, they humbly recognize that as individuals
9
they are domestics just like all the rest of Jesus genuine
Do all anointed ones on earth make up the faithful followers.
slave? No. The reality is that not all anointed ones have a role
14
in dispensing spiritual food to fellow believers worldwide. Jesus placed a weighty responsibility on the faithful
Among the wheat are anointed brothers who may serve as and discreet slave. In Bible times, a trusted slave, or steward,
ministerial servants or elders in their local congregation. They was a house manager. (Luke 12:42) The faithful and discreet
teach from house to house and in their congregation, and they slave is thus charged with the responsibility to manage the
loyally support the direction from headquarters. But they do household of faith. That responsibility includes overseeing
not have a part in dispensing spiritual food to the worldwide material assets, the preaching activity, assembly and
brotherhood. Also among the anointed are humble sisters, convention programs, and the production of Bible literature
who would never try to assume the role of teachers in the for use in the field ministry and in personal and congregation
congregation.1 Cor. 11:3; 14:34. study. The domestics depend on all the spiritual provisions
10
dispensed by the composite slave.
Who, then, is the faithful and discreet slave? In
keeping with Jesus pattern of feeding many through the APPOINTED OVER ALL THE MASTERS
hands of a few, that slave is made up of a small group of BELONGINGSWHEN?
anointed brothers who are directly involved in preparing and

27
15
When does Jesus make the second appointmentover ENDNOTES: (To be read as footnotes with
all his belongings? Jesus said: Happy is that slave if his the corresponding paragraphs.)
master on arriving [literally, having come, ftn.] finds him
doing so. Truly I say to you, He will appoint him over all his [Footnotes]
belongings. (Matt. 24:46, 47) Note that Jesus makes the Paragraph 2: On an earlier occasion, Jesus related a similar
second appointment after he arrives and finds that the slave illustration in which he referred to the slave as a
has been doing so, that is, faithfully dispensing spiritual steward and to the domestics as his body of
food. So there would be an interval between the two attendants.Luke 12:42-44.
appointments. To understand how and when Jesus appoints
the slave over all his belongings, we need to know two Paragraph 6: Christs coming (Greek, erkhomai) is
things: when he arrives and what his belongings include. different from his presence (parousia). His invisible
16
presence begins before his coming to execute judgment.
When does Jesus arrive? The answer is found in the
context. Remember that when the preceding verses speak of Paragraph 12: See the article Look! I Am With You All the
Jesus as coming, the word refers to the time when he comes Days, in this issue, pages 10-12, paragraphs 5-8.
to pronounce and execute judgment at the end of this system.
Paragraph 16: See the article Tell Us, When Will These
(Matt. 24:30, 42, 44) Hence, Jesus arriving, or coming,
Things Be? in this issue, pages 7-8, paragraphs 14-18.
mentioned in the illustration of the faithful slave takes place
during the great tribulation.
17
What do all [Jesus] belongings include? Jesus did [Picture on page 20]
not qualify the word all, as if to limit his belongings to
earthly things. In fact, Jesus has vast heavenly authority. All [Box on page 22]
authority has been given me in heaven and on the earth, he DID YOU GET THE POINT?
said. (Matt. 28:18; Eph. 1:20-23) His belongings now include The faithful and discreet slave: A small group of
the Messianic Kingdom, which has belonged to him since anointed brothers who are directly involved in preparing and
1914 and which he will share with his anointed followers. dispensing spiritual food during Christs presence. Today,
Rev. 11:15. these anointed brothers make up the Governing Body
18
In view of the foregoing, what can we conclude? When His domestics: All who are fed, whether they are of the
Jesus comes for judgment during the great tribulation, he will anointed or of the other sheep
find that the faithful slave has been loyally dispensing timely Appointed over his domestics: In 1919, Jesus selected
spiritual food to the domestics. Jesus will then delight in capable anointed brothers to be his faithful and discreet slave
making the second appointmentover all his belongings.
Those who make up the faithful slave will get this He will appoint him over all his belongings: Those who
appointment when they receive their heavenly reward, make up the composite slave will get this appointment when
becoming corulers with Christ. they receive their heavenly reward. Along with the rest of the
19
144,000, they will share Christs vast heavenly authority
Does the faithful slave receive a greater reward in
heaven than the rest of the anointed? No. A reward promised [Picture on pages 22, 23]
to a small group in one setting may ultimately be shared by Whether our hope is heavenly or earthly, we are all domestics
others. For example, consider what Jesus said to his 11 and need the same timely spiritual food
faithful apostles the night before he died. (Read Luke 22:28-
30.) Jesus promised that small group of men that a fine [Box on page 24]
reward awaited them for their faithfulness. They would share IF EVER THAT EVIL SLAVE . . .
his throne of kingly authority. But years later, he indicated Jesus has placed the weightiest of responsibilities on the
that all of the 144,000 will sit on thrones and share his faithful and discreet slavenamely, overseeing the domestics
rulership. (Rev. 1:1; 3:21) Similarly, as stated at Matthew and giving out spiritual food at the proper time. Jesus knew
24:47, he promised that a small group of menthe anointed that those with greater responsibility have greater
brothers who make up the faithful slavewill be appointed accountability. (Luke 12:48) Hence, he concluded his
over all his belongings. In reality, all of the 144,000 will illustration about the faithful and discreet slave with a
share his vast heavenly authority.Rev. 20:4, 6. powerful warning.
Jesus warned about an evil slave who concludes in his heart
20
By means of the faithful and discreet slave, Jesus is that the master is delaying and who starts to beat his fellow
following the pattern he set in the first centuryfeeding slaves. When the master arrives, said Jesus, he will punish
many through the hands of a few. Jesus appointed that that evil slave with the greatest severity.Read Matthew
faithful slave to ensure that his genuine followerswhether 24:48-51.
of the anointed or of the other sheepwould have a steady Was Jesus foretelling that there would be an evil slave class
supply of timely spiritual food throughout the last days. Let in the last days? No. Granted, some individuals have
us be determined to show our appreciation by giving our manifested a spirit similar to that of the evil slave described
loyal support to the anointed brothers who make up that by Jesus. We would call them apostates, whether they were of
faithful and discreet slave.Heb. 13:7, 17. the anointed or of the great crowd. (Rev. 7:9) But such ones
28
do not make up an evil slave class. Jesus did not say that he But these lost sight of the fact that Christ had given his
would appoint an evil slave. His words here are actually a followers a work to do.
warning directed to the faithful and discreet slave.
Notice that Jesus introduces the warning with the words if This problem was firmly addressed in the article
ever. One scholar says that in the Greek text, this passage Character or CovenantWhich? in the May 1, 1926, issue
for all practical purposes is a hypothetical condition. In of The Watch Tower. It showed that efforts to develop a
effect, Jesus was saying: If the faithful and discreet slave perfect character while in the flesh caused some to give up
were ever to mistreat his fellow slaves in these ways, this is in discouragement, but at the same time, it produced a more
what the master will do when he arrives. (See also Luke holy than thou attitude in others and tended to cause them to
12:45.) However, the composite faithful and discreet slave lose sight of the merit of Christs sacrifice. After emphasizing
has continued to keep on the watch and to provide nourishing faith in the shed blood of Christ, the article highlighted the
spiritual food. importance of doing things in the active service of God to
The anointed brothers who together serve as the faithful give evidence that one was pursuing a course pleasing to
slave recognize that they are accountable to the Master for the God. (2 Pet. 1:5-10) At that time, when much of Christendom
way they care for his domestics. The heartfelt desire of these still made a pretense of holding to Biblical moral standards,
anointed brothers is to fulfill their responsibility loyally so this emphasis on activity strengthened the contrast between
that they might hear a well done from the Master when he Jehovahs Witnesses and Christendom. The contrast became
finally arrives. even more evident as moral issues that were becoming
common had to be dealt with by all who professed to be
*** jv chap. 13 pp. 172-175 Recognized by Our Conduct Christians.
*** Abstain From Fornication
Chapter 13
Recognized by Our Conduct The Christian standard regarding sexual morality was set
out long ago in plain language in the Bible. This is what
WE LIVE in an era in which moral standards that were God wills, the sanctifying of you, that you abstain from
long respected have been discarded by large segments of fornication . . . For God called us, not with allowance for
mankind. Most religions of Christendom have followed suit, uncleanness, but in connection with sanctification. So, then,
either in the name of tolerance or with the argument that the man that shows disregard is disregarding, not man, but
times are different and the taboos of earlier generations no God. (1 Thess. 4:3-8) Let marriage be honorable among all,
longer apply. As to the result, Samuel Miller, a dean of and the marriage bed be without defilement, for God will
Harvard Divinity School, said: The church simply does not judge fornicators and adulterers. (Heb. 13:4) Do you not
have a cutting edge. It has taken the culture of our time and know that unrighteous persons will not inherit Gods
absorbed it. The effect on the lives of those who looked to kingdom? Do not be misled. Neither fornicators, . . . nor
such churches for guidance has been devastating. adulterers, nor men kept for unnatural purposes, nor men who
lie with men . . . will inherit Gods kingdom.1 Cor.
In contrast, when discussing Jehovahs Witnesses, 6:9, 10.
LEglise de Montral, the weekly bulletin of the Catholic
archdiocese of Montreal, Canada, said: They have In the Watch Tower, attention was drawn to this standard
remarkable moral values. Large numbers of schoolteachers, for true Christians as early as November of 1879. But it was
employers, and government officials agree with that. What not discussed repeatedly or at length as if this were a major
accounts for this reputation? problem among the early Bible Students. However, as the
attitude of the world became more permissive, increased
Being one of Jehovahs Witnesses involves much more attention was directed to this requirement, especially in the
than holding to a certain framework of doctrinal beliefs and years surrounding World War II. This was needed because
witnessing to others about these beliefs. Early Christianity some among Jehovahs Witnesses were adopting the view
was known as The Way, and Jehovahs Witnesses realize that as long as they were busy witnessing, a little laxness in
that true religion today must be a way of life. (Acts 9:2) As sexual morality was just a personal matter. It is true that The
was true in other things, however, the modern-day Witnesses Watchtower of March 1, 1935, had clearly stated that
did not immediately achieve a balanced appreciation of what participation in the field ministry gave no license for immoral
this involves. conduct. But not everyone took it to heart. So, in its issue of
May 15, 1941, The Watchtower again discussed the matter,
Character or CovenantWhich? and at considerable length, in an article entitled Noahs
Although they started with sound Scriptural counsel Day. It pointed out that the sexual debauchery in Noahs day
about the need to be Christlike, the emphasis that some of the was one reason why God destroyed the world of that time,
early Bible Students gave to character development, as they and it showed that what God did then set a pattern for what
called it, tended to minimize certain aspects of real he would do in our day. In plain language it warned that an
Christianity. Some of them seemed to be of the opinion that integrity-keeping servant of God could not devote part of his
being genteelalways appearing to be kind and good, day to doing the Lords will and then, after hours, indulge in
speaking softly, avoiding any display of anger, reading the the works of the flesh. (Gal. 5:17-21) This was followed
Scriptures dailywould guarantee their entrance into heaven. up, in The Watchtower of July 1, 1942, with another article
that condemned conduct that was out of line with the Bibles
29
moral standards for single and for married persons. No one counsel. These included Your YouthGetting the Best Out Of
was to conclude that sharing in public preaching of the It (published in 1976) and Questions Young People Ask
Kingdom message as one of Jehovahs Witnesses gave Answers That Work (published in 1989). Local elders gave
license for loose living. (1 Cor. 9:27) In time, even firmer personal spiritual help to individuals and to families. The
measures would be taken to safeguard the moral cleanness of congregations of Jehovahs Witnesses were also safeguarded
the organization. by expulsion of unrepentant wrongdoers.
Some who were then expressing a desire to be Jehovahs The worlds breakdown in morals has not led to a more
Witnesses had grown up in areas where trial marriage was permissive viewpoint among Jehovahs Witnesses. On the
accepted, where sex relations between engaged persons were contrary, the Governing Body of Jehovahs Witnesses has
tolerated, or where consensual relationships between persons placed increased emphasis on the necessity to avoid not only
not legally married were viewed as normal. A few married illicit sexual acts but also influences and situations that erode
couples were endeavoring to practice celibacy. Other moral values. During the past three decades, it has provided
individuals, though not divorced, were unwisely separated instruction to fortify individuals against such secret sins as
from their mates. To provide needed direction, The masturbation and to alert them to the danger of pornography,
Watchtower, during the 1950s, considered all these soap operas, and music that has a debasing effect. Thus, while
situations, discussed marital responsibilities, emphasized the the worlds moral trend has been downward, that of Jehovahs
Bibles prohibition of fornication, and explained what Witnesses has been upward.
fornication is, so there would be no misunderstanding.Acts
15:19, 20; 1 Cor. 6:18. Family Life Governed by Godly Standards

In places where people beginning to associate with Holding firmly to the Bibles standard of sexual morality
Jehovahs organization were not taking seriously the Bibles has greatly benefited the family life of Jehovahs Witnesses.
moral standards, this was given special attention. Thus, in But being one of Jehovahs Witnesses is no guarantee that a
1945, when N. H. Knorr, the third president of the Watch person will not have domestic problems. Nevertheless, the
Tower Society, was in Costa Rica, he gave a discourse on Witnesses are convinced that Gods Word gives the very best
Christian morality in which he said: All of you here tonight counsel on how to cope with such problems. They have
who are living with a woman but havent got your marriage available many provisions made by the organization to help
legally arranged, Im giving you some advice. Go to the them apply that counsel; and when they follow through on it,
Catholic Church and put your name down as a member, the results are, indeed, beneficial.
because there you can practice these things. But this is Gods
organization, and you cant practice these things here. (1 Corinthians 5:13) while God judges those outside?
Remove the wicked person from among yourselves.
Beginning with the 1960s, when homosexuals became
more open about their practices, many churches debated the *** w95 5/15 p. 13 par. 15 Flashes of Light in Apostolic
matter, then accepted them as members. Some churches now Times ***
even ordain homosexuals as clergymen. In order to help 15
Gross immorality was being tolerated in the Christian
sincere persons who had questions on these matters, the congregation at Corinth. A man there had taken his fathers
publications of Jehovahs Witnesses also discussed these wife, thus practicing such fornication as was not found even
issues. But among the Witnesses, there was never any among the nations. Plainly, Paul wrote: Remove the wicked
question as to how homosexuality would be viewed. Why man from among yourselves. (1 Corinthians 5:1, 11-13) That
not? Because they do not treat the Bibles requirements as if was something new for the Christian congregation
these were merely the opinions of men of another era. disfellowshipping. Another matter on which the Corinthian
(1 Thess. 2:13) They gladly conduct Bible studies with congregation needed enlightenment had to do with the fact
homosexuals so these can learn Jehovahs requirements, and that some of its members were taking their spiritual brothers
such persons may attend meetings of the Witnesses to listen, to worldly courts in order to settle grievances. Paul strongly
but no one who continues to practice homosexuality can be rebuked them for doing this.1 Corinthians 6:5-8
one of Jehovahs Witnesses.1 Cor. 6:9-11; Jude 7.
In recent years sexual indulgence by unmarried youths *** km 8/02 pp. 3-4 Display Christian Loyalty When a
became commonplace in the world. Youths in the families of Relative Is Disfellowshipped ***
Jehovahs Witnesses felt the pressure, and some began to Display Christian Loyalty When a Relative Is
adopt the ways of the world around them. How did the Disfellowshipped
organization deal with this situation? Articles designed to
1
help parents and youths to view things Scripturally were The bond between family members can be very strong.
published in The Watchtower and Awake! Real-life dramas This brings a test upon a Christian when a marriage mate, a
were presented at conventions to help everyone to be aware child, a parent, or another close relative is disfellowshipped
of the fruitage of rejecting the Bibles moral standards and of or has disassociated himself from the congregation. (Matt.
the benefits of obeying Gods commands. One of the first of 10:37) How should loyal Christians treat such a relative?
these, staged in 1969, was entitled Thorns and Traps Are in Does it make a difference if the person lives in your
the Way of the Independent One. Special books were household? First, let us review what the Bible says on this
prepared to help young folks appreciate the wisdom of Bible subject, the principles of which apply equally to those who
30
7
are disfellowshipped and to those who disassociate However, The Watchtower of September 15, 1981,
themselves. page 28, points out regarding the disfellowshipped or
2
disassociated person: Former spiritual ties have been
How to Treat Expelled Ones: Gods Word commands completely severed. This is true even with respect to his
Christians not to keep company or fellowship with a person relatives, including those within his immediate family
who has been expelled from the congregation: Quit mixing circle. . . . That will mean changes in the spiritual fellowship
in company with anyone called a brother that is a fornicator that may have existed in the home. For example, if the
or a greedy person or an idolater or a reviler or a drunkard or husband is disfellowshiped, his wife and children will not be
an extortioner, not even eating with such a man. . . . Remove comfortable with him conducting a family Bible study or
the wicked man from among yourselves. (1 Cor. 5:11, 13) leading in Bible reading and prayer. If he wants to say a
Jesus words recorded at Matthew 18:17 also bear on the prayer, such as at mealtime, he has a right to do so in his own
matter: Let [the expelled one] be to you just as a man of the home. But they can silently offer their own prayers to God.
nations and as a tax collector. Jesus hearers well knew that (Prov. 28:9; Ps. 119:145, 146) What if a disfellowshiped
the Jews of that day had no fraternization with Gentiles and person in the home wants to be present when the family reads
that they shunned tax collectors as outcasts. Jesus was thus the Bible together or has a Bible study? The others might let
instructing his followers not to associate with expelled ones. him be present to listen if he will not try to teach them or
See The Watchtower of September 15, 1981, pages 18-20. share his religious ideas.
3
This means that loyal Christians do not have spiritual 8
If a minor child living in the home is disfellowshipped,
fellowship with anyone who has been expelled from the Christian parents are still responsible for his upbringing. The
congregation. But more is involved. Gods Word states that Watchtower of November 15, 1988, page 20, states: Just as
we should not even eat with such a man. (1 Cor. 5:11) they will continue to provide him with food, clothing, and
Hence, we also avoid social fellowship with an expelled shelter, they need to instruct and discipline him in line with
person. This would rule out joining him in a picnic, party, ball Gods Word. (Proverbs 6:20-22; 29:17) Loving parents may
game, or trip to the mall or theater or sitting down to a meal thus arrange to have a home Bible study with him, even if he
with him either in the home or at a restaurant. is disfellowshipped. Maybe he will derive the most corrective
4
What about speaking with a disfellowshipped person? benefit from their studying with him alone. Or they may
While the Bible does not cover every possible situation, decide that he can continue to share in the family study
2 John 10 helps us to get Jehovahs view of matters: If arrangement.See also The Watchtower of October 1, 2001,
anyone comes to you and does not bring this teaching, never pages 16-17.
receive him into your homes or say a greeting to him. 9
Relatives Not in the Household: The situation is
Commenting on this, The Watchtower of September 15, 1981, different if the disfellowshipped or disassociated one is a
page 25, says: A simple Hello to someone can be the first relative living outside the immediate family circle and
step that develops into a conversation and maybe even a home, states The Watchtower of April 15, 1988, page 28. It
friendship. Would we want to take that first step with a might be possible to have almost no contact at all with the
disfellowshiped person? relative. Even if there were some family matters requiring
5
Indeed, it is just as page 31 of the same issue of The contact, this certainly would be kept to a minimum, in
Watchtower states: The fact is that when a Christian gives harmony with the divine injunction to quit mixing in
himself over to sin and has to be disfellowshiped, he forfeits company with anyone who is guilty of sinning
much: his approved standing with God; . . . sweet fellowship unrepentantly. (1 Cor. 5:11) Loyal Christians should strive to
with the brothers, including much of the association he had avoid needless association with such a relative, even keeping
with Christian relatives. business dealings to an absolute minimum.See also The
Watchtower of September 15, 1981, pages 29-30.
6
In the Immediate Household: Does this mean that 10
Christians living in the same household with a The Watchtower addresses another situation that can
disfellowshipped family member are to avoid talking to, arise: What if a close relative, such as a son or a parent who
eating with, and associating with that one as they go about does not live in the home, is disfellowshiped and
their daily activities? The Watchtower of April 15, 1991, in subsequently wants to move back there? The family could
the footnote on page 22, states: If in a Christians household decide what to do depending on the situation. For example, a
there is a disfellowshipped relative, that one would still be disfellowshiped parent may be sick or no longer able to care
part of the normal, day-to-day household dealings and for himself financially or physically. The Christian children
activities. Thus, it would be left up to members of the family have a Scriptural and moral obligation to assist. (1 Tim.
to decide on the extent to which the disfellowshipped family 5:8) . . . What is done may depend on factors such as the
member would be included when eating or engaging in other parents true needs, his attitude and the regard the head of the
household activities. And yet, they would not want to give household has for the spiritual welfare of the household.
brothers with whom they associate the impression that The Watchtower of September 15, 1981, pages 28-9.
everything is the same as it was before the disfellowshipping 11
As for a child, the same article continues: Sometimes
occurred. Christian parents have accepted back into the home for a time
a disfellowshiped child who has become physically or
emotionally ill. But in each case the parents can weigh the
31
individual circumstances. Has a disfellowshiped son lived on passion for her has already committed adultery with her in his
his own, and is he now unable to do so? Or does he want to heart. (Matt. 5:28) Of course, normal sexual relations are
move back primarily because it would be an easier life? What proper and a source of pleasure between marriage mates.
about his morals and attitude? Will he bring leaven into the (Prov. 5:15-19; 1 Cor. 7:2-5) But that is not the focus of
home?Gal. 5:9. pornography. Rather, it features illicit sex that stimulates the
12
sort of immoral thoughts that Jesus warned against. Plainly,
Benefits of Being Loyal to Jehovah: Cooperating reading or viewing pornography goes directly contrary to the
with the Scriptural arrangement to disfellowship and shun divine direction: Deaden, therefore, your body members that
unrepentant wrongdoers is beneficial. It preserves the are upon the earth as respects fornication, uncleanness, sexual
cleanness of the congregation and distinguishes us as appetite, hurtful desire, and covetousness, which is
upholders of the Bibles high moral standards. (1 Pet. 1:14- idolatry.Col. 3:5.
16) It protects us from corrupting influences. (Gal. 5:7-9) It
also affords the wrongdoer an opportunity to benefit fully What if a Christian did view pornography on an occasion
from the discipline received, which can help him to produce or two? His case might, in a sense, be likened to the
peaceable fruit, namely, righteousness.Heb. 12:11. dangerous situation in which the psalmist Asaph once found
13
himself: As for me, my feet had almost turned aside, my
After hearing a talk at a circuit assembly, a brother and steps had nearly been made to slip. How could the Christian
his fleshly sister realized that they needed to make have a clean conscience and be at peace with God if he was
adjustments in the way they treated their mother, who lived gazing at pornographic images of naked men or women or of
elsewhere and who had been disfellowshipped for six years. a couple engaging in fornication? Nor was Asaph at peace: I
Immediately after the assembly, the man called his mother, came to be plagued all day long, and my correction is every
and after assuring her of their love, he explained that they morning.Ps. 73:2, 14.
could no longer talk to her unless there were important family
matters requiring contact. Shortly thereafter, his mother A Christian caught up in that badness should wake up
began attending meetings and was eventually reinstated. and face his need for spiritual help. That help is available in
Also, her unbelieving husband began studying and in time the congregation: Even though a man takes some false step
was baptized. before he is aware of it, you who have spiritual qualifications
14
try to readjust such a man in a spirit of mildness, as you each
Loyally upholding the disfellowshipping arrangement keep an eye on yourself. (Gal. 6:1) A Christian elder or two
outlined in the Scriptures demonstrates our love for Jehovah could give him the help he needs, including prayers of faith
and provides an answer to the one that is taunting Him. (Prov. that can make the indisposed one well, and his sin can be
27:11) In turn, we can be assured of Jehovahs blessing. King forgiven. (Jas. 5:13-15) Those who have sought help to
David wrote regarding Jehovah: As for his statutes, I shall remove the stain of pornography have seen that drawing near
not turn aside from them. With someone loyal you will act in to God has been good for them, as it was for Asaph.Ps.
loyalty. 73:28.
(Ephesians 4:19) Having gone past all moral sense, they
gave themselves over to brazen conduct to practice every sort However, the apostle Paul said that some who sinned did
of uncleanness with greediness. not repent over their uncleanness and fornication and loose
conduct. (2 Cor. 12:21) Regarding the Greek term there
*** w12 3/15 pp. 30-31 Questions From Readers *** rendered uncleanness, Professor Marvin R. Vincent wrote
Questions From Readers that it has the sense of impurity on the side of sordidness. It
is a sad fact that some pornography is much worse than
Could a Christians practice of viewing pornography scenes of nakedness or of a man and woman engaging in
become so bad that it results in his being expelled from fornication. There is sordid, abhorrent pornography involving
the Christian congregation? homosexuality (sex between those of the same gender), group
sex, bestiality, child pornography, gang rape, the brutalizing
Yes, it could. That underscores why it is vital to shun of women, bondage, or sadistic torture. Some in Pauls day
vigorously all pornographyboth written material and who were in darkness mentally came to be past all moral
imagesin magazines, in films, in videos, and on the sense [and] gave themselves over to loose conduct to work
Internet. uncleanness of every sort with greediness.Eph. 4:18, 19.
Pornography is found everywhere around the globe. The Paul also mentioned uncleanness at Galatians 5:19. A
Internet makes pornographic material more available than British scholar noted that it may here [signify] more
ever and has increased the number affected by this terrible especially all unnatural lusts. What Christian would deny
plague. Some, young and old, have accidentally come across that the above-mentioned abhorrent, sexually degrading
pornographic Web sites. Others have deliberately gone to forms of pornography are unnatural lusts and are sordid?
them, feeling less inhibited because they can read or view Paul concluded at Galatians 5:19-21 that those who
pornography in secretat home or at the office. Why should practice such uncleanness will not inherit Gods kingdom.
this seriously concern Christians? Consequently, if someone developed an entrenched practice
of viewing abhorrent, sexually degrading pornography,
We find a fundamental reason in Jesus warning:
perhaps over a considerable period of time, and would not
Everyone that keeps on looking at a woman so as to have a
repent and turn around, he could not remain in the Christian
32
congregation. He would have to be disfellowshipped in order uncleanness and fornication and loose conduct that they have
to preserve the cleanness and spirit of the congregation. practiced. Since uncleanness is listed with fornication
1 Cor. 5:5, 11. and loose conduct, some forms of uncleanness warrant
judicial action. But uncleanness is a broad term that includes
It is good to know that some who fell into viewing things that are not of a judicial nature. Just as a house may be
abhorrent forms of pornography went to the elders and somewhat dirty or completely filthy, uncleanness has degrees.
received the spiritual help needed to make drastic changes.
Jesus appealed to Christians in ancient Sardis: Strengthen Paul said, according to Ephesians 4:19, that some
the things remaining that were ready to die, . . . continue individuals had come to be past all moral sense and that
mindful of how you have received and how you heard, and go they gave themselves over to loose conduct to work
on keeping it, and repent. Certainly unless you wake up, . . . uncleanness of every sort with greediness. Paul thus puts
you will not know at all at what hour I shall come upon you. uncleanness . . . with greediness in the same category as
(Rev. 3:2, 3) It is possible to repent and be snatched out of the loose conduct. If a baptized person unrepentantly practices
fire, as it were.Jude 22, 23. uncleanness . . . with greediness, he can be expelled from
the congregation on the grounds of gross uncleanness.
How much better, though, it is for each of us to be firmly
resolved not to come anywhere near that dangerous position. Suppose an engaged couple indulged in passion-arousing
Yes, we should be absolutely determined to avoid all forms of heavy petting on numerous occasions. The elders might
pornography! determine that even though these individuals did not manifest
a brazen attitude characterizing loose conduct, there was a
[Footnote] measure of greediness in their conduct. So the elders might
As to distinctions between uncleanness and fornication and take judicial action because gross uncleanness was involved.
loose conduct, see The Watchtower of July 15, 2006, Gross uncleanness might also be appropriate grounds for
pages 29-31. handling a case involving a person who repeatedly makes
sexually explicit telephone calls to another person, especially
[Blurb on page 30] if he was previously counseled about the matter.
A Christian caught up in badness should wake up and face his
need for spiritual help The elders need discernment in making such judgments.
To determine whether judicial action is warranted, they must
*** w06 7/15 pp. 30-31 Questions From Readers *** carefully look at what happened and the extent to which it
was done. It is not a matter of charging with loose conduct
Loose conduct (Greek, aselgeia) denotes anyone who does not accept Scriptural counsel; nor is it a
licentiousness; wantonness; shameless conduct; lewdness of case of deciding mathematically how many times a person
conduct. The New Thayers Greek-English Lexicon defines can commit a certain sinful act before judicial action is
the Greek term as unbridled lust, . . . outrageousness, required. Elders should carefully and prayerfully weigh each
shamelessness, insolence. According to another lexicon, situation and find out what occurred and how often, the
loose conduct is a form of behavior that violates all bounds nature and extent of the misconduct, and the intent and
of what is socially acceptable. motive of the wrongdoer.
As the foregoing definitions show, loose conduct Gross uncleanness entails more than sexual sins. For
involves two elements: (1) The conduct itself is a serious instance, a baptized boy might smoke a few cigarettes in a
violation of Gods laws, and (2) the attitude of the wrongdoer short period of time and confess this to his parents. He is
is disrespectful, insolent. determined not to smoke again. This is uncleanness, but it has
not escalated to the point of being gross uncleanness or
Therefore, loose conduct does not refer to bad conduct
uncleanness . . . with greediness. Scriptural counsel from
of a minor nature. It pertains to acts that are serious violations
an elder or two along with support from the boys parents
of Gods laws and that reflect a brazen or boldly
should suffice. But if the boy is a frequent user of tobacco,
contemptuous attitudea spirit that betrays disrespect or
this would be a deliberate defilement of the flesh, and a
even contempt for authority, laws, and standards. Paul links
judicial committee would be convened to consider this case
loose conduct with illicit intercourse. (Romans 13:13, 14)
of gross uncleanness. (2 Corinthians 7:1) If the boy is not
Since Galatians 5:19-21 lists loose conduct among a number
repentant, he would be disfellowshipped.
of sinful practices that would disqualify one from inheriting
Gods Kingdom, loose conduct is grounds for reproof and Some Christians have become involved in the viewing of
possible disfellowshipping from the Christian congregation. pornography. This is offensive to God, and the elders may be
shocked that a fellow believer has done this. But not all
Uncleanness (Greek, akatharsia) is the broadest of the
viewing of pornography calls for a hearing before a judicial
three terms rendered fornication, uncleanness, and loose
committee. For example, suppose a brother viewed so-called
conduct. It embraces impurity of any kindin sexual
soft-core pornography on several occasions. He is ashamed,
matters, in speech, in action, and in spiritual relationships.
confesses to an elder, and is determined not to repeat this sin.
Uncleanness covers a wide range of serious sins.
The elder might well conclude that the brothers conduct did
As recorded at 2 Corinthians 12:21, Paul refers to those not escalate to the point that he engaged in uncleanness . . .
who formerly sinned but have not repented over their with greediness; nor did he display a brazen attitude,
33
indicating loose conduct. Although no judicial action would Some teenagers send sexually explicit messages to flirt
be warranted, this type of uncleanness would call for strong with someone they like.
Scriptural counsel and perhaps follow-up help from the
elders. In other cases, a girl sends an explicit photo of herself
because she is pressured by a boy to do so.
However, suppose a Christian has secretly viewed
abhorrent, sexually degrading pornography for years and has Sometimes a boy will mass forward an explicit photo of a
done everything possible to conceal this sin. Such girl either to entertain his friends or to retaliate after a
pornography might feature gang rape, bondage, sadistic breakup.
torture, the brutalizing of women, or even child pornography. Whatever the cause, a teenager armed with a cell phone can
When others become aware of his conduct, he is deeply get into a lot of trouble. In the click of a button, says the
ashamed. He has not been brazen, but the elders may book CyberSafe, lives are changed forever.
determine that he has given himself over to this filthy habit
and has practiced uncleanness with greediness, that is, gross Many people fail to realize that once a photo goes into
uncleanness. A judicial committee would be formed because cyberspace, the sender loses control over how the photo will
gross uncleanness is involved. The wrongdoer would be be used. In one case, reports a bulletin from the U.S. Federal
disfellowshipped if he did not display godly repentance and Bureau of Investigation (FBI), an 18-year-old girl
the determination never to view pornography again. If he committed suicide after a nude photo she had transmitted via
invited others to his home to view pornographyin effect, her cell phone to her boyfriend also was sent to hundreds of
promoting ithe would give evidence of a brazen attitude teenagers in her school. Other students, who apparently
characterizing loose conduct. continued to forward the image, allegedly harassed the girl.

The Scriptural term loose conduct always involves Sexting also raises legal issues. In some places, for example,
serious sin, often sexual in nature. When trying to identify minors who have sent sexually explicit images to other
loose conduct, elders should look for brazenness, wantonness, minors have been charged with child-pornography offenses
filthiness, shamelessness, and what is shocking to public and have been required to register as sex offenders. As a
decency. On the other hand, serious transgressions of parent, you too can be held liable if your name is on the cell-
Jehovahs law that are committed by a person who does not phone contract or if you fail to take measures to prevent your
manifest a brazen attitude may involve greediness. These child from sexting.
cases have to be handled on the basis of the gross
WHAT YOU CAN DO
uncleanness that they involve.
Set clear rules. Although you cannot fully control your
Determining whether someone has gone far enough to be
teenagers cell-phone use, you can make sure that he or she
guilty of gross uncleanness or loose conduct is a serious
knows your rulesas well as the consequences for breaking
responsibility, for lives are involved. Those judging such
those rules. Remember, too, that as a parent, you have the
cases should do so prayerfully, asking God for his holy spirit,
right to monitor your teenagers cell phone.Bible principle:
discernment, and understanding. Elders need to maintain the
Ephesians 6:1.
purity of the congregation and must base their judgment on
Gods Word as well as on the direction of the faithful and Help your teenager to reason on the problem. You could
discreet slave. (Matthew 18:18; 24:45) And in these evil say: There are many opinions as to what constitutes sexting.
days, more than ever before, elders need to bear in mind the How would you define the term? What kinds of photos do
words: See what you are doing, because it is not for man you think are inappropriate? In some places the law
that you judge but it is for Jehovah.2 Chronicles 19:6. considers a minor who sends a nude photo of a minor to be
guilty of a crime. Do you think its that bad? Why would
*** g 11/13 pp. 4-5 How to Talk to Your Teen About sexting be morally wrong? Listen carefully to his or her
Sexting *** reasoning, and help your teenager to think beyond the send
HELP FOR THE FAMILY | PARENTING button.Bible principle: Hebrews 5:14.
How to Talk to Your Teen About Sexting
Present hypothetical scenarios. You could say to your
daughter: Suppose a girl is being pressured by a boy to
THE CHALLENGE
sext him. What should she do? Give in so that she does not
You have heard that sexting is common among young lose the friendship? Refuse the request but flirt with him
people. Would my teenager do that? you may wonder. anyway? End the relationship? Tell an adult? Help your
daughter to reason on the matter. Of course, you can use a
You want to discuss the matter with your childbut similar approach with a son.Bible principle: Galatians 6:7.
how? Before answering, consider why some young people
have become involved in sexting and why you should be Appeal to your teenagers sense of goodness. Ask questions
concerned. such as these: How important to you is a good reputation?
What traits do you want to be known for? How would you
WHY IT HAPPENS feel about yourself if you humiliated someone by forwarding
an inappropriate picture? How would you feel if you took a

34
stand for what is right? Help your teen to hold a good avoiding sinful acts. It meant the hating of bad.Proverbs
conscience.1 Peter 3:16. 8:13.
Set the example yourself. The Bible says that godly wisdom Lovingly, Jehovah laid down detailed laws so that the
is chaste and free from hypocrisy. (James 3:17) Do your nation of Israel could identify and avoid wrongdoing.
values reflect those words? We need to set good examples (Romans 7:7, 12) These laws included strict guidelines on
ourselves and not view images and Web sites that could be morality. Adultery, homosexual acts, incestuous relationships,
viewed as unsavory or illegal, says the book CyberSafe. and bestiality were all identified as unholy spiritual
pollutants. (Leviticus 18:23; 20:10-17) Those guilty of such
[Footnote] degraded acts were cut off from the nation of Israel.
Sexting refers to the act of sending sexually explicit When the congregation of anointed Christians became
messages, photos, or videos via cell phone. For more the Israel of God, similar moral standards were laid down
information, go to the jw.org Web site and read the online for them. (Galatians 6:16) Christians too were to abhor what
article Young People AskWhat Should I Know About is wicked. (Romans 12:9) Jehovahs words to Israel also
Sexting?Look under BIBLE TEACHINGS > applied to them: You must be holy, because I am holy.
TEENAGERS. (1 Peter 1:15, 16) Such unholy practices as fornication,
[Blurb on page 5] adultery, homosexual acts, bestiality, and incest were not to
Think beyond the send button corrupt the Christian congregation. Those refusing to stop
engaging in such things would be excluded from Gods
[Box on page 5] Kingdom. (Romans 1:26, 27; 2:22; 1 Corinthians 6:9, 10;
KEY SCRIPTURES Hebrews 13:4) In these last days, the same standards apply
Children, be obedient to your parents.Ephesians 6:1. to the other sheep. (2 Timothy 3:1; John 10:16) As a result,
anointed Christians and other sheep make up a clean and
Mature people . . . have their perceptive powers trained to
wholesome people, able to carry the name of their God as
distinguish both right and wrong.Hebrews 5:14.
Jehovahs Witnesses.Isaiah 43:10.
Whatever a man is sowing, this he will also reap.
Keeping the Congregation Clean
Galatians 6:7.
In contrast, the world condones all kinds of immorality.
[Box on page 5]
Although true Christians are different, they should not forget
SUGGESTION
that many who now serve Jehovah were once in the world.
If talking about sexting will be awkward for you or your teen,
There are many who, before they knew our holy God, saw no
you might try this approach:
reason not to indulge the desires and fantasies of their fallen
First, have your teen talk about what others are doing. Then
flesh, wallowing in a low sink of debauchery. (1 Peter 4:4)
say: Ive heard a lot about sexting. Is this practice
The apostle Paul, after describing the disgusting practices of
common?
degraded people of the nations, said: That is what some of
Next, find out how he or she feels about what others are
you were. Still, he went on to say: But you have been
doing. You could ask: Do you think people grasp the
washed clean, but you have been sanctified, but you have
consequences of sexting?
been declared righteous in the name of our Lord Jesus Christ
Then, discuss what your teenager would do. Respond by
and with the spirit of our God.1 Corinthians 6:11.
saying: Lets talk about what you should do if you receive
an explicit text. What a comforting statement that is! Whatever a person
Tip: You could use a news report to start a discussion. For did earlier in life, he changes when the glorious good news
example: I read about a girl whose explicit photo was about the Christ has an effect on his heart. He exercises faith
forwarded all over her school. Does this kind of thing really and dedicates himself to Jehovah God. From then on he lives
happen? a morally pure life, washed clean in Gods eyes. (Hebrews
9:14) The sins that he committed previously are pardoned,
(Romans 12:9) Let your love be without hypocrisy.
and he can stretch forward to the things ahead.Philippians
Abhor what is wicked; cling to what is good.
3:13, 14; Romans 4:7, 8.
*** w97 1/1 pp. 26-29 Let Us Abhor What Is Wicked *** Jehovah forgave repentant David for murder and
Let Us Abhor What Is Wicked adultery, and He forgave repentant Manasseh for immoral
idolatry and much bloodshed. (2 Samuel 12:9, 13;
JEHOVAH is a holy God. In ancient times he was the 2 Chronicles 33:2-6, 10-13) We can be truly grateful that he
Holy One of Israel, and as such he demanded that Israel be is prepared to forgive us too if we repent and approach him in
clean, unsullied. (Psalm 89:18) He told his chosen people: sincerity and humility. Still, despite Jehovahs forgiving
You must prove yourselves holy, because I am holy. David and Manasseh, these two menand Israel with them
(Leviticus 11:45) Anyone who wanted to ascend into the had to live with the consequences of their sinful acts.
mountain of Jehovah had to be innocent in his hands and (2 Samuel 12:11, 12; Jeremiah 15:3-5) In a similar way, while
clean in heart. (Psalm 24:3, 4) That meant more than merely Jehovah forgives repentant sinners, there may be
consequences of their actions that cannot be avoided.

35
Inevitable Consequences sacrifice, the man was cleansed of his sin. Similar things may
happen today. Again, though, even if a baptized person who
For example, a man who lives a life of immoral commits a serious sin repents and is forgiven in Jehovahs
debauchery and contracts AIDS may accept the truth and turn eyes, there may still be ongoing consequences of his sin.
his life around to the point of dedication and baptism. Now he Proverbs 10:16, 17; Galatians 6:7.
is a spiritually clean Christian having a relationship with God
and a wonderful hope for the future; but he still has AIDS. He For example, if a dedicated girl commits fornication, she
may eventually die of the disease, a sad but inescapable may bitterly regret her act and eventually be restored to
consequence of his former conduct. For some Christians the spiritual health with the help of the congregation. But what if
effects of former gross immorality may persist in other ways. she is pregnant because of her immorality? Then her whole
For years after their baptism, perhaps for the rest of their lives life has been inescapably changed by what she did. A man
in this system of things, they may have to fight urges in their who commits adultery may repent and not be
flesh to return to their previous immoral life-style. With the disfellowshipped. But his innocent mate has Scriptural
help of Jehovahs spirit, many succeed in resisting. But they grounds to divorce him, and she may choose to do so.
have to wage a constant battle.Galatians 5:16, 17. (Matthew 19:9) If she does, the man, although forgiven by
Jehovah, will live the rest of his life with this grave
Such ones do not sin as long as they control their urges. consequence of his sin.1 John 1:9.
But if they are men, they may wisely decide not to reach out
for responsibility in the congregation while still having to What of a man who unlovingly divorces his wife in order
struggle with powerful fleshly impulses. (1 Timothy 3:1) to marry another woman? Perhaps he will eventually repent
Why? Because they know the trust that the congregation puts and be reinstated in the congregation. Over the years he may
in the elders. (Isaiah 32:1, 2; Hebrews 13:17) They realize make progress and press on to maturity. (Hebrews 6:1) But
that the elders are consulted on many intimate matters and as long as his first wife lives without a mate, he will not
have to handle sensitive situations. It would be neither loving, qualify to serve in a responsible position in the congregation.
wise, nor reasonable for one waging a constant fight with He is not a husband of one wife because he had no
unclean fleshly desires to reach out for such a responsible Scriptural right to divorce his first wife.1 Timothy 3:2, 12.
position.Proverbs 14:16; John 15:12, 13; Romans 12:1.
Are these not powerful reasons why a Christian should
For a man who was a child molester before he was cultivate an abhorrence of what is wicked?
baptized, there may be another consequence. When he learns
the truth, he repents and turns around, not bringing that cruel What of a Child Molester?
sin into the congregation. He may thereafter make fine What if a baptized adult Christian sexually molests a
progress, completely overcome his wrong impulses, and even child? Is the sinner so wicked that Jehovah will never forgive
be inclined to reach out for a responsible position in the him? Not necessarily so. Jesus said that blasphemy against
congregation. What, though, if he still has to live down the holy spirit was unforgivable. And Paul said that there is
notoriety in the community as a former child molester? no sacrifice for sins left for one who practices sin willfully
Would he be irreprehensible, . . . have a fine testimony from despite knowing the truth. (Luke 12:10; Hebrews 10:26, 27)
people on the outside, . . . [be] free from accusation? But nowhere does the Bible say that an adult Christian who
(1 Timothy 3:1-7, 10; Titus 1:7) No, he would not. Hence, he sexually abuses a childwhether incestuously or otherwise
would not qualify for congregation privileges. cannot be forgiven. Indeed, his sins can be washed clean if
When a Dedicated Christian Sins he repents sincerely from the heart and turns his conduct
around. However, he may still have to struggle with the
Jehovah understands that we are weak and that even after wrong fleshly impulses he cultivated. (Ephesians 1:7) And
baptism we may fall into sin. The apostle John wrote to there may be consequences that he cannot avoid.
Christians of his day: I am writing you these things that you
may not commit a sin. And yet, if anyone does commit a sin, Depending on the law of the land where he lives, the
we have a helper with the Father, Jesus Christ, a righteous molester may well have to serve a prison term or face other
one. And he is a propitiatory sacrifice for our sins, yet not for sanctions from the State. The congregation will not protect
ours only but also for the whole worlds. (1 John 2:1, 2) Yes, him from this. Moreover, the man has revealed a serious
on the basis of Jesus sacrifice, Jehovah will forgive baptized weakness that henceforth will have to be taken into account.
Christians who fall into sinif they truly repent and abandon If he seems to be repentant, he will be encouraged to make
their wrong course. spiritual progress, share in the field service, even have parts
in the Theocratic Ministry School and nonteaching parts in
An example of this was seen in the first-century the Service Meeting. This does not mean, though, that he will
congregation at Corinth. The apostle Paul heard of a case of qualify to serve in a position of responsibility in the
incestuous fornication in that young congregation, and he congregation. What are the Scriptural reasons for this?
gave instructions that the man involved be disfellowshipped.
Later, the sinner repented, and Paul exhorted the For one thing, an elder must be self-controlled. (Titus
congregation to reinstate him. (1 Corinthians 5:1, 13; 1:8) True, none of us have perfect self-control. (Romans
2 Corinthians 2:5-9) Thus, by the healing power of Jehovahs 7:21-25) But a dedicated adult Christian who falls into the sin
loving kindness and the great value of Jesus ransom of child sexual abuse reveals an unnatural fleshly weakness.
Experience has shown that such an adult may well molest
36
other children. True, not every child molester repeats the sin, peace as your overseers And righteousness as your task
but many do. And the congregation cannot read hearts to tell assigners.
who is and who is not liable to molest children again.
(Jeremiah 17:9) Hence, Pauls counsel to Timothy applies *** w06 2/15 pp. 26-28 pars. 1-12 Walking in the Path of
with special force in the case of baptized adults who have Increasing Light ***
molested children: Never lay your hands hastily upon any
man; neither be a sharer in the sins of others. (1 Timothy WHO can better describe the effect that the rising sun has
5:22) For the protection of our children, a man known to have on the darkness of the night than the very Source of light,
been a child molester does not qualify for a responsible Jehovah God? (Psalm 36:9) When the morning light takes
position in the congregation. Moreover, he cannot be a hold on the ends of the earth, God says, the earth transforms
pioneer or serve in any other special, full-time service. itself like clay under a seal, and things take their station as in
Compare the principle at Exodus 21:28, 29. clothing. (Job 38:12-14) With increasing light from the sun,
earths features take shape and become clearer, just as soft
Some may ask, Have not some committed other types of clay undergoes a transformation upon receiving an imprint
sin and apparently repented, only to repeat their sin later? from an emblem on a seal.
Yes, that has happened, but there are other factors to consider. 2
If, for example, an individual makes immoral advances to Jehovah is also the Source of spiritual light. (Psalm
another adult, the adult should be able to resist his or her 43:3) While the world remains in dense darkness, the true
advances. Children are much easier to deceive, confuse, or God continues to shed light upon his people. With what
terrorize. The Bible speaks of a childs lack of wisdom. result? The Bible answers: The path of the righteous ones is
(Proverbs 22:15; 1 Corinthians 13:11) Jesus used children as like the bright light that is getting lighter and lighter until the
an example of humble innocence. (Matthew 18:4; Luke day is firmly established. (Proverbs 4:18) Increasing light
18:16, 17) The innocence of a child includes a complete lack from Jehovah continues to illuminate the path of his people.
of experience. Most children are open, eager to please, and It refines them organizationally, doctrinally, and morally.
thus vulnerable to abuse by a scheming adult whom they Enlightenment Leads to Organizational Refinements
know and trust. Therefore, the congregation has a
3
responsibility before Jehovah to protect its children. Through the prophet Isaiah, Jehovah foretold: Instead
of the copper I shall bring in gold, and instead of the iron I
Well-trained children learn to obey and honor their shall bring in silver, and instead of the wood, copper, and
parents, the elders, and other adults. (Ephesians 6:1, 2; instead of the stones, iron. (Isaiah 60:17) Just as replacing an
1 Timothy 5:1, 2; Hebrews 13:7) It would be a shocking inferior material with a superior one denotes improvement,
perversion if one of these authority figures were to misuse Jehovahs Witnesses have experienced improvements in their
that childs innocent trust so as to seduce or force him or her organizational arrangements all through the conclusion of
to submit to sexual acts. Those who have been sexually the system of things, or the last days.Matthew 24:3;
molested in this way often struggle for years to overcome the 2 Timothy 3:1.
resulting emotional trauma. Hence, a child molester is subject
4
to severe congregational discipline and restrictions. It is not In the early part of the last days, the congregations of
his status as an authority figure that should be of concern but, Bible Students, as Jehovahs Witnesses were then known,
rather, the unblemished purity of the congregation. democratically elected their elders and deacons. Some elders,
1 Corinthians 5:6; 2 Peter 3:14. however, did not have the genuine spirit of evangelizing.
Some not only were reluctant to participate in the preaching
If a child molester sincerely repents, he will recognize work themselves but also discouraged others from sharing in
the wisdom of applying Bible principles. If he truly learns to it. So in 1919 a new office was instituted in each
abhor what is wicked, he will despise what he did and congregationthat of a service director. The service director
struggle to avoid repeating his sin. (Proverbs 8:13; Romans was not elected by the congregation but was appointed
12:9) Further, he will surely thank Jehovah for the greatness theocratically to his position by the branch office of Gods
of His love, as a result of which a repentant sinner, such as he people. The responsibilities of the appointed director included
is, can still worship our holy God and hope to be among the organizing the preaching work, assigning territories, and
upright who will reside on earth forever.Proverbs 2:21. encouraging participation in the field ministry. During the
[Footnote] years that followed, the Kingdom-preaching work received a
tremendous stimulus.
See Questions From Readers in the May 1, 1996, issue of 5
The Watchtower. All in the congregation were further invigorated by the
exhortation Advertise, advertise, advertise, the King and his
[Blurb on page 28] kingdom, given in 1922 at the Bible Students convention at
While Jehovah forgives repentant sinners, there may be Cedar Point, Ohio, U.S.A. By 1927 field service was
consequences of their actions that cannot be avoided organized to the point that Sunday was designated as the most
suitable day for participating in the house-to-house preaching
(Isaiah 60:17) Instead of the copper I will bring in gold, And work. Why that day? Because Sunday was the day when most
instead of the iron I will bring in silver, Instead of the wood, people were off work. Jehovahs Witnesses today manifest
copper, And instead of the stones, iron; And I will appoint the same spirit by endeavoring to call on people at times

37
11
when they are most likely to be at home, such as on The year 1992 saw still another refinement, one that is
weekends and in the evenings. comparable to what happened after the Israelites and others
6
returned from exile in Babylon. Back at that time, there were
A great impetus to the Kingdom-proclamation work not a sufficient number of Levites to care for temple service.
came on Sunday afternoon, July 26, 1931, when a resolution So non-Israelite Nethinim were given more to do in helping
was adopted, first at a convention in Columbus, Ohio, U.S.A., the Levites. Accordingly, to assist the faithful and discreet
and thereafter around the world. In part, the resolution stated: slave class in caring for its increasing earthly interests, in
We are servants of Jehovah God commissioned to do a work 1992 some of the other sheep received added service
in his name, and, in obedience to his commandment, to responsibilities. They were appointed as helpers to the
deliver the testimony of Jesus Christ, and to make known to Governing Body committees.John 10:16.
the people that Jehovah is the true and Almighty God;
12
therefore we joyfully embrace and take the name which the What has resulted from all of this? I will appoint
mouth of the Lord God has named, and we desire to be peace as your overseers and righteousness as your task
known as and called by the name, to wit, Jehovahs assigners, says Jehovah. (Isaiah 60:17) There is peace
witnesses. (Isaiah 43:10) How clearly that new name among Jehovahs servants today, and love of righteousness
defined the primary activity of all of those bearing that name! has become their task assignerthe force that impels them
Yes, Jehovah had work for all his servants to share in. The to serve God. They are well-organized to carry out the
overall response was enthusiastic indeed! Kingdom-preaching and disciple-making work.Matthew
7
24:14; 28:19, 20.
Many elders humbly devoted themselves to the
preaching work. In some places, though, elected elders put up
considerable resistance to the idea that everyone in the *** w95 5/15 pp. 22-23 pars. 6-11 Part 2Flashes of Light
congregation should participate in the public ministry. Great and Small ***
However, further improvements were in sight. In 1932 the 6
congregations received instruction through The Watchtower There was the question of who should serve as elders
to discontinue the electing of elders and deacons. Instead, and deacons in the congregations. To get away from the
they were to elect a service committee composed of spiritual hierarchical structure prevalent in Christendom, it was
men who participated in the public preaching work. concluded that these should be elected democratically by the
Oversight was thus entrusted to those who actively shared in vote of the members of each congregation. But increasing
the ministry, and the work moved ahead. light contained in The Watchtower of September 1 and of
October 15, 1932, showed that the Scriptures do not provide
Increased Light Means Further Improvements for elective elders. So these were replaced by a service
8
committee, and a service director was chosen by the Society.
The light was getting lighter and lighter. In 1938 the
7
use of elections was eliminated altogether. All servants in the The Watchtower of June 1 and of June 15, 1938,
congregation were to be appointed theocratically under the contained flashes of light showing that the servants in the
oversight of the faithful and discreet slave. (Matthew congregation were to be, not elected, but appointed, that is,
24:45-47) The change was readily accepted by practically all appointed theocratically. In 1971 another flash of light
the congregations of Jehovahs Witnesses, and the work of showed that each congregation was not to be directed by just
witnessing continued to bear fruit. one congregation servant. Rather, each should have a body of
9
elders, or overseers, assigned by the Governing Body of
Beginning October 1, 1972, another adjustment in Jehovahs Witnesses. So by the increasing light over some 40
congregational oversight became effective. The arrangement years, it became evident that elders as well as deacons, now
of oversight by a body of elders was instituted in the known as ministerial servants, should be appointed by the
congregations of Jehovahs Witnesses worldwide, replacing faithful and discreet slave, through its Governing Body.
oversight by just one congregation servant, or overseer. This (Matthew 24:45-47) This was in line with what took place in
new arrangement has provided tremendous encouragement apostolic times. Men such as Timothy and Titus were
for mature men to qualify to take the lead in the congregation. appointed as overseers by the first-century governing body.
(1 Timothy 3:1-7) As a result, a greater number of brothers (1 Timothy 3:1-7; 5:22; Titus 1:5-9) All of this is in striking
have gained experience in caring for congregational fulfillment of Isaiah 60:17: Instead of the copper I shall
responsibilities. How valuable they have proved to be in bring in gold, and instead of the iron I shall bring in silver,
shepherding the many new ones who have accepted Bible and instead of the wood, copper, and instead of the stones,
truth! iron; and I will appoint peace as your overseers and
10
The members of the Governing Body were organized righteousness as your task assigners.
into six committees, and starting on January 1, 1976, all the 8
There was also the matter of the operation of the Watch
activities of the organization and of the congregations around Tower Society. For many years the Governing Body of
the earth came under the supervision of these committees. Jehovahs Witnesses was synonymous with the board of
What a blessing it has proved to be to have all aspects of the directors of the Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society of
Kingdom work directed by a multitude of counselors! Pennsylvania, and matters were largely in the hands of its
Proverbs 15:22; 24:6. president. As shown in the 1977 Yearbook of Jehovahs
Witnesses (pages 258-9), in 1976 the Governing Body began
38
to function with six committees, each assigned to care for Nothing is more important to me than my children. I want
certain aspects of the worldwide work. The Personnel them to grow up to be adults I can be proud of
Committee deals with personnel matters, including the THE BIBLE SAYS:
interests of all who serve in the worldwide Bethel family. The Train a boy in the way he should go; even when he grows
Publishing Committee handles all secular and legal matters, old he will not depart from it.Proverbs 22:6.
such as property and printing. The Service Committee USEFUL FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE
concerns itself with the witness work and supervises traveling The Children section contains illustrated Bible stories,
overseers, pioneers, and the activities of congregation picture activities, videos, and Bible lessons that can help you
publishers. The Teaching Committee is responsible for teach your children to . . .
congregation meetings, special assembly days, circuit be obedient
assemblies, and district and international conventions as well show kindness
as the various schools for the spiritual education of Gods get along with each other
people. The Writing Committee supervises the preparation learn to say thank you
and translation of publications in all forms, making sure that (Look under BIBLE TEACHINGS > CHILDREN)
everything is in line with the Scriptures. The Chairmans My Book of Bible Stories and Learn From the Great
Committee cares for emergencies and other urgent matters. Teacher are beautifully illustrated books designed for you to
Also in the 1970s, branch offices of the Watch Tower Society read with your children.
began to be directed by a committee instead of an overseer. (Look under PUBLICATIONS > BOOKS & BROCHURES)
FOR TEENAGERS
Id like some tips for dealing with issues like school, my
G 1/14 pp. 2-6 parents, my friends, and the opposite sex. Im not a child
http://www.jw.org/en/publications/magazines/g201 anymore, so I dont want to be lectured
401/unique-website/ THE BIBLE SAYS:
READ the Bible in about 50 languages and Bible-based Let your heart be glad in the days of your youth.
content in more than 500 languages. Ecclesiastes 11:9.
VIEW content in nearly 70 sign languages. USEFUL FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE
NAVIGATE the site in hundreds of languages.
LISTEN to audio dramas depicting exciting events in the The Teenagers section has articles and videos that can help
Bible. you . . .
SEE Bible events come to life in the form of illustrated if you are lonely
stories. if you have problems at school
WATCH Bible dramas and videos that will help you to face if you have broken a house rule
lifes challenges. if you are being bullied or sexually harassed
DOWNLOAD e-books, magazine articles, and audio files, (Look under BIBLE TEACHINGS > TEENAGERS)
every one of them free. Volumes 1 and 2 of Questions Young People AskAnswers
RESEARCH a variety of topics using Watchtower ONLINE That Work tackle 77 important frequently asked questions.
LIBRARYthe gateway to a wealth of information, (Look under PUBLICATIONS > BOOKS & BROCHURES)
available in over 100 languages. FOR THOSE WHO WANT TO LEARN ABOUT THE
FOR COUPLES BIBLE
I want my family to succeed. My wife and I have gone Id like to understand the Bible. Where can I start?
through a rough patch lately, especially since we had THE BIBLE SAYS:
children. We could use some help All Scripture is inspired of God and beneficial for
THE BIBLE SAYS: teaching.2 Timothy 3:16.
By wisdom a house is built up, and by discernment it is USEFUL FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE
made secure.Proverbs 24:3. The New World Translation of the Holy Scriptures is an
USEFUL FEATURES OF THE WEB SITE accurate and easy-to-read translation of the Bible.
The Couples & Parents section can help you to meet (Look under PUBLICATIONS > BIBLE)
challenges such as these: The Bible Questions Answered section gives pointed
Surviving the first year of marriage answers to questions ranging from Why did God allow the
Dealing with in-laws Holocaust to happen? to When was Jesus born?
Disciplining children (Look under BIBLE TEACHINGS > BIBLE QUESTIONS
Arguing ANSWERED)
Dealing with money problems The Request a Free Bible Study page lets you take
(Look under BIBLE TEACHINGS > COUPLES & advantage of our free Bible study course.
PARENTS) (Click on the Request a Bible Study link on the home page)
The Secret of Family Happiness is a book that covers a I gave up reading the Bible because I couldnt understand it.
wide range of family topics, from preparing for marriage But when I studied it using the book What Does the Bible
while you are single to caring for elderly parents. Really Teach? I was amazed at how simple and clear the
(Look under PUBLICATIONS > BOOKS & BROCHURES) Bible is.Christina.
FOR PARENTS
39
*** km 10/13 p. 2 Use Our Web Site to Teach Your people. Our site gives Internet users truthful answers to Bible
Children *** questions. It introduces them to Jehovahs organization and
Use Our Web Site to Teach Your Children makes it easy for them to request a free home Bible study. It
enables the good news to penetrate areas of the earth where
1
Our Web site, jw.org, is designed to appeal to people of people have few opportunities to hear the Kingdom message.
all ages. The section of the Web site entitled Children (go All the Nations: In order to give a witness to all the
to Bible Teachings > Children) helps young children and their nations, we must present Bible truth in different languages.
parents to draw close to one another and to Jehovah. (Deut. Visitors to jw.org can easily find information in about 400
6:6, 7) How can you use this section to teach your children? languages, more than any other Web site.
2
Be Adaptable: Each child has unique needs. (1 Cor. Make Good Use of It: The redesigned jw.org Web site is
13:11) How, then, can you select age-appropriate material to not just for the purpose of witnessing to unbelievers. It has
study with your children? Ask yourself: What will capture been designed for use by Jehovahs Witnesses too. If you
my childrens interest? How much will they understand? How have access to the Internet, we encourage you to get
long is their attention span? With children who are three acquainted with jw.org. The following are some suggestions
years of age or younger, you might discuss the stories found on how to use it.
under My Bible Lessons. Other families enjoy the Bible Our Official Web SiteUse It for Personal and Family
stories in the section Teach Your Children. Also, consider Study
the following options.
3
Family Worship Projects: These projects are tools to Read the Latest Magazine Online: Read The
help family heads study with their children. To learn how to Watchtower and Awake! online several weeks before
use the stories and activities, click the download button, and receiving the printed copies in the congregation. Listen to
read the Parents Guide for each project. Use picture audio recordings of a magazine.Go to
activities, such as coloring pages, to teach younger children. Publications/Magazines.
Help older children to complete the study activities. All the
activities in each project relate to the same Bible story or Read Material That Appears Only on the Web Site:
lesson, so children of all ages can participate in the same Some material, such as For Young People, My Bible
family worship project. Lessons, For Family Review, and Young People Ask,
now appears only on our Web site. Go online and consider
4
Become Jehovahs Friend: The videos, songs, and some of this material during your personal and family study.
activities in this section of our Web site help parents to Go to Bible Teachings/Children or Bible
inculcate Gods Word into their little children. (Deut. 31:12) Teachings/Teenagers.
Each short animated video teaches an important lesson.
Activities such as search-and-find games underscore those Get the Latest News: Read encouraging reports and
lessons. Since children often like to singand songs help experiences, and watch video clips that highlight the progress
children to remember what they have learnedKingdom of our work around the world. Reports on disasters and
songs and songs written especially for children are posted persecution can help us to be specific in our prayers for the
regularly. affected brothers. (Jas. 5:16)Go to News.
5
Parents, Jehovah wants you to be successful mothers Do Research Using Online Library: If this feature is
and fathers. So ask him to help you teach your children the available in your language, use a computer or a mobile device
truth. (Judg. 13:8) With Jehovahs support, you can train your to read the daily text online or to do research in some of our
children to become wise for salvation through the faith in recent publications.Go to Publications/Online Library, or
connection with Christ Jesus.2 Tim. 3:15; Prov. 4:1-4. type www.wol.jw.org in the address field of your browser.
Our Official Web SiteUse It in Your Ministry

*** km 12/12 p. 3 Our Official Web SiteDesigned to Direct People to the Web Site: Some who hesitate to
Benefit Us and Others *** converse with us or accept literature are willing to investigate
Our Official Web SiteDesigned to Benefit Us and Jehovahs Witnesses by looking at jw.org in the privacy of
Others their home. So publicize the Web site at every appropriate
opportunity.
Jesus commissioned us to preach the good news of the
Kingdom in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the Answer Questions: At times a householder, an interested
nations. (Matt. 24:14) In order to help us fully accomplish person, or an acquaintance will ask a question about
our ministry, watchtower.org, jw-media.org, and jw.org have Jehovahs Witnesses or our beliefs. Show him the answer on
been combined into the redesigned jw.org Web site.2 Tim. the spot, using a mobile device or a computer. It is often best
4:5. to read the cited scriptures directly from the Bible. If you do
not have ready access to the Internet, explain how the person
All the Inhabited Earth: About one third of the can use jw.org to find the answer himself.Go to Bible
earths population uses the Internet. It has become the Teachings/Bible Questions Answered or About
primary source of information for many, especially young Us/Frequently Asked Questions.
40
Send an Article or a Publication to Someone You learn from the way that Israel regarded the pillar of fire and
Know: Attach a downloaded PDF or an EPUB to an e-mail. cloud?Ex. 14:24.
Or download an audio version of a publication onto a CD.
Each time you give someone who is not baptized a complete Gods Word reveals the source and the purpose of the
electronic book, brochure, or magazine, you may count it as a pillar, stating: Jehovah was going ahead of them in the
placement. Material should not be sent anonymously or in daytime in a pillar of cloud to lead them by the way, and in
bulk. Neither should it be uploaded to any other Internet Web the nighttime in a pillar of fire to give them light to go in the
site.Go to Publications. daytime and nighttime. (Ex. 13:21, 22) Jehovah God used
the pillar of fire and cloud to guide his people out of Egypt
Show the Latest News About Jehovahs Witnesses: and through the wilderness. They had to be ready to move in
This will help Bible students and others you are calling on to order to follow it. When the pursuing Egyptian forces were
develop appreciation for the worldwide scope of our work about to attack Gods people, the pillar moved between the
and our Christian unity. (Ps. 133:1)Go to News. two groups, protecting the Israelites. (Ex. 14:19, 20) Though
Our Official Web SiteUse It to Help Someone Who the pillar did not indicate the most direct route, following its
Speaks a Different Language lead was the only way for Israel to get to the Promised Land.
The presence of the pillar assured Gods people that
Show Him Our Web Site: Demonstrate how he can use Jehovah was with them. It represented Jehovah, and at times
the Site Language list to see the Web site in his language. he spoke out of it. (Num. 14:14; Ps. 99:7) Further, the cloud
(In some languages, only a portion of the site is available.) identified Moses as the one appointed by Jehovah to lead the
Show Him a Web Page in His Language: Display a nation. (Ex. 33:9) Likewise, the last recorded appearance of
page from one of our publications, such as the Bible Teach the cloud confirmed Jehovahs appointment of Joshua as
book or the Know the Truth tract. Choose the householders Moses successor. (Deut. 31:14, 15) Indeed, the successful
language from the Read In list. outcome of the Exodus depended on the Israelites discerning
the evidence of Gods guidance and then following it.
Let Him Listen to an Article: Find an article for which
there is an audio track in the persons language, and play it
for him. If you are learning another language, improve your They Lost Sight of the Evidence
skill by listening to an audio track in that language as you
read.Go to Publications/Books and Brochures or When the Israelites saw that pillar for the first time, they
Publications/Magazines. must have been awestruck. Sadly, though, that constantly
present miracle did not impress the Israelites enough to fill
Witness to the Deaf: If you find a deaf person, play a them with lasting confidence in Jehovah. They challenged
sign-language video of a chapter from the Bible, a book, a Gods guidance several times. When the Egyptian army
brochure, or a tract.Go to Publications/Sign Language. pursued them, they showed no trust in Jehovahs saving
power. Instead, they accused Gods servant Moses of having
Page 23 Unit 3(a) led them toward their death. (Ex. 14:10-12) After their
deliverance through the Red Sea, they murmured against
Personally Keeping Pace Moses, Aaron, and Jehovah because of the presumed lack of
food and water. (Ex. 15:22-24; 16:1-3; 17:1-3, 7) And some
(Isaiah 48:17,18) This is what Jehovah says, your
weeks after that, they pressured Aaron into making a golden
Repurchaser, the Holy One of Israel: I, Jehovah, am your
calf. Just imagine! In one section of their camp, the Israelites
God, The One teaching you to benefit yourself, The One
saw the pillar of fire and cloudthe majestic evidence of the
guiding you in the way you should walk. 18 If only you would
One who had led them out of Egyptand not far from there,
pay attention to my commandments! Then your peace would
they began worshipping a lifeless idol, saying: This is your
become just like a river And your righteousness like the
God, O Israel, who led you up out of the land of Egypt.
waves of the sea.
What great acts of disrespect!Ex. 32:4; Neh. 9:18.
(Exodus 14:24) During the morning watch, Jehovah looked
at the camp of the Egyptians from within the pillar of fire and Israels rebellious acts demonstrated striking disregard
cloud, and he threw the camp of the Egyptians into confusion. for Jehovahs guidance. The problem was not with their
physical sight but with their spiritual outlook. They saw the
*** w11 4/15 pp. 3-5 Do You Discern the Evidence of pillar, but they no longer appreciated its meaning. Though
Gods Guidance? *** their actions pained even the Holy One of Israel, Jehovah
Do You Discern the Evidence of Gods Guidance? mercifully kept on providing guidance by means of the pillar
until Israel reached the Promised Land.Ps. 78:40-42, 52-
54; Neh. 9:19.
NEITHER the Israelites nor the Egyptians had seen
anything like it before. As the Israelites made their Exodus See the Evidence of Divine Guidance Today
from Egypt, a pillar of cloud hovered near them and stayed
with them day in and day out. At night it became a pillar of Similarly in modern times, Jehovah has never left his
fire. How awe-inspiring! But where did it come from? What people without clear guidance. Just as he did not expect the
was its purpose? And what can we, some 3,500 years later, Israelites to scout out their own route, we today are not asked
41
to find the way into the promised new world on our own. Of course, those taking the lead in the earthly part of
Jesus Christ is the assigned Leader of the congregation. Gods organization are not perfectbut neither was Moses.
(Matt. 23:10; Eph. 5:23) He has delegated some authority to a Even so, the pillar provided constant evidence of his divine
faithful slave class, made up of faithful spirit-anointed appointment and of Gods approval. Note, too, that it was not
Christians. That slave class, in turn, appoints overseers in the for each Israelite to determine when to start moving. Instead,
Christian congregation.Matt. 24:45-47; Titus 1:5-9. the people acted at the order of Jehovah by means of
Moses. (Num. 9:23) Thus Moses, Gods channel of
How can we be sure of the identity of that faithful slave, direction, likely gave the signal to move.
or steward, class? Notice how Jesus himself describes it:
Who really is the faithful steward, the discreet one, whom Today, Jehovahs steward class gives a clear signal
his master will appoint over his body of attendants to keep whenever it is time to make a move. How does the steward
giving them their measure of food supplies at the proper do that? By means of articles in The Watchtower and Our
time? Happy is that slave, if his master on arriving finds him Kingdom Ministry, new publications, and talks at assemblies
doing so!Luke 12:42, 43. and conventions. Instructions are also conveyed to the
congregations through traveling overseers or through letters
Hence, the steward class is faithful, never betraying or or training sessions attended by brothers having congregation
abandoning Jehovah, Jesus, Bible truths, or Gods people. responsibilities.
Being discreet, the steward class shows good judgment in
directing the all-important work of preaching the good news Do you clearly discern the evidence of divine guidance?
of the kingdom and making disciples of people of all the Jehovah uses his organization to guide us, his people, through
nations. (Matt. 24:14; 28:19, 20) At the proper time, the the wilderness during these last days of Satans wicked
steward class obediently distributes spiritual food that is world. As a result, we enjoy unity, love, and security.
wholesome and nourishing. Jehovahs approval is seen in
how he blesses his people with increase, guidance in After Israel reached the Promised Land, Joshua said:
important decisions, better comprehension of Bible truths, You well know with all your hearts and with all your souls
safeguards against annihilation at the hands of their enemies, that not one word out of all the good words that Jehovah your
and peace of mind and heart.Isa. 54:17; Phil. 4:7. God has spoken to you has failed. They have all come true
for you. (Josh. 23:14) Likewise, Gods people today will
Respond to Gods Guidance without fail reach the promised new world. However,
whether we personally will be there depends to no small
How can we show that we appreciate Gods guidance? degree on our humble willingness to follow Gods direction.
The apostle Paul said: Be obedient to those who are taking Therefore, may we all keep on discerning the evidence of
the lead among you and be submissive. (Heb. 13:17) Doing Jehovahs guidance!
so may not always be easy. To illustrate: Put yourself in the (Isaiah 6:1-4) In the year that King Uzziah died, I saw
place of an Israelite in Moses day. Imagine that after you Jehovah sitting on a lofty and elevated throne, and the skirts
have been walking for some time, the pillar comes to a halt. of his robe filled the temple. 2 Seraphs were standing above
How long will it stay there? A day? A week? Several months? him; each had six wings. Each covered his face with two and
You wonder, Is it worth unpacking all my possessions? covered his feet with two, and each of them would fly about
First, you may unpack only the most necessary items. Yet, with two. 3 And one called to the other: Holy, holy, holy is
after a few days, frustrated at searching through your Jehovah of armies. The whole earth is filled with his glory.
belongings, you begin to unpack everything. But then, just 4
And the pivots of the thresholds quivered at the sound of the
when you have about finished unpacking, you see the pillar shouting, and the house was filled with smoke.
liftingand you have to start packing again! That would not
be so easy or convenient. Still, the Israelites had to pull (Ezekiel 1:4-14) As I was looking, I saw a tempestuous wind
away right afterward.Num. 9:17-22. coming from the north, and there was a huge cloud and
flashing fire surrounded by a bright light, and from the midst
How, then, do we react when we receive divine of the fire was something that looked like electrum. 5 Within
direction? Do we try to apply it right afterward? Or do we it were what looked like four living creatures, and the
continue doing things just as we have been accustomed to appearance of each one was like that of a human. 6 Each one
doing them? Are we familiar with up-to-date directions, such had four faces and four wings. 7 Their feet were straight, and
as those regarding conducting home Bible studies, preaching the soles of their feet were like those of a calf, and they were
to foreign-speaking people, regularly sharing in family shining like the glow of burnished copper. 8 They had human
worship, cooperating with Hospital Liaison Committees, and hands under their wings on all four sides, and the four of
conducting ourselves properly at conventions? We also show them had faces and wings. 9 Their wings were touching one
our appreciation for Gods guidance by accepting counsel. another. They would not turn when they went; they would
When faced with far-reaching decisions, we do not trust in each go straight forward. 10 Their faces had this appearance:
our own wisdom but look to Jehovah and his organization for Each of the four had a mans face with a lions face on the
guidance. And just as a child seeks his parents protection right, a bulls face on the left, and each of the four had an
when a storm rages, we seek protection in Jehovahs eagles face. 11 That is how their faces were. Their wings were
organization when, like a thunderstorm, the problems of this spread out above them. Each had two wings that were
world strike us. touching one another and two wings covering their bodies.
12
They would each go straight forward, going wherever the
42
spirit would incline them to go. They would not turn as they eyes all around and underneath. And continuously, day and
went. 13 And the living creatures had the appearance of night, they say: Holy, holy, holy is Jehovah God, the
burning coals of fire, and something that looked like torches Almighty, who was and who is and who is coming.
9
of bright fire was moving back and forth between the living Whenever the living creatures give glory and honor and
creatures, and lightning was flashing out from the fire. 14 And thanksgiving to the One seated on the throne, the One who
when the living creatures would go forth and return, their lives forever and ever, 10 the 24 elders fall down before the
movement had the appearance of flashes of lightning. One seated on the throne and worship the One who lives
(Ezekiel 1:22-24) Over the heads of the living creatures was forever and ever, and they cast their crowns before the throne,
the likeness of an expanse that sparkled like awesome ice, saying: 11 You are worthy, Jehovah our God, to receive the
stretched out above their heads. 23 Under the expanse their glory and the honor and the power, because you created all
wings were straight, one to the other. Each one had two wings things, and because of your will they came into existence and
for covering one side of their bodies and two for covering the were created.
other side. 24 When I heard the sound of their wings, it was
like a sound of rushing waters, like the sound of the *** w13 4/15 pp. 23-25 pars. 5-8 Make Sure of the More
Almighty. When they moved, it was like the sound of an Important Things ***
army. When they stood still, they would let their wings down. 5
There are many things that Jehovah chose not to include
(Daniel 7:9-14) I kept watching until thrones were set in in his written Word. For example, he did not provide details
place and the Ancient of Days sat down. His clothing was about how the brain works or how the universe functions,
white like snow, and the hair of his head was like clean wool. even though such information would have been very
His throne was flames of fire; its wheels were a burning fire. fascinating! Rather, Jehovah provided information that we
10
A stream of fire was flowing and going out from before need in order to understand his purposes and to live our lives
him. A thousand thousands kept ministering to him, and ten in harmony with them. (2 Tim. 3:16, 17) How interesting,
thousand times ten thousand stood before him. The Court then, that the Bible does provide glimpses of the invisible
took its seat, and books were opened. 11 I kept watching at part of Jehovahs organization! We thrill at reading the
that time because of the sound of the arrogant words that the descriptions of Jehovahs heavenly arrangement written by
horn was speaking; I watched until the beast was killed and Isaiah, Ezekiel, and Daniel and in Johns Revelation account.
its body was destroyed and it was given over to be burned in (Isa. 6:1-4; Ezek. 1:4-14, 22-24; Dan. 7:9-14; Rev. 4:1-11) It
the fire. 12 But as for the rest of the beasts, their rulerships is as if Jehovah pulled back a curtain and allowed us to peer
were taken away, and their lives were prolonged for a time into the heavens. Why did he provide this information?
and a season. 13 I kept watching in the visions of the night, 6
and look! with the clouds of the heavens, someone like a son Jehovah wanted us never to forget that we are part of a
of man was coming; and he gained access to the Ancient of universal organization. There is much more going on in
Days, and they brought him up close before that One. 14 And support of Jehovahs purposes than what we can see. For
to him there were given rulership, honor, and a kingdom, that example, Ezekiel saw the invisible part of Jehovahs
the peoples, nations, and language groups should all serve organization depicted by a colossal celestial chariot. This
him. His rulership is an everlasting rulership that will not chariot could move swiftly and change direction in an instant.
pass away, and his kingdom will not be destroyed. (Ezek. 1:15-21) With each revolution of its wheels, the
chariot could cover great distances. In vision, Ezekiel was
(Revelation 4:1-11) After this I saw, and look! an opened
also able to get a glimpse of the Rider of the chariot. He said:
door in heaven, and the first voice that I heard speaking with
I got to see something like the glow of electrum, like the
me was like a trumpet, saying: Come up here, and I will
appearance of fire all around . . . It was the appearance of the
show you the things that must take place. 2 After this I
likeness of the glory of Jehovah. (Ezek. 1:25-28) How awe-
immediately came to be in the power of the spirit, and look! a
inspiring it must have been for Ezekiel to see this vision! He
throne was in its position in heaven, and someone was seated
saw Jehovah in full control of his organization, directing its
on the throne. 3 And the One seated had the appearance of a
movement through his holy spirit. What an amazing
jasper stone and a sardius stone, and all around the throne
representation of the heavenly part of Jehovahs organization
was a rainbow like an emerald in appearance. 4 All around the
on the move!
throne were 24 thrones, and on these thrones I saw seated 24
elders dressed in white garments, and on their heads golden 7
Daniel too saw much to give us confidence. He was
crowns. 5 From the throne were coming lightning and voices allowed to see Jehovah depicted as the Ancient of Days
and thunders; and there were seven lamps of fire burning sitting on a throne with flames of fire. The throne was on
before the throne, and these mean the seven spirits of God. wheels. (Dan. 7:9) Jehovah wanted Daniel to see that His
6
Before the throne was something resembling a glassy sea, organization is in motion, accomplishing His purpose. Daniel
like crystal. In the midst of the throne and around the throne also saw someone like a son of man, Jesus, being given
were four living creatures that were full of eyes in front and oversight of the earthly part of Jehovahs organization.
behind. 7 The first living creature was like a lion, and the Christs perfect rule does not exist for just a few short years.
second living creature was like a young bull, and the third Rather, it is an indefinitely lasting rulership that will not
living creature had a face like a mans, and the fourth living pass away, and his kingdom one that will not be brought to
creature was like a flying eagle. 8 As for the four living ruin. (Dan. 7:13, 14) We are moved to trust in Jehovah and
creatures, each one of them had six wings; they were full of to recognize what he is accomplishing. He gave rulership

43
and dignity and kingdom to his tried and proven Son, Jesus. Why should clashes of culture concern us? First of all
Jehovah puts trust in his Son. Thus, we can have confidence because Jehovahs people are keen to fulfill their divine
in Jesus leadership as well. commission to make disciples of people of all the nations.
8
(Matthew 28:19) To accomplish this task, some have moved
How should this view of the invisible part of Jehovahs to serve where the need for ministers is greater. To succeed in
organization impact us? Like Ezekiel, we are surely awed and their new environment, they must understand and adapt to the
humbled by what Jehovah is accomplishing. (Ezek. 1:28) distinct cultures they encounter. Then they will be able to
Meditating on Jehovahs organization can move us to action, work in harmony with their fellow brothers and sisters, while
just as it did Isaiah. When the opportunity arose for him to also being more effective in the public ministry.
tell others about what Jehovah is doing, he seized it without
hesitation. (Read Isaiah 6:5, 8.) Isaiah was confident that Furthermore, in this turbulent world, many people have
with Jehovahs backing, he could successfully face any fled from their troubled homelands for political or economic
challenge. Similarly, this glimpse of the invisible part of reasons and have settled in other countries. So we could well
Jehovahs organization should fill us with awe and spur us to find that while preaching to these new neighbors, we are
action. How motivating to contemplate that organization, ever confronted with new customs. (Matthew 22:39) Our initial
on the move and completely focused on accomplishing exposure to different ways may result in a sense of confusion
Jehovahs purposes! about new customs.
Areas Clearly Defined
Page 24 Unit 3 (a)
Culture is woven into the fabric of human society. What a
*** w11 9/15 p. 14 pars. 14-15 Are You Letting Jehovah fruitless exercise it would be, therefore, to become righteous
Be Your Share? *** overmuch and investigate every small custom to decide
14
whether it is compatible with Bible principles!Ecclesiastes
How do you react when Jehovah, the Source of 7:16.
spiritual enlightenment, sheds light on the deep things of
God found in the Bible? (1 Cor. 2:10-13) We have an On the other hand, there is a need to identify local
excellent example in the apostle Peters reaction when Jesus customs that clearly violate divine principles. Generally,
told His listeners: Unless you eat the flesh of the Son of man though, that is not difficult to do, since Gods Word is
and drink his blood, you have no life in yourselves. Taking available for setting things straight. (2 Timothy 3:16) For
those words literally, many disciples said: This speech is example, having many wives is customary in some lands, but
shocking; who can listen to it? They went off to the things for true Christians the Scriptural standard is for a man to have
behind. But Peter said: Lord, whom shall we go away to? just one living wife.Genesis 2:24; 1 Timothy 3:2.
You have sayings of everlasting life.John 6:53, 60, 66, 68.
Likewise, certain funeral customs designed to keep away
15
Peter did not fully understand what Jesus said about evil spirits, or based on a belief in an immortal soul, would be
eating His flesh and drinking His blood. But the apostle relied unacceptable for a true Christian. Some people offer incense
on God for spiritual enlightenment. When spiritual light on or prayers to the departed in order to repel wicked spirits.
some matter gets brighter, do you try to understand the Others have wakes or even a second burial with the objective
underlying Scriptural reasons for the adjustment? (Prov. 4:18) of helping the deceased to prepare for life in the next world.
The first-century Beroeans received the word with the The Bible teaches, however, that when a person dies, he is
greatest eagerness of mind, carefully examining the conscious of nothing at all, and thus he cannot do good or
Scriptures daily. (Acts 17:11) Imitating them will deepen harm to anyone.Ecclesiastes 9:5; Psalm 146:4.
your appreciation for your privilege to serve Jehovah, to have
him be your share. Of course, there are many customs that are compatible
with Gods Word. How refreshing when we come into contact
*** w98 10/1 pp. 19-23 Local Cultures and Christian with cultures where the spirit of hospitality still thrives,
PrinciplesAre They Compatible? *** where custom demands that even a stranger be given a warm
Local Cultures and Christian PrinciplesAre They greeting and that, when necessary, the home be opened up to
Compatible? him! When you experience such treatment firsthand, are you
not moved to follow this example? If you are, it will certainly
improve your Christian personality.Hebrews 13:1, 2.
STEPHEN, a Witness from Northern Europe, was
assigned as a missionary to an African country. While Who of us likes to be kept waiting? In some lands this
strolling through town with a local brother, he was startled rarely happens because punctuality is considered important.
when the brother took hold of his hand. The Bible tells us that Jehovah is a God of order.
(1 Corinthians 14:33) Consequently, he has set a day and
The thought of walking down a busy street holding hands hour to end wickedness, and he assures us that this event
with another man was shocking to Stephen. In his culture will not be late. (Matthew 24:36; Habakkuk 2:3) Cultures
such a custom has homosexual connotations. (Romans 1:27) that promote reasonable punctuality help us to be orderly and
Nevertheless, to the African brother, holding hands was to show proper respect for other people and their time, which
purely a gesture of friendship. The rejection of the hand is certainly in line with Scriptural principles.1 Corinthians
would signify a rejection of the friendship. 14:40; Philippians 2:4.
44
What About Innocuous Customs? wear a necktie, but in some tropical countries, it may be
viewed as excessively formal. Taking into account local taste
While some customs are clearly compatible with the as to what is proper dress for a professional person who deals
Christian way of living, others are not. But what about those with the public will often be a helpful guide. Soundness of
customs that cannot be defined as good or bad? Many mind is vital when we deal with the sensitive issue of
customs are innocuous, or harmless, and our attitude toward clothing.1 Timothy 2:9, 10.
them can demonstrate our spiritual balance.
What if a custom does not please us? Should it
For example, there are many forms of greetingsa automatically be rejected? Not necessarily. The custom of
handshake, a bow, a kiss, or even an embrace. Likewise, there males holding hands, mentioned earlier, was perfectly
is a huge variety of customs governing table manners. In acceptable in that particular African community. When the
some lands people eat from a communal plate or dish. missionary noticed that other men were walking around
Burping is an acceptableeven desirableexpression of holding hands, he felt more at ease.
appreciation in certain countries, whereas in others it is
unacceptable and would be classed as the height of bad The apostle Paul, during his extensive missionary
manners. journeys, visited congregations whose members came from
diverse backgrounds. Doubtless, clashes of culture were
Rather than deciding which of these neutral customs you frequent. Thus, Paul adapted to whatever customs he could
personally like or dislike, concentrate on adopting the right while firmly adhering to Bible principles. I have become all
attitude toward them. The timeless counsel from the Bible things to people of all sorts, he said, that I might by all
recommends that we do nothing out of contentiousness or means save some.1 Corinthians 9:22, 23; Acts 16:3.
out of egotism, but with lowliness of mind, we consider that
others are superior to us. (Philippians 2:3) Similarly, Eleanor A few pertinent questions may help us decide how we
Boykin, in her book This Way, PleaseA Book of Manners, should react to new customs. By our adopting a certain
says: A kind heart is the first thing you need. customor refusing to do sowhat impression are we
giving observers? Will they be attracted to the Kingdom
This humble approach will prevent us from disparaging message because they can see that we are trying to integrate
the customs of others. We will feel motivated to reach out and into their culture? On the other hand, if we do adopt a local
learn how other people live, share their customs and taste custom, could our ministry be found fault with?
their foods rather than hold back or view with suspicion 2 Corinthians 6:3.
everything that seems different. By keeping an open mind
and being willing to try new ways, we pay a compliment to If we desire to become all things to people of all sorts,
our host or our foreign neighbors. We also benefit ourselves we may have to alter some deeply ingrained views as to what
as we widen out our hearts and our horizons. is proper and what is not. Often the right and the wrong
2 Corinthians 6:13. way to do something depends merely on where we are living.
Thus, in one country hand-holding among men is a
If the Custom Hinders Spiritual Progress demonstration of friendship, while in many others it would
What if we encounter customs that are not unscriptural in surely detract from the Kingdom message.
themselves, yet they are not conducive to spiritual progress? There are other customs, however, that are acceptable in
In some lands, for example, people may be very inclined to various regions and that may even be proper for Christians;
procrastinate. This easygoing approach to life can reduce yet we must exercise caution.
stress, but it will likely make it more difficult for us to
accomplish our ministry fully.2 Timothy 4:5. Beware of Crossing the Line!
How can we encourage others to avoid putting important Jesus Christ said that although his disciples could not be
things off until tomorrow? Remember that a kind heart is taken out of the world, they had to remain no part of the
the first thing you need. Motivated by love, we can set the world. (John 17:15, 16) Sometimes, though, it is no easy
example and then kindly explain the benefits of not leaving task to identify the line between what is an integral part of
until tomorrow what should be done today. (Ecclesiastes Satans world and what is merely culture. Music and dancing,
11:4) At the same time, we must be careful not to sacrifice for example, permeate almost every culture, although in some
mutual trust and confidence in the interest of productivity. If lands they assume greater importance.
our suggestions are not immediately accepted by others, we
should not lord it over them or take out our frustration on We may easily make a judgmentbased more on our
them. Love must always take precedence over efficiency. background than on sound Scriptural reasons. Alex, a German
1 Peter 4:8; 5:3. brother, received an assignment to Spain. In his former
environment, dancing was not very popular, but in Spain it is
Taking Into Account Local Taste part of the culture. When he first saw a brother and a sister
performing a lively local dance, he was confused. Was this
We need to be sure that any suggestion we make is a dancing wrong or perhaps worldly? Would he be lowering his
valid one and not just an effort to impose our own personal standards if he went along with this custom? Alex learned
tastes. Styles of clothing, for example, vary greatly. In many that although the music and the dancing were different, there
regions it is proper for a man preaching the good news to was no reason to assume that his Spanish brothers and sisters
45
were lowering Christian standards. His confusion was due to (John 6:68) Simon Peter answered him: Lord, whom shall
a difference in cultures. we go away to? You have sayings of everlasting life.
However, Emilio, a brother who enjoys traditional (Psalm 97:11) Light has flashed up for the righteous And
Spanish dancing, recognizes that there is a danger. I notice rejoicing for those upright in heart.
that many forms of dancing require the couple to have very (2 Peter 1:19-21) So we have the prophetic word made more
close contact, he explains. As a single person, I realize that sure, and you are doing well in paying attention to it as to a
this can affect the feelings of at least one of the partners. lamp shining in a dark place (until day dawns and a daystar
Sometimes, dancing can be used as an excuse to show rises) in your hearts. 20 For you know this first, that no
affection for someone you feel attracted to. Making sure that prophecy of Scripture springs from any private interpretation.
21
the music is wholesome and that physical contact is kept to a For prophecy was at no time brought by mans will, but
minimum can serve as a protection. Nevertheless, I must men spoke from God as they were moved by holy spirit.
admit that when a group of young single brothers and sisters
go out dancing together, it is very difficult to maintain a Page 25 Unit 3 (a)
theocratic atmosphere.
(Matthew 5:14-16) You are the light of the world. A city
Certainly, we would not want to use our culture as an cannot be hid when located on a mountain. 15 People light a
excuse for indulging in worldly behavior. Singing and lamp and set it, not under a basket, but on the lampstand, and
dancing had a place in Israelite culture, and when the it shines on all those in the house. 16 Likewise, let your light
Israelites were liberated from Egypt at the Red Sea, their shine before men, so that they may see your fine works and
celebration included both song and dance. (Exodus 15:1, 20) give glory to your Father who is in the heavens.
However, their particular form of music and dancing differed
(Mark 13:10) Also, in all the nations, the good news has to
from that of the pagan world around them.
be preached first.
Sad to say, while waiting for Moses to return from Mount
Sinai, the Israelites got impatient, made a golden calf, and *** w08 5/15 p. 5 par. 12 How Should We Treat Others?
after eating and drinking got up to have a good time. ***
(Exodus 32:1-6) When Moses and Joshua heard the sound of 12
We treat people in the best way possible when we help
their singing, it immediately disturbed them. (Exodus 32:17,
them to receive spiritual light from God. (Ps. 43:3) Jesus told
18) The Israelites had crossed that line, and their form of
his disciples that they were the light of the world and urged
singing and dancing now reflected the pagan world around
them to let their light shine so that people might see their
them.
fine works, or good deeds to others. This would result in
Similarly today, music and dancing may be generally spiritual illumination before men, or for the benefit of
acceptable in our locality and may not offend the conscience mankind. (Read Matthew 5:14-16.) Today, we let our light
of others. But if the lights are turned low, flashing lights are shine by doing good to our neighbors and by sharing in the
added, or music with a different rhythm is played, what was work of preaching the good news in all the world, that is,
formerly acceptable may now reflect the spirit of the world. in all the nations. (Matt. 26:13; Mark 13:10) What a
It is just our culture, we could argue. Aaron used a similar privilege we enjoy!
excuse when he acquiesced to pagan forms of entertainment
and worship, erroneously describing them as a festival to
Jehovah. This lame excuse was invalid. Why, their conduct Page 26 Unit 3 (b)
was even viewed as a disgrace among their opposers. Pioneer Service School Review-Day 1
Exodus 32:5, 25.
Unit 1 (b) Fortify Your Relationship With Jehovah
Culture Has Its Place (Psalm 77:12) And I will meditate on all your activity And
ponder over your dealing
Exotic customs may at first shock us, but not all of them
are necessarily unacceptable. With our perceptive powers Unit 2 (a) Using the New World Translation-Part 1
trained, we can determine which customs are compatible (2 Timothy 2:15) Do your utmost to present yourself
with Christian principles and which are not. (Hebrews 5:14) approved to God, a workman with nothing to be ashamed of,
handling the word of the truth aright.
When we manifest a kind heart full of love for our
fellowman, we will react appropriately when faced with Page 27 Unit 3 (b)
innocuous customs.
As we preach the Kingdom good news to people in our *** nwt p. 1735 A4 The Divine Name in the Hebrew
local area or further afield, a balanced approach to the Scriptures ***
kaleidoscope of cultures will enable us to become all things Explaining why he used Jehovah instead of Yahweh
to all men. And doubtless we will find that as we welcome in his 1911 work Studies in the Psalms, respected Bible
the variety of cultures, it will contribute to our having a rich, scholar Joseph Bryant Rotherham said that he wanted to
colorful, and fascinating life. employ a form of the name more familiar (while perfectly
acceptable) to the general Bible-reading public. In 1930

46
scholar A. F. Kirkpatrick made a similar point regarding the (Psalm 119:1) Happy are those who are blameless in their
use of the form Jehovah. He said: Modern grammarians way, Who walk in the law of Jehovah.
argue that it ought to be read Yahveh or Yahaveh; but (Revelation 4:11) You are worthy, Jehovah our God, to
JEHOVAH seems firmly rooted in the English language, and receive the glory and the honor and the power, because you
the really important point is not the exact pronunciation, but created all things, and because of your will they came into
existence and were created.
the recognition that it is a Proper Name, not merely an It-2 pp. 1008-1009 see page 31
appellative title like Lord.
What is the meaning of the name Jehovah? In Hebrew, Page 31 Unit 4 (a)
the name Jehovah comes from a verb that means to
become, and a number of scholars feel that it reflects the QUESTION OUTLINE
All Mankind is Fully Dependent on Jehovah
causative form of that Hebrew verb. Thus, the understanding
of the New World Bible Translation Committee is that Gods *** it-2 p. 1008 Sovereignty ***
name means He Causes to Become. Scholars hold varying SOVEREIGNTY
views, so we cannot be dogmatic about this meaning.
However, this definition well fits Jehovahs role as the
Creator of all things and the Fulfiller of his purpose. He not Supremacy in rule or power; the dominion or rule of a
only caused the physical universe and intelligent beings to lord, king, emperor, or the like; the power that, in the final
exist, but as events unfold, he continues to cause his will and analysis, determines the government of a state.
purpose to be realized. In the Hebrew Scriptures the word Adhonai appears
Therefore, the meaning of the name Jehovah is not frequently, and the expression Adhonai Yehwih 285 times.
limited to the related verb found at Exodus 3:14, which reads: Adhonai is a plural form of adhohn, meaning lord;
I Will Become What I Choose to Become or, I Will Prove master. The plural form adhonim may be applied to men in
to Be What I Will Prove to Be. In the strictest sense, those simple plurality, as lords, or masters. But the term
words do not fully define Gods name. Rather, they reveal an Adhonai without an additional suffix is always used in the
aspect of Gods personality, showing that he becomes what is Scriptures with reference to God, the plural being employed
needed in each circumstance to fulfill his purpose. So while to denote excellence or majesty. It is most frequently
the name Jehovah may include this idea, it is not limited to rendered Lord by translators. When it appears with the
what he himself chooses to become. It also includes what he name of God (Adhonai Yehwih), as, for example, at Psalm
causes to happen with regard to his creation and the 73:28, the expression is translated Lord GOD (AT, KJ, RS);
accomplishment of his purpose. Lord God (Dy [72:28]); Lord, my Master (Kx [72:28]);
Lord Jehovah (Yg); Sovereign Lord Jehovah (NW). In
Psalms 47:9; 138:5; 150:2, Moffatt uses the word
Unit 2 (b) Using the New World Translation-Part 2 sovereign, but not to translate Adhonai.
(Psalm 119:97) How I do love your law! I ponder over it all
day long. The Greek word despotes means one who possesses
supreme authority, or absolute ownership and uncontrolled
power. (Vines Expository Dictionary of Old and New
Unit 3 (a) Keep Pace With Spiritual Enlightenment Testament Words, 1981, Vol. 3, pp. 18, 46) It is translated
(Luke 12:12) for the holy spirit will teach you in that very lord, master, owner, and when used in direct address to
hour the things you should say. God is rendered Lord (KJ, Yg, and others), Ruler of all
(Kx), Sovereign Lord (NW), at Luke 2:29, Acts 4:24, and
*** be p. 38 par. 2 How to Do Research *** Revelation 6:10. In the last text, Knox, The New English
Bible, Moffatt, and the Revised Standard Version read
If you are going to use the information in a talk, ask
Sovereign Lord; Youngs translation and the Kingdom
yourself: Does the point I plan to use really contribute
Interlinear read master.
something worthwhile to my presentation of the subject? Or,
even though it is interesting material, does it tend to divert So, while the Hebrew and Greek texts do not have a
attention from the subject that I ought to be talking about? If separate qualifying word for sovereign, the flavor is
you are considering using current events or material from the contained in the words Adhonai and despotes when they
ever-changing fields of science or medicine, make sure that are used in the Scriptures as applying to Jehovah God, the
the information is up-to-date. Realize, too, that some points in qualification denoting the excellence of his lordship.
older publications of ours may have been updated, so (Job 41:11) Who has given me anything first that I should
consider what has most recently been published on the topic repay him? Whatever is under the heavens is mine.
Page 28 & 29 personal notes (Psalm 24:1) To Jehovah belong the earth and everything in
it, The productive land and those dwelling on it.
Page 30 Unit 4 (a)
Uphold Jehovahs Sovereignty *** it-2 pp. 1008-1009 Sovereignty ***
Jehovahs Sovereignty. Jehovah God is the Sovereign of
OPENING DISCUSSION
the universe (sovereign of the world, Ps 47:9, Mo) by
47
reason of his Creatorship, his Godship, and his supremacy as evidently been contradictory in his own reasoning. (Ro 1:28)
the Almighty. (Ge 17:1; Ex 6:3; Re 16:14) He is the Owner of For he was charging God with unfair, unrighteous exercise of
all things and the Source of all authority and power, the sovereignty and, at the same time, was evidently counting on
Supreme Ruler in government. (Ps 24:1; Isa 40:21-23; Re Gods fairness: He seemed to think that God would consider
4:11; 11:15) The psalmist sang of him: Jehovah himself has Himself obliged to let him live on if he proved his charge
firmly established his throne in the very heavens; and over concerning the unfaithfulness of Gods creatures.
everything his own kingship has held domination. (Ps
103:19; 145:13) Jesus disciples prayed, addressing God: (Acts 17:25) nor is he served by human hands as if he needed
Sovereign Lord, you are the One who made the heaven and anything, because he himself gives to all people life and
the earth. (Ac 4:24, NW; Mo) To the nation of Israel, God breath and all things.
himself constituted all three branches of government, the (Acts 17:28) For by him we have life and move and exist,
judicial, the legislative, and the executive. The prophet Isaiah even as some of your own poets have said, For we are also
said: Jehovah is our Judge, Jehovah is our Statute-giver, his children.
Jehovah is our King; he himself will save us. (Isa 33:22)
(Romans 1:24) Therefore, God, in keeping with the desires
Moses gives a notable description of God as Sovereign at
of their hearts, gave them up to uncleanness, so that their
Deuteronomy 10:17.
bodies might be dishonored among them.
In his sovereign position Jehovah has the right and (Romans 1:26) That is why God gave them over to
authority to delegate ruling responsibilities. David was made uncontrolled sexual passion, for their females changed the
king of Israel, and the Scriptures speak of the kingdom of natural use of themselves into one contrary to nature;
David as though it was his kingdom. But David (Romans 1:28) Just as they did not see fit to acknowledge
acknowledged Jehovah as the great Sovereign Ruler, saying: God, God gave them over to a disapproved mental state, to do
Yours, O Jehovah, are the greatness and the mightiness and the things not fitting.
the beauty and the excellency and the dignity; for everything
in the heavens and in the earth is yours. Yours is the kingdom, (Colossians 1:21) Indeed, you who were once alienated and
O Jehovah, the One also lifting yourself up as head over enemies because your minds were on the works that were
all.1Ch 29:11. wicked,
(2 Corinthians 11:14, 15) And no wonder, for Satan himself
keeps disguising himself as an angel of light. 15 It is therefore
*** it-2 p. 1011 Sovereignty *** nothing extraordinary if his ministers also keep disguising
themselves as ministers of righteousness. But their end will
Gods servants charged with selfishness. A further be according to their works.
expression of the issue is found in Satans statement to God
about his faithful servant Job. Satan said: Is it for nothing (Jeremiah 10:23) I well know, O Jehovah, that mans way
that Job has feared God? Have not you yourself put up a does not belong to him. It does not belong to man who is
hedge about him and about his house and about everything walking even to direct his step.
that he has all around? The work of his hands you have (Psalm 119:105) Your word is a lamp to my foot, And a light
blessed, and his livestock itself has spread abroad in the earth. for my path.
But, for a change, thrust out your hand, please, and touch (Psalm 143:10) Teach me to do your will, For you are my
everything he has and see whether he will not curse you to God. Your spirit is good; May it lead me on level ground.
your very face. Again, he charged: Skin in behalf of skin, (Isaiah 54:13) And all your sons will be taught by Jehovah,
and everything that a man has he will give in behalf of his And the peace of your sons will be abundant.
soul. (Job 1:9-11; 2:4) Satan therewith charged Job with
being not in harmony with God at heart, as serving God
obediently only because of selfish considerations, for gain.
Satan thereby slandered God as to his sovereignty, and Gods
servants as to integrity to that sovereignty. He said, in effect,
that no man could be put on earth who would maintain
integrity to Jehovahs sovereignty if he, Satan, was allowed to
put him to the test.
Jehovah permitted the issue to be joined. Not, however,
because he was unsure of the righteousness of his own Subjection to Jehovah Requires Loyalty
sovereignty. He needed nothing proved to himself. It was out
*** it-2 pp. 280-281 Loyalty ***
of love for his intelligent creatures that he allowed time for
LOYALTY
the testing out of the matter. He permitted men to undergo a
test by Satan, before all the universe. And he gave his
creatures the privilege of proving the Devil a liar, and of In the Hebrew Scriptures, the adjective chasidh is used
removing the slander not only from Gods name but also from of someone loyal, or one of loving-kindness. (Ps 18:25,
their own. Satan, in his egotistic attitude, was given up to a ftn) The noun chesedh has reference to kindness but contains
disapproved mental state. In his approach to Eve, he had more than the thought of tender regard or kindness stemming

48
from love, though it includes such traits. It is kindness that would not be left in Sheol. (Ps 16:10) On the day of
lovingly attaches itself to an object until its purpose in Pentecost, 33 C.E., the apostle Peter applied this prophecy to
connection with that object is realized. Such is the sort of Jesus, saying: [David] saw beforehand and spoke concerning
kindness that God expresses toward his servants and that they the resurrection of the Christ, that neither was he forsaken in
express toward him. It therefore comes into the field of Hades nor did his flesh see corruption. This Jesus God
loyalty, a righteous, devoted, holy loyalty, and is variously resurrected, of which fact we are all witnesses. (Ac 2:25-28,
rendered loving-kindness and loyal love.Ge 20:13; 31, 32; compare Ac 13:32-37.) The Expositors Greek
21:23; see KINDNESS. Testament, in a comment on Acts 2:27, says that the Hebrew
word chasidh (used in Ps 16:10) denotes not only one who
In the Greek Scriptures the noun hosiotes and the is godly and pious, but also one who is the object of
adjective hosios carry the thought of holiness, righteousness, Jehovahs loving-kindness.Edited by W. R. Nicoll, 1967,
reverence; being devout, pious; the careful observance of all Vol. II.
duties toward God. It involves a right relationship with God.
Loyalty Required by God. Jehovah requires loyalty of
There appear to be no English words that exactly express his servants. They must copy him. (Eph 5:1) The apostle Paul
the full meaning of the Hebrew and Greek words, but tells Christians that they should put on the new personality
loyalty, including, as it does, the thought of devotion and which was created according to Gods will in true
faithfulness, when used in connection with God and his righteousness and loyalty. (Eph 4:24) In recommending
service, serves to give an approximation. The best way to prayer in the congregation, he says: Therefore I desire that
determine the full meaning of the Bible terms in question is in every place the men carry on prayer, lifting up loyal hands,
to examine their usage in the Bible. apart from wrath and debates. (1Ti 2:8) Loyalty is an
Jehovahs Loyalty. Jehovah God the Most Holy One, essential quality if a man is to qualify for appointment to
who is devoted to righteousness and who exercises serve as an overseer in the congregation of God.Tit 1:8.
unbreakable loving-kindness toward those who serve him,
deals in righteousness and trueness even with his enemies and (Jeremiah 3:12) Go and proclaim these words to the north:
is eminently dependable. It is said of him: Great and Return, O renegade Israel, declares Jehovah. I will not
wonderful are your works, Jehovah God, the Almighty. look down angrily on you, for I am loyal, declares Jehovah.
Righteous and true are your ways, King of eternity. Who will I will not stay resentful forever.
not really fear you, Jehovah, and glorify your name, because (Revelation 15:4) Who will not really fear you, Jehovah, and
you alone are loyal? (Re 15:3, 4) Because Jehovahs loyalty glorify your name, for you alone are loyal? For all the nations
to righteousness and justice, as well as his love for his people, will come and worship before you, because your righteous
prompts him to take needed judicial action, an angel was decrees have been revealed.
moved to say: You, the One who is and who was, the loyal
See above on loyality
One, are righteous, because you have rendered these
*** w13 6/15 pp. 17-18 pars. 4-6 Appreciate Jehovahs
decisions.Re 16:5; compare Ps 145:17.
Loyalty and Forgiveness ***
Jehovah is loyal to his covenants. (De 7:9) Because of his 4
How does Jehovah demonstrate loyalty? He never
covenant with his friend Abraham, he exercised long-
abandons his faithful worshippers. One such worshipper,
suffering and mercy for centuries toward the nation of Israel.
King David, testified to Jehovahs loyalty. (Read 2 Samuel
(2Ki 13:23) Through his prophet Jeremiah he appealed to
22:26.) During Davids trials, Jehovah loyally guided,
Israel: Do return, O renegade Israel, is the utterance of
protected, and delivered him. (2 Sam. 22:1) David knew that
Jehovah. I shall not have my face drop angrily upon you
Jehovahs loyalty involves more than mere words. Why did
people, for I am loyal. (Jer 3:12) Those who are loyal to
Jehovah act loyally toward David? Because David himself
him can rely fully on him. David, in prayer, asked for Gods
was someone loyal. Jehovah cherishes the loyalty of his
help and said: With someone loyal you will act in loyalty;
worshippers, and he repays it with loyalty toward them.
with the faultless, mighty one you will deal faultlessly. (2Sa
Prov. 2:6-8.
22:26) In an appeal to the people, David asked them to turn
away from what is bad and do what is good, for, he said, 5
We can gain strength from reflecting on Jehovahs acts
Jehovah is a lover of justice, and he will not leave his loyal of loyalty. It really helps me when I read about how Jehovah
ones. To time indefinite they will certainly be guarded.Ps dealt with David in times of distress, says a faithful brother
37:27, 28. named Reed. Even when David was on the run, living in and
out of caves, Jehovah always sustained him. I find that very
Those who are loyal to Jehovah can count on his
encouraging! It reminds me that no matter what the
closeness and his help to the very end of their faithful course,
circumstance might be, no matter how bleak the situation
and they can rest in full security, knowing that he will
might seem, Jehovah will be there for me as long as I remain
remember them no matter what situation arises. He guards
loyal to him. No doubt, you feel the same way.Rom.
their way. (Pr 2:8) He guards their lives or souls.Ps 97:10.
8:38, 39.
Jesus Christ. Jesus Christ when on earth was greatly 6
In what other ways does Jehovah demonstrate loyalty?
strengthened in the knowledge that God had caused to be
He remains true to his standards. Even to ones old age I am
foretold of him that, as Gods chief loyal one, his soul
the same, he assures us. (Isa. 46:4) He always makes
49
decisions based on his unchanging standards of right and congregations, at circuit assemblies, and at district
wrong. (Mal. 3:6) In addition, Jehovah demonstrates loyalty conventions, happy occasions? Is it not the brotherly affection
by remaining faithful to his word of promise. (Isa. 55:11) they display toward one another? Without a doubt, brotherly
Jehovahs loyalty thus benefits all of his faithful worshippers. affection is one reason why it has been said that no other
How so? When we do our best to adhere to Jehovahs religious group gets as much enjoyment, happiness, and
standards, we can be confident that he will keep his promise satisfaction out of religion as do Jehovahs Witnesses.
to bless us.Isa. 48:17, 18. 2
We should expect to see such brotherly affection in
view of the apostle Peters words at 1 Peter 1:22: Now that
Page 32 Unit 4 (a) you have purified your souls by your obedience to the truth
(Ephesians 6:1) Children, be obedient to your parents in with unhypocritical brotherly affection as the result, love one
union with the Lord, for this is righteous. another intensely from the heart. One of the basic elements
of the Greek word here rendered brotherly affection is
(Colossians 3:18) You wives, be in subjection to your philia (affection). Its meaning is closely related to the
husbands, as it is becoming in the Lord. meaning of agape, the word usually translated love.
(Hebrews 13:17) Be obedient to those who are taking the (1 John 4:8) While brotherly affection and love are often used
lead among you and be submissive, for they are keeping interchangeably, they have specific characteristics. We should
watch over you as those who will render an account, so that not confuse them with each other, as so many translators of
they may do this with joy and not with sighing, for this would the Bible do. (In this article and in the one that follows, we
be damaging to you. will treat each of these words.)
(Acts 10:34, 35) At this Peter began to speak, and he said: 3
Regarding the difference between these two Greek
Now I truly understand that God is not partial, 35 but in every
words, one scholar noted that philia is definitely a word of
nation the man who fears him and does what is right is
warmth and closeness and affection. On the other hand, aga
acceptable to him.
pe has more to do with the mind. Thus while we are told to
(John 15:13) No one has love greater than this, that someone love (agape) our enemies, we do not have affection for
should surrender his life in behalf of his friends. them. Why not? Because bad associations spoil useful
(Acts 9:23-25) Now when many days had passed, the Jews habits. (1 Corinthians 15:33) Further indicating that there is
plotted together to do away with him. 24 However, their plot a difference are the words of the apostle Peter: Supply to
against Saul became known to him. They were also watching your . . . brotherly affection love.2 Peter 1:5-7; compare
the gates closely both day and night in order to do away with John 21:15-17.
him. 25 So his disciples took him and let him down by night
through an opening in the wall, lowering him in a basket. Examples of Very Special Brotherly Affection
4
(Revelation 2:10) Do not be afraid of the things you are Gods Word gives us a number of fine examples of very
about to suffer. Look! The Devil will keep on throwing some special brotherly affection. This special affection is not the
of you into prison so that you may be fully put to the test, and result of some whim but is based on appreciation of
you will have tribulation for ten days. Prove yourself faithful outstanding qualities. Doubtless the best-known example is
even to death, and I will give you the crown of life. that of the affection Jesus Christ had for the apostle John.
Without question, Jesus had brotherly affection for all his
faithful apostles, and that for good reason. (Luke 22:28) One
way he showed this was by washing their feet, thereby giving
Godly Subjection Must Be From the Heart
them a lesson in humility. (John 13:3-16) But Jesus had a
(1 Peter 1:22) Now that you have purified yourselves by special affection for John, which John repeatedly mentions.
your obedience to the truth with unhypocritical brotherly (John 13:23; 19:26; 20:2) Even as Jesus had reason to display
affection as the result, love one another intensely from the affection for his disciples and his apostles, John most likely
heart. gave Jesus reason to have special affection for him because of
*** w93 10/15 pp. 12-16 Finding the Key to Brotherly his deeper appreciation for Jesus. We can see this from Johns
Affection *** writings, both his Gospel and his inspired letters. How often
Finding the Key to Brotherly Affection he mentions love in those writings! Johns greater
appreciation for Jesus spiritual qualities is seen in what he
Supply to your . . . godly devotion wrote in John chapters 1 and 13 to 17, as well as by the
brotherly affection.2 PETER 1:5-7. repeated references he makes to Jesus prehuman existence.
John 1:1-3; 3:13; 6:38, 42, 58; 17:5; 18:37.
ONCE a physician who was not one of Jehovahs 5
Similarly, we would not want to overlook the very
Witnesses attended his daughters graduation from the Watch special brotherly affection that the apostle Paul and his
Tower Bible School of Gilead, where she had received Christian companion Timothy had for each other, which was,
missionary training. He was so impressed with the happy certainly, based on appreciating each others qualities. Pauls
throng that he opined that there must be very little sickness writings contain fine comments about Timothy, such as: I
among these people. What made that throng so happy? For have no one else of a disposition like his who will genuinely
that matter, what makes all gatherings of Jehovahs people, in care for the things pertaining to you. . . . You know the proof
50
he gave of himself, that like a child with a father he slaved recompense in returnI speak as to childrenyou, too,
with me in furtherance of the good news. (Philippians 2:20- widen out.
22) Many are the personal references in his letters to Timothy 10
that reveal Pauls warm affection for Timothy. For example, Clearly, many of the Corinthians were lacking in
note 1 Timothy 6:20: O Timothy, guard what is laid up in appreciative brotherly affection for the apostle Paul. Thus,
trust with you. (See also 1 Timothy 4:12-16; 5:23; some of them complained: His letters are weighty and
2 Timothy 1:5; 3:14, 15.) In particular does a comparison of forceful, but his presence in person is weak and his speech
Pauls letters to Timothy with his letter to Titus underscore contemptible. (2 Corinthians 10:10) That is why Paul
Pauls special affection for this young man. Timothy must referred to their superfine apostles and was driven to tell of
have felt the same way about their friendship, as can be noted the trials he had endured, as recorded at 2 Corinthians 11:5,
from Pauls words at 2 Timothy 1:3, 4: I never leave off 22-33.
remembering you in my supplications, . . . longing to see you, 11
Pauls warm affection for those he ministered to is
as I remember your tears, that I may get filled with joy. especially evident from his words at 1 Thessalonians 2:8:
6
The Hebrew Scriptures also provide fine examples, Having a tender affection for you, we were well pleased to
such as that of David and Jonathan. We read that after David impart to you, not only the good news of God, but also our
killed Goliath, Jonathans very soul became bound up with own souls, because you became beloved to us. In fact, he
the soul of David, and Jonathan began to love him as his own had such affection for these new brothers that when he could
soul. (1 Samuel 18:1) Appreciation for Davids example of stand it no longerso eager was he to know how they were
zeal for Jehovahs name and his fearlessness in going forth to enduring persecutionhe sent Timothy, who gave a good
meet the giant Goliath no doubt caused Jonathan to have report that greatly refreshed Paul. (1 Thessalonians 3:1, 2,
special affection for David. 6, 7) Well does Insight on the Scriptures observe: A close
bond of brotherly affection existed between Paul and those to
7
Jonathan had such affection for David that he risked his whom he ministered.
own life in defending David from King Saul. At no time did
Jonathan resent Davids being chosen by Jehovah to be the AppreciationThe Key to Brotherly Affection
next king of Israel. (1 Samuel 23:17) David had equally deep 12
Indubitably, the key to brotherly affection is
affection for Jonathan, which is evident from what he said appreciation. Do not all dedicated servants of Jehovah have
when mourning Jonathans death: I am distressed over you, qualities that we appreciate, that elicit our affection, making
my brother Jonathan, very pleasant you were to me. More us fond of them? All of us are seeking first the Kingdom of
wonderful was your love to me than the love from women. God and his righteousness. All of us are putting up a valiant
Truly, keen appreciation marked their relationship. fight against our three common foes: Satan and his demons,
2 Samuel 1:26. the wicked world under Satans control, and the inherited
8
We also have a fine example in the Hebrew Scriptures selfish tendencies of the fallen flesh. Should we not always
of special affection on the part of two women, Naomi and her take the position that our brothers are doing their best in view
widowed daughter-in-law Ruth. Recall Ruths words to of the circumstances? Everybody in the world is either on
Naomi: Do not plead with me to abandon you, to turn back Jehovahs side or on Satans side. Our dedicated brothers and
from accompanying you; for where you go I shall go, and sisters are on Jehovahs side, yes, our side, and therefore
where you spend the night I shall spend the night. Your merit our brotherly affection.
people will be my people, and your God my God. (Ruth 13
What about appreciating our elders? Should we not
1:16) Must we not conclude that Naomi, by her conduct and have a warm spot in our hearts for them in view of the way
her speaking of Jehovah, helped to evoke this appreciative they labor hard in the interests of the congregation? Like all
response on the part of Ruth?Compare Luke 6:40. of us, they have to provide for themselves and their families.
The Apostle Pauls Example They also have the same obligations as the rest of us to do
personal study, attend congregation meetings, and share in the
9
As we have seen, the apostle Paul had very special field ministry. In addition, they have the obligation to prepare
brotherly affection for Timothy. But he also set a marvelous program parts for the meetings, give public talks, and care for
example of expressing warm brotherly affection for his problems that come up in the congregation, which at times
brothers in general. He told the elders from Ephesus that for involve hours of judicial hearings. Truly, we want to keep
three years, night and day, [he] did not quit admonishing each holding men of that sort dear.Philippians 2:29.
one with tears. Warm brotherly affection? No question about
it! And they felt the same way about Paul. Upon hearing that Giving Expression to Brotherly Affection
they would see him no more, quite a bit of weeping broke 14
To please Jehovah, we must express the warm feeling
out among them all, and they fell upon Pauls neck and of brotherly affection for our fellow believers, even as Jesus
tenderly kissed him. (Acts 20:31, 37) Brotherly affection Christ and Paul did. We read: In [brotherly affection] have
based on appreciation? Yes! His brotherly affection is also tender affection for one another. (Romans 12:10, Kingdom
seen from his words at 2 Corinthians 6:11-13: Our mouth Interlinear) With reference to [brotherly affection], you do
has been opened to you, Corinthians, our heart has widened not need us to be writing you, for you yourselves are taught
out. You are not cramped for room within us, but you are by God to love one another. (1 Thessalonians 4:9, Int) Let
cramped for room in your own tender affections. So, as a your [brotherly affection] continue. (Hebrews 13:1, Int)
51
21
Surely our heavenly Father is pleased when we show So let us not forget that in expressing brotherly
brotherly affection for his earthly children! affection, the principle that Jesus stated in his Sermon on the
15
Mount applies: Practice giving, and people will give to you.
In apostolic times Christians were wont to greet one They will pour into your laps a fine measure, pressed down,
another with a holy kiss or a kiss of love. (Romans shaken together and overflowing. For with the measure that
16:16; 1 Peter 5:14) Truly an expression of brotherly you are measuring out, they will measure out to you in
affection! Today, in most parts of the earth, a more return. (Luke 6:38) We benefit ourselves when we show
appropriate expression would be a sincerely friendly smile brotherly affection, expressing esteem to those who are
and a firm handshake. In Latin lands, such as Mexico, there is servants of Jehovah as we ourselves are. Truly happy are
the greeting in the form of a hug, truly an expression of those who take delight in manifesting brotherly affection!
affection. This warm affection on the part of these brothers Page 33 Unit 4 (a)
might help to account for the great increases taking place in
their lands. (Proverbs 4:4) He taught me and said: May your heart hold
16
When we enter the Kingdom Hall, do we go out of our fast to my words. Keep my commandments and continue
way to express brotherly affection? It will cause us to have living.
encouraging words to say, especially to those who seem to be (Proverbs 4:10-13) Listen, my son, and accept my sayings,
depressed. We are told to speak consolingly to the depressed And the years of your life will be many. 11 I will instruct you
souls. (1 Thessalonians 5:14) That certainly is one way in in the way of wisdom; I will lead you in the tracks of
which we can communicate the warmth of brotherly uprightness. 12 When you walk, your steps will not be
affection. Another fine way is to express appreciation for a hindered; And if you run, you will not stumble. 13 Hold on to
fine public talk, a program part handled well, the good effort discipline; do not let it go. Safeguard it, for it means your life.
put forth by a student speaker in the Theocratic Ministry
School, and so forth. Jehovahs Sovereignty Expressed Trough the
17
How about inviting various ones to our homes for a
Congregation
meal or perhaps a snack after a meeting if it is not too late?
Should we not let Jesus counsel at Luke 14:12-14 govern? (Matthew 24:14) And this good news of the Kingdom will be
Once a former missionary was appointed as presiding preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the
overseer in a congregation where all others were of a nations, and then the end will come.
different race. He sensed a lack of brotherly affection, so he (Matthew 28:19, 20) Go, therefore, and make disciples of
set about to remedy the situation. How? Sunday after Sunday, people of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the
he invited a different family for a meal. By the end of a year, Father and of the Son and of the holy spirit, 20 teaching them
all were manifesting warm brotherly affection toward him. to observe all the things I have commanded you. And look! I
18
am with you all the days until the conclusion of the system of
When a brother or a sister is sick, at home or in a things.
hospital, brotherly affection will cause us to let that one know
(Matthew 24:45-47) Who really is the faithful and discreet
we care. Or how about those living in nursing homes? Why
slave whom his master appointed over his domestics, to give
not make a personal visit, make a phone call, or send a card
them their food at the proper time? 46 Happy is that slave if
expressing warm sentiments?
his master on coming finds him doing so! 47 Truly I say to
19
When giving such expressions of brotherly affection, you, he will appoint him over all his belongings.
we can ask ourselves, Is my brotherly affection partial? Do (1 Corinthians 5:9-13) In my letter I wrote you to stop
such factors as color of skin, education, or material keeping company with sexually immoral people, 10 not
possessions influence my manifestations of brotherly meaning entirely with the sexually immoral people of this
affection? Do I need to widen out in my brotherly affection, world or the greedy people or extortioners or idolaters.
as the apostle Paul urged the Christians in Corinth to do? Otherwise, you would actually have to get out of the world.
Brotherly affection will cause us to view our brothers 11
But now I am writing you to stop keeping company with
positively, appreciating them for their good points. Brotherly anyone called a brother who is sexually immoral or a greedy
affection will also help us to rejoice at our brothers person or an idolater or a reviler or a drunkard or an
advancement instead of envying it. extortioner, not even eating with such a man. 12 For what do I
20 have to do with judging those outside? Do you not judge
Brotherly affection should also make us alert to help
those inside, 13 while God judges those outside? Remove the
our brothers in the ministry. It should be as one of our songs
wicked person from among yourselves.
(Number 92) puts it:
(1 Corinthians 7:39) A wife is bound as long as her husband
Give kind assistance to all the weak, is alive. But if her husband should fall asleep in death, she is
So that with boldness they too can speak. free to be married to whomever she wants, only in the Lord.
(1 Timothy 5:17) Let the elders who preside in a fine way be
Never neglect those of tender years, considered worthy of double honor, especially those who
Help them grow strong and get rid of their work hard in speaking and teaching.
fears.
52
(Hebrews 10:23-25) Let us hold firmly the public declaration Since that issue has been judicially settled and declared
of our hope without wavering, for the one who promised is closed by the Court of heaven, no prolonged rebellion is
faithful. 24 And let us consider one another so as to incite to permitted in this case. Those failing to stand loyally on Gods
love and fine works, 25 not forsaking our meeting together, as side will not be able to appeal to Christ Jesus as a
some have the custom, but encouraging one another, and all propitiatory helper, but Jehovah God will be all things to
the more so as you see the day drawing near. them, with no appeal or mediation possible. All rebels, spirit
and human, receive the divine sentence of destruction in the
second death.
Page 34 Unit 4 (a)
(Romans 5:8) But God recommends his own love to us in Page 35 Unit 4 (b)
that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Show Personal Interest in Others

*** w06 8/15 pp. 21-22 par. 9 JobA Man of Endurance


and Integrity ***
9
OPENING DISCUSSION
How can we face these problems successfully? By
viewing them as an opportunity to demonstrate that our love *** be study 30 p. 189 par. 3 Interest Shown in the Other
for Jehovah and our submission to his sovereignty are not Person ***
fickle. (James 1:2-4) Whatever the cause of our distress,
understanding the importance of loyalty to God will help us Show Interest From the Heart. Showing interest in
to maintain our spiritual balance. The apostle Peter wrote to people is, not a technique to be mastered, but a quality of the
Christians: Beloved ones, do not be puzzled at the burning heart. The degree of our interest in others is evident in many
among you, which is happening to you for a trial, as though a ways. It shows in how we listen and in what we say. It is
strange thing were befalling you. (1 Peter 4:12) And Paul manifested by the kindness and consideration we extend to
explained: All those desiring to live with godly devotion in others. Even when we do not say or do anything, it is
association with Christ Jesus will also be persecuted. revealed by our attitude and our facial expressions. If we
(2 Timothy 3:12) Satan still challenges the integrity of the truly care about others, they will without fail be able to tell.
Witnesses of Jehovah, as he did in the case of Job. In fact, the
Bible indicates that Satan has increased his attacks on Gods (Galatians 6:10) So, then, as long as we have the
people during these last days.Revelation 12:9, 17. opportunity, let us work what is good toward all, but
especially toward those related to us in the faith.
(Revelation 20:7-9) Now as soon as the 1,000 years have
ended, Satan will be released from his prison, 8 and he will go (Hebrews 6:10) For God is not unrighteous so as to forget
out to mislead those nations in the four corners of the earth, your work and the love you showed for his name by
Gog and Magog, to gather them together for the war. The ministering and continuing to minister to the holy ones.
number of these is as the sand of the sea. 9 And they
advanced over the whole earth and encircled the camp of the
holy ones and the beloved city. But fire came down out of Page 36 Unit 4 (b)
heaven and consumed them.
(Acts 26:2, 3) Concerning all the things of which I am
(1 Corinthians 15:24-28) Next, the end, when he hands over
accused by the Jews, King Agrippa, I consider myself happy
the Kingdom to his God and Father, when he has brought to
that it is before you I am to make my defense this day,
nothing all government and all authority and power. 25 For he 3
especially because you are an expert on all the customs as
must rule as king until God has put all enemies under his feet.
26 well as the controversies among the Jews. Therefore, I beg
And the last enemy, death, is to be brought to nothing.
27 you to hear me patiently.
For God subjected all things under his feet. But when he
says that all things have been subjected, it is evident that (1 Corinthians 9:20-23) To the Jews I became as a Jew in
this does not include the One who subjected all things to him. order to gain Jews; to those under law I became as under law,
28
But when all things will have been subjected to him, then though I myself am not under law, in order to gain those
the Son himself will also subject himself to the One who under law. 21 To those without law I became as without law,
subjected all things to him, that God may be all things to although I am not without law toward God but under law
everyone. toward Christ, in order to gain those without law. 22 To the
weak I became weak, in order to gain the weak. I have
become all things to people of all sorts, so that I might by all
*** it-2 p. 170 Kingdom of God ***
possible means save some. 23 But I do all things for the sake
Following this, however, a final test is made of the of the good news, in order to share it with others.
integrity and devotion of all such earthly subjects. Satan is
loosed from his restraint in the abyss. Those yielding to his *** km 9/00 p. 4 Use Current Events to Stir Interest ***
seduction do so on the same issue raised in Eden: the Use Current Events to Stir Interest
rightfulness of Gods sovereignty. This is seen by their
attacking the camp of the holy ones and the beloved city.
53
1
Would you like to have a continuous supply of good copy, we should consider whom in particular it may interest,
ideas that will keep your ministry fresh and stir peoples and then make it a point to offer it to that person.
interest in the Bibles message? Then use what is happening 2
on the world scene and in your community to start Does the current Watchtower discuss a Bible topic that
conversations. You could draw on current local and national you and a workmate previously talked about? Is there an
events or international news items. These things are ever- article on family life that would be of help to a relative? Do
changing. (1 Cor. 7:31) Consider the following examples. you have an acquaintance who is planning a trip to a land that
has been featured in Awake!? Would one of the magazines
2
Economic problems and the cost of living are real appeal to certain businesses or local government agencies in
concerns of people. Thus, you might say: your territory? For example, a magazine that highlights
challenges facing the elderly may be of particular interest at
Did you hear on the news that [mention item] prices are nursing homes. Law enforcement agencies may be interested
rising again? Or you might comment about unemployment if in a magazine on the subject of crime.
a large firm has laid off many workers. Depending on how
3
you want to proceed with the discussion, you can follow up Results: After receiving the October 2011 Awake! on
by asking either Have you ever wondered why it is so hard How to Raise Responsible Children, a couple in South
to make a living? or Do you think that it will always be Africa phoned 25 schools in their congregations territory.
hard to make ends meet? Twenty-two accepted copies and distributed them to their
3
students. Another couple in that country had the same idea
Reports of violence, such as tragedies in families or and placed copies at schools in their territory. Teachers at one
among school students, provide a basis for another of the schools decided to use the magazine in their weekly
discussion. You could ask: orientation and reading program. The couple shared their
Did you read in the newspaper that [name tragedy in the experience with a circuit overseer. He then encouraged
community]? Then ask either What do you think is the congregations in his circuit to approach schools in their
cause for so much violence in the world? or Do you think a territories. The branch office received so many requests for
time will ever come when we can feel secure? additional magazines that this issue had to be reprinted!
4
4
News of devastating floods, earthquakes, or civil Our magazines discuss the real meaning behind current
unrest in different parts of the world also offers material events and direct attention to the Bible and Gods Kingdom.
that stirs interest. For example, you might ask: They are the only magazines on earth that are publishing
salvation. (Isa. 52:7) Therefore, we want to give them wide
Is God responsible for [name natural disaster]? Or you distribution. A good way to do that is by asking yourself,
could point to the latest outbreak of civil unrest and say: If Who would be interested in this?
everybody wants peace, why is it so hard to achieve?
5
Remain alert to current events that you can use in your Page 37 Unit 4 (b)
introduction. Helpful suggestions are found under Current
Events, on pages 10-11, in the Reasoning book. However, *** km 5/11 p. 3 How to Use the Please Follow Up (S-43)
avoid taking sides on political or social issues. Instead, direct Form ***
attention to the Scriptures and Gods Kingdom as the only How to Use the Please Follow Up (S-43) Form
permanent solution to mankinds problems.
This form should be filled out when you find an
(John 4:7) A woman of Samaria came to draw water. Jesus interested person who does not live in your territory or who
said to her: Give me a drink. speaks a foreign language. Though in the past we used it
(John 4:10) In answer Jesus said to her: If you had known when meeting people who speak a foreign language whether
of the free gift of God and who it is who says to you, Give they demonstrated interest or not, we now use it only when
me a drink, you would have asked him, and he would have the person demonstrates interest. The only exception is if the
given you living water. person is deaf. If we meet someone who is deaf, regardless of
whether he demonstrates interest, we should fill out an S-43
(John 4:28, 29) So the woman left her water jar and went off form.
into the city and told the people: 29 Come and see a man who
told me everything I did. Could this not perhaps be the What should we do with the form after it is filled out?
Christ? We should give it to the congregation secretary. If he knows
which congregation to send it to, he may simply forward it to
*** km 5/13 p. 2 Who Would Be Interested in This? *** the elders of that congregation so that they can arrange to
Who Would Be Interested in This? care for the interest. If he cannot determine the congregation,
he will forward the form to the branch office.
1
The Watchtower and Awake! are prepared with the If the interested person speaks a foreign language and
worldwide field in mind. Therefore, the articles deal with a lives in your territory, you may continue calling on him to
wide variety of topics. As we read each article in our personal cultivate the interest until he is contacted by a publisher from

54
the appropriate foreign-language congregation.See the Philip simply asked: Do you actually know [or, do you
November 2009 Our Kingdom Ministry, page 4. understand] what you are reading? (Acts 8:30) This question
opened the way for Philip to explain truths about Jesus
(Romans 12:14-16) Keep on blessing those who persecute; Christ. Using a similar question, some modern-day Witnesses
bless and do not curse. 15 Rejoice with those who rejoice; have found people who were truly hungering for a clear
weep with those who weep. 16 Have the same attitude toward understanding of Bible truth.
others as toward yourselves; do not set your mind on lofty
things, but be led along with the lowly things. Do not become Once they are given opportunity to express their own
wise in your own eyes.
views, many people will be more inclined to listen to you.
After asking a question, listen attentively. Be kind rather than
Listen Attentively to the Observations and Concerns of critical in acknowledging the persons response. Offer
Others commendation when you can do so sincerely. On one
(James 1:19) Know this, my beloved brothers: Everyone occasion, after a scribe had answered intelligently, Jesus
must be quick to listen, slow to speak, slow to anger, commended him, saying: You are not far from the kingdom
of God. (Mark 12:34) Even if you do not share the same
*** be study 44 p. 236-p. 239 Effective Use of view as the other person, you can thank him for expressing
Questions *** himself. What he said may make you aware of an attitude that
Study 44 you need to take into account in sharing Bible truth with him.
Effective Use of Questions To Introduce Important Thoughts. When you talk to a
group or converse with an individual, try to use questions to
What do you need to do? lead up to important thoughts. Be sure that your questions
involve matters of genuine interest to your audience. You
Use questions in a way that will achieve a may also use questions that are intriguing because the answer
desired result. Your aim may be to get an is not readily apparent. If you pause briefly after posing a
oral response; it may be to stimulate a question, your audience will likely listen with heightened
mental response. What you ask and how you interest to what follows.
ask it have a direct bearing on your success
in the use of questions. On one occasion, the prophet Micah used a number of
questions. After asking what God expects of those who
Why is it important? worship him, the prophet set out four more questions, each
Questions that are effective help listeners to including a possible answer. All those questions help to
get involved. Answers to well-chosen prepare readers for the insightful answer with which he
questions may also provide valuable concluded that part of his discussion. (Mic. 6:6-8) Could you
feedback for a teacher. do something like that when teaching? Try it.
To Reason on a Subject. Questions can be used to help
BECAUSE questions call for a responseeither oral or others follow the logic of an argument. When delivering a
mentalthey help to get your listeners involved. Questions serious pronouncement to Israel, Jehovah did this, as shown
can help you to start conversations and to enjoy a stimulating at Malachi 1:2-10. First he told them: I have loved you
exchange of thoughts. As a speaker and a teacher, you may people. They failed to appreciate that love, so he asked:
use questions to arouse interest, to help someone reason on a Was not Esau the brother of Jacob? Then Jehovah pointed
subject, or to add emphasis to what you say. When you make to the desolate condition of Edom as evidence that because of
good use of questions, you encourage others to think actively their wickedness, God did not love that nation. He followed
instead of listening passively. Have an objective in mind, and this with illustrations interspersed with questions to
ask your questions in a manner that will help to achieve it. emphasize Israels failure to respond properly to his love.
Some of the questions are phrased as if the unfaithful priests
To Encourage Conversation. When you engage in the
were asking them. Others are questions that Jehovah asked
field ministry, be alert to opportunities to invite people to
the priests. The dialogue stirs emotions and holds our
express themselves if they are willing to do so.
attention; the logic is irrefutable; the message, unforgettable.
Many Witnesses begin interesting discussions by simply
Some speakers effectively use questions in a similar way.
asking, Have you ever wondered . . . ? When they choose a
Although no oral reply may be expected, the audience
question that truly is on the minds of many people, they will
becomes involved mentally, as if sharing in a dialogue.
almost assuredly have a fine time in the field ministry. Even
if the question is new to the thinking of the other person, it When we conduct Bible studies, we use a method that
may stimulate curiosity. A wide variety of matters can be calls for participation by the student. Of course, the greater
introduced with such expressions as What do you good is done if the student does not simply recite the printed
think . . . ?, How do you feel . . . ?, and Do you answers. In a kindly tone, use auxiliary questions to reason
believe . . . ? with the student. On key thoughts, encourage him to use the
Bible as the basis for his reply. You might also ask: How
When the evangelizer Philip approached an Ethiopian
does what we are discussing fit in with this other point that
court official who was reading aloud the prophecy of Isaiah,
55
we have studied? Why is it important? How should it affect 14:1-6) No reply was expected, nor was one offered. The
our lives? Such a method is more effective than expressing questions exposed their wrong thinking.
your own convictions or giving an extended explanation
yourself. In this way, you help the student to use his power At times, even true Christians can fall into wrong
of reason to worship God.Rom. 12:1. thinking. Some in first-century Corinth were taking their
brothers to court to resolve problems that they should have
If a student does not grasp a certain idea, be patient. He been able to solve between themselves. How did the apostle
may be trying to compare what you are saying with what he Paul handle the matter? He asked a series of pointed
has believed for many years. Approaching the subject from a questions to adjust their thinking.1 Cor. 6:1-8.
different angle might help. Sometimes, however, very basic
reasoning is needed. Make liberal use of the Scriptures. Use With practice, you can learn to make effective use of
illustrations. Along with these, use simple questions that questions. However, remember to be respectful, especially
invite the person to reason on the evidence. when speaking to older ones, people you do not know
personally, and those in positions of authority. Use questions
To Draw Out Inner Feelings. When people answer to present Bible truth in an appealing way.
questions, they do not always reveal how they really feel.
They may simply give the answers that they think you want. HOW TO DO IT
Discernment is needed. (Prov. 20:5) As Jesus did, you might
ask: Do you believe this?John 11:26. To encourage conversation, use questions
involving matters that are truly important to
When many of Jesus disciples took offense at what he the other person.
said and abandoned him, Jesus invited his apostles to express
how they felt. He asked: You do not want to go also, do Before you state an important idea, try to
you? Peter put their feelings into words, saying: Lord, use a question that will make others want to
whom shall we go away to? You have sayings of everlasting hear it.
life; and we have believed and come to know that you are the
Use questions to help people see the basis
Holy One of God. (John 6:67-69) On another occasion,
for statements made, the logic of truths
Jesus asked his disciples: Who are men saying the Son of
presented, and the good effects these can
man is? He followed this with a question that invited them
have on their lives.
to express what was in their own hearts. You, though, who
do you say I am? In response, Peter said: You are the Use questions to invite the student not only
Christ, the Son of the living God.Matt. 16:13-16. to recite facts but also to express how he
feels about what he is learning.
When conducting a Bible study, you may find it
beneficial to take a similar approach to certain issues. You EXERCISES: (1) Having in mind the area in which you
might ask: How do your classmates (or workmates) view witness, prepare several questions that you could use to
this matter? Then you might ask: How do you feel about open the way for meaningful conversations with people.
it? When you know a persons true feelings, this makes it (2) Read Romans chapter 3, taking special note of Pauls
possible for you as a teacher to be of the greatest help. use of questions to reason on the standing before God of
both Jews and Gentiles.
To Add Emphasis. Questions can also be used to add
(Colossians 4:6) Let your words always be gracious,
emphasis to thoughts. The apostle Paul did this, as recorded seasoned with salt, so that you will know how you should
at Romans 8:31, 32: If God is for us, who will be against us? answer each person.
He who did not even spare his own Son but delivered him up
for us all, why will he not also with him kindly give us all *** w05 6/1 p. 32 Do You Converse With Those You Love?
other things? Observe that, in each case, the question builds ***
on the clause that immediately precedes it. Do You Converse With Those You Love?
After recording Jehovahs judgment against the king of
Babylon, the prophet Isaiah expressed strong conviction by OUR ability to communicate with loved ones is
adding: Jehovah of armies himself has counseled, and who decreasing dramatically, reports the Polish weekly Polityka.
can break it up? And his hand is the one stretched out, and In the United States, it is estimated that marriage mates spend
who can turn it back? (Isa. 14:27) By their very content, only six minutes a day conversing with each other in a
such questions indicate that the idea expressed cannot be meaningful way. Some authorities think that half of all
denied. No reply is expected. separations and divorces are the result of this decline.

To Expose Wrong Thinking. Questions that are carefully How about conversation between parents and children?
thought out are also powerful tools to expose wrong thinking. In most instances, it turns out to be, not a conversation, but
Before healing a man, Jesus asked the Pharisees and some an interrogation: How was school? How about your friends?
experts in the Law: Is it lawful on the sabbath to cure or observes the above report. How are our children to learn to
not? After performing the cure, he followed up with another develop emotional relationships? it asks.
question: Who of you, if his son or bull falls into a well, will
not immediately pull him out on the sabbath day? (Luke
56
Since good communication skills do not just happen, We show honor to others by listening to them. (Rom.
how can we improve our ability to converse? The Christian 12:10) It gives evidence that we value their thoughts and
disciple James gave us important advice: Every man must be feelings. It may even cause them to pay closer attention to
swift about hearing, slow about speaking, slow about wrath. what we have to say. With good reason, then, Gods Word
(James 1:19) Yes, to have an upbuilding conversation, we counsels us to be swift about hearing, slow about
need to listen attentively and not interrupt impatiently or speaking.Jas. 1:19.
jump to conclusions. Avoid criticism because it can easily
smother a conversation. Moreover, Jesus used tactful *** be study 13 p. 124-p. 125 Visual Contact ***
questions, not to interrogate, but to draw out what was in the
heart of his listener and to strengthen the bond between them. What do you need to do?
Proverbs 20:5; Matthew 16:13-17; 17:24-27.
Look at those to whom you are speaking,
Applying the fine principles found in the Bible, take the allowing your eyes to meet for a few
initiative to converse and communicate with those dear to seconds if that is acceptable locally. See
you. That may result in a warm relationship that will be individuals, not merely a group.
cherished for many yearseven a lifetime.
Why is it important?
In many cultures, eye contact is viewed as
Page 38 Unit 4 (b) an indication of interest in the person being
(Romans 12:10) In brotherly love have tender affection for addressed. It is also viewed as evidence that
one another. In showing honor to one another, take the lead. you speak with conviction.

*** be study 30 p. 187 pars. 1-5 Interest Shown in the OUR eyes communicate attitudes and emotions. They
Other Person *** may indicate surprise or fear. They may convey compassion
Listen Attentively. Although Jehovah is all-knowing, he or love. At times, they may betray doubt or give evidence of
listens to others. The prophet Micaiah received a vision in grief. Concerning his countrymen, who had suffered much,
which Jehovah was seen encouraging the angels to express an elderly man said: We speak with our eyes.
their ideas on the handling of a certain matter. God then Others may draw conclusions about us and about what
allowed one of the angels to carry out the suggestion the we say on the basis of where we focus our eyes. In many
angel had made. (1 Ki. 22:19-22) When Abraham expressed cultures, people tend to trust an individual who maintains
concern over the judgment that would be executed upon friendly eye contact with them. Conversely, they may doubt
Sodom, Jehovah graciously heard him out. (Gen. 18:23-33) the sincerity or competence of a person who looks at his feet
In our ministry, how can we imitate Jehovahs example of or at some object rather than at the one to whom he is talking.
listening? Some other cultures view any intensive eye contact as rude,
Encourage others to express themselves. Ask an aggressive, or challenging. This is especially the case when
appropriate question, and pause long enough for them to speaking with members of the opposite sex or to a chief or
reply. Really listen. Your thoughtful attention will encourage other titled person. And in some areas, if a younger person
them to speak freely. If their response reveals something were to make direct eye contact when speaking to an older
about their interests, tactfully inquire further. Without turning person, this would be viewed as disrespectful.
the conversation into a cross-examination, seek to get to However, where it is not offensive, looking an individual
know them better. Commend them for their thoughts if you in the eye when making an important statement can add
can do so sincerely. Even if you do not agree with their point emphasis to what is said. It may be viewed as evidence of
of view, be gracious in acknowledging their expressions. conviction on the part of the speaker. Notice how Jesus
Col. 4:6. responded when his disciples expressed great surprise and
We need to exercise caution, however, that our interest in said: Who really can be saved? The Bible reports:
people does not cross the line of propriety. Being concerned Looking them in the face, Jesus said to them: With men this
about others does not give us license to pry into their private is impossible, but with God all things are possible. (Matt.
affairs. (1 Pet. 4:15) We need to exercise care that a person of 19:25, 26) The Scriptures also show that the apostle Paul
the opposite sex does not misunderstand the kindly interest keenly observed the reactions of those in his audience. On
that we show. Since what is considered an appropriate degree one occasion a man lame from birth was present when Paul
of interest in others varies from land to land, even from spoke. Acts 14:9, 10 states: This man was listening to Paul
person to person, good judgment is needed.Luke 6:31. speak, who, on looking at him intently and seeing he had
faith to be made well, said with a loud voice: Stand up erect
Preparation is an aid to being a good listener. When our on your feet.
message is clear in our mind, it helps us to relax and to pay
attention to others in a natural way. This puts them at ease Suggestions for the Field Ministry. When you share in
and may make them more inclined to converse with us. the field ministry, be friendly and warm as you approach
people. Where appropriate, use thought-provoking questions
to start a conversation on something that may be of mutual

57
interest. As you do this, endeavor to establish eye contactor response and continuing with our prepared presentation, how
at least to look the person in the face in a respectful and much better it is to adapt and address their concerns.
kindly way. A warm smile on the face of one whose eyes
convey inner joy is very appealing. Such an expression may *** km 9/09 p. 1 par. 4 How Will You Answer? ***
tell the individual much about what sort of person you are 4
and help him to feel more relaxed as you converse. Should We Answer Every Question? If you do not
know the answer to a question, do not feel embarrassed to
Observing the expression in the persons eyes, where say: I dont know, but I can do research on your question
appropriate, may give you indications as to how to deal with and come back with the results of my research. Such
a situation. If the person is angry or if he is really not modesty and personal interest may move the householder to
interested, you may be able to see it. If he does not invite you to return. If you discern that a question comes from
understand you, you may realize that. If he is getting opposers who may be trying to start an argument, imitate
impatient, you will usually be able to tell. If he is keenly Jesus by limiting your response. (Luke 20:1-8) Similarly, if
interested, this too will be evident. The expression in his eyes someone with no genuine interest in the truth tries to engage
may alert you to the need to adjust your pace, to make added you in debate, politely discontinue the conversation and use
effort to involve him in the conversation, to terminate the your time searching for those who are sincere.Matt. 7:6.
discussion or, possibly, to follow through with a
demonstration of how to study the Bible. KM p 2/14 p. 1

Whether you are engaging in public witnessing or Improving Our skills in the ministry-Making a record
conducting a home Bible study, endeavor to maintain of the Interest
respectful eye contact with the one with whom you are
Pay constant attentions to yourself and to your
speaking. Do not stare at him, however, as that can be
teaching. (1 Tim 4:16) This inspired counsel from the
embarrassing. (2 Ki. 8:11) But in a natural, friendly manner,
apostle Paul to Timothy indicates that, whether we are new or
frequently look the other person in the face. In many lands,
experienced, we should endeavor to make progress. To help
this conveys a feeling of sincere interest. Of course, when
us do that, a new series entitled Improving Our Skills in the
you are reading from the Bible or some other publication,
Ministry will appear in Our Kingdom Ministry. Each article
your eyes will be focused on the printed page. But to
will discuss an important skill and provide some suggestions
emphasize a point, you may want to look directly at the
on how to develop it. During the month, all are encouraged
person, though doing so briefly. If you look up at intervals,
to give that skill special attention. After the month concludes,
this will also enable you to observe his reaction to what is
a Service Meeting part will give us an opportunity to
being read.
comment on how we benefited from concentrationg on that
If shyness makes visual contact difficult for you at first, skill. This month we are encouraged to work on making a
do not give up. With practice, appropriate visual contact will record of the interest.
become natural, and it may add to your effectiveness in
Why Important: to fulfill our commission, we must do
communicating with others.
more than preach. We must return to those who show interest
Be Adaptable When Presenting Bible Truths and teach them, watering the seeds of truth that we have
(1 Corinthians 9:19-22) For though I am free from all planted. (Matt 28:19,20; 1 Cor 3:6-9) This requires finding
people, I have made myself the slave to all, so that I may gain the person again, talking about his concerns, and building on
as many people as possible. 20 To the Jews I became as a Jew our previous conversation. Therefore, when we find interest,
in order to gain Jews; to those under law I became as under it is necessary to make a reocd of it.
law, though I myself am not under law, in order to gain those
under law. 21 To those without law I became as without law,
although I am not without law toward God but under law How to Do It:
toward Christ, in order to gain those without law. 22 To the
weak I became weak, in order to gain the weak. I have - Make sure that you have tools in your witnessing
become all things to people of all sorts, so that I might by all case for recording interest. Keep your records nest,
possible means save some. well-organized, and up-to-date. Make a record as
soon as you finish the call.
Page 39 - Write down information about the householder.
Unit 4 (b) What is his name and contact information, such as
his address, phone number, or e-mail address?
*** km 6/13 p. 1 par. 3 Are You Willing to Adapt? *** What did you observe about him and his family that
3
Your Presentation: What are the people in your area may be significant?
presently concerned about? The economy? Family? War? It is - Write down the details of your conversation. What
beneficial to be aware of the current problems and scriptures did you read? What did he say about his
circumstances common in our territory so that we can prepare beliefs? What Literature did you leave? Record
an appropriate presentation. (1 Cor. 9:20-23) When the time, the day of the week, and the date of the
householders express themselves, rather than giving a token visit.
58
- Write down what you plan to do next time. What (John 14:31) But for the world to know that I love the Father,
did you promise to discuss? When did you say you I am doing just as the Father has commanded me to do. Get
would return? up, let us go from here.
- Update your record each time you return. No harm
*** cf p. 76 Teaching . . . and Preaching the
is done if you write down more information than Good News ***
you need. Section 2
Teaching . . . and Preaching the Good News
Page 40 Unit 4 (b)

(Philippians 2:4) as you look out not only for your own
Carpenter. Miracle worker. Healer. Jesus was
interests, but also for the interests of others. all of these and more. Yet, people did not use such
terms when addressing him. They called him
Page 41 Unit 5 (a)
From House to houseOur Prinipal Way of Preaching Teacher. Indeed, his lifework was teaching . . . and
preaching the good news. (Matthew 4:23) As
OPENING DISCUSSION followers of Jesus, we have the same work to do.
In this section, we will study his example, which
(Matthew 10:11-14) Into whatever city or village you enter,
search out who in it is deserving, and stay there until you
shows us the way.
leave. 12 When you enter the house, greet the household. 13 If
the house is deserving, let the peace you wish it come upon it; *** cf chap. 8 pp. 77-81 For This I Was Sent Forth ***
but if it is not deserving, let the peace from you return upon Chapter 8
you. 14 Wherever anyone does not receive you or listen to For This I Was Sent Forth
your words, on going out of that house or that city, shake the
dust off your feet. THEY have been walking for hours. Jesus and his
(Luke 9:6) Then starting out, they went through the territory apostles are trekking northward, heading from Judea toward
from village to village, declaring the good news and Galilee. The shortest routea journey of about three days
performing cures everywhere. takes them through Samaria. As the sun nears its zenith, they
approach a small city named Sychar, where they stop for
*** bt chap. 5 p. 41 par. 16 We Must Obey God as refreshment.
Ruler *** 2
While his apostles go to buy food, Jesus rests by a well
16
The apostles wasted no time in resuming their outside the city. A woman approaches to draw water. Jesus
witnessing work. Undaunted, they continued every day in could choose to ignore her. He is tired out from the journey.
the temple and from house to house the work of declaring (John 4:6) It would be understandable if he just closed his
the good news about the Christ. (Acts 5:42) These zealous eyes and let this Samaritan woman come and go unnoticed.
preachers were determined to bear thorough witness. Notice As we saw in Chapter 4 of this book, the woman would likely
that they took their message to the homes of people, as Jesus expect any Jew to treat her with disdain. Yet, Jesus strikes up
Christ had directed them. (Matt. 10:7, 11-14) No doubt, that a conversation with her.
is how they had managed to fill Jerusalem with their 3
He opens with an illustration, one taken from the
teaching. Today, Jehovahs Witnesses are known for womans daily lifeindeed, from this very moment. She is
following that apostolic method of preaching. By calling at here to draw water; Jesus speaks of life-giving water that will
each house in our territory, we clearly demonstrate that we quench her spiritual thirst. Several times, she raises points
too want to be thorough, giving everyone an opportunity to that are potentially controversial. Jesus tactfully sidesteps
hear the good news. Has Jehovah blessed our house-to-house such issues and keeps the conversation on track. He focuses
ministry? Yes, he has! Millions have responded to the on spiritual matterspure worship and Jehovah God. His
Kingdom message in this time of the end, and many first words have far-reaching effects, for the woman relays them
heard the good news when a Witness knocked on their door. to the men of the city, and they too want to listen to Jesus.
John 4:3-42.
QUESTION OUTLINE
Jesus Attidtude Toward His Preaching 4
Upon their return, how do the apostles feel about the
Assignment remarkable witness that Jesus is giving here? There is no sign
of enthusiasm on their part. They are surprised that Jesus is
(Luke 4:43) But he said to them: I must also declare the even talking to this woman, and evidently they say nothing to
good news of the Kingdom of God to other cities, because for her. After she leaves, they keep urging Jesus to eat the food
this I was sent. they have brought. However, Jesus says to them: I have food
to eat of which you do not know. Puzzled, they take his
(John 4:34) Jesus said to them: My food is to do the will of
words literally at first. Then he explains: My food is for me
him who sent me and to finish his work.
to do the will of him that sent me and to finish his work.
(John 4:32, 34) Jesus thus teaches them that his main work in
59
life is more important to him than eating. He wants them to read the hearts of the people to whom they preach. However,
feel the same way about it. What is this work? we can take an interest in people, as Jesus did; we can let our
5
concern for them show; and we can tailor our words to meet
Jesus once said: I must declare the good news of the their particular interests, challenges, and needs.
kingdom of God, because for this I was sent forth. (Luke
4:43) Yes, Jesus was sent to preach and to teach the good *** cf chap. 8 pp. 84-86 For This I Was Sent Forth ***
news of Gods Kingdom. Jesus followers today have the
same work to do. It is vital, then, that we consider why Jesus Jesus Attitude Toward His Ministry
preached, what he preached, and what his attitude toward his 16
assignment was. Jesus felt that his ministry was a precious treasure. He
delighted in helping people to see his heavenly Father as He
Why Jesus Preached truly is, unobscured by confusing man-made doctrines and
6
traditions. Jesus loved helping people gain an approved
Let us consider how Jesus felt about the truths he relationship with Jehovah and the hope of everlasting life. He
taught; then we will discuss his attitude toward the people he delighted in bringing people the comfort and joy of the good
taught. Jesus used a vivid illustration to show how he felt news. How did he show that he had such feelings? Consider
about sharing with others the truths Jehovah had taught him. three ways.
He said: Every public instructor, when taught respecting the
17
kingdom of the heavens, is like a man, a householder, who First, Jesus made the ministry the primary focus of his
brings out of his treasure store things new and old. (Matthew life. Talking about the Kingdom was his career, his lifework,
13:52) Why does the householder in this illustration bring his central interest. That is why, as we noted in Chapter 5,
things out of his treasure store? Jesus wisely kept his life simple. As he counseled others, he
7
kept his eye focused on what mattered most. He was not
The householder is not simply showing off his distracted by a lot of things that he would have to pay for,
possessions, the way King Hezekiah of old once didwith maintain, and repair or replace as time went on. He lived
painful consequences. (2 Kings 20:13-20) What does simply so that nothing would needlessly pull him away from
motivate the householder? Consider an illustration: You visit his ministry.Matthew 6:22; 8:20.
a favorite teacher in his home. He opens a desk drawer and
18
pulls out a couple of lettersone of them yellowed with age, Second, Jesus expended himself in his ministry. He
the other newer. They are letters that he received from his devoted immense energy to it, walking literally hundreds of
fatherone of them decades ago when the teacher was but a miles throughout Palestine, seeking out people with whom he
boy, the other in recent times. His eyes gleam with pleasure might share the good news. He spoke to them in their homes,
as he tells you how much he values these letters and how the in public squares, in marketplaces, and out in the open. He
advice they contain has changed his life and could help you. spoke to them even when he was in need of rest, food, water,
The letters are clearly treasured by the teacher, holding a or a little quiet time with his closest friends. Even as he was
cherished place in his heart. (Luke 6:45) He shares them with dying, he continued to share with others the good news of
you, not to boast or to profit in some way, but to benefit you Gods Kingdom!Luke 23:39-43.
and to convey to you a sense of their worth. 19
Third, Jesus treated the ministry as something urgent.
8
The Great Teacher, Jesus, had similar motives in Remember his conversation with the Samaritan woman at the
sharing Gods truths with others. To him, those truths were well outside of Sychar. Jesus apostles apparently did not see
treasures beyond price. He loved them, and he was eager to in that situation an urgent need to share the good news with
share them. He wanted all his followers, every public others. Jesus said to them: Do you not say that there are yet
instructor, to feel that way. Do we? We have ample reason to four months before the harvest comes? Look! I say to you:
love every truth we learn from Gods Word. We treasure gems Lift up your eyes and view the fields, that they are white for
of truth whether they are long-cherished beliefs or recent harvesting.John 4:35.
refinements. By speaking with heartfelt enthusiasm and 20
maintaining our love for what Jehovah has taught us, we Jesus drew that illustration from the season at hand. It
convey that love, as Jesus did. was evidently the month of Chislev (November/December).
The barley harvest would not come for another four months,
9
Jesus also loved the people he taught, as we will discuss about the time of Passover, on Nisan 14. So farmers did not
more fully in Section 3. Prophecy foretold that the Messiah feel any urgency about the harvest just then. It was still a long
would feel sorry for the lowly one and the poor one. (Psalm way off. But what about the harvest of people? Ah, many
72:13) Indeed, Jesus cared about people. He cared about the were ready to hear, to learn, to become Christs disciples and
thoughts and attitudes that drove them; he was concerned gain the marvelous hope that Jehovah held out to them. It was
about the burdens that weighed them down and the obstacles as if Jesus could look out over those figurative fields and see
that hindered them from grasping the truth. (Matthew 11:28; that they were white with all the ripe grain swaying gently in
16:13; 23:13, 15) Recall the Samaritan woman, for example. the breeze, signaling their readiness to be harvested. The time
No doubt she was greatly impressed that Jesus took an was at hand, and the work was urgent! Consequently, when
interest in her. His insight into her personal situation moved people of one city tried to keep Jesus with them, he replied:
her to accept him as a prophet and to tell others about him. Also to other cities I must declare the good news of the
(John 4:16-19, 39) Granted, Jesus followers today cannot

60
kingdom of God, because for this I was sent forth.Luke of Christ, including us today. Let us take a closer look at
4:43. Jesus words recorded at Matthew 28:18-20.
21 15
In all three ways just discussed, we can imitate Jesus. Before giving the commission, Jesus says: All
We can make the Christian ministry the primary focus of our authority has been given me in heaven and on the earth.
life. Even though we may have family and secular (Verse 18) Does Jesus really have such vast authority? Yes,
obligations, we can show that our ministry comes first by indeed! He is the archangel, commanding myriads of myriads
having a zealous, regular share in it, as Jesus did. (Matthew of angels. (1 Thessalonians 4:16; Revelation 12:7) As head
6:33; 1 Timothy 5:8) We can expend ourselves in the of the congregation, he has authority over his followers on
ministry, giving generously of our time, energy, and resources earth. (Ephesians 5:23) Since 1914, he has been ruling as
to support it. (Luke 13:24) And we can keep ever in mind that Messianic King in heaven. (Revelation 11:15) His authority
our work is urgent. (2 Timothy 4:2) We need to seize every reaches even into the grave, for he has the power to resurrect
opportunity to preach! the dead. (John 5:26-28) By first declaring his extensive
22
authority, Jesus indicates that the words that follow are not a
Jesus also showed that he saw the importance of the suggestion but a command. We are wise to obey, for his
work by ensuring that it would continue after his death. He authority is not self-assumed but divinely bestowed.
commissioned his followers to carry on the preaching and 1 Corinthians 15:27.
teaching work. That commission will be the subject of the
16
following chapter. Jesus now outlines the commission, which begins with
a single word: Go. (Verse 19) He thus calls upon us to take
Page 42 Unit 5 (a) the initiative to reach others with the Kingdom message. In
fulfilling this aspect of the commission, there is room for a
(John 18:36, 37) Jesus answered: My Kingdom is no part of variety of methods. Preaching from house to house is a most
this world. If my Kingdom were part of this world, my effective way to make personal contact with people. (Acts
attendants would have fought that I should not be handed 20:20) We also look for opportunities to witness informally;
over to the Jews. But as it is, my Kingdom is not from this we are eager to initiate a conversation about the good news
source. 37 So Pilate said to him: Well, then, are you a king? wherever appropriate in the course of our daily life. Our
Jesus answered: You yourself are saying that I am a king. specific methods of preaching may vary, being adapted to
For this I have been born, and for this I have come into the local needs and circumstances. One thing, though, remains
world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone who the same: We go and search for deserving ones.Matthew
is on the side of the truth listens to my voice. 10:11.
17
*** w13 5/15 p. 9 par. 4 Are You Zealous for Fine Jesus next explains the objective of the commission,
Works? *** namely, to make disciples of people of all the nations.
(Verse 19) How do we make disciples? Basically, a disciple
4
Consider, too, Jesus zeal. He set a perfect example of is a learner, a taught one. Making disciples, however, is not
zealous perseverance in the ministry. Despite bitter merely a matter of imparting knowledge to others. When we
opposition, he maintained his zeal for the preaching work study the Bible with interested ones, our goal is to help them
right to the painful end of his earthly life. (John 18:36, 37) As to become followers of Christ. Whenever possible, we
the time for his sacrificial death drew near, Jesus highlight Jesus example so that our students learn to look to
determination to help others come to know Jehovah him as their Teacher and Model, living the way he lived and
intensified. doing the work he did.John 13:15.
18
(Matthew 28:18-20) Jesus approached and spoke to A vital part of the commission is expressed in the
them, saying: All authority has been given me in heaven and words: Baptizing them in the name of the Father and of the
on the earth. 19 Go, therefore, and make disciples of people of Son and of the holy spirit. (Verse 19) Baptism is the most
all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and important milestone in a disciples life, for it is a fitting
of the Son and of the holy spirit, 20 teaching them to observe symbol of his wholehearted dedication to God. Thus, it is
all the things I have commanded you. And look! I am with essential for salvation. (1 Peter 3:21) Yes, by continuing to do
you all the days until the conclusion of the system of things. his best in serving Jehovah, the baptized disciple can look
forward to endless blessings in the new world to come. Have
*** cf chap. 9 pp. 94-97 Go . . . and Make Disciples *** you helped someone to become a baptized disciple of Christ?
In the Christian ministry, there is no greater cause for joy.
A Commission That Involves Us 3 John 4.
14
With the words Go . . . and make disciples, the 19
Jesus explains the next part of the commission, saying:
resurrected Jesus placed a heavy responsibility upon his Teaching them to observe all the things I have commanded
followers. He had in mind more than just the disciples who you. (Verse 20) We teach new ones to heed Jesus
were present that spring day on the mountain in Galilee. The commands, including the commands to love God, to love
work he commissioned involves reaching people of all the neighbor, and to be disciple makers. (Matthew 22:37-39) We
nations, and it continues until the conclusion of the system progressively teach them to explain Bible truths and defend
of things. Clearly, this commission applies to all followers their growing faith. When they qualify to participate in the
61
public preaching activity, we work along with them, teaching Jesus Christ had a profound effect on others. Even a brief
them by word and example how to have a meaningful share encounter with him could be very refreshing. For example,
in this work. The teaching of new disciples is not necessarily the Gospel writer Mark relates: [Jesus] took the children into
finished prior to their baptism. Newly baptized ones may his arms and began blessing them, laying his hands upon
need additional instruction to help them meet the challenges them. (Mark 10:16) How refreshing that must have been for
involved in following Christ.Luke 9:23, 24. those young ones!
On his last night on earth as a human, Jesus washed the
feet of his disciples. His humility must have touched their
Jesus Expressed His Love and Compassion hearts. Jesus then told them: I set the pattern for you, that,
Through His Preaching just as I did to you, you should do also. (John 13:1-17) Yes,
they too needed to be humble. Although the apostles did not
(Matthew 9:36) On seeing the crowds, he felt pity for them, immediately grasp the point and later that night began
because they were skinned and thrown about like sheep arguing about which one of them seemed to be the greatest,
without a shepherd. Jesus did not become provoked. Instead, he patiently
reasoned with them. (Luke 22:24-27) Even when he was
being reviled, [Jesus] did not go reviling in return. In fact,
(Luke 5:29-32) Then Levi spread a big reception feast for
when he was suffering, he did not go threatening, but kept
him in his house, and there was a large crowd of tax
on committing himself to the one who judges righteously.
collectors and others who were dining with them. 30 At this
Jesus refreshing example is worthy of imitation.1 Peter
the Pharisees and their scribes began murmuring to his
2:21, 23.
disciples, saying: Why do you eat and drink with tax
collectors and sinners? 31 In reply Jesus said to them: Those Jesus said: Take my yoke upon you and learn from me,
who are healthy do not need a physician, but those who are ill for I am mild-tempered and lowly in heart, and you will find
do. 32 I have come to call, not righteous people, but sinners to refreshment for your souls. (Matthew 11:29) Imagine being
repentance. instructed by Jesus firsthand. After hearing him teach in their
(John 1:47) Jesus saw Nathanael coming toward him and synagogue, those in his home territory were astounded and
said about him: See, truly an Israelite in whom there is no said: Where did this man get this wisdom and these
deceit. powerful works? (Matthew 13:54) Reading about Jesus life
(Isaiah 63:9) During all their distress it was distressing to and ministry can teach us much about being refreshing to
him. And his own personal messenger saved them. In his love others. Let us consider how Jesus set an outstanding example
and compassion he repurchased them, And he lifted them up through positive speech and by having a helpful attitude.
and carried them all the days of old. Maintaining Positive Speech
(Jonah 4:11) Should I not also feel sorry for Nineveh the
great city, in which there are more than 120,000 men who do It is much easier to destroy a building than to put up a
not even know right from wrong, as well as their many new one. That same principle of tearing down and building
animals? up applies to our speech. As imperfect humans, all of us have
faults and shortcomings. King Solomon said: There is no
man righteous in the earth that keeps doing good and does not
*** w07 11/15 pp. 15-17 Are You Refreshing to Others? sin. (Ecclesiastes 7:20) It does not take much to identify
*** another persons faults and tear him down with cutting
Are You Refreshing to Others? remarks. (Psalm 64:2-4) On the other hand, keeping our
speech positive requires skill.
AT THE southern end of the Anti-Lebanon Mountain
range stands Mount Hermon, with its majestic summit rising Jesus used his tongue to build people up. He offered
9,232 feet [2,814 m] above sea level. For most of the year, them spiritual refreshment by proclaiming the good news of
Hermons peak is snowcapped, and this causes the warm the Kingdom to them. (Luke 8:1) Jesus also refreshed those
night vapors passing over it to condense and produce dew. who became his disciples by revealing his heavenly Father to
The dew descends on the fir and fruit trees on the lower them. (Matthew 11:25-27) No wonder people were drawn to
slopes and on the vineyards down below. During ancient Jesus!
Israels long dry season, such refreshing dew was the In contrast, the scribes and Pharisees did not consider the
principal source of moisture for vegetation. needs of others. They like the most prominent place at
In a divinely inspired song, the refreshing unity among evening meals and the front seats in the synagogues, said
Jehovahs worshippers is likened to the dew of Hermon that Jesus. (Matthew 23:6) In fact, they looked down on the
is descending upon the mountains of Zion. (Psalm 133:1, 3) common people, saying: This crowd that does not know the
Just as Mount Hermon supplies refreshing dew to the Law are accursed people. (John 7:49) There certainly was
vegetation, we can spread refreshment to those whom we nothing refreshing about that attitude!
meet. How can we do so? Our speech is often a reflection of what we are inside and
Jesus Refreshing Example how we view others. Jesus said: A good man brings forth
good out of the good treasure of his heart, but a wicked man
62
brings forth what is wicked out of his wicked treasure; for out encouragement. We might also make a mental note of those
of the hearts abundance his mouth speaks. (Luke 6:45) who are missing from the Congregation Book Study we
What, then, can we do to make sure that our speech is attend. Perhaps we can reach them by telephone and express
refreshing to others? our interest in their welfare or offer assistance.Philippians
2:4.
For one thing, we can pause and think before we speak.
Proverbs 15:28 states: The heart of the righteous one Christian elders carry a heavy load of responsibility in
meditates so as to answer. Such meditation need not be a the congregation. We can do much to help lighten their load
long-drawn-out process. With a little forethought, we can by being cooperative and by humbly following through on
usually determine how our comments will be received. We any assignment that we may receive. Gods Word urges us:
could ask ourselves: Is what I am about to say loving? Is it Be obedient to those who are taking the lead among you and
truthful, or is it simply hearsay? Is it a word at its right be submissive, for they are keeping watch over your souls as
time? Will it refresh and upbuild those with whom I share those who will render an account; that they may do this with
it? (Proverbs 15:23) If we conclude that the thought is joy and not with sighing, for this would be damaging to you.
negative or untimely, let us make a conscientious effort to (Hebrews 13:17) By displaying a willing spirit, we can
dismiss it. Better yet, why not try to replace it with something refresh those who preside in a fine way.1 Timothy 5:17.
more positive and appropriate? Thoughtless words are like
the stabs of a sword, while positive comments are a Abound in Positive Speech and Helpful Deeds
healing.Proverbs 12:18. Refreshing dew results from thousands of tiny water
Another help is to focus on what makes our fellow droplets that gently descend, seemingly out of nowhere.
believers precious in Gods eyes. Jesus said: No man can Likewise, bringing refreshment to others is not as likely to
come to me unless the Father, who sent me, draws him. result from just one noble act as it is from the cumulative
(John 6:44) Jehovah sees positive qualities in each of his effects of our displaying Christlike qualities at all times.
faithful servantseven those who we may feel have a In brotherly love have tender affection for one another,
challenging personality. By putting forth effort to identify wrote the apostle Paul. In showing honor to one another take
their good qualities, we will have reason to speak positively the lead. (Romans 12:10) Let us apply Pauls counsel. By
about them. our speech and actions, may we really be refreshing to others
Help Others
Jesus fully understood the plight of the oppressed. (Psalm 72:13) He will have pity on the lowly and the poor,
Indeed, on seeing the crowds he felt pity for them, because And the lives of the poor he will save.
they were skinned and thrown about like sheep without a (Matthew 11:28) Come to me, all you who are toiling and
shepherd. (Matthew 9:36) But Jesus went beyond seeing loaded down, and I will refresh you.
their pitiable condition; he did something about it. He (Matthew 16:13) When he had come into the region of
extended the invitation: Come to me, all you who are toiling Caesarea Philippi, Jesus asked his disciples: Who are
and loaded down, and I will refresh you. He also gave this men saying the Son of man is?
assurance: My yoke is kindly and my load is light.
Matthew 11:28, 30. (Matthew 23:13) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees,
hypocrites! because you shut up the Kingdom of the heavens
Today, we live in critical times hard to deal with. before men; for you yourselves do not go in, neither do you
(2 Timothy 3:1) Many people feel weighed down by the permit those on their way in to go in.
anxiety of this system of things. (Matthew 13:22) Others (Matthew 23:15) Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees,
have the burden of distressing personal circumstances. hypocrites! because you travel over sea and dry land to make
(1 Thessalonians 5:14) How can we supply refreshment to one proselyte, and when he becomes one, you make him a
those in need? Like Christ, we can help to lighten their load. subject for Gehenna twice as much so as yourselves.
Some people seek to unburden themselves by talking Boldness in the house-toHouse Work
about their problems. If downhearted individuals come to us (Acts 4:31) And when they had made supplication, the place
for help, do we take the time to listen carefully? Being an where they were gathered together was shaken, and they were
empathetic listener requires self-discipline. It involves one and all filled with the holy spirit and were speaking the
staying focused on what the other person is saying, rather word of God with boldness.
than thinking about how to respond or how to fix the (1 Thessalonians 2:2) For although we had first suffered and
problem. By listening closely, maintaining eye contact, and been insolently treated in Philippi, as you know, we
smiling when doing so is appropriate, we show that we care. mustered up boldness by means of our God to tell you the
In the Christian congregation, there are many good news of God in the face of much opposition.
opportunities to encourage fellow believers. For instance,
when attending meetings at the Kingdom Hall, we can seek *** bt chap. 4 pp. 32-35 pars. 13-17 Men Unlettered and
out those who are struggling with health problems. Ordinary ***
Sometimes all it takes to build them up is a few minutes
before or after the meeting to offer them words of
63
13
Immediately after being released from custody, Peter (Proverbs 27:11) Be wise, my son, and make my heart
and John met with the rest of the congregation. Together, rejoice, So that I can make a reply to him who taunts me.
they . . . raised their voices to God and prayed for courage (Acts 20:26, 27) So I call you to witness this very day that I
to keep preaching. (Acts 4:24) Peter knew only too well the am clean from the blood of all men, 27 for I have not held
folly of trusting in personal power when attempting to do back from telling you all the counsel of God.
Gods will. Just weeks earlier, he had self-confidently told
(2 Thessalonians 1:8, 9) in a flaming fire, as he brings
Jesus: Although all the others are stumbled in connection
vengeance on those who do not know God and those who do
with you, never will I be stumbled! Yet, as Jesus foretold,
not obey the good news about our Lord Jesus. 9 These very
Peter quickly succumbed to fear of man and denied his friend
ones will undergo the judicial punishment of everlasting
and teacher. However, Peter learned from his mistake.Matt.
destruction from before the Lord and from the glory of his
26:33, 34, 69-75.
strength,
14
Determination alone will not sustain you as you fulfill (2 Peter 3:11-14) Since all these things are to be dissolved in
your commission to be a witness of Christ. When opposers this way, consider what sort of people you ought to be in holy
try to break your faith or attempt to stop you from preaching, acts of conduct and deeds of godly devotion, 12 as you await
follow the example of Peter and John. Pray to Jehovah for and keep close in mind the presence of the day of Jehovah,
strength. Seek the support of the congregation. Tell the elders through which the heavens will be destroyed in flames and
and other mature ones of the difficulties you face. The the elements will melt in the intense heat! 13 But there are
prayers of others can be a powerful sustaining force.Eph. new heavens and a new earth that we are awaiting according
6:18; Jas. 5:16. to his promise, and in these righteousness is to dwell.
14
15 Therefore, beloved ones, since you are awaiting these
If you once succumbed to pressure and stopped
things, do your utmost to be found finally by him spotless and
preaching for a time, take heart. Remember, all the apostles
unblemished and in peace.
stopped preaching for a while after Jesus death but soon
were active again. (Matt. 26:56; 28:10, 16-20) Rather than (Luke 11:13) Therefore, if you, although being wicked, know
letting past mistakes weigh you down, can you draw on the how to give good gifts to your children, how much more so
experience and use the lessons you learned to strengthen will the Father in heaven give holy spirit to those asking
others? him!
16 (1 Thessalonians 5:17) Pray constantly.
What should we pray for when those in authority
oppress us? Notice, please, that the disciples did not ask that
they be spared from facing trials. They well remembered *** w08 7/15 p. 8 pars. 4-5 Meeting the Challenges of the
Jesus statement: If they have persecuted me, they will House-to-House Ministry ***
persecute you also. (John 15:20) Instead, these loyal 4
You no doubt recognize that the global preaching work
disciples asked Jehovah to give attention to the threats of is being accomplished, not by human power or wisdom, but
the opposers. (Acts 4:29) The disciples clearly saw the big by Gods spirit. (Zech. 4:6) That is also true of the ministry of
picture, recognizing that the persecution they faced was individual Christians. (2 Cor. 4:7) Consider the apostle Paul.
actually a fulfillment of prophecy. They knew that, as Jesus Recalling a time when he and his missionary companion were
had taught them to pray, Gods will would be done on earth, mistreated by opposers, he wrote: After we had first suffered
no matter what mere human rulers may say.Matt. 6:9, 10. and been insolently treated . . . in Philippi, we mustered up
17
In order to do Gods will, the disciples prayed to boldness by means of our God to speak to you the good news
Jehovah: Grant your slaves to keep speaking your word with of God with a great deal of struggling. (1 Thess. 2:2; Acts
all boldness. What was Jehovahs immediate response? The 16:22-24) We may find it hard to imagine that a zealous
place in which they were gathered together was shaken; and preacher like Paul had times when it was a struggle for him to
they were one and all filled with the holy spirit and were preach. Yet, like all of us, Paul had to lean on Jehovah in
speaking the word of God with boldness. (Acts 4:29-31) order to speak the good news with boldness. (Read Ephesians
Nothing can stop Gods will from being accomplished. (Isa. 6:18-20.) How can we imitate Pauls example?
55:11) No matter how great the odds, no matter how powerful 5
One way we muster up boldness to preach is through
the opponent, if we raise our voice to God in prayer, we can prayer. A pioneer said: I pray that I can speak with
be sure that He will grant us the strength to keep on speaking confidence, pray that I can reach the hearts of people, and
His word with boldness pray that I can find joy in the ministry. After all, this is
(Romans 12:18) If possible, as far as it depends on you, be Jehovahs work, not our own, so we can do nothing without
peaceable with all men. his help. (1 Thess. 5:17) All of us need to pray continually
(Colossians 4:6) Let your words always be gracious, for the help of Gods holy spirit to preach with boldness.
seasoned with salt, so that you will know how you should Luke 11:9-13.
answer each person.
The joys of house-toHouse Preaching
Page 43
Unit 5 (a) *** km 9/06 p. 8 Witnessing From House to House ***
Witnessing From House to House
64
1
Those experienced in the various ways of spreading ascending smoke was a restful odor that pleased Jehovah.
the Truth will agree that the house to house canvass with (Ex. 29:18) Today, we are urged to offer to God a sacrifice
MILLENNIAL DAWN is, in the present time, by far the most of praise, that is, the fruit of lips which make public
effective way of preaching the Truth. That statement from declaration to his name. (Heb. 13:15) Instead of using
the July 1, 1893, issue of Zions Watch Tower highlighted the sacrifices prescribed by the Law, we worship Jehovah by
value of the house-to-house ministry. People earth wide have recounting his praises without letup.Isa. 43:21; Acts 5:42.
come to view it as a trademark of Jehovahs Witnesses. Is this 2
method still of value, since it is increasingly difficult to find Jesus Christ, the greatest Witness ever to walk this
people at home in some lands? earth, taught us how we must carry on pure worship by
offering sacrifices of praise. He taught his disciples that there
2
Scriptural and Important: House-to-house witnessing was an urgency to the message they preached. He knew that
has a Scriptural basis. Jesus instructed 70 disciples to go by the most effective way to reach people with the good news
twos to the houses of the people. (Luke 10:5-7) Shortly after was to talk to them personally in their homes. (Matt. 10:7, 12)
Jesus death, the Bible says of his disciples: Every day in the So we find that the apostles followed his divinely inspired
temple and from house to house they continued without letup direction to preach from house to house.Acts 20:20.
teaching and declaring the good news. (Acts 5:42) The 3
apostle Paul also zealously taught from house to house. It is no different today. As Jesus disciples, true
Acts 20:20. Christians follow his example by preaching the good news
from house to house. Though we may be criticized and
3
Witnessing from house to house continues to be an persecuted for that, millions have learned the truth and
important method of spreading the good news today. It hundreds of thousands of new disciples are joining the ranks
enables us to search out deserving ones in a systematic and of the great crowd each year, giving evidence that this is
orderly way. (Matt. 10:11) People are generally more relaxed Jehovahs way of accomplishing his will. That is why we
at home. Speaking with them face-to-facehearing their persevere in our ministry.
voice, seeing their facial expressions, and observing their 4
surroundingsallows us to discern their interests and Benefits of Preaching From House to House: God is
concerns. It usually gives us the best opportunity to engage in not partial . . . The man that fears him and works
extended conversation. righteousness is acceptable to him. (Acts 10:34, 35) Going
directly to each house in our territory clearly demonstrates
4
Make Personal Adjustments: The apostle Paul was impartiality, giving everyone opportunity to hear the
willing to make personal adjustments for the sake of the Kingdom message regularly. In turn receptive ones receive
good news. (1 Cor. 9:23) Perhaps we can adjust our schedule personalized assistance according to their individual needs.
to preach when more people are likely to be at home, such as 5
later in the day, on weekends, or on holidays. Keep a record Almost all publishers, including younger ones, the
of not-at-homes, and try again on a different day of the week elderly, and even those who are new, can participate in the
or at a different time of the day. house-to-house work. In this way each one can make public
declaration for salvation. (Rom. 10:10) Participation with
5
Even those with health limitations may be able to share others in the house-to-house ministry draws us together in the
in preaching from house to house. Perhaps we can make it a bonds of love and unity. At the same time, we are given an
point to take such ones with us to homes that are easily opportunity to display our endurance when we encounter
accessible, allowing them to work at a comfortable pace. One indifference or opposition. This public display of faith makes
sisters shortness of breath allowed her to call at only one us a theatrical spectacle, which helps sincere ones to realize
house every half hour. Yet, how happy and satisfied she felt that we have an organized arrangement for teaching the Bible
after being included in the group! and that they can benefit from it. (1 Cor. 4:9) Everything
6
clearly shows that Jehovah is blessing the house-to-house
Many sheeplike ones continue to be found in the door- work and using it to gather the great crowd to his house of
to-door work. One publisher knocked on a door and was told: pure worship.Isa. 2:2-4.
Come in. I know who you are. I have been praying for God
6
to send someone to help me, and then I heard the knock at the Now more than at any other time in history, people need
door. He heard me and sent you. The results give evidence to hear the Kingdom message. Let us keep on preaching from
that Jehovah is blessing this method of preaching. (Matt. house to house without letup until Jehovah says it is enough.
11:19) Be determined to make house-to-house witnessing a (Isa. 6:11) Doing so, we will be rewarded with the joy that
regular feature of your ministry. comes from sharing in the important and beneficial house-to-
(Luke 10:17) Then the 70 returned with joy, saying: Lord, house ministry in this time of the end.1 Cor. 15:58.
even the demons are made subject to us by the use of your (Matthew 6:21) For where your treasure is, there your heart
name. will be also.
(Matthew 9:36) On seeing the crowds, he felt pity for them,
*** km 7/94 p. 1 House to House Without Letup *** because they were skinned and thrown about like sheep
House to House Without Letup without a shepherd.
1
In ancient Israel, sacrifices were offered daily. (Ex.
29:38-42) The fire of the altar was kept burning; the
65
(Galatians 5:22, 23) On the other hand, the fruitage of the 19 He then entered Jericho and was passing through. 2 Now
spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faith, a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a chief tax
23
mildness, self-control. Against such things there is no law. collector, and he was rich. 3 Well, he was trying to see who
(2 Timothy 2:15) Do your utmost to present yourself this Jesus was, but he could not see because of the crowd,
approved to God, a workman with nothing to be ashamed of, since he was short. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed a sycamore
handling the word of the truth aright. tree in order to see him, for he was about to pass that way.
5
Now when Jesus got to the place, he looked up and said to
(Hebrews 6:9-11) But in your case, beloved ones, we are
him: Zacchaeus, hurry and get down, for today I must stay
convinced of better things, things related to salvation, even
in your house. 6 With that he hurried down and joyfully
though we are speaking in this way. 10 For God is not
welcomed him as a guest. 7 When they saw this, they were all
unrighteous so as to forget your work and the love you
muttering: He went as a guest to the house of a man who is a
showed for his name by ministering and continuing to
sinner. 8 But Zacchaeus stood up and said to the Lord:
minister to the holy ones. 11 But we desire each one of you to
Look! The half of my belongings, Lord, I am giving to the
show the same industriousness so as to have the full
poor, and whatever I extorted from anyone, I am restoring
assurance of the hope down to the end,
four times over. 9 At this Jesus said to him: Today salvation
(1 Peter 3:13-15) Indeed, who will harm you if you become has come to this house, because he too is a son of Abraham.
zealous for what is good? 14 But even if you should suffer for 10
For the Son of man came to seek and to save what was
the sake of righteousness, you are happy. However, do not lost.
fear what they fear, nor be disturbed. 15 But sanctify the
(Matthew 10:22) And you will be hated by all people on
Christ as Lord in your hearts, always ready to make a defense
account of my name, but the one who has endured to the end
before everyone who demands of you a reason for the hope
will be saved.
you have, but doing so with a mild temper and deep respect.

Page 45 Unit 5 (b)


Page 44 Unit 5 (a)
Imitate Jesus in Your Ministry Workshop 1
(Matthew 9:35-38) And Jesus set out on a tour of all the
cities and villages, teaching in their synagogues and From House to House-Our Principal Way of Preaching
preaching the good news of the Kingdom and curing every
sort of disease and every sort of infirmity. 36 On seeing the OPENING DISCUSSION
crowds, he felt pity for them, because they were skinned and
thrown about like sheep without a shepherd. 37 Then he said (Luke 10:1-12) After these things the Lord designated 70
to his disciples: Yes, the harvest is great, but the workers are others and sent them out by twos ahead of him into every city
few. 38 Therefore, beg the Master of the harvest to send out and place where he himself was to go. 2 Then he said to them:
workers into his harvest. Yes, the harvest is great, but the workers are few. Therefore,
(Mark 1:35-39) Early in the morning, while it was still dark, beg the Master of the harvest to send out workers into his
he got up and went outside and left for an isolated place, and harvest. 3 Go! Look! I am sending you out as lambs in among
there he began praying. 36 However, Simon and those with wolves. 4 Do not carry a money bag or a food pouch or
him hunted him down 37 and found him, and they said to him: sandals, and do not greet anyone along the road. 5 Wherever
Everyone is looking for you. 38 But he said to them: Let us you enter into a house, say first: May this house have peace.
6
go somewhere else, into the towns nearby, so that I may And if a friend of peace is there, your peace will rest upon
preach there also, for this is why I have come. 39 And he him. But if there is not, it will return to you. 7 So stay in that
went, preaching in their synagogues throughout the whole of house, eating and drinking the things they provide, for the
Galilee and expelling the demons. worker is worthy of his wages. Do not keep transferring from
(Luke 18:35-19:10) Now as Jesus was getting near to Jer house to house. 8 Also, wherever you enter into a city and
icho, a blind man was sitting beside the road begging. they receive you, eat what is set before you 9 and cure the
36
Because he heard a crowd passing by, he began to inquire sick ones in it and tell them: The Kingdom of God has come
what was going on. 37 They reported to him: Jesus the near to you. 10 But wherever you enter into a city and they do
Nazarene is passing by! 38 At that he cried out: Jesus, Son not receive you, go out into its main streets and say: 11 We
of David, have mercy on me! 39 And those who were in front wipe off against you even the dust that sticks to our feet from
began rebuking him, telling him to keep quiet, but all the your city. Nevertheless, know this, that the Kingdom of God
more he kept shouting: Son of David, have mercy on me! has come near. 12 I tell you that it will be more endurable for
40
Then Jesus stopped and commanded that the man be Sodom in that day than for that city.
brought to him. After he came near, Jesus asked him: (Acts 5:42) And every day in the temple and from house to
41
What do you want me to do for you? He said: Lord, let house they continued without letup teaching and declaring the
me recover my sight. 42 So Jesus said to him: Recover your good news about the Christ, Jesus.
sight; your faith has made you well. 43 And instantly he (Acts 20:20) while I did not hold back from telling you any
recovered his sight, and he began to follow him, glorifying of the things that were profitable nor from teaching you
God. Also, at seeing it, all the people gave praise to God. publicly and from house to house.

66
Page 46 Unit 5 (b) May Jehovah reward the way you act, and
may there come to be a perfect wage for you
*** km 2/09 p. 2 Do All Things for the Sake of the Good from Jehovah.RUTH 2:12.
News ***
Do All Things for the Sake of the Good News FEAR of God impelled two women to defy a Pharaoh.
Faith moved a prostitute to risk her life so as to protect two
1
The apostle Paul felt a personal obligation to declare the Israelite spies. Sensibleness and humility in a crisis helped a
good news to others. (1 Cor. 9:16, 19, 23) Similarly, our woman to save many lives and to prevent the anointed of
concern for the eternal welfare of people motivates us to go Jehovah from incurring bloodguilt. Faith in Jehovah God
out of our way to share the good news with them. along with a spirit of hospitality moved a widow and mother
to give the last of her food to a prophet of God. These are just
2
Preach Where and When People Can Be Found: A some of the many Scriptural examples of women who made
good fisherman casts his line or net, not where and when it is Jehovahs heart rejoice.
convenient for him, but where and when the fish are most 2
likely to be found. We too, as fishers of men, may need to Jehovahs attitude toward such women and the
make some personal adjustments in order to find people in blessings he bestowed upon them demonstrate that what
our territory and thereby enjoy more fully the privilege of pleases him above all else are spiritual qualities, which
gathering up fish of every kind. (Matt. 4:19; 13:47) Can we transcend gender. In todays world, obsessed as it is with the
use early evening hours to contact people at their homes or physical, giving priority to ones spirituality is a challenge.
the early morning hours to do street witnessing? Pauls goal But that challenge can be met, as is demonstrated by millions
was to bear thorough witness to the good news, and he took of God-fearing women who form a large part of Gods people
advantage of appropriate opportunities to do so.Acts 17:17; today. Such Christian women imitate the faith, discretion,
20:20, 24. hospitality, and other fine qualities demonstrated by God-
fearing women mentioned in the Bible. Of course, Christian
3
Adapt Your Presentation to Meet the Need: men too want to imitate the qualities shown by such
Fishermen frequently adjust their methods in order to catch a exemplary women of ancient times. To see how we may do
particular type of fish. How can we present the Kingdom so to a fuller degree, let us consider in more detail the Bible
good news in an appealing manner to people in our territory? accounts about the women mentioned at the outset.Romans
We must tactfully introduce a subject that is of concern to 15:4; James 4:8.
people in general and then listen carefully to their expressions
regarding the matter. (Jas. 1:19) We might ask a viewpoint Women Who Defied a Pharaoh
question to draw them out. (Prov. 20:5) In this way we will be 3
At the Nuremberg trials, held in Germany after World
able to adapt our presentation of the good news in a way that War II, many who were convicted of mass murder tried to
touches their lives personally. Paul became all things to excuse the crimes they committed by arguing that they were
people of all sorts. (1 Cor. 9:22) Adaptability is a key to simply obeying orders. Now compare these individuals with
reaching the hearts of people. two Israelite midwives, Shiphrah and Puah, who lived in
4
What a joy it is to share with people the good news of ancient Egypt during the reign of an unnamed but tyrannical
something better! (Isa. 52:7) May we do all things for the Pharaoh. Fearing a burgeoning Hebrew population, Pharaoh
sake of the good news in order to reach as many as possible. ordered the two midwives to make sure that every newborn
1 Cor. 9:23. Hebrew male was killed. How did the women respond to that
heinous command? They did not do as the king of Egypt had
spoken to them, but they would preserve the male children
alive. Why did these women not succumb to fear of man?
Because they feared the true God.Exodus 1:15, 17;
Page 47 Unit 6 (a)
Genesis 9:6.
Women Who Make Jehoavhs Heart Rejoice 4
Yes, the midwives took refuge in Jehovah, and he, in
turn, proved to be a shield to them, protecting them from
OPENING DISUSSION Pharaohs wrath. (2 Samuel 22:31; Exodus 1:18-20) But
Jehovahs blessing did not stop there. He rewarded Shiphrah
(Romans 16:12) Greet Tryphaena and Tryphosa, women and Puah with families of their own. He even honored these
who are working hard in the Lord. Greet Persis, our beloved women by having their names and deeds recorded in his
one, for she has worked hard in the Lord. inspired Word for future generations to read, whereas the
name of the Pharaoh has been lost in the sands of time.
*** w03 11/1 pp. 8-13 Women Who Made Jehovahs Exodus 1:21; 1 Samuel 2:30b; Proverbs 10:7.
Heart Rejoice ***
5
Women Who Made Jehovahs Heart Rejoice Are there women like Shiphrah and Puah today? Yes,
indeed! Each year, thousands of such women fearlessly
preach the Bibles life-saving message in lands where the
order of the king forbids it, thus risking their freedom or
even their life. (Hebrews 11:23; Acts 5:28, 29) Impelled by
67
love of God and neighbor, such brave women allow no one to Blessed for Her Sensibleness
stop them from sharing the good news of Gods Kingdom 10
with others. Consequently, many Christian women contend Many faithful women of old displayed in an
with opposition and persecution. (Mark 12:30, 31; 13:9-13) outstanding way the quality of sensibleness, making them a
As with Shiphrah and Puah, Jehovah is fully aware of the precious asset to Jehovahs people. One such woman was
deeds of such excellent, courageous women, and he will Abigail, wife of the wealthy Israelite landowner Nabal.
demonstrate his love for them by preserving their names in Abigails sensibleness contributed to the saving of lives and
his book of life, provided they endure faithfully to the end. prevented David, Israels future king, from becoming
Philippians 4:3; Matthew 24:13. bloodguilty. We can read about Abigail in the account
recorded at 1 Samuel chapter 25.
A Former Prostitute Brings Joy to Jehovahs Heart 11
As the story begins, David and his followers are
6
In the year 1473 B.C.E., a prostitute named Rahab lived encamped near Nabals flocks, which they protect free of
in the Canaanite city of Jericho. Evidently, Rahab was a well- charge day and night out of kindness to their Israelite brother
informed woman. When two Israelite spies sought refuge in Nabal. When Davids provisions are running low, he sends
her home, she was able to relate to them specific details about ten young men to Nabal to request food. Nabal now has an
Israels miraculous Exodus from Egypt, even though that had opportunity to show his appreciation to David and to honor
occurred 40 years earlier! She was also familiar with Israels him as Jehovahs anointed. But Nabal does the opposite. In a
more recent victories over the Amorite Kings Sihon and Og. fit of rage, he insults David and turns the young men away
Note how that knowledge affected her. To the spies, she said: empty-handed. When David hears about this, he assembles
I do know that Jehovah will certainly give you the land, . . . 400 armed men and sets out to exact revenge. Abigail learns
for Jehovah your God is God in the heavens above and on the about her husbands harsh response and acts quickly and
earth beneath. (Joshua 2:1, 9-11) Yes, what Rahab learned prudently to appease David by sending a generous
about Jehovah and his deeds in behalf of Israel touched a consignment of provisions. Then she herself goes to David.
responsive chord in her heart and caused her to have faith in Verses 2-20.
him.Romans 10:10. 12
When Abigail meets David, her humble appeal for
7
Rahabs faith moved her to action. She received the mercy reveals her deep respect for Jehovahs anointed.
Israelite spies in a peaceable way, and she obeyed their life- Jehovah will without fail make for my lord a lasting house,
saving instructions when Israel attacked Jericho. (Hebrews because the wars of Jehovah are what my lord is fighting,
11:31; Joshua 2:18-21) There is no doubt that Rahabs works she says, adding that Jehovah will commission David as
of faith brought joy to Jehovahs heart, for he inspired the leader over Israel. (Verses 28-30) At the same time, Abigail
Christian disciple James to place her name alongside that of shows considerable courage by telling David that his pursuit
Abraham, Gods friend, as an example for Christians to of revenge, if unchecked, will lead to bloodguilt.
imitate. James wrote: In the same manner was not also (Verses 26, 31) David is brought to his senses by Abigails
Rahab the harlot declared righteous by works, after she had humility, deep respect, and clear thinking. He responds:
received the messengers hospitably and sent them out by Blessed be Jehovah the God of Israel, who has sent you this
another way?James 2:25. day to meet me! And blessed be your sensibleness, and
8
blessed be you who have restrained me this day from entering
Jehovah rewarded Rahab in a number of ways. For one into bloodguilt.Verses 32, 33.
thing, he miraculously spared her life and the lives of all who
13
sought refuge in her homenamely, the household of her Upon returning home, Abigail bravely seeks to inform
father and all who belonged to her. Then he allowed these her husband of her gift to David. When she finds him,
ones to dwell in the midst of Israel, where they were to be however, he is as drunk as could be. So she waits until he is
treated as natives. (Joshua 2:13; 6:22-25; Leviticus 19:33, 34) sober and then tells him. How does Nabal react? He is so
But that is not all. Jehovah also bestowed upon Rahab the stunned that he is overcome by what may be some form of
honor of becoming an ancestress of Jesus Christ. What an paralysis. Ten days later he dies at Gods hand. When David
overwhelming demonstration of loving-kindness toward a learns of Nabals death, he proposes marriage to Abigail,
woman who had once been an idol-worshiping Canaanite! whom he evidently admires and deeply respects. Abigail
Psalm 130:3, 4. accepts Davids offer.Verses 34-42.
9
Like Rahab, some Christian women, from the first Can You Be Like Abigail?
century right down to today, have abandoned an immoral way 14
of life in order to please God. (1 Corinthians 6:9-11) No Do you see some qualities in Abigail that youmen as
doubt some of them grew up in an environment comparable well as womenwould like to cultivate to a greater degree?
to that of ancient Canaan, where immorality was rife and Perhaps you desire to act more prudently and sensibly when
even viewed as normal. Yet, they changed their ways, difficulties arise. Or maybe you want to speak in a calm and
impelled by faith based on an accurate knowledge of the reasonable manner when the emotions of others around you
Scriptures. (Romans 10:17) Hence, it could also be said of are running high. If so, why not pray to Jehovah about the
such women that God is not ashamed of them, to be called matter? He promises to give wisdom, discernment, and
upon as their God. (Hebrews 11:16) What an honor! thinking ability to all who keep on asking in faith.James
1:5, 6; Proverbs 2:1-6, 10, 11.

68
15
Such fine qualities are especially important for a showed for his name, in that you have ministered to the holy
woman with an unbelieving husband who pays little or no ones and continue ministering.Hebrews 6:10.
heed to Bible principles. Perhaps he drinks to excess. 20
Hopefully, such men will change their ways. Many have done In the first century, several God-fearing women had the
sooften in response to the mild manner, deep respect, and privilege of ministering to Jesus and his apostles. In the next
chaste conduct of their wives.1 Peter 3:1, 2, 4. article, we will discuss how these women brought joy to
Jehovahs heart, and we will consider the example of modern-
16
Whatever difficulties you may have to put up with at day women who serve Jehovah wholeheartedly, even in
home, remember that Jehovah is always there to support you. difficult circumstances.
(1 Peter 3:12) So strive to fortify yourself spiritually. Pray for
wisdom and a calm heart. Yes, draw closer to Jehovah
through regular Bible study, prayer, meditation, and (Psalm 68:11) Jehovah gives the command; The women
association with fellow Christians. Abigails love for God and proclaiming the good news are a large army.
her attitude toward his anointed servant were not affected by (Luke 1:46-49) And Mary said: My soul magnifies Jehovah,
her husbands unspiritual outlook. She acted on the basis of 47
and my spirit cannot keep from being overjoyed at God my
righteous principles. Even in a household where the husband Savior, 48 because he has looked upon the low position of his
is an exemplary servant of God, a Christian wife realizes that slave girl. For look! from now on all generations will declare
she needs to continue to work hard to build up and maintain me happy, 49 because the powerful One has done great deeds
her own spirituality. True, her husband has the Scriptural for me, and holy is his name,
obligation to care for her spiritually and materially, but in the (Acts 16:14, 15) And a woman named Lydia, a seller of
final analysis, she must work out her own salvation with fear purple from the city of Thyatira and a worshipper of God,
and trembling.Philippians 2:12; 1 Timothy 5:8. was listening, and Jehovah opened her heart wide to pay
She Received a Prophets Reward attention to the things Paul was saying. 15 Now when she and
her household got baptized, she urged us: If you have
17
The way in which Jehovah cared for a poor widow in considered me to be faithful to Jehovah, come and stay at my
the time of the prophet Elijah shows that he deeply house. And she just made us come.
appreciates those who support true worship by giving of (Romans 15:4) For all the things that were written
themselves and of their resources. Because of a prolonged beforehand were written for our instruction, so that through
drought in Elijahs day, starvation stared many in the face, our endurance and through the comfort from the Scriptures
including a widow and her young son living in Zarephath. we might have hope.
Just when they were down to their last meal, a visitor arrived
the prophet Elijah. He made a most unusual request. Page 48 Unit 6 (a)
Although aware of the womans plight, he asked her to bake
a small round cake for him, using the last of her oil and QUESTION OUTLINE
flour. But he added: For this is what Jehovah the God of
Israel has said, The large jar of flour itself will not get (Genesis 2:18) Then Jehovah God said: It is not good for
exhausted, and the small jar of oil itself will not fail until the the man to continue to be alone. I am going to make a helper
day of Jehovahs giving a downpour upon the surface of the for him, as a complement of him.
ground.1 Kings 17:8-14.
(Genesis 2:23) Then the man said: This is at last bone of my
18
How would you have responded to that extraordinary bones And flesh of my flesh. This one will be called Woman,
request? The widow of Zarephath, apparently recognizing Because from man she was taken.
that Elijah was Jehovahs prophet, did according to Elijahs
word. In what way did Jehovah respond to her act of *** w95 7/15 pp. 10-11 pars. 4-6 The Dignified Role of
hospitality? He miraculously provided food for the woman, Women Among Gods Early Servants ***
her son, and Elijah during the drought. (1 Kings 17:15, 16) 4
After Adam had been in the garden of Eden alone for
Yes, Jehovah gave the widow of Zarephath a prophets
some time, Jehovah observed: It is not good for the man to
reward, even though she was not an Israelite. (Matthew
continue by himself. I am going to make a helper for him, as
10:41) The Son of God also honored this widow when he
a complement of him. (Genesis 2:18) Even though Adam
held her up as an example before the faithless people of his
was a perfect man, something else was needed in order to
hometown, Nazareth.Luke 4:24-26.
carry out the Creators purpose. To fill the need, Jehovah
19
Today, many Christian women reflect the spirit of the created the woman and performed the first marriage.
widow of Zarephath. For example, every week, unselfish Genesis 2:21-24.
Christian sistersmany of whom are poor and have families 5
Do the words helper and complement indicate that
to care forextend hospitality to traveling overseers and
the womans God-assigned role was demeaning? On the
their wives. Others share meals with local full-time ministers,
contrary. Bible writers often apply to God the Hebrew noun
help the needy, or in some other way give of themselves and
(ezer) rendered helper. For instance, Jehovah proves to be
of their resources to support the Kingdom work. (Luke 21:4)
our helper and our shield. (Psalm 33:20; Exodus 18:4;
Does Jehovah note such sacrifices? Absolutely! God is not
Deuteronomy 33:7) At Hosea 13:9, Jehovah even refers to
unrighteous so as to forget your work and the love you
69
himself as Israels helper. As for the Hebrew word (ne Based on what is recorded in the Gospel accounts, a
ghedh) rendered complement, one Bible scholar explains: number of scholars have acknowledged Jesus view of
The help looked for is not just assistance in his daily work or women as nothing short of revolutionary. How is that so?
in the procreation of children . . . but the mutual support And more important, do his teachings still have a liberating
companionship provides. influence on women today?
6
There is thus nothing demeaning in Jehovahs How Jesus Treated Women
describing the woman as a helper and a complement. The
woman had her own unique mental, emotional, and physical Jesus did not consider them to be mere sexual objects. In
makeup. She was a suitable counterpart, a satisfying the view of some Jewish religious leaders, contact with the
complement for the man. Each was different, yet each was opposite sex could lead only to lust. Since women were
needed to fill the earth in accord with the Creators feared as a source of temptation, they were not allowed to
purpose. It was evidently after the creation of both the man talk to men in public or to go out without wearing a veil. On
and the woman that God saw everything he had made and, the other hand, Jesus advised men to control their own fleshly
desires and treat women with dignity instead of cutting them
look! it was very good.Genesis 1:28, 31.
off from social relations.Matthew 5:28.
Jesus also said: Whoever divorces his wife and marries
(Galatians 3:26-28) You are all, in fact, sons of God through another commits adultery against her. (Mark 10:11, 12) He
your faith in Christ Jesus. 27 For all of you who were baptized thus rejected the prevailing rabbinic teaching that allowed
into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor men to divorce their wives on every sort of ground.
Greek, there is neither slave nor freeman, there is neither (Matthew 19:3, 9) The concept of committing adultery
male nor female, for you are all one in union with Christ against his wife was alien to most Jews. Their rabbis taught
Jesus. that a husband could never commit adultery against his wife
(Galatians 4:26) But the Jerusalem above is free, and she is only a woman could be unfaithful! As one Bible
our mother. commentary puts it, Jesus, by putting the husband under the
(Revelation 12:1) Then a great sign was seen in heaven: A same moral obligation as the wife, raised the status and
woman was arrayed with the sun, and the moon was beneath dignity of women.
her feet, and on her head was a crown of 12 stars, The effect of his teaching today: In the Christian
(Revelation 19:7) Let us rejoice and be overjoyed and give congregation of Jehovahs Witnesses, women associate freely
him glory, because the marriage of the Lamb has arrived and with men at meetings. However, they need not fear indecent
his wife has prepared herself. looks or undue familiarity, because Christian men are careful
to treat older women as mothers, younger women as sisters
*** it-2 p. 1196 Woman *** with all chasteness.1 Timothy 5:2.

Privileges in the Christian Congregation. For those Jesus took time to teach women. In contrast with the
called by God to the heavenly calling (Heb 3:1) to be joint prevalent rabbinic view that kept women in ignorance, Jesus
heirs with Jesus Christ, there is no distinction between men taught them and encouraged them to express themselves. By
and women in a spiritual sense. The apostle writes: You are refusing to deprive Mary of the joy of being taught, Jesus
all, in fact, sons of God through your faith in Christ . . . there showed that a womans place is not only in the kitchen. (Luke
is neither male nor female; for you are all one person in union 10:38-42) Marys sister, Martha, also benefited from his
with Christ Jesus. (Ga 3:26-28) These all must receive a teaching, as shown by her intelligent answers to Jesus after
change of nature at their resurrection, being made partakers Lazarus death.John 11:21-27.
together of divine nature, in which state none will be What women thought mattered to Jesus. At that time,
women, for there is no female sex among spirit creatures, sex most Jewish women believed that the key to happiness was to
being Gods means for reproduction of earthly creatures. have a worthy son, if possible one who was a prophet. When
2Pe 1:4. one of the women cried out: Happy is the womb that carried
you! Jesus seized the opportunity to tell her about something
*** w12 9/1 Respect and Dignity Under Gods Care *** better. (Luke 11:27, 28) By indicating that spirituality was
Respect and Dignity Under Gods Care more important, Jesus pointed her to something more than the
traditional role imposed upon women.John 8:32.
WHEN on earth, Jesus perfectly reflected his heavenly
Fathers personality and way of doing things. He said: I do The effect of his teaching today: Teachers in the Christian
nothing of my own initiative; but just as the Father taught me congregation welcome the comments by women at
I speak . . . I always do the things pleasing to him. (John congregation meetings. They respect mature women for being
8:28, 29; Colossians 1:15) Thus, by noting the way Jesus teachers of what is good, both in private and by example.
interacted with women and his attitude toward them, we have (Titus 2:3) They also rely on them to tell publicly the good
a window into understanding Gods view of women and his news of Gods Kingdom.Psalm 68:11; see the box Did the
expectations for them. Apostle Paul Forbid Women to Speak? on page 9.

70
Jesus cared for women. In Bible times, daughters were not me. Her dream came true when her husband eventually
valued as much as sons. The Talmud reflects this view, agreed to study the Bible and then got baptized as one of
saying: Happy is he whose children are males, and woe to Jehovahs Witnesses. He became an example of self-control
him whose children are females. Some parents regarded a and restraint, Yelena says. We learned to forgive each other
girl as a greater burdenthey would have to find her a mate freely. Her conclusion? Bible principles have truly helped
and give a dowry, and they would not be able to depend on me to feel needed and protected in my marriage.
her for support in their old age. Colossians 3:13, 18, 19.
Jesus showed that a little girls life is as important as a Yelenas experience is not unique. Millions of Christian
boyshe resurrected Jairus daughter, as he did the son of women are happy because they and their husbands together
the widow at Nain. (Mark 5:35, 41, 42; Luke 7:11-15) After endeavor to apply Bible principles in their marriage. They
healing a woman troubled by a spirit of weakness for find respect, comfort, and freedom in the association of
eighteen years, Jesus called her a daughter of Abraham, an fellow Christians.John 13:34, 35.
expression almost unknown in Jewish writings. (Luke 13:10-
16) By using this respectful and kind expression, he not only Christian men and women both recognize that as sinful
regarded her as a full-fledged member of society but also and imperfect humans, they are part of Gods creation that
recognized her great faith.Luke 19:9; Galatians 3:7. has been subjected to futility. However, by drawing close to
their loving God and Father, Jehovah, they have the hope of
The effect of his teaching today: An Asian saying goes: being set free from enslavement to corruption and enjoying
Raising a daughter is like watering the neighbors garden. the glorious freedom of the children of God. What a
Far from being influenced by that mentality, loving Christian marvelous prospect for both men and women under Gods
fathers care well for all their children, sons and daughters. care!Romans 8:20, 21.
Christian parents make sure that all their children receive
proper education and health care. (Matthew 28:1) After the Sabbath, when it was growing light
on the first day of the week, Mary Magdalene and the other
Jesus trusted women. In the Jewish courts, the testimony Mary came to view the grave.
of a woman was considered equal only to that of a slave.
Josephus, a first-century historian, advised: From women let (Matthew 28:8-10) So, quickly leaving the memorial tomb,
no evidence be accepted, because of the levity and temerity with fear and great joy, they ran to report to his disciples.
9
of their sex. And look! Jesus met them and said: Good day! They
approached and took hold of his feet and did obeisance to
In sharp contrast, Jesus chose to have women bear him. 10 Then Jesus said to them: Have no fear! Go, report to
witness to his resurrection. (Matthew 28:1, 8-10) Though my brothers so that they may go to Galilee, and there they
these faithful women had been eyewitnesses of the execution will see me.
and burial of their Lord, to the apostles, the womens words (Luke 10:38-42) Now as they went on their way, he entered
were hard to believe. (Matthew 27:55, 56, 61; Luke into a certain village. Here a woman named Martha received
24:10, 11) However, by appearing first to women, the him as a guest in her house. 39 She also had a sister called
resurrected Christ regarded them as worthy of bearing Mary, who sat down at the feet of the Lord and kept listening
witness as his other disciples were.Acts 1:8, 14. to what he was saying. 40 Martha, on the other hand, was
The effect of his teaching today: In congregations of distracted with attending to many duties. So she came to him
Jehovahs Witnesses, men who have responsibilities show and said: Lord, does it not matter to you that my sister has
consideration for women by taking into account their left me alone to attend to things? Tell her to come and help
observations. For their part, Christian husbands assign me. 41 In answer the Lord said to her: Martha, Martha, you
honor to their wives by listening carefully to them.1 Peter are anxious and disturbed about many things. 42 A few things,
3:7; Genesis 21:12. though, are needed, or just one. For her part, Mary chose the
good portion, and it will not be taken away from her.
Bible Principles Contribute to Womens Happiness (Luke 13:10-16) Now he was teaching in one of the
When men imitate Christ, women are given the respect synagogues on the Sabbath. 11 And look! a woman was there
and freedom that God originally purposed for them. (Genesis who had had a spirit of weakness for 18 years; and she was
1:27, 28) Instead of supporting male chauvinism, Christian bent double and was unable to straighten up at all. 12 When he
husbands let themselves be guided by Bible principles, which saw her, Jesus addressed her and said: Woman, you are
contribute to their mates happiness.Ephesians 5:28, 29. released from your weakness. 13 And he laid his hands on
her, and instantly she straightened up and began to glorify
When Yelena began to study the Bible, she was silently God. 14 But in response the presiding officer of the
suffering harsh treatment from her husband. He had been synagogue, indignant because Jesus did the cure on the
brought up in a violent environment, where the kidnapping of Sabbath, said to the crowd: There are six days on which
brides and physical abuse were common practices. What I work ought to be done; so come and be cured on those days,
learned from the Bible gave me strength, says Yelena. I and not on the Sabbath day. 15 However, the Lord answered
understood that there was someone who loved me very much him: Hypocrites, does not each one of you on the Sabbath
and valued and cared about me. I also understood that if my untie his bull or his donkey from the stall and lead it away to
husband studied the Bible, it could change his attitude toward give it something to drink? 16 Should not this woman, who is
71
a daughter of Abraham and whom Satan held bound for 18 How would first-century readers of Peters words
years, be released from this bondage on the Sabbath day? construe the term weaker vessel? The Greek word for
(Psalm 68:11) Jehovah gives the command; The women vessel (skeuos) was used a number of times in the Greek
proclaiming the good news are a large army. Scriptures and refers to various containers, implements,
utensils, and instruments. In calling women the weaker
(Genesis 2:20-24) So the man named all the domestic
vessel, Peter was not degrading women, for the expression
animals and the flying creatures of the heavens and every
implied that the husband too was a fragile or weak vessel.
wild animal of the field, but for man there was no helper as a
Other Bible texts use similar imagery in referring to both
complement of him. 21 So Jehovah God caused the man to fall
women and men, such as earthen vessels (2 Corinthians
into a deep sleep, and while he was sleeping, he took one of
4:7) and vessels of mercy (Romans 9:23). True, Peter
his ribs and then closed up the flesh over its place. 22 And
portrays women as the weaker of the sexes. But Romans
Jehovah God built the rib that he had taken from the man into
5:6 uses weak to apply to all humansmale and female.
a woman, and he brought her to the man. 23 Then the man
Therefore, the early Christians would not have considered the
said: This is at last bone of my bones And flesh of my flesh.
term weaker vessel to be derogatory to women.
This one will be called Woman, Because from man she was
taken. 24 That is why a man will leave his father and his If anything, Peters words would have been viewed as
mother and he will stick to his wife, and they will become elevating the status of women. In Peters day respect for
one flesh. women hardly existed. As God had long before foreseen,
(Ephesians 5:28-31) In the same way husbands should love husbands often dominated and abused their wives physically,
their wives as their own bodies. A man who loves his wife sexually, and emotionally. (Genesis 3:16) Thus, Peters
loves himself, 29 for no man ever hated his own body, but he counsel to Christian husbands implied, in effect: Do not
feeds and cherishes it, just as the Christ does the exploit the power worldly society has given men.
congregation, 30 because we are members of his body. 31 For
Let us take a closer look at the term weaker. Peter in
this reason a man will leave his father and his mother and he
this verse was referring, not to emotional, but to physical
will stick to his wife, and the two will be one flesh.
traits. Men are weak vessels; in a comparative sense, women
(1 Peter 3:7) You husbands, in the same way, continue are weaker vessels. How so? Bone and muscle structure are
dwelling with them according to knowledge. Assign them such that men are usually endowed with more physical
honor as to a weaker vessel, the feminine one, since they are strength. However, there is no indication that Peter was
also heirs with you of the undeserved favor of life, in order making a comparison of moral, spiritual, or mental strength.
for your prayers not to be hindered. Really, as far as emotional reactions to events go, women
might best be described as different from men, not necessarily
*** g94 10/8 pp. 19-21 The Weaker VesselAn Insult weaker or stronger. The Bible describes the strong moral
to Women? *** character, the endurance, and the discernment of women who
The Bibles Viewpoint followed Gods waysuch as Sarah, Deborah, Ruth, and
The Weaker VesselAn Insult to Women? Esther, to name but a few. Humble men have no difficulty
recognizing that women can be more intelligent than they are.
WHY ARE WOMEN JUDGED BY
THEIR GENDER RATHER THAN BY Nonetheless, some believe that a reference to women as
THEIR EXPERIENCE, ABILITY, AND weaker implies that they are lesser persons. But consider
INTELLIGENCE?BETTY A. this example. A person has two useful containers. One is
sturdy, the other less so. Is the second vessel somehow less
WOMEN ARE CONDITIONED TO valued because it is not as sturdy? Actually, the less sturdy
THINK THAT THEY ARE LESSER one is usually treated with more care and honor than the
CREATURES.LYNN H. sturdier one. Therefore, is a woman of lesser value because
she has less physical strength than a man? Certainly not!
DOES the Bible expression weaker vessel degrade Peter uses the term weaker vessel, not to denigrate women,
women? The Bible verse in question is 1 Peter 3:7, which but to foster respect.
states: You husbands, continue dwelling in like manner with In Like Manner . . . According to Knowledge
them according to knowledge, assigning them honor as to a
weaker vessel, the feminine one, since you are also heirs with Peter exhorted husbands to continue dwelling in like
them of the undeserved favor of life, in order for your prayers manner with them [their wives] according to knowledge. In
not to be hindered. like manner to whom? In previous verses Peter was
discussing Christs loving care for his followers, and he
When Peter wrote these words to fellow Christians, instructed husbands to care for their wives in like manner.
women had very few rights, not only in the ancient pagan (1 Peter 2:21-25; 3:7) Christ always placed his disciples
world but also among the apostate Jewish community. Were welfare and interests ahead of his own personal desires and
Peter and the early Christians advocating the then prevalent preferences. He was interested in their spiritual and physical
view of women? welfare, and he took their limitations into consideration.
Lesser Vessels? Husbands are to imitate Christs loving example, to behave
toward their wives in like manner.
72
A smooth-running marriage does not happen by chance. approval of him in the presence of others by stating: This is
Both husband and wife must know how to contribute to the my son, my beloved. Similarly, a husband should show by
success of the marriage. Hence, Peters advice is for husbands his deeds, both in public and in private, that he assigns his
to continue dwelling with their wives according to wife honor.
knowledge. Husbands need to study how Jehovah and his
Son, Jesus Christ, dealt with women. They need to know how Heirs of Life
God wants them to treat their wives. Throughout history, men have often viewed women as
In addition, husbands need to know their wives well worthy of little honor or respectas a slave, or as a mere
their feelings, strengths, limitations, likes, and dislikes. They instrument for gratifying men. The Christian concept of
need to know how to respect their wives intelligence, assigning honor to women certainly elevates them to a higher
experience, and dignity. The Bible says: Husbands, continue level of respect. Barnes Notes on the New Testament
loving your wives, just as the Christ also loved the observes that Peters admonition contains a very important
congregation and delivered up himself for it. In this way truth in regard to the female sex. Under every other system of
husbands ought to be loving their wives as their own bodies. religion but the Christian system, woman has been regarded
He who loves his wife loves himself, for no man ever hated as in every way inferior to man. Christianity teaches that . . .
his own flesh; but he feeds and cherishes it.Ephesians she is entitled to all the hopes and promises which religion
5:25, 28, 29. imparts. . . . This single truth would raise the female sex
everywhere from degradation, and check at once half the
Assign Them Honor social evils of the race.
When Peter referred to women as the weaker vessel, he Since Christ has ownership of both men and women,
also stated that husbands should be assigning them honor. there is serious reason for husbands to cherish their wives as
In Greek, the noun time conveys the sense of honor, esteem, Christs property. Immediately after referring to women as
value, preciousness. In other words, the assigning of honor is the weaker vessel, Peters words continue: Since you are
not simply an act of favor but the recognition of what is due also heirs with them of the undeserved favor of life, in order
them. Paul instructed all Christians, both men and women, as for your prayers not to be hindered. (1 Peter 3:7b) Peter
follows: In brotherly love have tender affection for one indicated that a husbands mistreating his wife would injure
another. In showing honor to one another take the lead. his relationship with God, blocking his prayers.
Romans 12:10.
In no way is the term weaker vessel meant to insult
Jehovah God certainly does not consider women as mere women. While Jehovah set husbands as the head of the
showpieces. In Israel, Gods laws applied with equal force to household, he does not subscribe to men mistreating women.
both men and women who were guilty of adultery, incest, Instead, he directs that the man, with knowledge of the
bestiality, and other crimes. (Leviticus 18:6-17, 23, 29; 20:10- woman, should extend care and honor to her.
12) Women could experience the benefits of the Sabbaths, the
laws governing Nazirites, the festivals, and many other The Bible directs both married and single men to assign
provisions of the Law. (Exodus 20:10; Numbers 6:2; honor to women, not treating them as lesser persons. Men and
Deuteronomy 12:18; 16:11, 14) The mother, as well as the women who earnestly worship God and who dignify one
father, was to be honored and obeyed.Leviticus 19:3; 20:9; another will receive rich blessings from the hand of God.
Deuteronomy 5:16; 27:16; Proverbs 1:8. Compare 1 Corinthians 7:16.

Verses 10 to 31 of Proverbs chapter 31 honor a capable


(Proverbs 12:4) A capable wife is a crown to her husband,
wife because of her faithfulness, industriousness, and
But the wife who acts shamefully is like rottenness in his
wisdom in caring for her many responsibilities. She was duly
bones.
recognized for her share in handling family business, as well
as other financial matters. How different from the attitude of
Page 49 Unit 6 (a)
some men who think of women as mere ornaments! Later, in
the early Christian congregation, women were empowered
An Orderly Arrangement
with holy spirit as witnesses of Christ. (Acts 1:14, 15; 2:3, 4;
compare Joel 2:28, 29.) Thus, some women are destined to (1 Corinthians 11:3) But I want you to know that the head of
become heavenly judges of men, women, and even angels. every man is the Christ; in turn, the head of a woman is the
(1 Corinthians 6:2, 3) True, women were not to teach in man; in turn, the head of the Christ is God.
congregational assembly; nevertheless, there were situations
when Christian women could pray or prophesy. They were (1 Corinthians 14:40) But let all things take place decently
assigned to be teachers of younger women, children, and to and by arrangement.
those outside the congregation.Matthew 24:14; (John 5:30) I cannot do a single thing of my own initiative.
1 Corinthians 11:3-6; Titus 2:3-5; compare Psalm 68:11. Just as I hear, I judge, and my judgment is righteous because
I seek, not my own will, but the will of him who sent me.
Another good indicator of what Peter had in mind when
(John 8:38, 39) I speak the things I have seen while with my
he said to assign them honor is found at 2 Peter 1:17. There
Father, but you do the things you have heard from your
we read that Jehovah honored Jesus by expressing his
father. 39 In answer they said to him: Our father is
73
Abraham. Jesus said to them: If you were Abrahams that of publicly bearing witness about him. (Psalm 68:11)
children, you would be doing the works of Abraham. Among Jehovahs Witnesses today, men and women who are
(Philippians 2:5-8) Keep this mental attitude in you that was public ministers have helped millions to attain to repentance
also in Christ Jesus, 6 who, although he was existing in Gods and gain salvation. (Acts 2:21; 2 Peter 3:9) That is no small
form, gave no consideration to a seizure, namely, that he accomplishment!
should be equal to God. 7 No, but he emptied himself and The arrangement for men and women promotes peace
took a slaves form and became human. 8 More than that, while showing honor to both genders. To illustrate: The eyes
when he came as a man, he humbled himself and became and ears perform complementary tasks to help a pedestrian
obedient to the point of death, yes, death on a torture stake. cross a busy street. Similarly, when men and women
(Galatians 3:26-28) You are all, in fact, sons of God through accomplish Gods will according to the roles they have each
your faith in Christ Jesus. 27 For all of you who were baptized been assigned, God blesses the congregation with peace.
into Christ have put on Christ. 28 There is neither Jew nor 1 Corinthians 14:33; Philippians 4:9.
Greek, there is neither slave nor freeman, there is neither
male nor female, for you are all one in union with Christ
Jesus. (1 Peter 3:1, 2) In the same way, you wives, be in subjection
(Romans 12:10) In brotherly love have tender affection for to your husbands, so that if any are not obedient to the word,
one another. In showing honor to one another, take the lead. they may be won without a word through the conduct of their
wives, 2 because of having been eyewitnesses of your chaste
(1 Corinthians 14:33-35) For God is a God not of disorder conduct together with deep respect.
but of peace. As in all the congregations of the holy ones,
34
let the women keep silent in the congregations, for it is not (Colossians 3:18) You wives, be in subjection to your
permitted for them to speak. Rather, let them be in subjection, husbands, as it is becoming in the Lord.
as the Law also says. 35 If they want to learn something, let (Colossians 3:23) Whatever you are doing, work at it whole-
them ask their husbands at home, for it is disgraceful for a souled as for Jehovah, and not for men,
woman to speak in the congregation.
(1 Timothy 2:12) I do not permit a woman to teach or to Page 50
exercise authority over a man, but she is to remain silent. Unit 6 (a)
*** w12 9/1 p. 9 Respect and Dignity Under Gods Care *** (1 Corinthians 14:35) If they want to learn something, let
[Box on page 9] them ask their husbands at home, for it is disgraceful for a
Did the Apostle Paul Forbid Women to Speak? woman to speak in the congregation.
Let the women keep silent in the congregations, wrote the apostle (1 Timothy 2:11-14) Let a woman learn in silence with full
Paul. (1 Corinthians 14:34) What did he mean? Was he belittling
submissiveness. 12 I do not permit a woman to teach or to
their intelligence? No. In fact, he often referred to the wholesome
teaching of women. (2 Timothy 1:5; Titus 2:3-5) In his letter to the
exercise authority over a man, but she is to remain silent.
13
Corinthians, Paul advised not only women but also individuals who For Adam was formed first, then Eve. 14 Also, Adam was
had the gift of tongues and prophecy to keep silent when another not deceived, but the woman was thoroughly deceived and
believer was speaking. (1 Corinthians 14:26-30, 33) Likely some became a transgressor.
Christian women were so enthusiastic about their newfound faith (1 Corinthians 11:4, 5) Every man who prays or prophesies
that they interrupted the speaker to ask questions, as was the custom with something on his head shames his head; 5 but every
in that part of the world. In order to avoid such disorder, Paul
woman who prays or prophesies with her head uncovered
encouraged them to question their own husbands at home.
1 Corinthians 14:35. shames her head, for it is one and the same as if she were a
woman with a shaved head.
*** g 7/10 p. 29 Should Women Be Ministers? *** (1 Corinthians 11:2-16) I commend you because in all things
you remember me and you are holding fast the traditions just
Teaching in the Congregation as I handed them on to you. 3 But I want you to know that the
Nowhere in the Bible, however, are women told to stand head of every man is the Christ; in turn, the head of a woman
before the congregation to teach. Rather, the apostle Paul is the man; in turn, the head of the Christ is God. 4 Every man
instructed them to keep quiet in the meetings. Why? One who prays or prophesies with something on his head shames
reason, he wrote, is so that things would be done in a proper his head; 5 but every woman who prays or prophesies with
and orderly way. (1 Corinthians 14:34, 40, Todays English her head uncovered shames her head, for it is one and the
Version) For the congregation to run smoothly, God has same as if she were a woman with a shaved head. 6 For if a
assigned the role of teaching to one group. Note, though, that woman does not cover herself, she should have her hair cut
a person is not granted the privilege of oversight in the off; but if it is disgraceful for a woman to have her hair cut
congregation simply because he is a male; it is granted only off or shaved, she should be covered. 7 For a man should not
to those men who truly qualify.1 Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:5- have his head covered, as he is Gods image and glory, but
9. the woman is mans glory. 8 For man did not come from
woman, but woman came from man. 9 And what is more, man
Is the role that God has assigned to women demeaning? was not created for the sake of the woman, but woman for the
No. Remember, Jehovah God ordains them to a high calling sake of the man. 10 That is why the woman ought to have a
74
sign of authority on her head, because of the angels. may be other occasions when no baptized males are present at
11
Besides, in connection with the Lord, neither is woman a congregation meeting. If a sister has to handle duties
separate from man nor is man separate from woman. 12 For usually performed by a brother at a congregationally arranged
just as the woman is from the man, so also the man is through meeting or meeting for field service, she should wear a head
the woman; but all things are from God. 13 Judge for covering.
yourselves: Is it fitting for a woman to pray to God with her
head uncovered? 14 Does not nature itself teach you that long Must Christian women wear a head covering when
hair is a dishonor to a man, 15 but if a woman has long hair, it giving oral or sign-language translation of Bible discourses or
is a glory to her? For her hair is given to her instead of a when publicly reading the paragraphs from a Bible study aid
covering. 16 However, if anyone wants to argue in favor of that is being used at a congregation meeting? No. Sisters
some other custom, we have no other, nor do the handling these duties are not presiding or teaching. Similarly,
congregations of God. no head covering is required for sisters taking part in
demonstrations, relating experiences, or handling student
talks in the Theocratic Ministry School.
Note: Entire articles for pages 50 and 51
While teaching within the congregation is to be done by
*** w02 7/15 pp. 26-27 Questions From Readers *** baptized men, both men and women have the responsibility
Questions From Readers of preaching and teaching outside the congregation. (Matthew
24:14; 28:19, 20) So when a Christian woman is speaking to
In what situations is it appropriate for a Christian woman outsiders about Gods Word in the presence of a male Witness
to wear a head covering for spiritual reasons? of Jehovah, she would not need to wear a head covering.

Every woman that prays or prophesies with her head However, the situation is different when a regular,
uncovered shames her head, wrote the apostle Paul. Why? scheduled Bible study is being conducted in a home and a
Because of the divine principle of headship: The head of a dedicated, baptized male is present. This is a prearranged
woman is the man. Praying or preaching in the Christian session of teaching where the one conducting the study
congregation is normally the responsibility of a man. Hence, actually presides. Under these circumstances, a study
when a Christian woman cares for matters pertaining to becomes an extension of the congregation. If a baptized
worship that ordinarily would be performed by her husband female Witness conducts such a study with a baptized male
or by a baptized man, she should wear a head covering. Witness present, she would rightly wear a head covering.
1 Corinthians 11:3-10. However, the dedicated brother should offer prayer. A sister
would not pray in the presence of a dedicated brother unless
Situations in which a Christian woman ought to wear a there were some exceptional reason, such as the brothers
head covering may arise in her marriage relationship. For having lost the physical power of speech.
example, when the family comes together for a Bible study or
for a meal, the husband normally takes the lead in teaching A Christian sister may on occasion be accompanied on a
them and in representing them in prayer to God. If he is an Bible study by an unbaptized male Kingdom publisher. If she
unbeliever, however, this responsibility may fall on his wife. wishes, she may ask him to conduct the study. But since he
Therefore, when praying aloud on behalf of herself and others could not properly represent the baptized sister in prayer to
or when conducting a Bible study with her children in the Jehovah, it would be proper for her to pray at the study. When
presence of her husband, a Christian sister rightly wears a conducting the study and when praying under these
head covering. If her husband is not present, the wife need circumstances, the sister should cover her head. Even though
not wear a head covering, since she is divinely authorized to the male publisher is not yet baptized, outsiders identify him
teach the children.Proverbs 1:8; 6:20. with the congregation because of his preaching activity.

What, though, if a young son in the family is a dedicated, The woman ought to have a sign of authority upon her
baptized servant of Jehovah God? Since the son is a member head because of the angels, wrote the apostle Paul. Yes,
of the Christian congregation, he should receive instruction Christian sisters have the privilege of being good examples to
from its male members. (1 Timothy 2:12) If his father is a the millions of angels who loyally continue to subject
believer, the son should be taught by him. However, if the themselves to Jehovah. How appropriate that godly women
father is absent, then the mother should wear a head covering give due consideration to wearing a head covering when the
if she conducts a Bible study with the young baptized son and occasion calls for it!
the other children. Whether she calls on the baptized son to
In other cases, the disfellowshipped relative may be
pray at such a study or at mealtime is left to her discretion.
living outside the immediate family circle and home.
She may feel that he is not yet sufficiently capable and may
Although there might be a need for limited contact on some
choose to offer prayer herself. If she chooses to pray on such
rare occasion to care for a necessary family matter, any such
an occasion, she should wear a head covering.
contact should be kept to a minimum. Loyal Christian family
While sharing in certain congregation activities, members do not look for excuses to have dealings with a
Christian women may need to wear a head covering. At a disfellowshipped relative not living at home. Rather, loyalty
midweek meeting for field service, for example, there may to Jehovah and his organization moves them to uphold the
only be Christian sisters present, no baptized males. There Scriptural arrangement of disfellowshipping. Their loyal

75
course has the best interests of the wrongdoer at heart and On the other hand, many aspects of worship do not call
may help him to benefit from the discipline received. for a sister to wear a head covering. For example, she does
Hebrews 12:11. not need to do so when commenting at Christian meetings,
engaging in the door-to-door ministry with her husband or
*** lv pp. 209-212 Head CoveringsWhen and Why? *** another baptized male, or studying or praying with her
Head CoveringsWhen and Why? unbaptized children. Of course, other questions may arise,
and if a sister is unsure about a matter, she may do additional
When and why should a Christian woman wear a head research. If still unsure and if her conscience moves her to do
covering in connection with her worship? Let us consider the so, wearing a head covering would not be wrong, as shown in
apostle Pauls inspired discussion of this subject. He provides the accompanying picture.
the guidance we need in order to make good decisions, ones The motives. In verse 10, we find two reasons why a
that honor God. (1 Corinthians 11:3-16) Paul reveals three Christian woman would want to fulfill this requirement: The
factors to weigh: (1) the activities that call for a woman to woman ought to have a sign of authority upon her head
wear such a covering, (2) the settings in which she should do because of the angels. First, note the expression, a sign of
so, and (3) the motives for her to apply this standard. authority. Wearing a head covering is a way for a woman to
The activities. Paul mentions two: prayer and show that she acknowledges the authority that Jehovah has
prophesying. (Verses 4, 5) Prayer, of course, is worshipful placed upon baptized males in the congregation. Hence, she
address to Jehovah. Today, prophesying would apply to any expresses her love for and loyalty to Jehovah God. A second
Bible-based teaching that a Christian minister does. Is Paul reason is found in the words because of the angels. How
suggesting, though, that a woman should cover her head does a woman affect those mighty spirit creatures by wearing
whenever she prays or teaches Bible truth? No. The setting in a head covering?
which a woman prays or teaches makes all the difference. The angels are interested in seeing that divine authority is
The settings. Pauls words suggest two settings, or recognized throughout Jehovahs organization, in heaven and
spheres of activitythe family and the congregation. He on earth. They also benefit from the examples of imperfect
says: The head of a woman is the man . . . Every woman that humans in this regard. After all, they too have to be
prays or prophesies with her head uncovered shames her submissive to Jehovahs arrangementa test that more than a
head. (Verses 3, 5) In the family arrangement, the womans few angels failed in times past. (Jude 6) Now, the angels may
husband is the one whom Jehovah designates as her head. see instances when a Christian woman is more experienced,
Unless she gives due recognition to her husbands authority, more knowledgeable, and more intelligent than a baptized
she would shame her husband if she handled responsibilities male in the congregation; yet, she readily shows her
that Jehovah assigns to him. For example, if it became submission to his authority. In some cases, the woman is an
necessary for her to conduct a Bible study in her husbands anointed Christian who will later become one of Christs joint
presence, she would acknowledge his authority by wearing a heirs. Such a woman will eventually serve in a position even
head covering. She would do so whether he is baptized or higher than that enjoyed by angels and rule with Christ in
not, since he is the head of the family. If she were to pray or heaven. What a fine example for the angels to observe now!
to teach in the presence of her minor baptized son, she would Really, what a privilege all sisters have to demonstrate
likewise wear a head covering, not because he is the head of humble obedience through their loyal and submissive conduct
the family, but because of the authority granted to baptized in the sight of millions of faithful angels!
male members of the Christian congregation. [Footnotes]
Paul mentions the congregation setting, saying: If any A Christian wife would not normally pray aloud in the
man seems to dispute for some other custom, we have no presence of her believing husband except in unusual
other, neither do the congregations of God. (Verse 16) In the circumstances, such as if he has been rendered mute by
Christian congregation, headship is given to baptized males. an illness.
(1 Timothy 2:11-14; Hebrews 13:17) Only males are
appointed as elders and ministerial servants with the God- For more information, please see The Watchtower, July 15,
given responsibility to care for the flock of God. (Acts 20:28) 2002, pages 26-7, and February 15, 1977, pages 125-8.
Occasionally, though, circumstances may require that a
Christian woman be called on to handle a duty normally *** w09 11/15 pp. 12-13 Questions From Readers ***
performed by a qualified baptized male. For instance, she Questions From Readers
may need to conduct a meeting for field service because a
qualified baptized male is not available or present. Or she Is it appropriate for a sister to wear a head covering when
may conduct a prearranged home Bible study in the presence interpreting Bible discourses into sign language at
of a baptized male. Because such activities are really Christian meetings, assemblies, or conventions?
extensions of the Christian congregation, she would wear a
head covering to acknowledge that she is handling the duty Generally speaking, a Christian woman ought to wear a
normally assigned to a male. head covering when she cares for matters that are normally
the responsibility of her husband or a brother in the
congregation. This is in harmony with the principle stated by
76
the apostle Paul that every woman that prays or prophesies
with her head uncovered shames her head because the head Page 52
of a woman is the man. (1 Cor. 11:3-10) When a sister wears Unit 6 (a)
a modest and appropriate head covering in such situations, it
is a sign of submission to the theocratic arrangement in the *** w77 2/15 pp. 125-126 Should You Cover Your Head
Christian congregation.1 Tim. 2:11, 12. During Prayer? ***
What, though, of situations in which a sister interprets WHY COVERED OR UNCOVERED?
into sign language for a brother who is delivering a
As to understanding what the apostle Paul wrote about
discourse? True, the sister is merely acting as a linguistic
head covering and prayer, consider the verse before: I want
intermediary. That is to say, the teaching is not her own but
you to know that the head of every man is the Christ; in turn
that of the brother for whom she is interpreting. However,
the head of a woman is the man; in turn the head of the Christ
sign-language interpretation is very different from
is God. (1 Cor. 11:3) Yes, Paul was discussing the divine
interpretation between spoken languages. With spoken
principle of headship, and particularly its application in
languages, the audience can focus on the speaker and still
public worship.
listen to the interpreter. Also, unlike sign-language
interpretation, sisters who interpret spoken languages are As the apostle explained, the Creator assigned to the
usually not situated so prominently. At times, they may even man, whom He created first, headship and authority over his
have the option of being seated while interpreting or, if they wife, who was made from the mans rib. In respect to
are standing, of facing the speaker rather than the audience. headship, the man was Gods image and glory for he was
So it would not be necessary for a sister interpreting into a not assigned another head on earth. His wife and children,
spoken language to wear a head covering. though, do have an earthly head to whom they are in relative
subjection.1 Cor. 11:7-10; Eph. 5:22-24; 6:1.
In addition to this, because of developments in the
technology used when talks are interpreted into sign The principle of headship also applies in congregational
language, the interpreters role may become even more activities. Paul wrote that women should respect and strive to
magnified. An image of the signers interpretation is cooperate with the men who are to do the teaching and
commonly featured on a large screen, while the speaker praying. (1 Cor. 14:33-35; compare 1 Timothy 2:11, 12.)
himself may not even be visible to the audience. With these Therefore, in most instances, a woman back in the first
factors in mind, it would thus seem appropriate for the sister century C.E. would not preach or pray in the congregation.
who interprets into sign language to acknowledge her
secondary role as an interpreter by wearing a head covering. Why, then, did Paul discuss head covering? When was
such appropriate and when inappropriate? And how does that
How does this revised direction affect the interpretation apply today?
into sign language of parts on the Theocratic Ministry School,
demonstrations, and comments during the Congregation Paul wrote that when praying a woman ought to wear a
Bible Study, the Service Meeting, and the Watchtower Study? head coveringbe it a hat, scarf or head veilas a sign of
Should a sister who is a sign-language interpreter on such authority. (1 Cor. 11:10) It was to be an evidence that she
occasions also wear a head covering? It would appear that the recognized the principle of headship. But when would she
sisters use of a head covering in some circumstances is not need to cover her head? Consider these three situations:
necessary, since all in attendance should be able to appreciate In Pauls day Jehovahs holy spirit gave miraculous gifts
that she is not actually conducting the meeting. This would be to some Christians, such as the ability to prophesy or to speak
the case, for example, when she interprets comments from the in tongues. For example, at a meeting in the first century the
audience, talks given by sisters, or demonstrations. However, spirit might have impelled a Christian woman to prophesy.
when interpreting talks for brothers during these meetings, (1 Cor. 12:4-11; Acts 21:8, 9) Or, it might have been that only
when interpreting for the Watchtower Study conductor or the women were in attendance at a congregation meeting. With
conductor of the Congregation Bible Study, or when taking no baptized male to take the lead in prayer or in teaching, a
the lead in signing songs, she should wear a head covering. Christian woman might have to do so. Then again, a Christian
During the course of a meeting, a sister may have to interpret wife might have an unbelieving husband and on occasion be
for brothers, sisters, children, and elders. In view of this, it expected to pray or teach the Bible in his presence. In any of
may be more practical to wear a head covering during the these situations a woman would have worn a head covering,
entire meeting. a sign of authority, thus manifesting her recognition of the
[Footnote] headship principle.

For a detailed discussion of the topic of head coverings for YOUR HEADWHO?
Christian women, see pages 209 to 212 of Keep We can better appreciate the need for Christian men as
Yourselves in Gods Love. well as women to comply with Gods directions about head
(1 Timothy 1:5) Really, the objective of this instruction is covering by noting what could be the effect if they did not.
love out of a clean heart and out of a good conscience Recall that the apostle wrote that a man who prays
and out of faith without hypocrisy. having something on his head is doing something. What?
77
The original Greek text says that he is shaming the head of (Acts 18:26) He began to speak boldly in the synagogue, and
him, or, shames his head. Similarly, a woman who prays when Priscilla and Aquila heard him, they took him into
or prophesies with her head uncovered shames the head of their company and explained the way of God more accurately
her, or, shames her head. Who or what is being referred to him.
to as head in each case?
This may be understood in the light of the verse before. *** g 7/10 Should Women Be Ministers? ***
There Paul said that the head of every man is the Christ and The Bibles Viewpoint
the head of a woman is the man. (1 Cor. 11:3) Hence, it Should Women Be Ministers?
may be reasoned that a man who prays with his head covered
in a sense dishonors Christ. By wearing a head covering I HAVE been amazed and angered by the fact that
when praying a man would be acting as if he were a wife nothing has changed for women, in terms of being ordained,
with a visible head on earth rather than being accountable to wrote a Catholic woman to the newspaper USA Today. Many
Christ as his head. Correspondingly, a woman who prayed people share her view. After all, in other religions women
with her head bared may be said to be shaming her head in serve as ministers, priests, bishops, and rabbis.
the Christian arrangement, her husband (if she is married),
Religions on both sides of the controversythose
her father or the headship of Christian men in the
forbidding women to be ministers and those allowing them to
congregation. preach from the pulpitclaim to adhere to the Scriptures.
However, the Bible does not support either view. How can
(Acts 5:29) In answer Peter and the other apostles said: We that be? To answer, we must first consider how the Bible uses
must obey God as ruler rather than men.
*** ia chap. 9 p. 80 par. 16 She Acted With Discretion *** the word minister.
16
Does this mean that Abigail was rebelling against her First-Century Ministers
husbands rightful headship? No; keep in mind that Nabal had What does the word minister mean to you? Many
acted wickedly against an anointed servant of Jehovah, an would immediately think of a religious leader, male or
action that could well result in death for many innocent female, who presides over a congregation for worship. But
members of Nabals household. If Abigail failed to act, might the Bible uses the word in a broader sense. Consider the
she become a sharer in her husbands guilt? In this case, she Christian woman Phoebe, whom the apostle Paul introduced
had to put submission to her God ahead of submission to her as our sister, who is a minister of the congregation that is in
husband. Cenchreae.Romans 16:1.
(Proverbs 31:1) The words of King Lemuel, the weighty
message his mother gave to instruct him: Do you imagine Phoebe standing before the congregation
(Titus 2:3-5) Likewise, let the older women be reverent in in Cenchreae, presiding over a religious service? Really, what
behavior, not slanderous, not enslaved to a lot of wine, ministry did Phoebe perform? In his letter to the Philippians,
teachers of what is good, 4 so that they may advise the Paul writes that certain women worked together with me . . .
younger women to love their husbands, to love their children, in spreading the good news.Italics ours; Philippians 4:2,
5
to be sound in mind, chaste, working at home, good, 3, Contemporary English Version.
subjecting themselves to their own husbands, so that the word The primary way in which first-century Christians spread
of God may not be spoken of abusively. the good news was publicly and from house to house. (Acts
(1 Timothy 2:9, 10) Likewise, the women should adorn 20:20) Those who engaged in that work were ministers. That
themselves in appropriate dress, with modesty and soundness included women such as Priscilla. She, along with her
of mind, not with styles of hair braiding and gold or pearls or husband, expounded the way of God more correctly to a
very expensive clothing, 10 but in the way that is proper for God-fearing man who had not yet been baptized as a
women professing devotion to God, namely, through good Christian. (Acts 18:25, 26) Like Phoebe, Priscilla evidently
works. was an effective ministeras were many women.
(1 Peter 3:3, 4) Do not let your adornment be externalthe A Dignified Role
braiding of hair and the wearing of gold ornaments or fine
clothing 4 but let it be the secret person of the heart in the Was the public ministry a menial assignment, a
incorruptible adornment of the quiet and mild spirit, which is secondary task to be relegated to women while the men did
of great value in the eyes of God. the important work of presiding over the congregation? Not
(Luke 10:42) A few things, though, are needed, or just one. at all, and for two reasons. First, the Bible makes clear that
For her part, Mary chose the good portion, and it will not be all Christiansincluding men with weighty congregation
taken away from her. responsibilitieswere to share in the public ministry. (Luke
9:1, 2) Second, the public ministry was and still is the
(Acts 2:17, 18) And in the last days, God says, I will primary means by which Christians of both genders fulfill
pour out some of my spirit on every sort of flesh, and your Jesus command to make disciples of people of all the
sons and your daughters will prophesy and your young men nations, . . . teaching them.Matthew 28:19, 20.
will see visions and your old men will dream dreams, 18 and
even on my male slaves and on my female slaves I will pour There is another vital role that certain women have in the
out some of my spirit in those days, and they will prophesy. congregation. Paul wrote: Let the aged women be . . .
78
teachers of what is good; that they may recall the young put faith in him about whom they have not heard? How, in
women to their senses to love their husbands, to love their turn, will they hear without someone to preach?
children. (Titus 2:3, 4) Thus, mature women with experience (1 Corinthians 9:16) Now if I am declaring the good news, it
in Christian living have the privilege of helping younger and is no reason for me to boast, for necessity is laid upon me.
less experienced women to gain maturity. That too is a Really, woe to me if I do not declare the good news!
dignified, weighty role.
(1 Corinthians 14:40) But let all things take place decently
Teaching in the Congregation and by arrangement.
*** km 9/01 p. 3 Question Box ***
Nowhere in the Bible, however, are women told to stand
before the congregation to teach. Rather, the apostle Paul Qualified baptized brothers should be assigned in
instructed them to keep quiet in the meetings. Why? One advance to conduct each meeting for service. If none are
reason, he wrote, is so that things would be done in a proper available to take the lead on a particular day, the elders
and orderly way. (1 Corinthians 14:34, 40, Todays English should designate which baptized sisters can do so when the
Version) For the congregation to run smoothly, God has need arises. While remaining seated, the sister may initiate a
assigned the role of teaching to one group. Note, though, that group discussion of the days text or other points relative to
a person is not granted the privilege of oversight in the the field service, keeping her remarks brief. She would wear a
congregation simply because he is a male; it is granted only head covering.
to those men who truly qualify.1 Timothy 3:1-7; Titus 1:5-
9. Page 53 Unit 6 (b)
Is the role that God has assigned to women demeaning? Pioneer Service School Review Day 2
No. Remember, Jehovah God ordains them to a high calling
that of publicly bearing witness about him. (Psalm 68:11) Unit 4 (a) Uphold Jehovahs Sovereignty
Among Jehovahs Witnesses today, men and women who are (Psalm 143:10) Teach me to do your will, For you are my
public ministers have helped millions to attain to repentance God. Your spirit is good; May it lead me on level ground.
and gain salvation. (Acts 2:21; 2 Peter 3:9) That is no small
accomplishment! Unit 4 (b) Show Personal Interest in Others
The arrangement for men and women promotes peace (Philippians 2:4) as you look out not only for your own
while showing honor to both genders. To illustrate: The eyes interests, but also for the interests of others.
and ears perform complementary tasks to help a pedestrian
cross a busy street. Similarly, when men and women Unit 5 (a) From House to House-Our Principal Way Of
accomplish Gods will according to the roles they have each Preaching
been assigned, God blesses the congregation with peace. (Matthew 28:19) Go, therefore, and make disciples of people
1 Corinthians 14:33; Philippians 4:9. of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father
[Footnotes] and of the Son and of the holy spirit,

Note, too, that a mans authority in the congregation is


limited. He is in subjection to the Christ and must act in Page 54
accord with Bible principles. (1 Corinthians 11:3) Those Unit 6 (b)
with congregation responsibility must also be in
subjection to one another, displaying a humble, Unit 5 (b) Workshop 1 From House to House - Our
Principal way of Preaching
cooperative spirit.Ephesians 5:21.
By honoring the role that God has given to men in the (Acts 5:42) And every day in the temple and from house to
congregation, Christian women also serve as an example house they continued without letup teaching and declaring the
to the angels in heaven.1 Corinthians 11:10. good news about the Christ, Jesus.

HAVE YOU WONDERED? Unit 6 (a) Women Who Make Jehovahs Heart Rejoice
How did women in the early Christian congregation teach? (Psalm 68:11) Jehovah gives the command; The women
Acts 18:26. proclaiming the good news are a large army.

Who are appointed to oversee the congregation?


1 Timothy 3:1, 2.
Page 55 Blank
How does God view the ministry of Christian women Page 56 Unit 7 (a)
today?Psalm 68:11.
Benefit From Counsel and Direction
(Romans 10:13, 14) For everyone who calls on the name of
OPENING DISCUSSION
Jehovah will be saved. 14 However, how will they call on
him if they have not put faith in him? How, in turn, will they
79
(Ephesians 4:8) For it says: When he ascended on high he who compassionately shepherd the flock are thus
carried away captives; he gave gifts in men. endeavoring to live up to what God expects of them.
(Galatians 6:1) Brothers, even if a man takes a false step 3
Such elders are referred to in the Bible as gifts in
before he is aware of it, you who have spiritual qualifications men. (Ephesians 4:8) When you think of a gift, you think of
try to readjust such a man in a spirit of mildness. But keep an something given to fill a need or to bring happiness to the one
eye on yourself, for fear you too may be tempted. receiving it. An elder can be considered a gift when he uses
(John 10:16) And I have other sheep, which are not of this his abilities to provide needed assistance and to contribute to
fold; those too I must bring in, and they will listen to my the happiness of the flock. How can he do this? The answer,
voice, and they will become one flock, one shepherd. found in Pauls words at Ephesians 4:7-16, magnifies
(Acts 20:28) Pay attention to yourselves and to all the flock, Jehovahs loving concern for his sheep.
among which the holy spirit has appointed you overseers, to
Gifts in MenFrom Where?
shepherd the congregation of God, which he purchased with
the blood of his own Son. 4
When Paul used the expression gifts in men, he was
(Revelation 1:16) And he had in his right hand seven stars, quoting King David, who had said of Jehovah: You have
and out of his mouth a sharp, long, two-edged sword was ascended on high; you have carried away captives; you have
protruding, and his countenance was like the sun when it taken gifts in the form of men. (Psalm 68:18) After the
shines at its brightest. Israelites had been in the Promised Land for some years,
(Revelation 1:20) As for the sacred secret of the seven stars Jehovah figuratively ascended Mount Zion and made
that you saw in my right hand and of the seven golden Jerusalem the capital of the kingdom of Israel with David as
lampstands: The seven stars mean the angels of the seven its king. But who were the gifts in the form of men? They
congregations, and the seven lampstands mean the seven were men taken captive during the conquest of the land.
congregations. Some of these captives were later made available to the
Levites to help with the work at the tabernacle.Ezra 8:20.
(Ephesians 4:11-13) And he gave some as apostles, some as
5
prophets, some as evangelizers, some as shepherds and In his letter to the Ephesians, Paul indicates that the
teachers, 12 with a view to the readjustment of the holy ones, psalmists words have a greater fulfillment in the Christian
for ministerial work, to build up the body of the Christ, congregation. Paraphrasing Psalm 68:18, Paul writes: Now
13
until we all attain to the oneness of the faith and of the to each one of us undeserved kindness was given according to
accurate knowledge of the Son of God, to being a full-grown how the Christ measured out the free gift. Wherefore he says:
man, attaining the measure of stature that belongs to the When he ascended on high he carried away captives; he gave
fullness of the Christ. gifts in men. (Ephesians 4:7, 8) Paul here applies this psalm
to Jesus as Gods representative. Jesus conquered the world
*** w99 6/1 Gifts in Men to Care for Jehovahs Sheep by his faithful course. (John 16:33) He also triumphed over
*** death and over Satan by reason of Gods resurrecting him
Gifts in Men to Care for Jehovahs Sheep from the dead. (Acts 2:24; Hebrews 2:14) In 33 C.E., the
resurrected Jesus ascended far above all the heavens
higher than all other heavenly creatures. (Ephesians 4:9, 10;
When he ascended on high he carried away Philippians 2:9-11) As a conqueror, Jesus took captives
captives; he gave gifts in men. from the enemy. How so?
EPHESIANS 4:8.
6
When on earth, Jesus demonstrated his power over
THANK you for caring so much about us. Your smiles, Satan by delivering those held in bondage to the demons. It
your warmth, and your concern are so genuine. You are was as if Jesus invaded Satans house, bound him, and seized
always there to lend a hearing ear and share words from the his goods. (Matthew 12:22-29) Just think, once resurrected
Bible that lift our spirits. I pray that I never take you for and entrusted with all authority in heaven and on earth, what
granted. So wrote a Christian sister to the elders in her plundering Jesus could then do! (Matthew 28:18) Starting at
congregation. Clearly, the love shown by caring Christian Pentecost 33 C.E., the ascended Jesus, as Gods
shepherds had touched her heart.1 Peter 5:2, 3. representative, began despoiling Satans house by carrying
away captivesmen who had long been in slavery to sin and
2
Elders are a provision from Jehovah to look after his death and under Satans control. These captives willingly
sheep. (Luke 12:32; John 10:16) Jehovahs sheep are dear to became Christs slaves, doing the will of God whole-
himso dear, in fact, that he purchased them with the souled. (Ephesians 6:6) Jesus, in effect, wrenched them from
precious blood of Jesus. Little wonder, then, that Jehovah is Satans control and, on Jehovahs behalf, gave them to the
pleased when elders treat his flock with tenderness. (Acts congregation as gifts in men. Imagine Satans helpless rage
20:28, 29) Notice the prophetic description of these elders, or as they were snatched from under his very nose!
princes: Each one must prove to be like a hiding place
7
from the wind and a place of concealment from the rainstorm, Do we find such gifts in men in the congregation
like streams of water in a waterless country, like the shadow today? Indeed, we do! We find them serving as elders,
of a heavy crag in an exhausted land. (Isaiah 32:1, 2) Yes, working hard as evangelizers, shepherds, and teachers in the
they are to protect, refresh, and comfort his sheep. Elders more than 87,000 congregations of Gods people earth wide.

80
(Ephesians 4:11) Satan would like nothing better than for hearts. (1 John 3:20) There is comfort in knowing that faithful
them to mistreat the flock. But that is not why God through ones in Bible times had feelings like ours. (James 5:17)
Christ has given them to the congregation. Rather, Jehovah You can also review encouraging articles in The Watchtower
has provided these men for the well-being of the and Awake! with the downhearted. Your loving efforts to
congregation, and they are accountable to him for the sheep restore the confidence of such ones will not go unnoticed by
entrusted to them. (Hebrews 13:17) If you serve as an elder, the God who has given you as gifts in men.Hebrews
Jehovah has given you a wonderful opportunity to prove 6:10.
yourself a gift, or blessing, to your brothers. You can do so by
fulfilling four important responsibilities. Building Up the Flock
12
When There Is a Need for Readjustment Second, the gifts in men are given with a view to
the building up of the body of the Christ. (Ephesians 4:12)
8
First, the gifts in men are provided with a view to Paul here employs a figure of speech. Building up calls to
the readjustment of the holy ones, says Paul. (Ephesians mind construction, and the body of the Christ refers to
4:12) The Greek noun rendered readjustment refers to peoplethe members of the anointed Christian congregation.
putting something into proper alignment. As imperfect (1 Corinthians 12:27; Ephesians 5:23, 29, 30) Elders need to
humans, we all need to be readjusted from time to timeto help their brothers to grow strong spiritually. Their objective
have our thinking, attitudes, or conduct brought into proper is to build up and not to tear down the flock. (2 Corinthians
alignment with Gods thinking and will. Jehovah has 10:8) The key to building up the flock is love, for love
lovingly provided gifts in men to help us make the needed builds up.1 Corinthians 8:1.
adjustments. How do they do this? 13
One facet of love that helps elders to build up the flock
9
At times, an elder may be called upon to help a sheep is empathy. To be empathetic means to feel for othersto
who has erred, who perhaps has taken some false step before identify with their thoughts and feelings, considering their
he is aware of it. How can an elder help? Try to readjust limitations. (1 Peter 3:8) Why is it important for elders to
such a man in a spirit of mildness, says Galatians 6:1. have empathy? Above all because Jehovahthe one who
Hence, when offering counsel, an elder would not scold the gives the gifts in menis a God of empathy. When his
erring one, employing harsh words. Counsel should servants are suffering or in pain, he feels for them. (Exodus
encourage, not terrify, the one receiving it. (2 Corinthians 3:7; Isaiah 63:9) He is considerate of their limitations. (Psalm
10:9; compare Job 33:7.) The individual may already feel 103:14) How, then, can elders show empathy?
ashamed, so a loving shepherd avoids crushing that ones 14
spirit. When counsel, even firm reproof, is clearly motivated When someone discouraged comes to them, they listen,
by and given in love, it is likely to realign the thinking or acknowledging that ones feelings. They try to understand the
conduct of the erring one, thus restoring him.2 Timothy background, personality, and circumstances of their brothers.
4:2. Then when elders give upbuilding Scriptural help, the sheep
will find it easy to accept because it comes from shepherds
10
In providing gifts in men for our readjustment, who truly understand and care about them. (Proverbs 16:23)
Jehovah had in mind that elders be refreshing spiritually and Empathy also moves elders to consider the limitations of
worthy of imitation by his people. (1 Corinthians 16:17, 18; others and the feelings that may result therefrom. For
Philippians 3:17) Readjusting others involves not only example, some conscientious Christians may feel guilty
correcting those taking a wrong course but also helping because they are not able to do more in serving God, perhaps
faithful ones to stick to the right course. Today, with so many because of old age or poor health. On the other hand, some
problems that tend to dishearten, many need encouragement may need encouragement to improve their ministry. (Hebrews
to hold on. Some may need tender help to align their thinking 5:12; 6:1) Empathy will move elders to find delightful
with Gods. For example, some faithful Christians struggle words that build others up. (Ecclesiastes 12:10) When
with deep feelings of inadequacy or unworthiness. Such Jehovahs sheep are built up and motivated, their love for
depressed souls may feel that Jehovah could never love God will move them to do all they can in serving him!
them and that even their best efforts to serve God could never
be acceptable to him. (1 Thessalonians 5:14) But this way of Men Who Promote Unity
thinking is not in alignment with how God truly feels about 15
Third, the gifts in men are provided so that we all
his worshipers. attain to the oneness in the faith and in the accurate
11
Elders, what can you do to help such ones? Kindly knowledge of the Son of God. (Ephesians 4:13) The phrase
share with them Scriptural proof that Jehovah cares for each oneness in the faith signifies unity not only of beliefs but
of his servants and reassure them that these Bible texts apply also of believers. This, then, is another reason why God has
to them personally. (Luke 12:6, 7, 24) Help them to see that given us gifts in mento promote unity among his people.
Jehovah has drawn them to serve him, so surely he must see How do they do this?
value in them. (John 6:44) Assure them that they are not 16
To begin with, they must maintain unity among
alonemany faithful servants of Jehovah have had similar themselves. If the shepherds are divided, the sheep may suffer
feelings. The prophet Elijah was once so deeply depressed neglect. Precious time that could be spent in shepherding the
that he wanted to die. (1 Kings 19:1-4) Some anointed flock may be unnecessarily taken up by lengthy meetings and
Christians in the first century felt condemned by their own debates over incidental matters. (1 Timothy 2:8) Elders may
81
not automatically agree on every matter they discuss, for they that we appreciate them? These questions will be discussed in
are men having personalities that may vary widely. Unity the next article.
does not preclude their having different opinions or even
expressing them in a balanced way during an open-minded [Footnotes]
discussion. Elders preserve their unity by listening In the Greek Septuagint version, this same verb rendered
respectfully to one another without prejudgment. And as long readjust was used at Psalm 17[16]:5, where faithful
as no Bible principle is being violated, each should be willing David prayed that his steps might hold fast to Jehovahs
to yield to and support the final decision of the body of tracks
elders. A yielding spirit shows that they are guided by the
wisdom from above, which is peaceable, reasonable.
James 3:17, 18. (1 Thessalonians 5:12, 13) Now we request you, brothers, to
show respect for those who are working hard among you and
17
Elders are also alert to promote unity in the presiding over you in the Lord and admonishing you; 13 and
congregation. When divisive influencessuch as hurtful to give them extraordinary consideration in love because of
gossip, a tendency to impute wrong motives, or a contentious their work. Be peaceable with one another.
spiritthreaten peace, they readily offer helpful counsel.
(Philippians 2:2, 3) For instance, elders may be aware of
individuals who are overly critical or who are prone to QUESTION OUTLINE
meddle in the affairs of others, thus becoming busybodies. Development of the Christian congregation
(1 Timothy 5:13; 1 Peter 4:15) The elders will try to help (Matthew 10:1) So he summoned his 12 disciples and gave
such ones to recognize that this course is contrary to what we them authority over unclean spirits, in order to expel these
have been taught by God and that each one must carry his and to cure every sort of disease and every sort of infirmity.
own load. (Galatians 6:5, 7; 1 Thessalonians 4:9-12) Using
(John 21:1, 2) After this Jesus manifested himself again to
the Scriptures, they will explain that Jehovah leaves many
the disciples, at the Sea of Tiberias. He made the
things to our individual conscience, and none of us should
manifestation in this way. 2 There were together Simon Peter,
judge others over such matters. (Matthew 7:1, 2; James 4:10-
Thomas (who was called the Twin), Nathanael from Cana
12) To serve together in unity, there must be an atmosphere of
of Galilee, the sons of Zebedee, and two others of his
trust and respect in the congregation. By offering Scriptural
disciples.
counsel when needed, the gifts in men help us to preserve
our peace and unity.Romans 14:19. (John 21:15-17) When they had finished breakfast, Jesus
said to Simon Peter: Simon son of John, do you love me
Protecting the Flock more than these? He replied to him: Yes, Lord, you know I
18 have affection for you. He said to him: Feed my lambs.
Fourth, Jehovah provides the gifts in men to protect 16
Again he said to him a second time: Simon son of John,
us from being influenced by every wind of teaching by
do you love me? He replied: Yes, Lord, you know I have
means of the trickery of men, by means of cunning in
affection for you. He said to him: Shepherd my little
contriving error. (Ephesians 4:14) The original word for
sheep. 17 He said to him a third time: Simon son of John, do
trickery is said to mean cheating at dice or skill in
you have affection for me? Peter became grieved that he
manipulating the dice. Does that not remind us of how
asked him the third time: Do you have affection for me? So
clever apostates operate? Using slick arguments, they
he said to him: Lord, you are aware of all things; you know
manipulate the Scriptures in an attempt to lure true Christians
that I have affection for you. Jesus said to him: Feed my
away from their faith. Elders must be on the watch for such
little sheep.
oppressive wolves!Acts 20:29, 30.
(Acts 2:41, 42) So those who gladly accepted his word were
19
Jehovahs sheep need to be protected from other baptized, and on that day about 3,000 people were added.
dangers as well. The ancient shepherd David fearlessly 42
And they continued devoting themselves to the teaching of
protected his fathers flock from predators. (1 Samuel 17:34- the apostles, to associating together, to the taking of meals,
36) Today, too, occasions may arise when concerned and to prayers.
Christian shepherds have to show courage in order to protect
the flock from any who might mistreat or oppress Jehovahs *** w13 7/15 pp. 16-17 pars. 7-8 Feeding Many Through
sheep, particularly the more vulnerable ones. Elders will be the Hands of a Few ***
quick to remove from the congregation willful sinners who
7
deliberately use trickery, deceit, and scheming in order to What would be the role of the apostles? As Pentecost
perpetrate wickedness.1 Corinthians 5:9-13; compare 33 C.E. drew near, it was clear that the apostles would serve
Psalm 101:7. in an office of oversight. (Acts 1:20) What, though, would
20
be their primary concern? Following his resurrection, Jesus
How thankful we are for the gifts in men! In their provided a clue in a conversation he had with the apostle
loving care, we can feel secure, for they tenderly readjust us, Peter. (Read John 21:1, 2, 15-17.) In the presence of some of
lovingly build us up, readily preserve our unity, and the other apostles, Jesus told Peter: Feed my little sheep.
courageously protect us. But how should the gifts in men Jesus thereby indicated that his apostles would be among the
view their role in the congregation? And how can we show few through whom he would provide spiritual food to the

82
many. What a touching and telling indication of how Jesus dispensing spiritual food. That would eventually change. But
feels about his little sheep! the question is, When?
FEEDING THE MANY FROM PENTECOST ONWARD
8
*** w13 7/15 p. 18 Feeding Many Through the Hands of a
Starting at Pentecost 33 C.E., the resurrected Christ Few ***Endnote
used his apostles as the channel through which he fed the rest
of his anointed disciples. (Read Acts 2:41, 42.) That channel Paragraph 13: The apostle Pauls words found at Acts 20:29,
was clearly recognized by the Jews and proselytes who 30 show that the congregation would be attacked from
became spirit-anointed Christians that day. Unhesitatingly, two quarters. First, imitation Christians (weeds) would
they continued devoting themselves to the teaching of the enter in among true Christians. Second, from among
apostles. According to one scholar, the Greek verb rendered true Christians, some would become apostates, speaking
continued devoting themselves can mean having a twisted things.
steadfast and singleminded fidelity to a certain course of
action. The new believers had a deep hunger for spiritual
food, and they knew exactly where to get it. With unwavering (Matthew 24:45-47) Who really is the faithful and discreet
slave whom his master appointed over his domestics, to give
loyalty, they looked to the apostles to explain the words and them their food at the proper time? 46 Happy is that slave if
deeds of Jesus and to shed fresh light on the meaning of the his master on coming finds him doing so! 47 Truly I say to
scriptures pertaining to him.Acts 2:22-36. you, he will appoint him over all his belongings.

*** w13 7/15 pp. 21-23 Who Really Is the Faithful and
Discreet Slave? ***
Page 57
Unit 7 (a) WHEN IS THE ILLUSTRATION FULFILLED?
4
(Matthew 13:24-30) He presented another illustration to The context of the illustration of the faithful and
them, saying: The Kingdom of the heavens may be likened discreet slave shows that it began to be fulfilled, not at
to a man who sowed fine seed in his field. 25 While men were Pentecost 33 C.E., but in this time of the end. Let us see how
sleeping, his enemy came and oversowed weeds in among the the Scriptures lead us to this conclusion.
wheat and left. 26 When the stalk sprouted and produced fruit, 5
The illustration of the faithful slave is part of Jesus
then the weeds also appeared. 27 So the slaves of the master of
prophecy about the sign of [his] presence and of the
the house came and said to him, Master, did you not sow
conclusion of the system of things. (Matt. 24:3) The first
fine seed in your field? How, then, does it have weeds? 28 He
portion of the prophecy, recorded at Matthew 24:4-22, has
said to them, An enemy, a man, did this. The slaves said to
two fulfillmentsfirst, in the years from 33 C.E. through
him, Do you want us, then, to go out and collect them? 29 He
70 C.E., and second, in a more far-reaching way in our day.
said, No, for fear that while collecting the weeds, you uproot
Does this mean that Jesus words about the faithful slave
the wheat with them. 30 Let both grow together until the
would also have two fulfillments? No.
harvest, and in the harvest season, I will tell the reapers: First
collect the weeds and bind them in bundles to burn them up; 6
Starting with the words recorded at Matthew 24:29,
then gather the wheat into my storehouse. Jesus focused primarily on events that would happen in our
day. (Read Matthew 24:30, 42, 44.) Speaking about what will
*** w13 7/15 p. 18 pars. 13-14 Feeding Many Through the happen during the great tribulation, he said that people will
Hands of a Few *** see the Son of man coming on the clouds of heaven. Then, in
13
words meant for those living during the last days, he urged
Jesus foretold that the Christian congregation would vigilance, saying: You do not know on what day your Lord
come under attack. Remember, in his prophetic illustration of is coming and, At an hour that you do not think to be it, the
the wheat and the weeds, Jesus warned that a newly planted Son of man is coming. In this contextwhen speaking
field of wheat (anointed Christians) would be oversown with about events that would take place in the last daysJesus
weeds (imitation Christians). The groups, he said, would be related the illustration of the faithful slave. Therefore, we
allowed to grow side by sideundisturbed until the harvest, may conclude that his words about that faithful slave began to
which would come at a conclusion of a system of things. be fulfilled only after the last days began in 1914. Such a
(Matt. 13:24-30, 36-43) It was not long before Jesus words conclusion makes sense. Why is that?
began to come true.
7
14
Think, for a moment, about the question: Who really is
The apostasy made some inroads in the first century, the faithful and discreet slave? In the first century, there was
but Jesus faithful apostles acted as a restraint, holding back hardly a reason to ask such a question. As we saw in the
the contamination and influence of false teachings. (2 Thess. preceding article, the apostles could perform miracles and
2:3, 6, 7) However, once the last of the apostles died, the even transmit miraculous gifts as proof of divine backing.
apostasy took root and flourished during a long growing (Acts 5:12) So why would anyone need to ask who really was
season that lasted for many centuries. Additionally, during appointed by Christ to take the lead? In 1914, however, the
that time, the weeds became many and the blades of wheat situation was much different. The harvest season began in
were few. There was no consistent, organized channel for that year. The time had finally arrived to separate the weeds
83
from the wheat. (Matt. 13:36-43) As the harvest season 3:2-4) Those faithful Bible Students were true Christian
began, a vital question thus arose: With many imitation wheat. In 1919, a time of spiritual revival, Jesus selected
Christians claiming to be Jesus true followers, how could the capable anointed brothers from among them to be the faithful
wheatanointed Christiansbe identified? The illustration and discreet slave and appointed them over his domestics.
of the faithful slave provided an answer. Christs anointed 13
followers would be the ones who were well-fed spiritually. Who, then, are the domestics? Put simply, they are
those who are fed. Early in the last days, the domestics were
WHO IS THE FAITHFUL AND DISCREET SLAVE? all anointed ones. Later, the domestics came to include the
8
great crowd of other sheep. The other sheep now make up the
The faithful slave must be made up of anointed vast majority of the one flock under Christs leadership.
Christians on earth. Such ones are called a royal priesthood (John 10:16) Both groups benefit from the same timely
and have been commissioned to declare abroad the spiritual food that is dispensed by the faithful slave. What
excellencies of the one that called [them] out of darkness about the Governing Body members who today make up the
into his wonderful light. (1 Pet. 2:9) It is only fitting that faithful and discreet slave? Those brothers also need to be fed
members of that royal priesthood have a direct share in spiritually. Hence, they humbly recognize that as individuals
teaching fellow believers the truth.Mal. 2:7; Rev. 12:17. they are domestics just like all the rest of Jesus genuine
9
Do all anointed ones on earth make up the faithful followers.
slave? No. The reality is that not all anointed ones have a role 14
Jesus placed a weighty responsibility on the faithful
in dispensing spiritual food to fellow believers worldwide. and discreet slave. In Bible times, a trusted slave, or steward,
Among the wheat are anointed brothers who may serve as was a house manager. (Luke 12:42) The faithful and discreet
ministerial servants or elders in their local congregation. They slave is thus charged with the responsibility to manage the
teach from house to house and in their congregation, and they household of faith. That responsibility includes overseeing
loyally support the direction from headquarters. But they do material assets, the preaching activity, assembly and
not have a part in dispensing spiritual food to the worldwide convention programs, and the production of Bible literature
brotherhood. Also among the anointed are humble sisters, for use in the field ministry and in personal and congregation
who would never try to assume the role of teachers in the study. The domestics depend on all the spiritual provisions
congregation.1 Cor. 11:3; 14:34. dispensed by the composite slave
10
Who, then, is the faithful and discreet slave? In
keeping with Jesus pattern of feeding many through the
hands of a few, that slave is made up of a small group of (Isaiah 54:13) And all your sons will be taught by Jehovah,
anointed brothers who are directly involved in preparing and And the peace of your sons will be abundant.
dispensing spiritual food during Christs presence.
Throughout the last days, the anointed brothers who make up Working Submissively with Gifts in Men
the faithful slave have served together at headquarters. In
recent decades, that slave has been closely identified with the (Hebrews 13:7) Remember those who are taking the lead
Governing Body of Jehovahs Witnesses. Note, however, that among you, who have spoken the word of God to you, and as
the word slave in Jesus illustration is singular, indicating you contemplate how their conduct turns out, imitate their
that this is a composite slave. The decisions of the Governing faith.
Body are thus made collectively. (Hebrews 13:17) Be obedient to those who are taking the
lead among you and be submissive, for they are keeping
WHO ARE THE DOMESTICS?
watch over you as those who will render an account, so that
11
It is noteworthy that in Jesus illustration, the faithful they may do this with joy and not with sighing, for this would
and discreet slave receives two distinct appointments. The be damaging to you.
first is over the domestics; the second is over all the masters
belongings. Since the illustration is fulfilled only in this time *** w07 4/1 pp. 28-30 pars. 10-14 Humbly Submitting to
of the end, both appointments would have to come after Loving Shepherds ***
Jesus presence in kingly power began in 1914. 10
At Hebrews 13:7, 17, quoted above, the apostle Paul
12
When did Jesus appoint the faithful slave over his gives four reasons why we should be obedient and
domestics? To answer that, we need to go back to 1914the submissive to Christian overseers. The first is that they have
beginning of the harvest season. As we learned earlier, at that spoken the word of God to us. Recall that the gifts in men
time many groups claimed to be Christian. From which group that Jesus gives to the congregation are for the readjustment
would Jesus select and appoint the faithful slave? That of the holy ones. (Ephesians 4:11, 12) He readjusted the
question was answered after he and his Father came and thinking and conduct of first-century Christians by means of
inspected the temple, or spiritual arrangement for worship, faithful undershepherds, some of whom were inspired to
from 1914 to the early part of 1919. (Mal. 3:1) They were write letters to the congregations. He used such spirit-
pleased with a small band of loyal Bible Students who appointed overseers to guide and build up the early
showed that their heart was with Jehovah and his Word. Of Christians.1 Corinthians 16:15-18; 2 Timothy 2:2; Titus
course, they needed some cleansing, but they humbly 1:5.
responded during a brief period of testing and refining. (Mal.
84
11
Today, Jesus directs us by means of the faithful and tossed about as by waves and carried here and there by every
discreet slave, represented by its Governing Body and the wind of teaching by means of the trickery of men, by means
appointed elders. (Matthew 24:45) Out of respect for the of cunning in deceptive schemes.
chief shepherd, Jesus Christ, we heed Pauls counsel: Have (1 Corinthians 16:15-18) Now I urge you, brothers: You
regard for those who are working hard among you and know that the household of Stephanas is the firstfruits of
presiding over you in the Lord and admonishing you. Achaia and that they devoted themselves to ministering to
1 Peter 5:4; 1 Thessalonians 5:12; 1 Timothy 5:17. the holy ones. 16 May you also keep submitting yourselves to
12
A second reason for cooperating with Christian people like that and to all those cooperating and working
overseers is that they are keeping watch over [our] souls. If hard. 17 But I rejoice over the presence of Stephanas and
they detect anything in our attitude or behavior that might Fortunatus and Achaicus, because they have made up for
endanger our spirituality, they are quick to give us needed your not being here. 18 For they have refreshed my spirit and
counsel with a view to our readjustment. (Galatians 6:1) The yours. Therefore, give recognition to men of that sort.
Greek word translated keeping watch literally means (2 Timothy 2:2) and the things you heard from me that were
abstaining from sleep. According to one Bible scholar, it supported by many witnesses, these things entrust to faithful
implies the unflagging vigilance of the shepherd. In men, who, in turn, will be adequately qualified to teach
addition to their maintaining spiritual vigilance, elders may others.
even lose sleep out of concern for our spiritual well-being. (Titus 1:5) I left you in Crete so that you would correct the
Should we not willingly cooperate with such loving things that were defective and make appointments of elders in
undershepherds, who do their best to imitate the tender care city after city, as I instructed you:
given by Jesus Christ, the great shepherd of the sheep? (1 Thessalonians 5:12) Now we request you, brothers, to
Hebrews 13:20. show respect for those who are working hard among you and
13
A third reason for our willingly cooperating with the presiding over you in the Lord and admonishing you;
overseers is that they keep watch over us as those who will (1 Timothy 5:17) Let the elders who preside in a fine way be
render an account. Overseers remember that they are considered worthy of double honor, especially those who
undershepherds, serving under the heavenly Shepherds, work hard in speaking and teaching.
Jehovah God and Jesus Christ. (Ezekiel 34:22-24) Jehovah is
the Owner of the sheep, whom he purchased with the blood
of his own Son, and He holds the appointed overseers
accountable for the way they treat His flock, which should be
with tenderness. (Acts 20:28, 29) Hence, all of us are
answerable to Jehovah for the way we respond to his Page 58 Unit 7 (a)
direction. (Romans 14:10-12) Our obedience to the appointed
elders also gives evidence of our submission to Christ, the Christian Sheperds Keep Watch Over You
Head of the congregation.Colossians 2:19. (Galatians 6:1) Brothers, even if a man takes a false step
14
before he is aware of it, you who have spiritual qualifications
Paul gave a fourth reason why we should humbly try to readjust such a man in a spirit of mildness. But keep an
submit to Christian overseers. He wrote: That they may do eye on yourself, for fear you too may be tempted.
this with joy and not with sighing, for this would be
(Hebrews 13:17a) Be obedient to those who are taking the
damaging to you. (Hebrews 13:17) With their weighty
lead among you and be submissive, for they are keeping
responsibilities of teaching, shepherding, taking the lead in
watch over you as those who will render an account,
the preaching work, raising their families, and handling
problems in the congregation, Christian elders carry a heavy (1 Peter 5:2, 3) Shepherd the flock of God under your care,
load. (2 Corinthians 11:28, 29) If we fail to cooperate with serving as overseers, not under compulsion, but willingly
them, we only add to their load. This would result in their before God; not for love of dishonest gain, but eagerly; 3 not
sighing. Our showing an uncooperative spirit is displeasing lording it over those who are Gods inheritance, but becoming
to Jehovah and could prove to be damaging to us. Instead, examples to the flock.
when we show proper respect and cooperation, the elders can
carry out their duties with joy, and this contributes to unity
and joyful participation in the Kingdom-preaching work. *** w07 4/1 pp. 28-29 par. 12 Humbly Submitting to
Romans 15:5, 6. Loving Shepherds ***
12
A second reason for cooperating with Christian
(Ephesians 4:11-14) And he gave some as apostles, some as overseers is that they are keeping watch over [our] souls. If
prophets, some as evangelizers, some as shepherds and they detect anything in our attitude or behavior that might
teachers, 12 with a view to the readjustment of the holy ones, endanger our spirituality, they are quick to give us needed
for ministerial work, to build up the body of the Christ, counsel with a view to our readjustment. (Galatians 6:1) The
13
until we all attain to the oneness of the faith and of the Greek word translated keeping watch literally means
accurate knowledge of the Son of God, to being a full-grown abstaining from sleep. According to one Bible scholar, it
man, attaining the measure of stature that belongs to the implies the unflagging vigilance of the shepherd. In
fullness of the Christ. 14 So we should no longer be children, addition to their maintaining spiritual vigilance, elders may
85
even lose sleep out of concern for our spiritual well-being. (2 Kings 5:11) At this Naaman became indignant and started
Should we not willingly cooperate with such loving to leave, saying: Here I said to myself, He will come out to
undershepherds, who do their best to imitate the tender care me and stand here and call on the name of Jehovah his God,
given by Jesus C moving his hand back and forth over the leprosy to cure it.
(Philippians 2:20-22) For I have no one else of a disposition
Shepherds Serve With Joy like his who will genuinely care for your concerns. 21 For all
(Ezekiel 34:22-24) And I will save my sheep, and they will the others are seeking their own interests, not those of Jesus
no longer become something to prey upon; and I will judge Christ. 22 But you know the proof he gave of himself, that like
between a sheep and a sheep. 23 I will raise up one shepherd a child with a father he slaved with me to advance the good
over them, my servant David, and he will feed them. He news.
himself will feed them and become their shepherd. 24 And I, (2 Corinthians 1:24) Not that we are the masters over your
Jehovah, will become their God, and my servant David a faith, but we are fellow workers for your joy, for it is by your
chieftain among them. I myself, Jehovah, have spoken. faith that you are standing.
(Acts 20:28, 29) Pay attention to yourselves and to all the Ways to Support Traveling Overseers Visits
flock, among which the holy spirit has appointed you (Romans 1:11, 12) For I am longing to see you, that I may
overseers, to shepherd the congregation of God, which he impart some spiritual gift to you for you to be made firm;
purchased with the blood of his own Son. 29 I know that after 12
or, rather, that we may have an interchange of
my going away oppressive wolves will enter in among you encouragement by one anothers faith, both yours and mine.
and will not treat the flock with tenderness,
(Romans 14:10-12) But why do you judge your brother? Or
why do you also look down on your brother? For we will all Page 60
stand before the judgment seat of God. 11 For it is written: Unit 7 (a)
As surely as I live, says Jehovah, to me every knee will
bend, and every tongue will make open acknowledgment to (Proverbs 27:17) As iron sharpens iron, So one man
God. 12 So, then, each of us will render an account for sharpens his friend.
himself to God.
(Colossians 2:19) and he is not holding fast to the head, to *** km 8/86 pp. 1-2 par. 4 The Circuit Overseers Visit
the one through whom the whole body is supplied and A Provision for Spiritual Progress ***
harmoniously joined together by means of its joints and 4
First, we should brace up our minds for activity.
ligaments and made to grow with the growth that is from (1 Pet. 1:13) To do this, we need to have the right point of
God. view of the visit and make specific plans to have an enlarged
Page 59 Unit 7 (a) share in the ministry. Can you auxiliary pioneer during the
month of the circuit overseers visit? Could you adjust your
(James 3:2) For we all stumble many times. If anyone does daily routine so as to work in the field service during the
not stumble in word, he is a perfect man, able to bridle also week? Could you schedule return visits or a Bible study for a
his whole body. weekday afternoon? The circuit overseer would be pleased to
(Hebrews 13:17b) so that they may do this with joy and not accompany you and even to conduct your study if that is your
with sighing, for this would be damaging to you. desire.
(Proverbs 19:20) Listen to counsel and accept discipline, In
order to become wise in your future. (Romans 1:12) or, rather, that we may have an interchange of
(1 Samuel 15:20) However, Saul said to Samuel: But I have encouragement by one anothers faith, both yours and mine.
obeyed the voice of Jehovah! I went on the mission to which *** km 6/89 p. 3 Give Support to the Circuit Overseers
Jehovah sent me, and I brought back Agag the king of Am Visit ***
alek, and I devoted the Amalekites to destruction. Give Support to the Circuit Overseers Visit
(1 Samuel 15:24-28) Then Saul said to Samuel: I have 1
sinned, for I have overstepped the order of Jehovah and your From October 15, 1946, onward, congregations have
words, because I feared the people and listened to what they been organized into circuits that are served by full-time
said. 25 And now, please, pardon my sin, and return with me traveling overseers. For almost 43 years now, both
so that I may bow down to Jehovah. 26 But Samuel said to individuals and congregations have benefited from this
Saul: I will not return with you, for you have rejected the theocratic provision. (Isa. 1:26) Our continued support of this
word of Jehovah, and Jehovah has rejected you from arrangement will bring us many more rich blessings.Eph.
continuing as king over Israel. 27 As Samuel was turning to 4:7, 8, 11.
go, Saul grabbed hold of the hem of his sleeveless coat, but it PREPARING FOR THE VISIT
ripped away. 28 At this Samuel said to him: Jehovah has
2
ripped away the royal rule of Israel from you today, and he Once the visit of the circuit overseer has been
will give it to one of your fellow men who is better than you. announced, we can begin to prepare for it. We can make plans
to adjust our normal schedule so as to support fully the week
of special activity. Some publishers arrange to spend more
86
time in the field ministry by auxiliary pioneering. Others may me. 41 In answer the Lord said to her: Martha, Martha, you
take a day or two off from their secular work to share in the are anxious and disturbed about many things. 42 A few things,
ministry. Many publishers make special appointments to though, are needed, or just one. For her part, Mary chose the
work with the traveling overseer in some feature of the good portion, and it will not be taken away from her.
ministry. Wholehearted support for the field ministry on this
occasion brings many rewards.
3
Reports received from the traveling overseers indicate Page 61 no citations
Page 62 Unit 7 (b)
that there can be better support for afternoon return visit and
Bible study activity. Could you schedule return visits or a
Resist the Spirit of the World
Bible study for an afternoon during this week? The circuit
overseer will gladly accompany you, and if you like, he
OPENING DISCUSSION
would also be pleased to conduct your study.
PERSONAL ASSISTANCE (1 Corinthians 2:12) Now we received, not the spirit of the
world, but the spirit that is from God, so that we might know
4
High on the circuit overseers list of priorities is the the things that have been kindly given us by God.
need to provide additional training for anyone who may be (Galatians 5:22, 23) On the other hand, the fruitage of the
reaching out for greater privileges of service. (1 Tim. 3:1) Do spirit is love, joy, peace, patience, kindness, goodness, faith,
you have questions about your specific assignments or 23
mildness, self-control. Against such things there is no law.
responsibilities? Would you like to improve your ability and
personal organization? Are you interested in Bethel service, QUESTION OUTLINE
Gilead, or the Ministerial Training School? Would you like to (1 Corinthians 2:12) Now we received, not the spirit of the
serve where the need is greater, either within your circuit or world, but the spirit that is from God, so that we might know
elsewhere in the United States? Whatever your spiritual goals the things that have been kindly given us by God.
may be, the circuit overseer will gladly discuss them with
you.
5
Page 63
If your circuit overseer is married, his wife is likewise a Unit 7 (b)
devoted servant of Jehovah. Very likely she is a pioneer and
will be in a position to give full support to field service (Ephesians 2:2, 3) in which you at one time walked
arrangements. Because of her experience and regular according to the system of things of this world, according to
participation in the ministry in diverse territories, she the ruler of the authority of the air, the spirit that is now at
becomes skilled in the preaching work. She makes herself work in the sons of disobedience. 3 Yes, among them we all at
available to work mainly with other sisters in the house-to- one time conducted ourselves in harmony with the desires of
house service and accompany them on return visits and home our flesh, carrying out the will of the flesh and of our
Bible studies. She deserves the same warm commendation thoughts, and we were naturally children of wrath just as the
that Paul gave concerning Phoebe.Rom. 16:1, 2. rest.
6
Not to be overlooked is the privilege we have of *** lv chap. 5 p. 54 par. 8 How to Keep Separate From the
showing hospitality to the traveling overseer and his wife, if World ***
he is married. Many are the brothers who treasure the 8
The worlds air, or spirit, is an invisible, impelling
memories as well as the encouragement they have received force that incites disobedience to God and fosters the desire
because of opening their homes or sharing a meal with these of the flesh and the desire of the eyes. (1 John 2:16;
traveling ministers and enjoying pleasant spiritual association 1 Timothy 6:9, 10) The authority of this spirit lies in its
with them.3 John 5-8. appeal to the sinful flesh, its subtlety, its relentlessness and,
7
Regular visits by spiritually mature traveling overseers like air, its pervasiveness. Moreover, it operates in a person
continue to help Jehovahs people. The degree to which we by gradually nurturing in him ungodly traits, such as
can benefit individually from this arrangement depends on selfishness, haughtiness, greedy ambition, and the spirit of
the extent to which we prepare for and support the circuit moral independence and rebellion. Simply put, the spirit of
overseers visit. May all of us be determined to give full the world progressively causes the traits of the Devil to grow
support to the next visit of our circuit overseer. in the heart of a man.John 8:44; Acts 13:10; 1 John 3:8, 10.

(John 8:44) You are from your father the Devil, and you wish
(Luke 10:38-42) Now as they went on their way, he entered to do the desires of your father. That one was a murderer
into a certain village. Here a woman named Martha received when he began, and he did not stand fast in the truth, because
him as a guest in her house. 39 She also had a sister called truth is not in him. When he speaks the lie, he speaks
Mary, who sat down at the feet of the Lord and kept listening according to his own disposition, because he is a liar and the
to what he was saying. 40 Martha, on the other hand, was father of the lie.
distracted with attending to many duties. So she came to him
and said: Lord, does it not matter to you that my sister has (Acts 13:10) and said: O man full of every sort of fraud and
left me alone to attend to things? Tell her to come and help every sort of villainy, you son of the Devil, you enemy of

87
everything righteous, will you not quit distorting the right *** w13 1/15 pp. 14-15 pars. 11-15 Let Nothing Distance
ways of Jehovah? You From Jehovah ***
(1 John 3:8) The one who practices sin originates with the 11
The Bible is not anti-fun, nor does it depict recreation
Devil, because the Devil has been sinning from the and entertainment as a waste of time. Bodily training is
beginning. For this purpose the Son of God was made beneficial for a little, wrote Paul to Timothy. (1 Tim. 4:8)
manifest, to break up the works of the Devil. The Bible even says that there is a time to laugh and a
(1 John 3:10) The children of God and the children of the time to skip about, and it encourages a healthy amount of
Devil are evident by this fact: Whoever does not practice rest. (Eccl. 3:4; 4:6) If you are not careful, however,
righteousness does not originate with God, nor does the one recreation and entertainment could distance you from
who does not love his brother. Jehovah. How? Much of the danger centers on two aspects
what type you choose and how much time you spend on it.
*** lv chap. 5 p. 54 par. 8 How to Keep Separate From the 12
First, consider the type. Be assured that you can find
World ***
healthy forms of recreation and good entertainment.
8
The worlds air, or spirit, is an invisible, impelling Admittedly, though, much of what is available glorifies things
force that incites disobedience to God and fosters the desire that God hates, including violence, spiritism, and illicit sex.
of the flesh and the desire of the eyes. (1 John 2:16; Therefore, you need to scrutinize the type of recreation and
1 Timothy 6:9, 10) The authority of this spirit lies in its entertainment that you engage in. What effect does it have on
appeal to the sinful flesh, its subtlety, its relentlessness and, you? Does it encourage in you a spirit of violence, fierce
like air, its pervasiveness. Moreover, it operates in a person competition, or nationalism? (Prov. 3:31) Does it drain your
by gradually nurturing in him ungodly traits, such as financial resources? Could it stumble others? (Rom. 14:21)
selfishness, haughtiness, greedy ambition, and the spirit of What type of associates does your choice of recreation and
moral independence and rebellion. Simply put, the spirit of entertainment bring you into contact with? (Prov. 13:20)
the world progressively causes the traits of the Devil to grow Does it stimulate in you a desire to commit wrong acts?Jas.
in the heart of a man.John 8:44; Acts 13:10; 1 John 3:8, 10. 1:14, 15.
13
Consider, too, the amount of time you spend on
(Proverbs 4:23) Above all the things that you guard, recreation and entertainment. Ask yourself, Do I spend so
safeguard your heart, For out of it are the sources of life. much time in leisure pursuits that I have little time left for
spiritual activities? If you choose to spend excessive time on
Questions to Ponder recreation and entertainment, you will find that your
(Psalm 26:4) I do not associate with deceitful men, And I downtime is not as refreshing as it could be. In fact, those
avoid those who hide what they are. who keep relaxation in its place enjoy it even more. Why?
(Psalm 119:37) Turn my eyes away from looking at what is Because they know that they first took care of the more
worthless; Preserve me alive in your way. important things, so their period of relaxation comes guilt
(1 Corinthians 15:33) Do not be misled. Bad associations free.Read Philippians 1:10, 11.
spoil useful habits. 14
Although spending much time in leisure activities may
(Proverbs 22:1) A good name is to be chosen rather than seem appealing, taking that path could distance you from
great wealth; To be respected is better than silver and gold. Jehovah. A 20-year-old sister named Kim learned that from
(Ecclesiastes 10:1) As dead flies cause the perfumers oil to experience. I used to be at all the parties, she says. Every
stink and bubble, so a little foolishness outweighs wisdom weekend something big was happeningFriday, Saturday,
and glory. and Sunday. Now, though, I see that there are just so many
(Ephesians 5:15, 16) So keep strict watch that how you walk more important things to do. For example, as a pioneer, I
is not as unwise but as wise persons, 16 making the best use of wake up at 6:00 a.m. for field service, so I cant be
your time, because the days are wicked. socializing until one or two in the morning. I know that social
events are not all bad, but they can be a huge distraction. Like
(James 3:14-18) But if you have bitter jealousy and anything else, they have to be kept in their place.
contentiousness in your hearts, do not be bragging and lying
against the truth. 15 This is not the wisdom that comes down 15
Parents are responsible for providing materially,
from above; it is earthly, animalistic, demonic. 16 For spiritually, and emotionally for themselves and their children.
wherever there are jealousy and contentiousness, there will That includes making provision for refreshment. If you are a
also be disorder and every vile thing. 17 But the wisdom from parent, do not be a killjoy who treats all leisure activity as
above is first of all pure, then peaceable, reasonable, ready to bad. At the same time, be on guard against unsavory
obey, full of mercy and good fruits, impartial, not influences. (1 Cor. 5:6) With adequate forethought, you can
hypocritical. 18 Moreover, the fruit of righteousness is sown in find recreation and entertainment that is truly refreshing for
peaceful conditions for those who are making peace. your family. In that way, you and your children will choose a
(Psalm 97:10) O you who love Jehovah, hate what is bad. He path that will bring you closer to Jehovah.
is guarding the lives of his loyal ones; He rescues them from
the hand of the wicked.

88
(Isaiah 52:11) Turn away, turn away, get out of there, touch twice and having been uprooted; 13 wild waves of the sea that
nothing unclean! Get out from the midst of her, keep cast up the foam of their own shame; stars with no set course,
yourselves clean, You who are carrying the utensils of for which the blackest darkness stands reserved forever.
Jehovah. (Revelation 2:1) To the angel of the congregation in Eph
esus write: These are the things that he says who holds the
Page 64 Unit 7 (b) seven stars in his right hand and walks among the seven
golden lampstands:
(1 Timothy 6:8-10) So, having food and clothing, we will be
content with these things. 9 But those who are determined to
be rich fall into temptation and a snare and many senseless Page 65 Unit 7 (b)
and harmful desires that plunge men into destruction and
Sexual Immorality
ruin. 10 For the love of money is a root of all sorts of injurious (Leviticus 20:10) Now regarding a man who commits
things, and by reaching out for this love some have been led adultery with another mans wife: The one who commits
astray from the faith and have stabbed themselves all over adultery with the wife of his fellow man should be put to
with many pains. death without fail, the adulterer and the adulteress.
(1 Timothy 2:9, 10) Likewise, the women should adorn (Leviticus 20:13) If a man lies down with a male the same
themselves in appropriate dress, with modesty and soundness as one lies down with a woman, both of them have done a
of mind, not with styles of hair braiding and gold or pearls or detestable thing. They should be put to death without fail.
very expensive clothing, 10 but in the way that is proper for Their own blood is upon them.
women professing devotion to God, namely, through good
works. (Leviticus 20:15, 16) If a man has intercourse with a beast,
he should be put to death without fail, and you should kill the
(Psalm 68:6) God gives those who are alone a home to dwell beast. 16 If a woman approaches any beast to have intercourse
in; He leads prisoners out into prosperity. But the stubborn with it, you must kill the woman and the beast. They should
must live in a parched land. be put to death without fail. Their own blood is upon them.
(Philippians 4:5) Let your reasonableness become known to (Romans 1:24) Therefore, God, in keeping with the desires
all men. The Lord is near. of their hearts, gave them up to uncleanness, so that their
(1 Peter 5:6) Humble yourselves, therefore, under the mighty bodies might be dishonored among them.
hand of God, so that he may exalt you in due time, (Romans 1:26, 27) That is why God gave them over to
Your Part in Keeping the congregation Clean uncontrolled sexual passion, for their females changed the
(2 Timothy 3:1-5) But know this, that in the last days critical natural use of themselves into one contrary to nature;
27
times hard to deal with will be here. 2 For men will be lovers likewise also the males left the natural use of the female
of themselves, lovers of money, boastful, haughty, and became violently inflamed in their lust toward one
blasphemers, disobedient to parents, unthankful, disloyal, another, males with males, working what is obscene and
3
having no natural affection, not open to any agreement, receiving in themselves the full penalty, which was due for
slanderers, without self-control, fierce, without love of their error.
goodness, 4 betrayers, headstrong, puffed up with pride, (Romans 1:32) Although these know full well the righteous
lovers of pleasures rather than lovers of God, 5 having an decree of Godthat those practicing such things are
appearance of godliness but proving false to its power; and deserving of deaththey not only keep on doing them but
from these turn away. also approve of those practicing them.
(2 Timothy 3:13) But wicked men and impostors will (1 Corinthians 6:9, 10) Or do you not know that unrighteous
advance from bad to worse, misleading and being misled. people will not inherit Gods Kingdom? Do not be misled.
(Jude 3, 4) Beloved ones, although I was making every effort Those who are sexually immoral, idolaters, adulterers, men
to write you about the salvation we hold in common, I found who submit to homosexual acts, men who practice
it necessary to write you to urge you to put up a hard fight for homosexuality, 10 thieves, greedy people, drunkards, revilers,
the faith that was once for all time delivered to the holy ones. and extortioners will not inherit Gods Kingdom.
4
My reason is that certain men have slipped in among you
who were long ago appointed to this judgment by the *** nwt p. 1711 Glossary ***
Scriptures; they are ungodly men who turn the undeserved
Sexual immorality. From the Greek porneia, a general
kindness of our God into an excuse for brazen conduct and
term for all unlawful sexual intercourse. It includes adultery,
who prove false to our only owner and Lord, Jesus Christ.
prostitution, sexual relations between unmarried individuals,
(Jude 11-13) Too bad for them, for they have followed the homosexuality, and bestiality. It is used figuratively in
path of Cain and have rushed into the erroneous course of Ba Revelation with regard to a religious prostitute called
laam for reward, and they have perished in the rebellious talk Babylon the Great to describe her consorting with the
of Korah! 12 These are the rocks hidden below water at your rulers of this world for power and material gain. (Rev 14:8;
love feasts while they feast with you, shepherds who feed 17:2; 18:3; Mt 5:32; Ac 15:29; Ga 5:19)See
themselves without fear; waterless clouds carried here and PROSTITUTE.
there by the wind; fruitless trees in late autumn, having died
89
Apostasy (Proverbs 6:19) A false witness who lies with every breath,
(Deuteronomy 13:13) Good-for-nothing men have gone out And anyone sowing contentions among brothers.
among you to turn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: (Colossians 3:9) Do not lie to one another. Strip off the old
Let us go and serve other gods, gods that you have not personality with its practices,
known, (Revelation 22:15) Outside are the dogs and those who
(Deuteronomy 13:15) you should without fail strike down practice spiritism and those who are sexually immoral and the
the inhabitants of that city with the sword. Devote it and murderers and the idolaters and everyone who loves and
everything that is in it, including its livestock, to destruction practices lying.
by the sword.
(2 Corinthians 6:14, 15) Do not become unevenly yoked *** it-2 p. 245 Lie ***
with unbelievers. For what fellowship do righteousness and Jehovah God cannot lie (Nu 23:19; Heb 6:13-18), and he
lawlessness have? Or what sharing does light have with hates a false tongue. (Pr 6:16-19) His law to the Israelites
darkness? 15 Further, what harmony is there between Christ required compensation for injuries resulting from deception
and Belial? Or what does a believer share in common with or malicious lying. (Le 6:2-7; 19:11, 12) And a person
an unbeliever? presenting false testimony was to receive the punishment that
(2 Corinthians 6:17, 18) Therefore, get out from among he desired to inflict upon another by means of his lies. (De
them, and separate yourselves, says Jehovah, and quit 19:15-21) Gods view of malicious lying, as reflected in the
touching the unclean thing; and I will take you in. Law, has not changed. Those desiring to gain his approval
18
And I will become a father to you, and you will become cannot engage in the practice of lying. (Ps 5:6; Pr 20:19; Col
sons and daughters to me, says Jehovah, the Almighty. 3:9, 10; 1Ti 3:11; Re 21:8, 27; 22:15) They cannot be living a
(2 John 7) For many deceivers have gone out into the world, lie, claiming to love God while hating their brother. (1Jo
those not acknowledging Jesus Christ as coming in the flesh. 4:20, 21) For playing false to the holy spirit by lying, Ananias
This is the deceiver and the antichrist. and his wife lost their lives.Ac 5:1-11.
(2 John 9, 10) Everyone who pushes ahead and does not
remain in the teaching of the Christ does not have God. The Reviling; slander
one who does remain in this teaching is the one who has both
(Leviticus 19:16) You must not go around spreading
the Father and the Son. 10 If anyone comes to you and does
slander among your people. You must not stand up against the
not bring this teaching, do not receive him into your homes or
life of your fellow man. I am Jehovah.
say a greeting to him.
(1 Corinthians 6:10) thieves, greedy people, drunkards,
(Revelation 18:4) And I heard another voice out of heaven
revilers, and extortioners will not inherit Gods Kingdom.
say: Get out of her, my people, if you do not want to share
with her in her sins, and if you do not want to receive part of
*** lv chap. 12 pp. 137-139 pars. 11-14 Speak What Is
her plagues.
Good for Building Up ***
Abortion
11
(Exodus 21:22-25) If men should struggle with each other Harmful gossip, slander. Gossip is idle talk about
and they hurt a pregnant woman and she gives birth people and their lives. Is all gossip bad? Not if we mean
prematurely but no fatality results, the offender must pay the innocent conversation in which we might share positive or
damages imposed on him by the husband of the woman; and helpful news, such as who just got baptized or who needs a
he must pay it through the judges. 23 But if a fatality does word of encouragement. First-century Christians had a keen
occur, then you must give life for life, 24 eye for eye, tooth for interest in one anothers welfare and shared appropriate
tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, 25 burn for burn, wound for information about fellow believers. (Ephesians 6:21, 22;
wound, blow for blow. Colossians 4:8, 9) Gossip, however, can be harmful if it
distorts the facts or reveals private matters. Even more
serious, it can lead to slander, which is always damaging.
(Psalm 127:3) Look! Sons are an inheritance from Jehovah; Slander is the utterance of false charges . . . which defame
The fruit of the womb is a reward. and damage anothers reputation. The Pharisees, for
(Psalm 139:14-16) I praise you because in an awe-inspiring example, resorted to malicious slander in an attempt to
way I am wonderfully made. Your works are wonderful, I discredit Jesus. (Matthew 9:32-34; 12:22-24) Slander often
know this very well. 15 My bones were not hidden from you causes contention.Proverbs 26:20.
When I was made in secret, When I was woven in the depths 12
Jehovah does not view lightly those who use the gift of
of the earth. 16 Your eyes even saw me as an embryo; All its
speech to defame others or to cause divisions. He hates those
parts were written in your book Regarding the days when
causing contentions among brothers. (Proverbs 6:16-19)
they were formed, Before any of them existed.
The Greek word rendered slanderer is diabolos, which is
Deliberate, malicious lying; bearing false witness also used as a title of Satan. He is the Devil, the evil
(Proverbs 6:16) There are six things that Jehovah hates; Yes, slanderer of God. (Revelation 12:9, 10) Surely we want to
seven things that he detests: avoid speech that would cause us to become, in effect, a
devil. There is no room in the congregation for slanderous

90
speech that stirs up such works of the flesh as contentions Questions From Readers
and divisions. (Galatians 5:19-21) Hence, before repeating
some news about someone, ask yourself: Is it true? Would it Could a Christians practice of viewing pornography
be kind to repeat this? Is it necessary or advisable to share become so bad that it results in his being expelled from
this information?1 Thessalonians 4:11. the Christian congregation?
13
Abusive speech. As previously noted, words have the Yes, it could. That underscores why it is vital to shun
power to hurt. Admittedly, at times because of human vigorously all pornographyboth written material and
imperfection, we all say things we regret. However, the Bible imagesin magazines, in films, in videos, and on the
warns about a pattern of speech that has absolutely no place Internet.
in a Christian home or in the congregation. Paul admonished
Christians: Let all malicious bitterness and anger and wrath Pornography is found everywhere around the globe. The
and screaming and abusive speech be taken away from you. Internet makes pornographic material more available than
(Ephesians 4:31) Other translations render the phrase ever and has increased the number affected by this terrible
abusive speech as evil words, injurious language, and plague. Some, young and old, have accidentally come across
insulting language. Abusive speechincluding degrading pornographic Web sites. Others have deliberately gone to
name-calling and harsh, relentless criticismcan strip others them, feeling less inhibited because they can read or view
of their dignity and leave them feeling worthless. The tender pornography in secretat home or at the office. Why should
and trusting hearts of children are especially vulnerable to the this seriously concern Christians?
crushing effects of abusive speech.Colossians 3:21.
We find a fundamental reason in Jesus warning:
14
In the strongest possible terms, the Bible condemns Everyone that keeps on looking at a woman so as to have a
revilingthe practice of vilifying others with insulting, passion for her has already committed adultery with her in his
derogatory, or abusive language. An individual who makes a heart. (Matt. 5:28) Of course, normal sexual relations are
practice of such speech puts himself in a dangerous position, proper and a source of pleasure between marriage mates.
for a reviler can be removed from the congregation if he fails (Prov. 5:15-19; 1 Cor. 7:2-5) But that is not the focus of
to heed repeated efforts to help him change. Unless he pornography. Rather, it features illicit sex that stimulates the
changes his ways, he could also lose out on Kingdom sort of immoral thoughts that Jesus warned against. Plainly,
blessings. (1 Corinthians 5:11-13; 6:9, 10) Clearly, then, there reading or viewing pornography goes directly contrary to the
is no way for us to remain in Gods love if we make a divine direction: Deaden, therefore, your body members that
practice of uttering speech that is unwholesome, untrue, or are upon the earth as respects fornication, uncleanness, sexual
unkind. Such speech tears down. appetite, hurtful desire, and covetousness, which is
idolatry.Col. 3:5.
Uncleanness; brazen conduct What if a Christian did view pornography on an occasion
(2 Corinthians 12:21) Perhaps when I come again, my God or two? His case might, in a sense, be likened to the
might humiliate me before you, and I may have to mourn dangerous situation in which the psalmist Asaph once found
over many of those who previously sinned but have not himself: As for me, my feet had almost turned aside, my
repented of their uncleanness and sexual immorality and steps had nearly been made to slip. How could the Christian
brazen conduct that they have practiced. have a clean conscience and be at peace with God if he was
gazing at pornographic images of naked men or women or of
(Galatians 5:19) Now the works of the flesh are plainly seen,
a couple engaging in fornication? Nor was Asaph at peace: I
and they are sexual immorality, uncleanness, brazen conduct,
came to be plagued all day long, and my correction is every
(Ephesians 4:18, 19) They are in darkness mentally and morning.Ps. 73:2, 14.
alienated from the life that belongs to God, because of the
ignorance that is in them, because of the insensitivity of their A Christian caught up in that badness should wake up
hearts. 19 Having gone past all moral sense, they gave and face his need for spiritual help. That help is available in
themselves over to brazen conduct to practice every sort of the congregation: Even though a man takes some false step
uncleanness with greediness. before he is aware of it, you who have spiritual qualifications
(2 Peter 2:7) And he rescued righteous Lot, who was greatly try to readjust such a man in a spirit of mildness, as you each
distressed by the brazen conduct of the lawless people keep an eye on yourself. (Gal. 6:1) A Christian elder or two
could give him the help he needs, including prayers of faith
*** nwt p. 1694 Glossary *** that can make the indisposed one well, and his sin can be
forgiven. (Jas. 5:13-15) Those who have sought help to
Brazen conduct. From the Greek aselgeia, a phrase remove the stain of pornography have seen that drawing near
pertaining to acts that are serious violations of Gods laws to God has been good for them, as it was for Asaph.Ps.
and that reflect a brazen or boldly contemptuous attitude; a 73:28.
spirit that betrays disrespect or even contempt for authority,
laws, and standards. The expression does not refer to wrong However, the apostle Paul said that some who sinned did
conduct of a minor nature.Ga 5:19; 2Pe 2:7 not repent over their uncleanness and fornication and loose
conduct. (2 Cor. 12:21) Regarding the Greek term there
*** w12 3/15 pp. 30-31 Questions From Readers *** rendered uncleanness, Professor Marvin R. Vincent wrote
91
that it has the sense of impurity on the side of sordidness. It Lit., a voice of a curse (oath). Probably an announcement
is a sad fact that some pornography is much worse than regarding a wrongdoing that included a curse pronounced
scenes of nakedness or of a man and woman engaging in against the wrongdoer or against the witness in case he
fornication. There is sordid, abhorrent pornography involving failed to testify.
homosexuality (sex between those of the same gender), group
sex, bestiality, child pornography, gang rape, the brutalizing
(1 Corinthians 5:1, 2) Actually sexual immorality is reported
of women, bondage, or sadistic torture. Some in Pauls day
among you, and such immorality as is not even found among
who were in darkness mentally came to be past all moral
the nationsof a man living with his fathers wife. 2 And are
sense [and] gave themselves over to loose conduct to work
you proud of it? Should you not rather mourn, so that the man
uncleanness of every sort with greediness.Eph. 4:18, 19.
who committed this deed should be taken away from your
Paul also mentioned uncleanness at Galatians 5:19. A midst?
British scholar noted that it may here [signify] more (James 5:14) Is there anyone sick among you? Let him call
especially all unnatural lusts. What Christian would deny the elders of the congregation to him, and let them pray over
that the above-mentioned abhorrent, sexually degrading him, applying oil to him in the name of Jehovah.
forms of pornography are unnatural lusts and are sordid? (1 Corinthians 1:11) For some from the house of Chloe
Paul concluded at Galatians 5:19-21 that those who have informed me regarding you, my brothers, that there are
practice such uncleanness will not inherit Gods kingdom. dissensions among you.
Consequently, if someone developed an entrenched practice
of viewing abhorrent, sexually degrading pornography, (1 Corinthians 5:6) Your boasting is not good. Do you not
perhaps over a considerable period of time, and would not know that a little leaven ferments the whole batch of dough?
repent and turn around, he could not remain in the Christian (1 Timothy 5:22) Never lay your hands hastily on any man;
congregation. He would have to be disfellowshipped in order neither become a sharer in the sins of others; keep yourself
to preserve the cleanness and spirit of the congregation. chaste.
1 Cor. 5:5, 11.
It is good to know that some who fell into viewing Page 66 Unit 7 (b)
abhorrent forms of pornography went to the elders and
received the spiritual help needed to make drastic changes. (James 5:14-16) Is there anyone sick among you? Let him
Jesus appealed to Christians in ancient Sardis: Strengthen call the elders of the congregation to him, and let them pray
the things remaining that were ready to die, . . . continue over him, applying oil to him in the name of Jehovah. 15 And
mindful of how you have received and how you heard, and go the prayer of faith will make the sick one well, and Jehovah
on keeping it, and repent. Certainly unless you wake up, . . . will raise him up. Also, if he has committed sins, he will be
you will not know at all at what hour I shall come upon you. forgiven. 16 Therefore, openly confess your sins to one
(Rev. 3:2, 3) It is possible to repent and be snatched out of the another and pray for one another, so that you may be healed.
fire, as it were.Jude 22, 23. A righteous mans supplication has a powerful effect.
How much better, though, it is for each of us to be firmly (Galatians 5:16, 17) But I say, Keep walking by spirit and
resolved not to come anywhere near that dangerous position. you will carry out no fleshly desire at all. 17 For the flesh is
Yes, we should be absolutely determined to avoid all forms of against the spirit in its desire, and the spirit against the flesh;
pornography! these are opposed to each other, so that you do not do the
very things you want to do.
Drunkenness (Galatians 5:19-21) Now the works of the flesh are plainly
(1 Corinthians 5:11) But now I am writing you to stop seen, and they are sexual immorality, uncleanness, brazen
keeping company with anyone called a brother who is conduct, 20 idolatry, spiritism, hostility, strife, jealousy, fits of
sexually immoral or a greedy person or an idolater or a anger, dissensions, divisions, sects, 21 envy, drunkenness, wild
reviler or a drunkard or an extortioner, not even eating with parties, and things like these. I am forewarning you about
such a man. these things, the same way I already warned you, that those
who practice such things will not inherit Gods Kingdom.
(1 Corinthians 6:9, 10) Or do you not know that unrighteous
people will not inherit Gods Kingdom? Do not be misled. (John 16:33) I have said these things to you so that by means
Those who are sexually immoral, idolaters, adulterers, men of me you may have peace. In the world you will have
who submit to homosexual acts, men who practice tribulation, but take courage! I have conquered the world.
homosexuality, 10 thieves, greedy people, drunkards, revilers, (Jude 3) Beloved ones, although I was making every effort to
and extortioners will not inherit Gods Kingdom. write you about the salvation we hold in common, I found it
(Leviticus 5:1) If someone sins because he has heard a necessary to write you to urge you to put up a hard fight for
public call to testify and he is a witness or has seen or learned the faith that was once for all time delivered to the holy ones.
about it and he does not report it, then he will answer for his
error. Page 67 Unit 8 (a)
Walk in the Way of Integrity
*** nwt Leviticus 5:1 *** OPENING DISCUSSION
92
do, however, advocate the government of the country they
(Job 1:9-11) At that Satan answered Jehovah: Is it for represent. The same is true of Christs anointed followers,
nothing that Job has feared God? 10 Have you not put up a whose citizenship exists in the heavens. (Philippians 3:20)
protective hedge around him and his house and everything he In fact, thanks to their zealous Kingdom preaching, they have
has? You have blessed the work of his hands, and his helped millions of Christs other sheep to become
livestock has spread out in the land. 11 But, for a change, reconciled to God. (John 10:16; Matthew 25:31-40) These
stretch out your hand and strike everything he has, and he latter ones serve as Christs envoys, as it were, in support of
will surely curse you to your very face. Jesus anointed brothers. As one united flock advocating the
(Job 2:4) But Satan answered Jehovah: Skin for skin. A man Messianic Kingdom, both groups maintain strict neutrality
will give everything that he has for his life. toward the worlds political affairs.Isaiah 2:2-4.
(Proverbs 27:11) Be wise, my son, and make my heart
rejoice, So that I can make a reply to him who taunts me.
(Job 27:5) It is unthinkable for me to declare you men *** lv chap. 5 p. 52 How to Keep Separate From the
righteous! Until I die, I will not renounce my integrity! World ***

QUESTION OUTLINE [Box on page 52]


What It Means to Walk in the Way of Integrity EARLY CHRISTIAN NEUTRALS
Secular history provides ample evidence that the early
*** w04 12/1 p. 13 par. 4 Walk in the Way of Integrity *** Christians remained politically neutral and refrained from
4 warfare. Says the book The Beginnings of Christianity: The
Integrity carries the thought of being upright, blameless, founders of Christianity guarded with sedulous care against
righteous, and faultless. However, integrity involves more the development of anything like a disposition to interfere
than doing what is right. It is moral soundness or directly with the established political order. Similarly, the
completeness of heart devotion to God. Satan questioned book On the Road to Civilization notes: Early Christianity
Jobs motives when he told God: For a change, thrust out was little understood and was regarded with little favor by
your hand, please, and touch as far as [Jobs] bone and his those who ruled the pagan world. . . . Christians refused to
flesh and see whether he will not curse you to your very share certain duties of Roman citizens. . . . They would not
face. (Job 2:5) Along with proper action, integrity requires hold political office.
right heart motivation. Regarding the early Christians and military service, German
theologian Peter Meinhold said: Being a Christian and a
Page 68 Unit 8 (a) soldier was considered irreconcilable. In his essay An
Inquiry Into the Accordancy of War With the Principles of
(Psalm 119:1-3) Happy are those who are blameless in their Christianity, religion writer Jonathan Dymond wrote that for
way, Who walk in the law of Jehovah. 2 Happy are those who
observe his reminders, Who search for him with all their some time after the death of Jesus, His followers refused to
heart. 3 They practice no unrighteousness; They walk in his engage in [war]; whatever were the consequences, whether
ways reproach, or imprisonment, or death. Dymond added: These
facts are indisputable. Only when Christianity became
Maintaining our Integrity and Neutrality Under Trial corrupted, said another writer, did Christians become
(Matthew 22:21) They said: Caesars. Then he said to
them: Pay back, therefore, Caesars things to Caesar, but soldiers
Gods things to God.
Wars *** it-1 pp. 175-176 Army ***
*** lv chap. 5 pp. 51-52 pars. 3-4 How to Keep Separate
From the World *** Those Known as Early Christians. Early Christians
3 refused to serve in the Roman army, in both the legions and
Instead of participating in the politics of his day, Jesus
auxilia, considering such service as wholly incompatible with
focused on preaching about Gods Kingdom, the future
the teachings of Christianity. Says Justin Martyr, of the
heavenly government of which he was the prospective King.
second century C.E., in his Dialogue With Trypho, a Jew
(Daniel 7:13, 14; Luke 4:43; 17:20, 21) Thus, when before
(CX): We who were filled with war, and mutual slaughter,
Roman Governor Pontius Pilate, Jesus could say: My
and every wickedness, have each through the whole earth
kingdom is no part of this world. (John 18:36) His faithful
changed our warlike weapons,our swords into
followers imitate his example by giving their loyalty to Christ
ploughshares, and our spears into implements of tillage.
and his Kingdom and by announcing that Kingdom to the
(The Ante-Nicene Fathers, Vol. I, p. 254) In his treatise The
world. (Matthew 24:14) We are therefore ambassadors
Chaplet, or De Corona (XI), when discussing whether
substituting for Christ, wrote the apostle Paul. As
warfare is proper at all for Christians, Tertullian (c.
substitutes for Christ we beg: Become reconciled to
200 C.E.) argued from Scripture the unlawfulness even of a
God.2 Corinthians 5:20.
military life itself, concluding, I banish from us the military
4
Because ambassadors represent a foreign sovereign or life.The Ante-Nicene Fathers, 1957, Vol. III, pp. 99, 100.
state, they do not interfere in the internal affairs of the
A careful review of all the information available goes to
countries where they serve; they remain neutral. Ambassadors
show that, until the time of Marcus Aurelius [121-180 C.E.],
93
no Christian became a soldier; and no soldier, after becoming Nebuchadnezzar of ancient Babylon. To impress the people
a Christian, remained in military service. (The Rise of with his majesty and religious ardor, this powerful monarch
Christianity, by E. W. Barnes, 1947, p. 333) It will be seen erected a great image and compelled his subjects to bow
presently that the evidence for the existence of a single down to it while music, like an anthem, was being played.
Christian soldier between 60 and about 165 A.D. is However, three HebrewsShadrach, Meshach, and
exceedingly slight; . . . up to the reign of Marcus Aurelius at Abednegorefused to bow to the image, even on pain of
least, no Christian would become a soldier after his baptism. death.Daniel, chapter 3.
(The Early Church and the World, by C. J. Cadoux, 1955, pp.
275, 276) In the second century, Christianity . . . had In our age, nationalisms chief symbol of faith and
affirmed the incompatibility of military service with central object of worship is the flag, wrote historian Carlton
Christianity. (A Short History of Rome, by G. Ferrero and Hayes. Men bare their heads when the flag passes by; and in
C. Barbagallo, 1919, p. 382) The behavior of the Christians praise of the flag poets write odes and children sing hymns.
was very different from that of the Romans. . . . Since Christ Nationalism, he added, also has its holy days, such as the
had preached peace, they refused to become soldiers. (Our Fourth of July in the United States, as well as its saints and
World Through the Ages, by N. Platt and M. J. Drummond, heroes and its temples, or shrines. In a public ceremony in
1961, p. 125) The first Christians thought it was wrong to Brazil, the minister general of the army acknowledged: The
fight, and would not serve in the army even when the Empire flag is venerated and worshiped . . . just as the Fatherland is
needed soldiers. (The New Worlds Foundations in the Old, worshiped. Yes, the flag, like the cross, is sacred, The
by R. and W. M. West, 1929, p. 131) The Christians . . . Encyclopedia Americana once observed.
shrank from public office and military service. (Persecution The aforementioned encyclopedia more recently noted
of the Christians in Gaul, A.D. 177, by F. P. G. Guizot in that national anthems are expressions of patriotic feeling and
The Great Events by Famous Historians, edited by often include an invocation for divine guidance and
R. Johnson, 1905, Vol. III, p. 246) While they [the protection of the people or their rulers. Jehovahs servants
Christians] inculcated the maxims of passive obedience, they are not being unreasonable, therefore, when they view
refused to take any active part in the civil administration or patriotic ceremonies involving the flag salute and national
the military defence of the empire. . . . It was impossible that anthems as religious. In fact, when commenting on the
the Christians, without renouncing a more sacred duty, could refusal of children of Jehovahs Witnesses to give homage to
assume the character of soldiers, of magistrates, or of the flag or to swear the oath of allegiance in U.S. schools, the
princes.The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, by book The American Character stated: That these daily
Edward Gibbon, Vol. I, p. 416 rituals are religious has been at last affirmed by the Supreme
Court in a series of cases.
Politics, voting*** lv p. 213 Flag Salute, Voting, and
Civilian Service *** While not joining in ceremonies that they view as
unscriptural, Jehovahs people certainly respect the right of
Voting in political elections. True Christians respect the others to do so. They also respect national flags as emblems
right of others to vote. They do not campaign against and recognize duly constituted governments as superior
elections, and they cooperate with elected authorities. authorities serving as Gods minister. (Romans 13:1-4)
However, they remain resolutely neutral with regard to the Hence, Jehovahs Witnesses heed the exhortation to pray
political affairs of the nations. (Matthew 22:21; 1 Peter 3:16) concerning kings and all those who are in high station. Our
What should a Christian do in lands where voting is motive, though, is in order that we may go on leading a calm
compulsory or in a situation where feelings run high against and quiet life with full godly devotion and seriousness.
those who do not go to the voting booth? Remembering that 1 Timothy 2:2.
Shadrach, Meshach, and Abednego went as far as the plain of
Dura, a Christian, under similar circumstances, may decide to
go to the booth if his conscience permits. However, he will (John 15:17-21) These things I command you, that you love
take care not to violate his neutrality. He should take into one another. 18 If the world hates you, you know that it has
account the following six principles: hated me before it hated you. 19 If you were part of the world,
the world would be fond of what is its own. Now because you
are no part of the world, but I have chosen you out of the
world, for this reason the world hates you. 20 Keep in mind
Flags, national symbols, anthems the word I said to you: A slave is not greater than his master.
*** lv pp. 212-213 Flag Salute, Voting, and Civilian If they have persecuted me, they will also persecute you; if
Service *** they have observed my word, they will also observe yours.
Flag Salute, Voting, and Civilian Service 21
But they will do all these things against you on account of
my name, because they do not know the One who sent me.
Flag salute. Jehovahs Witnesses believe that bowing (John 17:14) I have given your word to them, but the world
down to a flag or saluting it, often in conjunction with an has hated them, because they are no part of the world, just as
anthem, is a religious act that ascribes salvation, not to God, I am no part of the world.
but to the State or to its leaders. (Isaiah 43:11; 1 Corinthians
(John 17:16) They are no part of the world, just as I am no
10:14; 1 John 5:21) One such leader was King
part of the world.
94
(John 18:36) Jesus answered: My Kingdom is no part of imprisoned, the inmates asked: Who is going to bring you
this world. If my Kingdom were part of this world, my food this time?
attendants would have fought that I should not be handed We answered that our brothers would bring us food, but the
over to the Jews. But as it is, my Kingdom is not from this inmates shook their heads in disbelief. They knew that there
source. were no other European Witnesses in the area. How surprised
they were the next day when our Congolese brothers arrived
*** lv chap. 5 p. 55 How to Keep Separate From the with so much food that we could share it with those
World ***Box prisoners! It was a wonderful witness concerning our
AM I REMAINING NEUTRAL? international brotherhood and the love that unites us. Those
dear brothers who brought us food risked imprisonment to do
Principle: My kingdom is no part of this world. this. Five days later, we were released. We then flew to
John 18:36. England, arriving just in time for the convention.
Some questions to ask yourself
Page 69 Unit 8 (a)
How would I explain why saluting the flag is a form of idol
worship?Exodus 20:4, 5; 1 John 5:21. (Acts 5:29) In answer Peter and the other apostles said:
We must obey God as ruler rather than men.
When explaining my nonparticipation in certain national
ceremonies, how would I show my deep respect for those *** km 2/94 p. 4 pars. 11-12 Objects of Hatred by All the
who do not share my beliefs?1 Peter 3:15. Nations ***
What are my reasons for not supporting any political parties 11
We must never lose sight of the fact that the message
or performing any type of military service?John 13:34; we proclaim originates, not with us, but with Jehovah. (Jer.
1 John 3:10-12. 1:9) We are under obligation to heed the exhortation: Call
upon his name. Make known among the peoples his
dealings . . . in all the earth. (Isa. 12:4, 5) He has tolerated
(1 Corinthians 12:25, 26) so that there should be no division
the mistreatment of his people for a specific purpose, namely,
in the body, but its members should have mutual concern for
to have his name declared in all the earth. (Ex. 9:16) We are
one another. 26 If one member suffers, all the other members
doing a work decreed by Jehovah, and he is the one who
suffer with it; or if a member is glorified, all the other
gives us the courage to speak out with boldness. (Acts 4:29-
members rejoice with it.
31) This is the most important, beneficial, and urgent work
that can be done in these final days of the old system.
*** yb04 pp. 219-220 Democratic Republic of Congo 12
This knowledge gives us the courage to take a firm
(Kinshasa) *** stand in direct opposition to Satan and this world. (1 Pet.
5:8, 9) Knowing that Jehovah is with us makes us
[Box/Picture on page 219, 220]
courageous and strong, dispelling any cause for fear before
An Interview With Godfrey Bint
our persecutors. (Deut. 31:6; Heb. 13:6) While we will
Born: 1945
always try to be tactful, reasonable, and discreet when
Baptized: 1956
threatened by opposers, we will make it clear that we are
Profile: Graduate of the 47th class of Gilead. Served in
determined to obey God as ruler rather than men when our
Congo for 17 years. Presently serves on the Branch
worship is challenged. (Acts 5:29) When there is reasonable
Committee in Rwanda. Speaks English, French,
opportunity to speak out in our defense, we will do so. (1 Pet.
Lingala, Swahili, and Tshiluba.
3:15) However, we will not waste our time disputing with
In 1973, I was in field service with a local brother in hardened opponents who are only interested in discrediting
Kananga. The authorities came into a home where we were us. Rather than become incensed or try to retaliate when they
conducting a Bible study and arrested us. We spent the next malign or falsely accuse us, we simply let them be.Matt.
two weeks in prison. During this time, my missionary partner, 15:14.
Mike Gates, brought us food, since none was available in the (Philippians 1:27-30) Only behave in a manner worthy of
prison itself. Finally, we were released. Three months later, the good news about the Christ, so that whether I come and
the day Mike and I were booked to take a plane to attend an see you or I am absent, I may hear about you and learn that
international convention in England, we heard that all the you are standing firm in one spirit, with one soul, striving
brothers in a nearby congregation had been arrested. We side by side for the faith of the good news, 28 and in no way
wanted to see them and to give them some food. To our being frightened by your opponents. This very thing is a
surprise, when we asked to see the brothers, a magistrate proof of destruction for them, but of salvation for you; and
ordered our arrest. As we waited for the prison bus to take us this is from God. 29 For you have been given the privilege in
to the prison, we heard our plane take off. You can imagine behalf of Christ, not only to put your faith in him but also to
how our hearts sank at that sound! suffer in his behalf. 30 For you are facing the same struggle
When we arrived at the prison, I saw that many inmates that you saw me face, which you now hear that I am still
were still there from my previous stay three months earlier. facing.
Because my partner who had brought me food was now also
95
18
(Philippians 4:6, 7) Do not be anxious over anything, but in Finally, coping with trials and tribulations can benefit
everything by prayer and supplication along with us personally. In what way? The disciple James reminded his
thanksgiving, let your petitions be made known to God; 7 and fellow Christians: Consider it all joy, my brothers, when you
the peace of God that surpasses all understanding will guard meet with various trials, knowing as you do that this tested
your hearts and your mental powers by means of Christ Jesus. quality of your faith works out endurance. Yes, persecution
can refine our faith and strengthen our endurance. Thus, we
*** w11 1/15 pp. 29-30 par. 15 Empowered to Overcome do not dread it, nor do we seek unscriptural means to evade
Any Trial *** or end it. Rather, we heed James admonition: Let endurance
15
have its work complete, that you may be complete and sound
The apostle Paul endured many life-threatening in all respects, not lacking in anything.James 1:2-4.
adversities for the sake of his faith. (2 Cor. 11:23-28) How
did he maintain balance and emotional stability under those *** w85 11/15 pp. 12-15 pars. 6-26 Can You Prepare Now
trying circumstances? By prayerful reliance on Jehovah. for Persecution? ***
During the time of testing that apparently culminated in his
6
martyrdom, Paul wrote: The Lord stood near me and infused It is difficult to make physical preparations for
power into me, that through me the preaching might be fully persecution because you do not know just what the situation
accomplished and all the nations might hear it; and I was will be. Until it actually happens, you do not know whether a
delivered from the lions mouth. (2 Tim. 4:17) Therefore, ban will be strictly or loosely enforced, or even what will be
from personal experience, Paul could assure fellow believers banned. Perhaps only the house-to-house preaching work will
that there was no need to be anxious over anything.Read be forbidden, or maybe religious meetings. Sometimes the
Philippians 4:6, 7, 13. legal organization of Jehovahs Witnesses is dissolved, or
certain individuals are immediately imprisoned. We can have
(1 Chronicles 29:17) I well know, O my God, that you in mind various places where literature could be hidden in
examine the heart and that you take pleasure in integrity. In case of need. But beyond that, there is little we can do in the
the uprightness of my heart, I have voluntarily offered all way of physical preparation.
these things, and I am overjoyed to see your people who are 7
present here make voluntary offerings to you. However, you can prepare your mind and heart, and this
is far more important. Set your mind on why persecution is
(1 Corinthians 10:13) No temptation has come upon you permitted and why you may be haled before rulers. For a
except what is common to men. But God is faithful, and he witness, said Jesus. (Matthew 10:16-19) If your heart is fully
will not let you be tempted beyond what you can bear, but prepared to stay faithful no matter what, Jehovah can reveal
along with the temptation he will also make the way out so the wise way to act when the need arises. Hence, how can we
that you may be able to endure it. prepare ourselves spiritually for persecution?
(2 Peter 2:9) So, then, Jehovah knows how to rescue people
of godly devotion out of trial, but to reserve unrighteous How Do You Deal With People?
people to be destroyed on the day of judgment, 8
The apostle Paul said: I take pleasure in weaknesses, in
insults, in cases of need, in persecutions and difficulties, for
*** w10 11/15 p. 32 par. 20 We Shall Walk in Our Christ. (2 Corinthians 12:10) Did Paul enjoy being insulted?
Integrity! *** Of course not. But persecution often involves being insulted,
20 and if this was what it took to bring praise to Gods name,
Job was able to maintain his integrity because he loved
then Paul was happy to endure it.
God, and Jehovah loved and helped him. Said Job: Life and
loving-kindness [loyal love, ftn.] you [Jehovah] have 9
We, too, can be sure that at some time we will have to
worked with me; and your own care has guarded my spirit. endure insults . . . for Christ. We may be verbally, or even
(Job 10:12) Moreover, Job showed love for others, realizing physically, abused. Will we endure? Well, how do we view
that anyone withholding loyal love from fellow humans will ourselves now? Do we take ourselves very seriously and react
abandon the reverential fear of the Almighty. (Job 6:14) quickly to real or imagined insults? If so, then why not work
Integrity keepers love God and neighbor.Matt. 22:37-40 on developing long-suffering, . . . mildness, self-control?
(Galatians 5:22, 23) This will be excellent training for
Integrity under Trial
Christian living now, and it could save your life in times of
(Matthew 5:10) Happy are those who have been persecuted
persecution.
for righteousness sake, since the Kingdom of the heavens
belongs to them. How Do You View Field Service?
(James 1:2-4) Consider it all joy, my brothers, when you 10
Often, the first thing restricted under a ban is the public
meet with various trials, 3 knowing as you do that this tested
preaching of the good news. Yet preaching and disciple
quality of your faith produces endurance. 4 But let endurance
making are vital in these last days. How else will people learn
complete its work, so that you may be complete and sound in
about Gods Kingdom? Hence, the proper reaction to such a
all respects, not lacking in anything.
ban is the one expressed by the apostles, when the Jewish
religious leaders tried to ban their preaching activity. (Acts
*** w03 10/1 p. 13 par. 18 Persecuted for Righteousness 5:28, 29) Under ban, some avenues of preaching may be
Sake *** closed. But, somehow, the work has to be done. Would you
96
have the strength to continue preaching under the pressure of weaknesses, just as they doubtless are putting up with yours?
persecution? Do not be critical of others and thus greatly discourage them.
11
Also, train yourself and your children to respect other
Well, how do you view the preaching work now? Do peoples property while attending Congregation Book
you permit small obstacles to interfere and make you Studies. Under persecution, such respect will promote
irregular in the field service? If so, what would you do under peaceful relations.
a ban? Do you fear men now? Are you willing to preach from
house to house on your own street? Are you afraid to work
alone? In some lands, two people working together often
draw too much attention. So, where it is safe to do so, why Are You Inquisitive?
not work alone now from time to time? It will be good 18
By nature, some of us are very inquisitive. We cannot
training. bear not being in the know. Are you like that? If so,
12
Do you share in magazine street work? Do you have consider this: Sometimes, when the work of Jehovahs
the courage and initiative to create opportunities for informal Witnesses has been banned, the authorities try to discover
witnessing? Do you work business territories? Are you afraid their organizational arrangements and the names of
to approach wealthy or influential people? If you only share responsible overseers. If you were one who knew these
in certain kinds of preaching, what will you do if, under ban, things, you could be subjected to physical abuse in an effort
that kind of preaching is no longer possible? to force you to reveal them. And if you did reveal them, the
work of your brothers could be seriously affected. Hence,
13
Do you recognize that you have a weakness in some sometimes it is safer to know only as much as you need to
respect? Now is the time to work on it. Learn to rely on know and no more.
Jehovah and become more qualified as a minister. Then you 19
will be better equipped to preach now and better prepared to Can you train for that now? Yes. For example, if there
persevere in times of persecution. is a judicial committee case in the congregation, individuals
should be satisfied with whatever the elders see fit to say and
Are You Reliable? not pry in order to find out any details. Wives and children of
14
elders should not try to pressure them into revealing
Throughout the Christian Greek Scriptures, individuals confidential matters. In every way, we should learn not to
are mentioned who were towers of strength in the meddle in what does not concern us.2 Thessalonians
congregation. For example, Onesiphorus courageously helped 3:11.
Paul when he was in prison in Rome. (2 Timothy 1:16)
Phoebe was recommended because of her hard work in the Are You a Bible Student?
congregation at Cenchreae. (Romans 16:1, 2) Such men and 20
women must have been a fine stabilizing influence when The Bible is the basis for a Christians spiritual
persecution broke out. They stayed awake, stood firm in the strength. It gives him answers to his most important questions
faith, carried on as men, grew mighty.1 Corinthians 16:13. and grants access to the wisdom of God himself. (2 Timothy
3:14-16) All Christians acknowledge this in principle, but
15
All Christians, particularly elders, should try to make what part does the Bible really play in your life? Do you
progress and become like the strong early Christians. study it regularly and allow it to guide you in everything you
(1 Timothy 4:15) Learn to keep confidential matters private do?Psalm 119:105.
and to make decisions based on Scriptural principles. Train 21
yourself to discern Christian qualities in others so that you Often, access to our Bible literature is severely
will know who will be reliable under pressure. Work, with restricted when the work is banned. Sometimes, even Bibles
Jehovahs strength, to become a pillar in your congregation, a are hard to find. Under such circumstances, the holy spirit
person who helps others rather than one who always needs will remind you of things you have learned in times past. But
help.Galatians 6:5. it will not remind you of things you have not learned!
Therefore, the more you study now, the more will be stored in
How Do You Get Along With People? your mind and heart for the holy spirit to bring out in times of
16
need.Mark 13:11.
The apostle Paul encouraged us: Clothe yourselves
with the tender affections of compassion, kindness, lowliness Do You Pray?
of mind, mildness, and long-suffering. Continue putting up 22
with one another and forgiving one another freely. This is an important question when we think of
(Colossians 3:12, 13) Is this easy for you? Or do other persecution. The Bible counsels: Persevere in prayer.
peoples imperfections irritate you unduly? Do you quickly (Romans 12:12) Prayer is direct communication with Jehovah
take offense or get discouraged? If so, here is another field God. Through it we can ask for the strength to endure
where preparation can be made. difficulties and make right decisions, as well as build a
personal relationship with Jehovah God. Even if opposers
17
In lands where meetings are banned, Christians take away our literature, our Bibles, and our association with
regularly come together in small numbers. In such other Christians, they can never take away our privilege of
circumstances, their shortcomings become even more prayer. In the strongest prison, a Christian can get in touch
evident. So why not train yourself now to put up with others with God. Taking full advantage of the privilege of prayer,

97
then, is a fine way to prepare for whatever the future may because they had been counted worthy to be dishonored in
hold. behalf of his name.
Do You Trust Authority? (1 Peter 3:13, 14) Indeed, who will harm you if you become
zealous for what is good? 14 But even if you should suffer for
23
Building up this trust is also important. The elders in the sake of righteousness, you are happy. However, do not
the congregation are a part of Gods provision to protect us. fear what they fear, nor be disturbed.
Elders need to act in a way that deserves trust, and the rest of
the congregation needs to learn to give them their trust. *** w00 4/1 p. 22 par. 17 Fighters Against God Will Not
(Isaiah 32:1, 2; Hebrews 13:7, 17) Even more important, we Prevail! ***
should learn to trust the faithful and discreet slave. 17
Matthew 24:45-47. Our enemies fight against us without cause, but we do
not lose courage. (Psalm 109:1-3) Never will we allow those
24
Enemies may spread lies about Gods organization. who hate our Bible message to intimidate us into
(1 Timothy 4:1, 2) In one country, some Christians were compromising our faith. Though we expect our spiritual fight
misled to believe that the Governing Body of Jehovahs to intensify, we know the outcome. Like Jeremiah, we will
Witnesses had forsaken Christianity, whereas they themselves experience the fulfillment of the prophetic words: They will
were still remaining faithful to it. A good way to prepare to be certain to fight against you, but they will not prevail
resist attacks like this is to build a strong love for your against you, for I am with you, is the utterance of Jehovah,
brothers and learn to trust in Jehovahs arrangement of things. to deliver you. (Jeremiah 1:19) Yes, we know that fighters
1 John 3:11. against God will not prevail!
You Can Be Victorious Applying bible Principles-The Key to Integrity
25
The aged apostle John, after suffering persecution, told (Romans 13:1-7) Let every person be in subjection to the
us: Everything that has been born from God conquers the superior authorities, for there is no authority except by God;
world. And this is the conquest that has conquered the world, the existing authorities stand placed in their relative positions
our faith. (1 John 5:4) You cannot conquer in your own by God. 2 Therefore, whoever opposes the authority has taken
strength. Satan and his world are stronger than you are. But a stand against the arrangement of God; those who have taken
they are not stronger than Jehovah God. Hence, if we obey a stand against it will bring judgment against themselves.
3
Gods commands, praying for his spirit to uphold us and For those rulers are an object of fear, not to the good deed,
relying on him completely for strength to endure, then we can but to the bad. Do you want to be free of fear of the
come off victorious.Habakkuk 3:13, 18; Revelation 15:2; authority? Keep doing good, and you will have praise from it;
4
1 Corinthians 15:57. for it is Gods minister to you for your good. But if you are
26
doing what is bad, be in fear, for it is not without purpose that
In all lands, there are some Christians being it bears the sword. It is Gods minister, an avenger to express
persecuted, either by opposed marriage mates or in some wrath against the one practicing what is bad. 5 There is
other way. In some lands, all of Gods servants are suffering therefore compelling reason for you to be in subjection, not
because of the official acts of the local government. But even only on account of that wrath but also on account of your
if, right now, you personally are not suffering opposition or conscience. 6 That is why you are also paying taxes; for they
unusual hardship, remember that it could happen at any time. are Gods public servants constantly serving this very
Jesus said that persecution of Christians would be a part of purpose. 7 Render to all their dues: to the one who calls for
the sign of the time of the end; hence, we should always the tax, the tax; to the one who calls for the tribute, the
expect it. (Matthew 24:9) So why not prepare for it now? Be tribute; to the one who calls for fear, such fear; to the one
determined that, whatever may lie ahead, your conduct will who calls for honor, such honor.
always bring praise to your heavenly Father, Jehovah God.
Proverbs 27:11. *** w96 5/1 p. 10 par. 3 God and Caesar ***
3
Similarly, the State exercises its authority only because
(Isaiah 54:17) No weapon formed against you will have any God as Sovereign Ruler permits it to do so. (John 19:11)
success, And you will condemn any tongue that rises up Thus, the existing authorities can be said to stand placed
against you in the judgment. This is the heritage of the in their relative positions by God. Relative to Jehovahs
servants of Jehovah, And their righteousness is from me, supreme sovereign authority, theirs is by far a lesser
declares Jehovah. authority. However, they are Gods minister, Gods public
(Jeremiah 1:19) And they will certainly fight against you, servants, in that they provide necessary services, maintain
But they will not prevail against you, For I am with you, law and order, and punish evildoers. (Romans 13:1, 4, 6) So
declares Jehovah, to save you. Christians need to understand that just because Satan is the
(Acts 5:40, 41) At this they took his advice, and they invisible ruler of this world, or system, they are not
summoned the apostles, flogged them, and ordered them to subjecting themselves to him when they recognize their
stop speaking on the basis of Jesus name, and let them go. relative subjection to the State. They are obeying God. In this
41
So they went out from before the Sanhedrin, rejoicing year, 1996, the political State is still a part of the
arrangement of God, a temporary arrangement that God

98
permits to exist, and it should be recognized as such by share in the ministry full-time or part-time, we keep in mind
Jehovahs earthly servants.Romans 13:2. that Jehovah himself assigned us to our ministry.
(2 Corinthians 2:17) Since some may challenge our position,
every dedicated, baptized Christian must be ready to furnish
clear and positive proof that he truly is a minister of the good
Page 70 Unit 8 (a) news. (1 Peter 3:15) His ministry should also be evidenced in
his conduct. As a minister of God, a Christian should
First two bullets advocate and practice clean morals, uphold family unity, be
*** w96 5/1 p. 12 par. 9 God and Caesar *** honest, and show respect for law and order. (Romans 12:17,
18; 1 Thessalonians 5:15) A Christians relationship with God
9
Shortly before his death, Jesus told the special and his divinely assigned ministry are the most important
representative of the Roman emperor in Judea: My kingdom things in his life. He cannot give these up at the behest of
is no part of this world. If my kingdom were part of this Caesar. Clearly, they are to be counted among Gods things.
world, my attendants would have fought that I should not be
delivered up to the Jews. But, as it is, my kingdom is not *** w96 5/1 p. 19 par. 15 Paying Back Caesars Things to
from this source. (John 18:36) Until his Kingdom puts an Caesar ***
end to the rule of political governments, Christs disciples
15
follow his example. They render obedience to those What, though, if the Christian lives in a land where
established authorities but do not interfere in their political exemption is not granted to ministers of religion? Then he
undertakings. (Daniel 2:44; Matthew 4:8-10) Jesus left will have to make a personal decision following his Bible-
guidelines for his disciples, stating: Pay back, therefore, trained conscience. (Galatians 6:5) While taking the authority
Caesars things to Caesar, but Gods things to God. of Caesar into account, he will weigh carefully what he owes
(Matthew 22:21) Earlier, in his Sermon on the Mount, Jesus to Jehovah. (Psalm 36:9; 116:12-14; Acts 17:28) The
had said: If someone under authority impresses you into Christian will remember that the mark of a true Christian is
service for a mile, go with him two miles. (Matthew 5:41) In love for all his fellow believers, even those who live in other
the context of this sermon, Jesus was illustrating the principle lands or those belonging to other tribes. (John 13:34, 35;
of willing submission to legitimate demands, whether in 1 Peter 2:17) Further, he will not forget the Scriptural
human relations or in governmental requirements that are in principles found in texts such as Isaiah 2:2-4; Matthew 26:52;
harmony with Gods law.Luke 6:27-31; John 17:14, 15. Romans 12:18; 14:19; 2 Corinthians 10:4; and Hebrews
12:14.
*** w96 5/1 pp. 12-13 par. 11 God and Caesar ***
*** w96 5/1 p. 20 par. 20 Paying Back Caesars Things to
11
It was in line with this that, a little over 20 years after Caesar ***
Christs death, the apostle Paul told the Christians in Rome:
20
Let every soul be in subjection to the superior authorities. While engaged in such research, Christians would
(Romans 13:1) About ten years later, shortly before his consider a number of Bible principles. Paul said that we must
second imprisonment and his execution in Rome, Paul wrote be obedient to governments and authorities as rulers, . . . be
to Titus: Continue reminding them [Cretan Christians] to be ready for every good work . . . be reasonable, exhibiting all
in subjection and be obedient to governments and authorities mildness toward all men. (Titus 3:1, 2) At the same time,
as rulers, to be ready for every good work, to speak Christians would do well to examine the proposed civilian
injuriously of no one, not to be belligerent, to be reasonable, work. If they accept it, will they be able to maintain Christian
exhibiting all mildness toward all men.Titus 3:1, 2. neutrality? (Micah 4:3, 5; John 17:16) Would it involve them
with some false religion? (Revelation 18:4, 20, 21) Would
*** w96 5/1 p. 15 par. 2 Paying Back Caesars Things to performing it prevent or unreasonably limit them from
Caesar *** fulfilling their Christian responsibilities? (Matthew 24:14;
Hebrews 10:24, 25) On the other hand, would they be able to
2
Of course, the first concern of Jehovahs servants is that continue to make spiritual progress, perhaps even sharing in
they pay back Gods things to God. (Psalm 116:12-14) In the full-time ministry while performing the required service?
doing so, however, they do not forget that Jesus said that they Hebrews 6:11, 12.
must render certain things to Caesar. Their Bible-trained *** w96 5/1 pp. 16-17 pars. 7-8 Paying Back Caesars
consciences require that they consider prayerfully to what Things to Caesar ***
extent they can pay back what Caesar calls for. (Romans
7
13:7) In modern times, many jurists have recognized that Jehovahs Witnesses know that they owe subjection to
governmental power has limits and that people and the superior authorities, the governmental rulers. (Romans
governments everywhere are bound by natural law. 13:1) Hence, when Caesar, the State, makes legitimate
demands, their Bible-trained consciences allow them to
satisfy these demands. For example, true Christians are
*** w96 5/1 p. 16 par. 6 Paying Back Caesars Things to among the most exemplary taxpayers on earth. In Germany
Caesar *** the newspaper Mnchner Merkur said of Jehovahs
6 Witnesses: They are the most honest and the most punctual
The apostle Paul also wrote: I glorify my ministry.
tax payers in the Federal Republic. In Italy the newspaper
(Romans 11:13) Surely we should do likewise. Whether we
99
La Stampa observed: They [Jehovahs Witnesses] are the (Acts 20:20, 21) while I did not hold back from telling you
most loyal citizens anyone could wish for: they do not dodge any of the things that were profitable nor from teaching you
taxes or seek to evade inconvenient laws for their own publicly and from house to house. 21 But I thoroughly bore
profit. Jehovahs servants do this on account of their witness both to Jews and to Greeks about repentance toward
consciences.Romans 13:5, 6. God and faith in our Lord Jesus.
8
Are Caesars things limited to paying taxes? No. Paul (2 Timothy 4:5) You, though, keep your senses in all things,
listed other things, such as fear and honor. In his Critical and endure hardship, do the work of an evangelizer, fully
Exegetical Hand-Book to the Gospel of Matthew, German accomplish your ministry.
scholar Heinrich Meyer wrote: By [Caesars things] . . . we Page 73 Unit 8 (b)
are not to understand merely the civil tax, but everything to
which Caesar was entitled in virtue of his legitimate rule. QUESTION OUTLINE
Share the Good New at Every Opportunity Informal
Historian E. W. Barnes, in his work The Rise of Christianity, Witnessing
observed that a Christian would pay taxes if he owed them
and likewise accept all other State obligations, provided he *** km 8/10 pp. 3-4 You Can Witness Informally! ***
was not called upon to render unto Caesar the things that You Can Witness Informally!
belonged to God.
1
How many in your congregation first came into contact
*** w96 5/1 p. 20 par. 22 Paying Back Caesars Things to
with the truth through informal witnessing? You might be
Caesar ***
surprised by the answer. Informal witnessing involves sharing
22
As Christians we will not cease to render to him who the good news with people whom we meet in our daily
calls for honor, such honor. (Romans 13:7) We will respect activitieswhen traveling, visiting relatives or neighbors, or
good order and seek to be peaceful, law-abiding citizens. shopping, as well as at school, at work, and so forth. In one
(Psalm 34:14) We may even pray concerning kings and all group of over 200 baptized Witnesses, 40 percent were first
those who are in high station when these men are called contacted through informal witnessing! Therefore, this
upon to make decisions that affect our Christian life and method of preaching is very effective.
work. As a result of our paying back Caesars things to 2
Evangelizers in the first century often witnessed
Caesar, we hope that we may go on leading a calm and quiet
informally. For example, while traveling through Samaria,
life with full godly devotion and seriousness. (1 Timothy
Jesus witnessed to a woman who was drawing water at
2:1, 2) Above all, we will continue to preach the good news
Jacobs fountain. (John 4:6-26) Philip started a conversation
of the Kingdom as mankinds only hope, conscientiously
with an Ethiopian court official who was reading from the
paying back Gods things to God.
book of Isaiah by asking: Do you actually know what you
are reading? (Acts 8:26-38) When imprisoned in Philippi,
Page 71 Unit 8 (a)
the apostle Paul witnessed to a jailer. (Acts 16:23-34) Later,
while under house arrest, Paul would kindly receive all those
(2 Peter 2:9) So, then, Jehovah knows how to rescue people
of godly devotion out of trial, but to reserve unrighteous who came in to him, preaching the kingdom of God to them
people to be destroyed on the day of judgment and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ.
(Acts 28:30, 31) You too can witness informally, even if you
Page 72 Unit 8 (b) are shy. How?
3
Participate in Various Forms of Our Ministry Getting Started: Many of us find it difficult to start
conversations with strangers. Even with regard to
OPENING DISCUSSION acquaintances, bringing up the truth may seem a bit awkward.
(Mark 13:10) Also, in all the nations, the good news has to We will be motivated to speak up, however, if we meditate on
be preached first. Jehovahs goodness, the spiritual treasures he has given his
servants, and the dire condition of people in the world. (Jonah
(Matthew 24:3) While he was sitting on the Mount of 4:11; Ps. 40:5; Matt. 13:52) In addition, we can ask Jehovah
Olives, the disciples approached him privately, saying: Tell to help us muster up boldness. (1 Thess. 2:2) One Gilead
us, when will these things be, and what will be the sign of student said: I have often found that prayer helps when it is
your presence and of the conclusion of the system of things? difficult for me to talk to people. If you are hesitant to speak,
(Matthew 24:14) And this good news of the Kingdom will be say a brief, silent prayer.Neh. 2:4.
preached in all the inhabited earth for a witness to all the 4
nations, and then the end will come. As the name suggests, informal witnessing does not
require that we begin the conversation with a formal
(Isaiah 60:22) The little one will become a thousand And the introduction or a scripture. We may find it helpful to have the
small one a mighty nation. I myself, Jehovah, will speed it up goal of simply starting a conversation without feeling that we
in its own time. must give a witness right away. Many publishers report that
(Matthew 10:7) As you go, preach, saying: The Kingdom of accomplishing this step gives them the confidence they need
the heavens has drawn near. to introduce the good news eventually. If the person does not

100
wish to converse, there is no need to force the issue. Politely I do not have a husband. Jesus said to her: You are right in
conclude the conversation and move on. saying, I do not have a husband. 18 For you have had five
husbands, and the man you now have is not your husband.
5
While shopping at the market, one shy sister first makes This you have said truthfully. 19 The woman said to him:
eye contact and offers a friendly smile. If the person smiles Sir, I see that you are a prophet. 20 Our forefathers
worshipped on this mountain, but you people say that in
back, she makes a brief comment. If the person responds Jerusalem is the place where people must worship. 21 Jesus
favorably, this gives her the confidence to converse further. said to her: Believe me, woman, the hour is coming when
She listens carefully and tries to discern which aspect of the neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship
good news would appeal to the person. Using this approach, the Father. 22 You worship what you do not know; we worship
what we know, because salvation begins with the Jews.
she has placed much literature and even started a Bible study. 23
Nevertheless, the hour is coming, and it is now, when the
6 true worshippers will worship the Father with spirit and truth,
Initiating Conversations: What can we say to initiate a for indeed, the Father is looking for ones like these to
conversation? When Jesus conversed with the woman at the worship him. 24 God is a Spirit, and those worshipping him
well, he started by simply requesting that she give him a must worship with spirit and truth. 25 The woman said to
drink. (John 4:7) So perhaps we can start a conversation with him: I know that Messiah is coming, who is called Christ.
Whenever that one comes, he will declare all things to us
a friendly greeting or question. As you talk you may find an openly. 26 Jesus said to her: I am he, the one speaking to
opportunity to introduce a Scriptural thought and perhaps you.
plant a seed of truth. (Eccl. 11:6) Some have found success
by making an intriguing statement that arouses curiosity and (Luke 6:45) A good man brings good out of the good treasure
prompts an inquiry. For example, while waiting to see the of his heart, but a wicked man brings what is wicked out of
doctor, you may spark a conversation by saying, Ill be glad his wicked treasure; for out of the hearts abundance his
when I wont get sick anymore. mouth speaks.
7
Being observant will also help us to strike up (Psalm 40:5) How many things you have done, O Jehovah
conversations. If we observe a parent with well-behaved my God, Your wonderful works and your thoughts toward us.
children, we might commend the parent and ask, What has None can compare to you; If I were to try to tell and speak of
helped you to be a successful parent? One sister takes note them, They would be too numerous to recount!
of the subjects discussed by others at work and then shares (Matthew 13:52) Then he said to them: That being the case,
specific information based on what her coworkers are every public instructor who is taught about the Kingdom of
interested in. When she learned that a woman at her job was the heavens is like a man, the master of the house, who brings
planning to get married, she gave her an Awake! that out of his treasure store things both new and old.
discussed how to plan a wedding. This led to further Bible (Jonah 4:11) Should I not also feel sorry for Nineveh the
discussions. great city, in which there are more than 120,000 men who do
8 not even know right from wrong, as well as their many
Another way to start conversations is by reading our
animals?
literature where others can see us. One brother opens The
Watchtower or Awake! to an article with an intriguing title
and quietly begins to read it. If he notices someone nearby
Page 74 Unit 8 (b)
looking at his magazine, he asks a question or makes a brief
comment on the article. This often leads to a conversation and
a witness. Simply leaving one of our publications where it is (Luke 19:1-10) He then entered Jericho and was passing
visible may arouse the curiosity of workmates or classmates through. 2 Now a man named Zacchaeus was there; he was a
and prompt them to inquire about it. chief tax collector, and he was rich. 3 Well, he was trying to
see who this Jesus was, but he could not see because of the
(John 4:7-26) A woman of Samaria came to draw water. crowd, since he was short. 4 So he ran ahead and climbed a
Jesus said to her: Give me a drink. 8 (For his disciples had sycamore tree in order to see him, for he was about to pass
gone off into the city to buy food.) 9 So the Samaritan that way. 5 Now when Jesus got to the place, he looked up
woman said to him: How is it that you, despite being a Jew, and said to him: Zacchaeus, hurry and get down, for today I
ask me for a drink even though I am a Samaritan woman? must stay in your house. 6 With that he hurried down and
(For Jews have no dealings with Samaritans.) 10 In answer
Jesus said to her: If you had known of the free gift of God joyfully welcomed him as a guest. 7 When they saw this, they
and who it is who says to you, Give me a drink, you would were all muttering: He went as a guest to the house of a man
have asked him, and he would have given you living water. who is a sinner. 8 But Zacchaeus stood up and said to the
11
She said to him: Sir, you do not even have a bucket for Lord: Look! The half of my belongings, Lord, I am giving to
drawing water, and the well is deep. From what source, then,
do you have this living water? 12 You are not greater than our the poor, and whatever I extorted from anyone, I am restoring
forefather Jacob, who gave us the well and who together with four times over. 9 At this Jesus said to him: Today salvation
his sons and his cattle drank out of it, are you? 13 In answer has come to this house, because he too is a son of Abraham.
Jesus said to her: Everyone drinking from this water will get 10
For the Son of man came to seek and to save what was
thirsty again. 14 Whoever drinks from the water that I will
give him will never get thirsty at all, but the water that I will lost.
give him will become in him a spring of water bubbling up to (Acts 13:14-16) However, they went on from Perga and came
impart everlasting life. 15 The woman said to him: Sir, give to Antioch in Pisidia. And going into the synagogue on the
me this water, so that I may neither thirst nor keep coming
over to this place to draw water. 16 He said to her: Go, call Sabbath day, they took a seat. 15 After the public reading of
your husband and come to this place. 17 The woman replied: the Law and the Prophets, the presiding officers of the
101
synagogue sent word to them, saying: Men, brothers, if you concerns? Notice that these questions allow people to
have any word of encouragement for the people, tell it. 16 So express their views without putting them on the spot. Since
Paul stood up, and motioning with his hand, he said: Men, circumstances vary, we may need to adjust the topic and tone
Israelites and you others who fear God, listen. of our questions to fit those in our territory.
(Galatians 6:10) So, then, as long as we have the 3
Drawing People Out: If people are willing to share
opportunity, let us work what is good toward all, but their thoughts, patiently listen without needlessly
especially toward those related to us in the faith. interrupting. (Jas. 1:19) Graciously acknowledge their
(Titus 2:1-10) You, however, keep on speaking what is comments. (Col. 4:6) You might simply say: Thats
consistent with wholesome teaching. 2 Let the older men be interesting. Thank you for sharing that with me. Commend
moderate in habits, serious, sound in mind, healthy in faith, in them if you can do so sincerely. Kindly ask additional
love, in endurance. 3 Likewise, let the older women be questions to find out what they think and why they feel as
reverent in behavior, not slanderous, not enslaved to a lot of they do. Seek common ground. When you want to direct their
wine, teachers of what is good, 4 so that they may advise the attention to a scripture, you might say, Have you ever
younger women to love their husbands, to love their children, considered this as a possibility? Avoid being dogmatic or
5
to be sound in mind, chaste, working at home, good, argumentative.2 Tim. 2:24, 25.
subjecting themselves to their own husbands, so that the word 4
of God may not be spoken of abusively. 6 Likewise, keep on How others respond to our questions may depend much
urging the younger men to be sound in mind, 7 showing on how we listen. People can tell if we are listening with our
yourself to be an example of fine works in every way. Teach heart. A traveling overseer observed, When you show patient
what is pure with all seriousness, 8 using wholesome speech willingness to listen to people, it has the amazing power to
that cannot be criticized, so that those who oppose may be put attract and is a wonderful expression of warm personal
to shame, having nothing negative to say about us. 9 Let interest. Listening to others accords them honor, and it may
slaves be in subjection to their owners in all things, trying to move them to listen to the good news that we seek to share.
please them, not talking back, 10 not stealing from them, but Rom. 12:10.
showing complete trustworthiness, so that in every way they
may adorn the teaching of our Savior, God. *** km 2/01 p. 1 pars. 1-4 How to Persuade Others ***
(1 Corinthians 9:19-23) For though I am free from all 1
people, I have made myself the slave to all, so that I may gain The apostle Paul earned the reputation of being a
as many people as possible. 20 To the Jews I became as a Jew persuasive minister. (Acts 19:26) Even King Agrippa told
in order to gain Jews; to those under law I became as under him: In a short time you would persuade me to become a
law, though I myself am not under law, in order to gain those Christian. (Acts 26:28) What made Pauls ministry so
under law. 21 To those without law I became as without law, persuasive? He reasoned logically from the Scriptures,
although I am not without law toward God but under law adapting his arguments to his listeners.Acts 28:23.
toward Christ, in order to gain those without law. 22 To the 2
In imitation of Paul, we too need to be persuasive in our
weak I became weak, in order to gain the weak. I have ministry. How? By using insight when speaking with and
become all things to people of all sorts, so that I might by all listening to others. (Prov. 16:23) Three important steps will
possible means save some. 23 But I do all things for the sake help us to accomplish this.
of the good news, in order to share it with others.
3
(Colossians 4:6) Let your words always be gracious, Listen Carefully: As the other person speaks, listen for
seasoned with salt, so that you will know how you should a common ground on which to build. If he raises an
answer each person. objection, try to discern the reasoning behind it. It would help
to know exactly what he believes, why he believes it, and
*** km 1/06 p. 1 Show Personal InterestBy Asking what convinced him of it. (Prov. 18:13) Tactfully draw him
Questions and Listening *** out.
4
Ask Questions: If a person expresses belief in the
1
Most people enjoy expressing their views but dislike Trinity, you might ask: Have you always believed the
being lectured or interrogated. As Christian ministers, Trinity? Follow up with: Did you ever make a thorough
therefore, we need to learn the art of drawing people out with study of what the Bible says on the subject? You might also
questions.Prov. 20:5. ask: If God were part of a Trinity, could we not expect that
2 the Bible would clearly say so? The responses that you
Our questions should invite, not intimidate. When
receive will help you reason with the individual on what the
preaching from house to house, one brother asks, Do you
Scriptures say.
feel that there will ever be a time when people treat one
another with dignity and respect? Depending on the
response, he follows with, What do you think it will take to *** km 6/96 p. 7 Friendly Conversations Can Reach the
accomplish this? or Why do you feel that way? When Heart ***
witnessing informally and in public places, another brother Friendly Conversations Can Reach the Heart
asks those who have children, What do you enjoy most
about being a parent? Then he asks, What are your greatest

102
1
Conversation can be defined as an oral exchange of Page 75 Unit 8 (b)
ideas. Starting friendly conversations on a topic that
concerns others may capture their interest and can aid us in *** km 8/10 pp. 3-6 You Can Witness Informally! ***
reaching their hearts with the Kingdom message. Experience You Can Witness Informally!
has shown that it is far more effective to engage people in a
friendly and relaxed conversation than to give them a sermon. 1
How many in your congregation first came into contact
2
How to Start a Friendly Conversation: Our being with the truth through informal witnessing? You might be
able to converse with others does not mean that we have to surprised by the answer. Informal witnessing involves sharing
present some striking lineup of thoughts and scriptures. It the good news with people whom we meet in our daily
simply involves getting the other party to talk with us. For activitieswhen traveling, visiting relatives or neighbors, or
example, when we have a friendly conversation with our shopping, as well as at school, at work, and so forth. In one
next-door neighbor, it is not rigid but relaxed. We are not group of over 200 baptized Witnesses, 40 percent were first
thinking about our next words but are responding naturally to contacted through informal witnessing! Therefore, this
the ideas he expresses. Showing genuine interest in what he method of preaching is very effective.
says may encourage him to continue conversing with us. The 2
Evangelizers in the first century often witnessed
same should be true when witnessing to others. informally. For example, while traveling through Samaria,
3
Topics such as crime, the problems of youth, local Jesus witnessed to a woman who was drawing water at
issues, world conditions, or even the weather can be used to Jacobs fountain. (John 4:6-26) Philip started a conversation
start friendly conversations. Subjects that directly affect the with an Ethiopian court official who was reading from the
lives of people are very effective in arousing their interest. book of Isaiah by asking: Do you actually know what you
Once a conversation has been started, we can gently turn it are reading? (Acts 8:26-38) When imprisoned in Philippi,
toward the Kingdom message. the apostle Paul witnessed to a jailer. (Acts 16:23-34) Later,
while under house arrest, Paul would kindly receive all those
4
Having a relaxed conversation does not mean that who came in to him, preaching the kingdom of God to them
advance preparation is not necessary. It is. However, there is and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ.
no need to formulate a rigid outline or to memorize a sermon, (Acts 28:30, 31) You too can witness informally, even if you
which would result in a conversation that is not flexible or are shy. How?
adaptable to the circumstances at hand. (Compare 3
1 Corinthians 9:20-23.) An excellent way of preparing is to Getting Started: Many of us find it difficult to start
select one or two Scriptural themes, with a view to building conversations with strangers. Even with regard to
conversations around them. Reviewing subjects found in the acquaintances, bringing up the truth may seem a bit awkward.
Reasoning book will prove helpful for this. We will be motivated to speak up, however, if we meditate on
Jehovahs goodness, the spiritual treasures he has given his
5
Essential Qualities for a Friendly Conversation: servants, and the dire condition of people in the world. (Jonah
When we converse with others, we should be warm and 4:11; Ps. 40:5; Matt. 13:52) In addition, we can ask Jehovah
sincere. A smile and a cheerful appearance help to reflect to help us muster up boldness. (1 Thess. 2:2) One Gilead
these qualities. We have the best message in the world; it is student said: I have often found that prayer helps when it is
most appealing to honesthearted ones. If they feel that our difficult for me to talk to people. If you are hesitant to speak,
interest in them is motivated by a sincere desire to share some say a brief, silent prayer.Neh. 2:4.
good news with them, then they may be moved to listen. 4
2 Cor. 2:17. As the name suggests, informal witnessing does not
require that we begin the conversation with a formal
6
Engaging in conversation ought to be a pleasant introduction or a scripture. We may find it helpful to have the
experience. Therefore, we should be kind and tactful in goal of simply starting a conversation without feeling that we
presenting the Kingdom message. (Gal. 5:22; Col. 4:6) Strive must give a witness right away. Many publishers report that
to leave the other party with a favorable impression. This accomplishing this step gives them the confidence they need
way, even if we are not successful initially in reaching his to introduce the good news eventually. If the person does not
heart, he may be more receptive the next time a Witness wish to converse, there is no need to force the issue. Politely
converses with him. conclude the conversation and move on.
7
Starting a friendly conversation is not the result of 5
While shopping at the market, one shy sister first makes
mastering a complex sermon. It is simply a matter of arousing eye contact and offers a friendly smile. If the person smiles
interest in a subject that is of concern to a person. Once we back, she makes a brief comment. If the person responds
have prepared in advance, we will then be ready to engage favorably, this gives her the confidence to converse further.
people in friendly conversations. Let us endeavor to reach the She listens carefully and tries to discern which aspect of the
hearts of those whom we meet by sharing with them the best good news would appeal to the person. Using this approach,
news to be found, that of everlasting Kingdom blessings. she has placed much literature and even started a Bible study.
2 Pet. 3:13. 6
Initiating Conversations: What can we say to initiate a
conversation? When Jesus conversed with the woman at the
well, he started by simply requesting that she give him a
103
12
drink. (John 4:7) So perhaps we can start a conversation with The time we spend doing informal witnessing should
a friendly greeting or question. As you talk you may find an be reported. Therefore, be sure to keep a record of it, even if
opportunity to introduce a Scriptural thought and perhaps it is only a few minutes a day. Consider this: If every
plant a seed of truth. (Eccl. 11:6) Some have found success publisher witnessed informally for five minutes each day, that
by making an intriguing statement that arouses curiosity and would add up to more than 17 million hours each month!
prompts an inquiry. For example, while waiting to see the 13
doctor, you may spark a conversation by saying, Ill be glad We have the noblest reasons to witness informally
when I wont get sick anymore. love for God and neighbor. (Matt. 22:37-39) Hearts filled
with appreciation for Jehovahs qualities and purposes impel
7
Being observant will also help us to strike up us to speak about the glory of the splendor of his kingship.
conversations. If we observe a parent with well-behaved (Ps. 145:7, 10-12) Genuine concern for our neighbors moves
children, we might commend the parent and ask, What has us to take advantage of every appropriate opportunity to share
helped you to be a successful parent? One sister takes note the good news while there is still time. (Rom. 10:13, 14) With
of the subjects discussed by others at work and then shares a little forethought and preparation, all of us can witness
specific information based on what her coworkers are informally and perhaps experience the joy of introducing the
interested in. When she learned that a woman at her job was truth to someone of honest heart.
planning to get married, she gave her an Awake! that
discussed how to plan a wedding. This led to further Bible [Study Questions]
discussions. 1. (a) What is informal witnessing? (b) How many present at
8
Another way to start conversations is by reading our this meeting first came into contact with the truth
literature where others can see us. One brother opens The through informal witnessing?
Watchtower or Awake! to an article with an intriguing title 2. What examples of informal witnessing do we find in the
and quietly begins to read it. If he notices someone nearby Scriptures?
looking at his magazine, he asks a question or makes a brief
comment on the article. This often leads to a conversation and 3. What can help us to overcome shyness?
a witness. Simply leaving one of our publications where it is
4. What goal might we initially set for ourselves, and why?
visible may arouse the curiosity of workmates or classmates
and prompt them to inquire about it. 5. What helps one shy sister to witness informally?
9
Creating Opportunities: In view of the urgency of the 6. How might we start a conversation in an informal setting?
preaching work, we should not view informal witnessing as
something that can be left merely to chance. Rather, we 7. How will being observant help us to witness informally?
should seek to create opportunities to give a witness as we go 8. How can we use our literature to start conversations?
about our daily activities. Think ahead about the people you
are likely to meet, and consider how you might start a 9, 10. (a) How can we create opportunities to witness
friendly conversation. Keep a Bible handy as well as informally? (b) How have you been able to do this?
literature that you can share with those who show interest.
1 Pet. 3:15. 11. How may we follow up the interest we find when
witnessing informally?
10
By being resourceful, many publishers have found
ways to create opportunities to witness informally. A sister 12. (a) Why keep track of and report the time we spend
who lives in a high-security apartment building uses the witnessing informally? (b) What results have been
facilitys recreation area to put together jigsaw puzzles of obtained through informal witnessing? (See the box
beautiful nature scenes. When people stop and comment on Informal Witnessing Gets Results!)
the beauty of the scene, she uses that opportunity to start a 13. What should motivate us to witness informally?
conversation and tell them about the Bibles promise of a
new heaven and a new earth. (Rev. 21:1-4) Can you think of [Blurb on page 4]
ways that you could create opportunities to witness You may find it helpful to have the goal of simply meeting
informally? people and starting conversations
11
Following Up Interest: If you find a listening ear, try [Blurb on page 5]
to follow up the interest. If appropriate, you might say to the By being resourceful, many publishers have found ways to
person: I have thoroughly enjoyed talking with you. Where create opportunities to witness informally
can I reach you so that we can talk again? Some publishers
[Box on page 5]
just hand their address and phone number to the person and
Suggestions for Starting Conversations
say: I enjoyed our conversation. If you would like to know
more about what we discussed, here is how you can contact Pray for help to get started
me. If you cannot personally follow up the interest, arrange
for the appropriate congregation to do so by promptly Choose those who seem friendly and unhurried
submitting a Please Follow Up (S-43) form to your Establish eye contact, smile, and comment on something of
congregation secretary. mutual interest
104
Be a good listener She said a brief prayer and approached them. After
introducing herself, she told them about a government
[Box on page 6] that will solve mankinds problems, Gods Kingdom, and
Informal Witnessing Gets Results! offered them a brochure that she had with her. Just then
While at a garage waiting for his car to be repaired, a the manager approached. The sister thought he was going
brother witnessed to those around him and gave them to ask her to leave. Instead, he told her that he had been
handbills inviting them to the public talk. At a convention listening and would like a brochure too. An employee
a year later, a brother he did not recognize greeted him who was also listening approached with tears rolling
warmly. It was one of the men to whom he had given a down her face. She was a former Bible student who
handbill at the garage the year before! The man had gone wanted to resume her study.
to hear the public talk and had turned in his name for a
Bible study. Both he and his wife had been baptized.
*** km 12/95 pp. 3-4 pars. 1-19 Letting Our Light Shine
A sister who learned the truth through informal witnessing Continuously ***
considers her special territory to be the people she meets 1
through her three children. Her territory includes What is light? The dictionary defines it as something
neighbors and parents she meets at school and at that makes vision possible. But really, despite his advanced
meetings for parents. Whenever she introduces herself, technology, man still does not fully know the answer to the
she makes a simple but heartfelt statement that the Bible question Jehovah raised as recorded at Job 38:24. Can we get
is a valuable aid to her in rearing her children, and then along without light? Without light we could not exist. Light is
she moves on to some other topic. But having broken the essential for physical sight, and the Bible tells us that in a
ice, she finds it much easier to bring the Bible into spiritual sense, God is light. (1 John 1:5) We are totally
subsequent discussions. By using this method, she has dependent upon the One who gives us light.Ps. 118:27.
helped 12 persons to baptism. 2
This is true in a physical sense but even more so in a
When a sister was visited by an insurance salesman, she spiritual way. False religion has misguided the masses of
took the opportunity to give a witness. She asked him if people, leaving them in spiritual darkness, groping for the
he would like to be guaranteed good health, happiness, wall just like blind men. (Isa. 59:9, 10) Prompted by his
and everlasting life. He said yes and asked her which unsurpassing love and compassion, Jehovah sends out his
insurance policy she was talking about. She showed him light and truth. (Ps. 43:3) Literally millions of appreciative
the Bibles promises and offered one of our publications, ones have responded, coming out of darkness into his
which he read in one evening. A Bible study was wonderful light.1 Pet. 2:9.
arranged. He began attending meetings and was later 3
Jesus Christ plays a vital role in bringing this light to
baptized. the world. He said: I have come as a light into the world, in
While traveling by plane, a sister began talking with the order that everyone putting faith in me may not remain in the
woman seated beside her and was able to give a witness. darkness. (John 12:46) All his time, energy, and resources
At the conclusion of the flight, the sister gave the woman were directed toward making the light of truth known. He
her address and phone number and encouraged the traveled the length and breadth of his homeland, preaching
woman to ask for a Bible study the next time that and teaching in virtually every city and village. He endured
Jehovahs Witnesses visited. The very next day, two relentless persecution from every side, but he remained
Witnesses called at the womans door. The woman steadfast in his commission to spread the light of truth.
started studying the Bible, made rapid progress, got 4
Jesus concentrated on selecting, training, and
baptized, and was soon conducting three Bible studies of organizing disciples, with a specific goal in mind. At
her own. Matthew 5:14-16 we read his instructions to them: You are
A 100-year-old blind brother who lives in a nursing home the light of the world. . . . Let your light shine before men,
often says, We need the Kingdom. This has led to that they may see your fine works and give glory to your
questions from nurses and patients that enable him to Father who is in the heavens. Just like Jesus, they were to be
explain what the Kingdom is. One of the women who illuminators in the world, disseminating the light of truth
works there asked him what he will do in the Paradise. far and wide. (Phil. 2:15) They gladly accepted that
He replied, I will see and walk again and burn my responsibility, viewing it as their primary purpose in life. A
wheelchair. Since he is blind, he asks her to read the short time later, Paul was able to say that the good news was
magazines to him. When the brothers daughter visited, preached in all creation that is under heaven. (Col. 1:23) The
the worker asked the daughter for permission to take the entire Christian congregation was united in accomplishing
magazines home. A nurse told the daughter, Our new that great work.
theme in the nursing home is: We need the Kingdom. 5
We today should be thankful that we have come to be
A sister waiting in line at a restaurant overheard a group of among those who have put off the works belonging to
elderly men sitting nearby who were discussing political darkness. (Rom. 13:12, 13) We can show our appreciation
issues. One man stated that the government cannot solve by imitating the example set by Jesus and the faithful
our problems. The sister told herself, This is my chance. Christians in the past. The need for others to hear the truth is
105
more urgent and critical now than at any time in human for anxiety. Others are basically just like us; they have the
history. No other activity can begin to compare with this same needs, feel the same concerns, and want the same things
work in its urgency and far-reaching benefits. for themselves and their families. Most will respond in a
6
kindly manner to a cheerful smile or a friendly greeting. To
How Can We Shine as Illuminators? The primary get started, you may have to muster up boldness. (1 Thess.
way to let our light shine is to share in the Kingdom- 2:2) Once you get going, however, you may be surprised and
preaching work. Every congregation has regular, organized delighted with the results.
arrangements for preaching in its assigned territory. Huge
10
quantities of literature are made available in great variety and We Are Blessed When We Let Our Light Shine:
in many languages. Extensive education is provided through Here are some examples of refreshing experiences resulting
the meetings, and assistance in training others personally is from informal witnessing: A 55-year-old lady was attempting
offered by those who are experienced. Opportunities to to cross the street. Just as a car was about to hit her, a sister
participate are open to men, women, older ones, and even grabbed her arm and pulled her to safety, saying: Please take
children. Every individual in the congregation is invited to care. We are living in perilous times! She then explained
participate at whatever level his abilities and circumstances why the times are so dangerous. The lady asked, Are you
permit. All the functions of the congregation are focused on one of Jehovahs Witnesses? Having obtained one of our
preaching, with provisions to help every member share in books from her sister, the lady wanted to meet one of
some way. Regular, close association with the congregation is Jehovahs Witnesses, and this encounter made it possible.
the best way to ensure that our light keeps shining. 11
A sister started a conversation with a woman in a
7
We can shine in ways that may not involve a verbal waiting room at the doctors office. The woman listened
witness. We can attract the attention of others simply by our attentively and then said: For some time, Jehovahs
conduct. That is what Peter had in mind when he urged: Witnesses have been crossing my path; but if sometime in the
Maintain your conduct fine among the nations, that . . . they future I actually become one of Jehovahs Witnesses myself,
may as a result of your fine works of which they are it will be because of what you just told me. Listening to you
eyewitnesses glorify God. (1 Pet. 2:12) Many judge a work is like starting to see light in a dark place.
or an organization by the conduct of those associated with it. 12
When observers note people who are morally clean, honest, An act of kindness can be a stepping-stone to helping
peaceable, and law-abiding, they view such people as others learn the truth. While walking home from field service,
different and conclude that they live by standards that are on two sisters noticed an elderly woman who appeared to be ill
a much higher level than those followed by the majority. So a as she got off the bus. They stopped and asked the lady if she
husband is letting his light shine when he honors and needed help. She was so surprised that two complete
cherishes his wife in a loving manner; the wife does the same strangers would show interest in her that she insisted on
by respecting her husbands headship. Children stand out as knowing what it was that sparked such a kind gesture. This
different when they obey their parents and avoid sexual opened the door for a witness. The lady readily gave her
immorality and the use of drugs. An employee who is address and warmly invited them to visit her. A study was
conscientious about his work, honest, and considerate of started. Soon the lady began attending meetings and is now
others is highly valued. By demonstrating these Christian sharing the truth with others.
qualities, we are letting our light shine, recommending our 13
An elderly sister takes advantage of early-morning
way of life to others. witnessing on the local beach. She meets housemaids, baby-
8
Preaching is talking to others about what we have sitters, bank clerks, and others who take their morning stroll
learned from Gods Word. That is done from the public on the boardwalk. She conducts Bible studies, sitting on the
platform or at the doors, but it is by no means limited to such benches. Several people have learned the truth from her and
occasions. Our daily activities put us in contact with scores of are now Jehovahs Witnesses.
people. How many times a day do you speak to your next- 14
At her secular job, a sister heard a fellow worker talk
door neighbors? How often does someone knock at your about a political party that she believed could solve the
door? How many different people do you rub shoulders with worlds problems. The sister spoke up, relating promises
when you do your shopping, ride the bus, or work at your about what Gods Kingdom will do. This discussion at work
secular job? If you are a young person in school, can you led to a regular Bible study in the home, and eventually the
count the number of individuals you speak to each day? The lady and her husband became Witnesses.
opportunities to speak to others are virtually unlimited. All
15
you need to do is to get a few Scriptural thoughts in mind, Never Forget You Are a Witness! When Jesus
keep a Bible and some tracts handy, and take the initiative to described his disciples as the light of the world, he
speak up when you get the chance. reasoned that they should be helping others to benefit from
9
the spiritual enlightenment of Gods Word. If we apply Jesus
Even though informal witnessing is quite simple, some counsel, how will we view our ministry?
feel reluctant to try it. They may be reticent, insisting that
16
they are too shy or too nervous to approach strangers. They When searching for employment, some people choose
may feel apprehensive about drawing attention to themselves a part-time job. They put limits on how much time and effort
or getting a harsh response. Those who are experienced in they will put into it because they prefer to use most of their
informal witnessing can tell you that there is rarely any cause time pursuing activities they find more rewarding. Are we
106
taking a similar view of our ministry? Even though we might who came in to him, preaching the kingdom of God to them
feel obligated and even be willing to set aside some time for and teaching the things concerning the Lord Jesus Christ with
the ministry, should our primary interests be elsewhere? the greatest freeness of speech.Acts 28:16-31.
17 2
Realizing that there is no such thing as a part-time We too can be diligent in bearing thorough witness at
Christian, we made our dedication, disowning ourselves and all times. That includes witnessing to people we meet in our
agreeing to follow Jesus continually. (Matt. 16:24) Our travels to and from the Give God Glory District
desire is to continue being whole-souled, taking advantage Convention and while in the host city.Acts 28:23; Ps.
of every opportunity to let our light shine in order to reach 145:10-13.
people wherever they are. (Col. 3:23, 24) We must resist 3
worldly attitudes, maintain our zeal as in the beginning, and Incidental or Informal Witnessing? Is there a
make sure that our light continues to shine forth brilliantly. difference? Yes. Something that is incidental occurs merely
Some may have allowed their zeal to cool off and their light by chance or without intention, as if it was not planned or is
to become only a faint glow, hardly visible a short distance of little importance. That certainly does not describe our
away. Such a one may need help to recover lost zeal for the ministry. As was true of Paul, giving God glory by our
ministry. witnessing is important to us, and it should be our intention to
give a witness wherever appropriate in the course of our
18
Some may tend to hold back because our message is travels this summer. However, the manner in which we
unpopular to many. Paul said that the message about the approach others can rightly be described as informalthat is,
Christ was foolishness to those who are perishing. (1 Cor. relaxed, friendly, and unofficial. This approach can produce
1:18) No matter what others said, however, he forcefully good results.
declared: I am not ashamed of the good news. (Rom. 1:16) 4
One who is ashamed feels inferior or unworthy. How could Prepare to Give a Witness: Paul had to make
we possibly feel ashamed when we speak about the Supreme opportunities to witness while under house arrest in Rome.
Sovereign of the universe and the marvelous provisions he From his place of lodging, he took the initiative to invite the
has made for our eternal happiness? It is unthinkable that we local Jewish leaders to his house. (Acts 28:17) Even though
would feel inferior or unworthy when we speak these truths there was a Christian congregation in Rome, Paul learned that
to others. Instead, we should feel compelled to do our utmost, the Jewish community in that city had little firsthand
displaying our conviction that we have nothing to be information about the Christian faith. (Acts 28:22; Rom. 1:7)
ashamed of.2 Tim. 2:15. He did not hold back from bearing thorough witness about
Jesus Christ and the Kingdom of God.
19
The light of truth that is now shining in lands all 5
around the earth warmly offers the hope of everlasting life in Think of all the people you may contact in your travels
a paradise new world. Let us show that we have taken to who have only a passing knowledge of Jehovahs Witnesses.
heart the admonition to let our light shine continuously! If we They may not even know that we offer free home Bible
do, we will have cause to rejoice just like the disciples who studies. Be alert to opportunities to witness to those you meet
every day continued without letup teaching and declaring while traveling, making rest stops, refueling, shopping,
the good news about the Christ, Jesus.Acts 5:42. staying in hotels, eating in restaurants, using public
transportation, and so on. Determine in advance what you
might say to initiate a conversation and to give a brief
*** km 6/96 p. 7 par. 6 Friendly Conversations Can witness. Perhaps in the days ahead you can practice by
Reach the Heart *** witnessing informally to your neighbors, relatives,
6
workmates, and other acquaintances.
Engaging in conversation ought to be a pleasant
6
experience. Therefore, we should be kind and tactful in You will need a supply of publications to use when
presenting the Kingdom message. (Gal. 5:22; Col. 4:6) Strive witnessing informally. Which ones? You might use the tract
to leave the other party with a favorable impression. This Would You Like to Know More About the Bible? Point to the
way, even if we are not successful initially in reaching his first five paragraphs, where various reasons are given for
heart, he may be more receptive the next time a Witness reading the Bible. Show the coupon on the back for
converses with him. requesting a free home Bible study. When you find a
responsive person, offer the Require brochure. In anticipation
of meeting people who speak another language, take along
Page 76 Unit 8 (b) the booklet Good News for All Nations. Page 2 explains how
to use it to give a witness. If traveling by car, you may be
*** km 6/03 pp. 3-4 Be Diligent in Bearing Thorough able to take along a few other basic publications for those
Witness *** who show real interest in the Kingdom message.
Be Diligent in Bearing Thorough Witness
7
Consider Your Appearance and Conduct: We must
1
Like Jesus and many other faithful servants of old, the make sure that our conduct as well as our dress and grooming
apostle Paul was a zealous preacher of the good news, will not give others a wrong impression or cause them to
bearing thorough witness regardless of the setting. Even speak against Jehovahs organization. (Acts 28:22) This
while under house arrest, he would kindly receive all those applies not only while attending the convention but also

107
while traveling and during leisure time. The August 1, 2002, Then, when they heard someone speaking in a foreign
Watchtower, page 18, paragraph 14, cautioned: Our language who was selling items on the sidewalk or who was
appearance should not be showy, bizarre, provocative, sitting near them in the park or in a restaurant, they would
revealing, or faddish. In addition, we should dress in a offer him a tract in his native tongue
manner that reflects reverence for God. That gives food for
thought, does it not? It is not simply a matter of dressing *** km 12/11 p. 1 par. 3 We Are Never Off Duty ***
appropriately when attending congregation meetings [or 3
convention sessions] and then throwing all caution to the Not Alternative Witnessing: In the past we
wind at other times. Our personal appearance should always sometimes used the word alternative to refer to preaching
reflect a reverent, honorable attitude because we are on the street and in parking lots, parks, places of business,
Christians and ministers 24 hours a day.1 Tim. 2:9, 10. and so forth. However, alternative could seem to suggest
that such efforts are out of the ordinary, unconventional, or
8
We should dress modestly and with dignity. If our optional. The apostle Paul said that he preached publicly
appearance and conduct always reflect our belief in God, we and from house to house. (Acts 20:20) So public witnessing
will never feel obligated to hold back from witnessing would be a more appropriate term than alternative
informally because our personal appearance leaves something witnessing. It is true that the house-to-house ministry
to be desired.1 Pet. 3:15. continues to be our primary and most effective way of
9
reaching people with the Kingdom message. However, first-
Informal Witnessing Is Fruitful: During the two years century evangelizers focused on people, not houses. They
that Paul was under house arrest in Rome, he saw good took advantage of every opportunity to talk about the truth
results from his witnessing efforts. Luke reported that some publicly, informally, and from house to house. May we have
began to believe the things said. (Acts 28:24) Paul himself the same mind-set in order to accomplish our ministry fully.
evaluated the effectiveness of his bearing thorough witness 2 Tim. 4:5.
when he wrote: My affairs have turned out for the (Acts 16:13) On the Sabbath day we went outside the gate
advancement of the good news rather than otherwise, so that beside a river, where we thought there was a place of prayer,
my bonds have become public knowledge in association with and we sat down and began speaking to the women who had
Christ among all the Praetorian Guard and all the rest; and assembled.
most of the brothers in the Lord, feeling confidence by reason
of my prison bonds, are showing all the more courage to (Acts 17:17) So he began to reason in the synagogue with the
speak the word of God fearlessly.Phil. 1:12-14. Jews and the other people who worshipped God and every
day in the marketplace with those who happened to be on
10
Last summer, after spending the day at the district hand.
convention, a couple had a fruitful experience witnessing (Matthew 7:12) All things, therefore, that you want men to
informally to a waitress who asked them about their do to you, you also must do to them. This, in fact, is what the
convention badge cards. They told her about the convention Law and the Prophets mean.
and also about the hope the Bible holds out for the future of
(Hebrews 13:16) Moreover, do not forget to do good and to
mankind. They gave her the tract Would You Like to Know
share what you have with others, for God is well-pleased with
More About the Bible? and explained the free home Bible
such sacrifices.
study arrangement. The woman said that she wanted someone
to visit her, filled in her name and address on the back of the
tract, and asked the couple to make the arrangements. What
Page 77
success might you enjoy this year by being diligent in Unit 8 (b)
bearing thorough witness?
11
Thoroughly Advance the Good News: Imagine how *** km 7/13 pp. 4-6 New Initiatives for Public Witnessing
happy Paul was when he heard that fellow Christians were ***
imitating his zealous example! May we do all we can to New Initiatives for Public Witnessing
advance the good news by witnessing informally about our
Bible-based beliefs as we also benefit from this summers 1
First-century Christians did more than preach from
district convention house to house. They also preached publicly. (Acts 20:20) For
example, they went to the temple, where they knew many
*** km 10/12 p. 3 par. 7 Use Tracts to Spread the Good people could be found. (Acts 5:42) When in Athens, the
News *** apostle Paul preached every day to those on hand in the
7 marketplace. (Acts 17:17) Today, our primary way of
Informal Witnessing: It is easy to witness informally
spreading the good news continues to be the house-to-house
with tracts. One brother puts a few in his pocket whenever he
ministry. However, we also go to parking lots, businesses,
leaves home. When he meets someone, such as a store clerk,
parks, busy thoroughfares, and other places in order to preach
he simply offers to give him something to read and hands him
to people wherever they can be found. While every publisher
a tract. When one couple went to New York City to do some
is encouraged to engage in public witnessing where possible,
sightseeing, they realized that they would come in contact
many will have the opportunity to participate in two exciting
with people from various countries. So they took along the
new initiatives for public witnessing.
Nations booklet and several tracts in different languages.
108
2 7
Special Metropolitan Public Witnessing: As reported The elders will consider whether the congregations
in the 2013 Yearbook on pages 16 and 17, a trial initiative for territory has areas of high pedestrian traffic and determine if
public witnessing began in New York City in it would be practical to organize public witnessing. Possible
November 2011. Tables and carts with attractive displays and locations for a table or mobile display include transportation
literature in several languages were strategically placed in hubs, public squares, parks, busy streets, shopping malls,
areas of the city with high pedestrian traffic. Each day college campuses, airports, and locations of annual events.
thousands of people walked by, including many who live in There is an advantage in having a table set up in the same
secured apartment buildings and persons who are often away location, on the same days, and at the same times. It has been
from home. The response was overwhelming. In just one found that tables set up at shopping malls are more effective
recent month, 3,797 magazines and 7,986 books were placed. than those outside a single large store where individuals are
Many passersby requested a Bible study. Since the emphasis usually focused on their reason for visiting that specific store.
was on starting Bible studies, any addresses left by interested Some locations, such as busy sidewalks, may be more
ones were immediately forwarded to the appropriate conducive to a smaller mobile literature display. Elders can
congregation to follow up on the interest. download from our Web site special files for making displays
3
of the Watchtower and Awake! magazines and the Bible
In view of the initiatives success, it is now being Teach book. These files have been prepared specifically for
expanded worldwide to other densely populated metropolitan use in this form of public witnessing. Those who participate
areas. The local branch office will identify which cities would will carry out the work in much the same way as those
benefit. Usually, these are cities with transportation hubs or a engaged in special metropolitan public witnessing and should
large concentration of office or apartment buildings that follow the direction of the service overseer closely. If they
results in high pedestrian traffic. Thereafter, the branch office obtain an address from an interested person who does not live
will initiate correspondence to the congregations that will in their territory, they should promptly fill out a Please
participate and provide additional instructions. Regular and Follow Up (S-43) form and give it to the secretary.
special pioneers are generally used, although in some places
8
auxiliary pioneers also have a share in the work. Public Witnessing in Your Personal Ministry: Some
4
congregations may not have a location in their territory that
How the Witnessing Is Done: Those involved in has sufficient pedestrian traffic to justify setting up a table or
special metropolitan public witnessing usually wait for making use of a mobile literature display. However, even in
someone to come to the table or mobile display. When those congregations, publishers are encouraged to consider
someone approaches, he is invited to take any literature that including public witnessing in their personal ministry. Is there
interests him. The pioneers gladly answer from the Scriptures a shopping area, a strip mall, or a busy store in your territory?
any questions he may have. If he takes literature, the pioneers Is there a park or a place where people gather? Are there
do not mention the donation arrangement. But if he inquires public events that are periodically held in the territory? If so,
about how our work is funded, they may explain that you may still be able to enjoy public witnessing.
donations can be sent to the address listed in the literature.
9
When possible, they ask: Would you like someone to visit It is Jehovahs will that all sorts of men should be
your home? or Are you aware that a free Bible study comes saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth. (1 Tim.
with that publication? 2:4) Therefore, we are trying to reach as many people as
5
possible with the Kingdom message before the end comes.
Sharing in this initiative has been very rewarding. One (Matt. 24:14) In many places it is a challenge to find people
couple wrote: Standing at the table and seeing thousands of at home. Yet, we may be able to speak to them when they are
people go by each day has impressed upon our hearts the vast away from home in a public setting. Public witnessing may
work that is being done to reach people all around the world. be the only way that some people will get an opportunity to
Seeing these masses of people and thinking about how hear the good news. Therefore, may we fully accomplish our
Jehovah truly cares for each person has strengthened our ministry by preaching to people wherever they may be found.
resolve to continue putting the preaching work at the center 2 Tim. 4:
of our lives. We imagine Jehovah scanning the hearts of all *** km 7/97 p. 1 Witness Wherever There Are People ***
those who pass by the table, searching for those who are Witness Wherever There Are People
worthy. We have rarely felt so close to our angelic
coworkers. 1
Recognizing the role Gods spirit played in his ministry,
6
Public Witnessing That Is Organized Locally: In the apostle Paul stated: God kept making it grow. He also
addition to special metropolitan public witnessing, another acknowledged: We are Gods fellow workers. (1 Cor. 3:5-
new initiative is being organized by many bodies of elders in 9) This is a marvelous privilege. How can we demonstrate
their local territory. With this initiative, publishers use a table publicly that we appreciate being fellow workers with God?
or a mobile display at a busy location within the By declaring the good news to all whom we meet in the
congregations territory boundary. This is different from house-to-house work and everywhere else.
special metropolitan public witnessing, which uses 2
participants from many congregations to preach in the same We are commanded to make disciples of people.
high-traffic areas in cities chosen by the branch office.See (Matt. 28:19) If we contact only a few people when we share
the box Good Cooperation Needed. in the ministry, we may tire quickly and feel we have
accomplished little. On the other hand, we enjoy our ministry
109
most when we are able to find many people and converse next to him. It worked. The girl asked him what he was
with them. This can be rather challenging, since it requires reading, and the youth answered that he was reading about
some initiative on our part to go wherever the people are so the solution to problems young people have to face. He added
that we can make contact with them. that he had greatly benefited from the article and that it could
3
help her too. She gladly accepted the magazines. Their
Practical Examples: We can witness to people at conversation was overheard by two other youths who also
markets, parks, rest stops, and transportation terminals. When asked for copies of the magazines. At this, the bus driver
you ride public transportation, are you prepared to give a pulled over to the side of the road and asked why there was
witness along the way? Two Witnesses who were riding in a so much interest in these magazines. When he found out, he
crowded bus to their meeting for service carried on a also accepted copies. Of course, none of this would have been
conversation about the picture of Paradise in the Knowledge possible if the young publisher had not had an ample supply
book, discussing Gods promises for the future. As they had of magazines to share with everyone who showed interest!
hoped would happen, a young man standing close by listened
in and was impressed by what he heard. Before leaving the
bus, he accepted a book and requested that someone visit his *** km 7/13 pp. 4-6 New Initiatives for Public Witnessing
home. ***
4
New Initiatives for Public Witnessing
Many publishers have found joy in doing informal
witnessing. One sister went to the local shopping center on an 1
afternoon and approached people who had finished their First-century Christians did more than preach from
shopping but who did not appear to be in a hurry. She placed house to house. They also preached publicly. (Acts 20:20) For
all the literature she had in her bag. One man who was example, they went to the temple, where they knew many
waiting in his car was happy to receive the magazines from people could be found. (Acts 5:42) When in Athens, the
her. He had attended meetings before, and their conversation apostle Paul preached every day to those on hand in the
rekindled his interest. marketplace. (Acts 17:17) Today, our primary way of
spreading the good news continues to be the house-to-house
5
It is a privilege to exalt Jehovahs name. By ministry. However, we also go to parking lots, businesses,
demonstrating our zeal for the preaching work, we show that parks, busy thoroughfares, and other places in order to preach
we have not missed the purpose of Gods undeserved to people wherever they can be found. While every publisher
kindness toward us. Because now is the especially is encouraged to engage in public witnessing where possible,
acceptable time to help others, let us go wherever there are many will have the opportunity to participate in two exciting
people and witness to them about Jehovahs day of new initiatives for public witnessing.
salvation.2 Cor. 6:1, 2. 2
*** km 9/96 p. 4 pars. 14-15 Preach the Good News Special Metropolitan Public Witnessing: As reported
Everywhere *** in the 2013 Yearbook on pages 16 and 17, a trial initiative for
public witnessing began in New York City in
14
Witnessing on Public Transportation: One morning a November 2011. Tables and carts with attractive displays and
number of pioneers decided to witness to people who were literature in several languages were strategically placed in
waiting for the bus near a local college. While they had some areas of the city with high pedestrian traffic. Each day
pleasant conversations, there was a problem. By the time the thousands of people walked by, including many who live in
discussion got well under way, the bus would come, bringing secured apartment buildings and persons who are often away
the conversation to an abrupt halt. The pioneers solved the from home. The response was overwhelming. In just one
problem by boarding the bus and continuing to witness to the recent month, 3,797 magazines and 7,986 books were placed.
passengers as they traveled across town. At the end of the Many passersby requested a Bible study. Since the emphasis
line, the pioneers would make the return bus trip, witnessing was on starting Bible studies, any addresses left by interested
as they went. After several trips back and forth, they totaled ones were immediately forwarded to the appropriate
up the results of their efforts: Over 200 magazines were congregation to follow up on the interest.
placed and six Bible studies were started. Some passengers 3
willingly gave their address and telephone number so that In view of the initiatives success, it is now being
they could be visited at home. The next week, the pioneers expanded worldwide to other densely populated metropolitan
returned to the bus stop and followed the same method as areas. The local branch office will identify which cities would
before. They placed 164 magazines and started one more benefit. Usually, these are cities with transportation hubs or a
Bible study. At one stop a passenger boarded the bus and took large concentration of office or apartment buildings that
the only available seatnext to a pioneer. He looked at the results in high pedestrian traffic. Thereafter, the branch office
brother and said with a smile: I know, you have a will initiate correspondence to the congregations that will
Watchtower for me. participate and provide additional instructions. Regular and
special pioneers are generally used, although in some places
15
Many publishers give an effective witness while auxiliary pioneers also have a share in the work.
traveling by bus, train, or airplane. How can you start a 4
conversation with a passenger seated next to you? One 12- How the Witnessing Is Done: Those involved in
year-old publisher simply began reading a copy of Awake! on special metropolitan public witnessing usually wait for
the bus, hoping to arouse the curiosity of a teenage girl seated someone to come to the table or mobile display. When

110
someone approaches, he is invited to take any literature that including public witnessing in their personal ministry. Is there
interests him. The pioneers gladly answer from the Scriptures a shopping area, a strip mall, or a busy store in your territory?
any questions he may have. If he takes literature, the pioneers Is there a park or a place where people gather? Are there
do not mention the donation arrangement. But if he inquires public events that are periodically held in the territory? If so,
about how our work is funded, they may explain that you may still be able to enjoy public witnessing.
donations can be sent to the address listed in the literature. 9
When possible, they ask: Would you like someone to visit It is Jehovahs will that all sorts of men should be
your home? or Are you aware that a free Bible study comes saved and come to an accurate knowledge of truth. (1 Tim.
with that publication? 2:4) Therefore, we are trying to reach as many people as
possible with the Kingdom message before the end comes.
5
Sharing in this initiative has been very rewarding. One (Matt. 24:14) In many places it is a challenge to find people
couple wrote: Standing at the table and seeing thousands of at home. Yet, we may be able to speak to them when they are
people go by each day has impressed upon our hearts the vast away from home in a public setting. Public witnessing may
work that is being done to reach people all around the world. be the only way that some people will get an opportunity to
Seeing these masses of people and thinking about how hear the good news. Therefore, may we fully accomplish our
Jehovah truly cares for each person has strengthened our ministry by preaching to people wherever they may be found.
resolve to continue putting the preaching work at the center 2 Tim. 4:5.
of our lives. We imagine Jehovah scanning the hearts of all
those who pass by the table, searching for those who are
worthy. We have rarely felt so close to our angelic *** km 9/96 pp. 4-5 pars. 16-17 Preach the Good News
coworkers. Everywhere ***
6 16
Public Witnessing That Is Organized Locally: In Witnessing in Parks and Parking Lots: Witnessing
addition to special metropolitan public witnessing, another in parks and parking lots is an excellent way to reach people.
new initiative is being organized by many bodies of elders in Have you tried witnessing in the parking area of a shopping
their local territory. With this initiative, publishers use a table center? Always take a few moments to observe your
or a mobile display at a busy location within the surroundings. Look for someone who is not in a hurry or who
congregations territory boundary. This is different from is waiting in a parked car and try to initiate a friendly
special metropolitan public witnessing, which uses conversation. If the conversation continues, bring in the
participants from many congregations to preach in the same Kingdom message. Try working separately but with another
high-traffic areas in cities chosen by the branch office.See publisher in the vicinity. Avoid carrying a large, bulky bag or
the box Good Cooperation Needed. in other ways attracting attention to your work. Be discreet. It
7
may be best to spend only a short time in one parking lot and
The elders will consider whether the congregations then move to another. If someone does not wish to converse
territory has areas of high pedestrian traffic and determine if with you, politely go on your way and look for someone else
it would be practical to organize public witnessing. Possible to approach. Using these methods, one brother placed 90
locations for a table or mobile display include transportation magazines in one month while witnessing in parking lots.
hubs, public squares, parks, busy streets, shopping malls,
17
college campuses, airports, and locations of annual events. Some people go to a park to relax; others go there to
There is an advantage in having a table set up in the same play a game or to spend time with their children. Without
location, on the same days, and at the same times. It has been unduly interfering with their activities, watch for an
found that tables set up at shopping malls are more effective opportunity to give a witness. One brother began a
than those outside a single large store where individuals are conversation with the grounds keeper of a park and found that
usually focused on their reason for visiting that specific store. he was concerned about drugs and the future of his children.
Some locations, such as busy sidewalks, may be more A home Bible study was started and was regularly conducted
conducive to a smaller mobile literature display. Elders can in the park.
download from our Web site special files for making displays
of the Watchtower and Awake! magazines and the Bible
Teach book. These files have been prepared specifically for *** km 6/11 p. 2 Street Witnessing That Is Effective ***
use in this form of public witnessing. Those who participate Street Witnessing That Is Effective
will carry out the work in much the same way as those
1
engaged in special metropolitan public witnessing and should During his earthly ministry, Jesus did not hesitate to
follow the direction of the service overseer closely. If they speak with people he met on the road and in other public
obtain an address from an interested person who does not live places. (Luke 9:57-61; John 4:7) He wanted to share his
in their territory, they should promptly fill out a Please important message with as many people as possible. Today,
Follow Up (S-43) form and give it to the secretary. street witnessing is an excellent way to help people obtain
8
godly wisdom. (Prov. 1:20) Our success will be enhanced if
Public Witnessing in Your Personal Ministry: Some we take the initiative and use discernment.
congregations may not have a location in their territory that
2
has sufficient pedestrian traffic to justify setting up a table or Take the Initiative: It is generally better to approach
making use of a mobile literature display. However, even in individuals rather than to stand or sit in one place waiting for
those congregations, publishers are encouraged to consider passersby to approach you. Smile, make eye contact, and
111
have a calm, friendly manner. If you are working with other previous occasions. Courage and good judgment are needed
publishers, it is usually best to approach people separately. so that we are bold and persuasive, yet not overly persistent.
Initiative is also needed to follow up on the interest that you 4
find. If appropriate, at the end of the conversation, kindly ask The key to effective street witnessing is to have a warm,
how you may contact the person again. Some publishers do cheerful, and sincere approach. Smile. Catch the persons eye
street work regularly at the same location, enabling them to if you can, but if not, go ahead and make a friendly approach.
speak to the same people repeatedly and further their interest. Observe the circumstances, and make use of them. One sister
observes women laden with grocery bags and says, I see you
3
Use Discernment: Use good judgment in deciding have been food shopping. It certainly is expensive these days.
where to stand on the street and whom to approach. It is not How about some encouraging food for the mind and heart? I
necessary to witness to every passerby. Be observant. If the enjoyed this article . . . . To someone with children, she says,
person is in a hurry, for example, it may be best to let him I see you have two lovely children. Did you know that the
pass. When witnessing in front of a business place, be Bible says children are a blessing from God? Here, let me
discreet so as to avoid causing undue concern to the manager. show you . . . . Approaching a person deep in thought, she
It is often better to witness to people as they leave the says, I see you are thinking about something. The world is
business rather than as they enter. Approach people in a way so full of trouble today, dont you agree? Do you think a time
that will not frighten or startle them. Also, be discerning will ever come when . . . ?
when offering literature. If individuals display little interest, 5
you may offer a tract instead of the magazines. If a person is rushing down the street, you may just
hand him a tract with the comment, Here is some good news
4
Street witnessing enables us to scatter many seeds of for you to read when you have time. If people do not seem
truth in a short period of time. (Eccl. 11:6) Some people we to be rushed, offer the magazines, and explain the donation
meet may even be those we are unable to find at home when arrangement. It is good to get the literature into the hands of
working from house to house. Why not make arrangements to people whenever possible.
engage in street witnessing, an enjoyable and effective form 6
of field service? Many publishers who were at first nervous about street
witnessing now view it as their favorite form of preaching. Of
*** km 2/91 p. 8 Presenting the Good NewsBy course, caution must be exercised when working in
Street Witnessing *** dangerous areas or at times when it is unsafe. Even in small
Presenting the Good NewsBy Street Witnessing towns, there are usually busy areas, public transportation
centers, or public parking lots where people can be
1
Proverbs 1:20 says: True wisdom itself keeps crying approached with the good news. Seize the opportunity, and
aloud in the very street. In the public squares it keeps giving with wisdom let your voice give forth the good news in the
forth its voice. These words are especially true today as streets and public squares, to the blessing of the hearers and
Jehovahs servants zealously preach the good news of the to the honor of Jehovah.Prov. 1:20.
Kingdom wherever they can find people. Like Jesus and pre-
Christian prophets, our genuine love for people moves us to
present the truth to everyone, everywhere.Jer. 11:6; Mark *** w08 9/15 pp. 25-26 Marketplace Witnessing ***
6:56; Luke 13:22, 26. Marketplace Witnessing
2
Although a persons home is usually the most desirable WHEN in the city of Athens, the apostle Paul went every
place to speak to him about the truth, not many people are at day to the marketplace to preach the good news about Jesus.
home when we make house-to-house calls. When (Acts 17:17) Paul chose the marketplace because that was the
householders are home, often it is the same person we spoke center of Athenian life.
to before that answers the door, and other members of the
family are not contacted. Thus, street witnessing should have Almost 2,000 years later, Jehovahs people still use the
a definite place in our ministry. You may find that street marketplace to spread the message of Gods Kingdom. Why?
witnessing is, as one pioneer expressed it, an exciting, fresh, Because many people can be found there. Today, the
and at-home territory. marketplace may be a shopping center or a mall. After having
obtained permission from the manager or owner, some
A WARM POSITIVE ATTITUDE Witnesses have used a table or a booth for displaying Bible
3
Why not try doing your street witnessing in the same literature.
area on a regular basis? One sister who does this says that she For example, at a shopping mall in New Jersey, U.S.A.,
has become acquainted with most of the shopkeepers and an attractive display of literature was arranged on the theme
other people who are frequently on her street. A good Maintaining Family ValuesHow? The result? In one day,
rapport has developed, which has opened the way for many 153 books in six languages were placed.
productive Bible discussions. An auxiliary pioneer who
thoroughly enjoys street witnessing said that he tries to One woman who approached the literature booth listened
approach window-shoppers, people sitting in their cars, attentively to the explanation given by one of the Witnesses.
people waiting for buses, and even those who have said no on The woman agreed that it is important to have God in our life
and in our family. She obtained the following publications:

112
Learn From the Great Teacher, The Secret of Family The sister was able to obtain the name and address of the
Happiness, and Questions Young People AskAnswers That woman, and a return visit was made that same week.
Work.
In the early afternoon, a man passed by the display of *** km 3/12 p. 2 Witness in Business Territory With
literature as he was about to enter the store next to it. His eyes Confidence ***
were drawn to the Young People Ask book. The sister Witness in Business Territory With Confidence
standing in the booth noticed a curious look on his face. She
asked him, Is there a book that interests you? He nodded 1
Do you find the thought of witnessing at businesses to
and pointed to the Young People Ask book. She handed him be intimidating? If so, do not despair, for even Paul, who was
the book, which he was already reaching for. He said that he a bold and fearless minister, had to muster up boldness in
has three children. As the conversation continued, he order to preach. (1 Thess. 2:2) Below are some common
mentioned that he has discussions with them once a week. concerns along with practical suggestions for addressing
His two oldest children are teenagers. While scanning the them.
book, he said that he could very easily use it as a guide for
2
some of their family discussions. The publisher also directed Will Interrupting the Workers Annoy Them? In
his attention to The Secret of Family Happiness, assuring him many businesses, workers serve the public and expect
that he and his wife would find some very helpful advice on interruptions. They will often be polite, since they may view
making family decisions. The man was grateful for the you as a potential customer. By dressing in a dignified
suggestion, made a donation, and accepted the offer to have manner and being warm and friendly, you will encourage
someone visit them. respectful treatment.
3
How did the Witnesses feel about their day of witnessing Will I Have to Give My Presentation in Front of
in the mall? I personally enjoyed this avenue of preaching, Many Customers? If possible, choose a time when stores are
said one sister. What an experience it was for me! Another not overly busy, such as when they first open. Wait until the
sister said: Jehovah says that the good news will be preached manager or clerk is alone before approaching him. Make your
to the most distant part of the earth. Today, in Paramus, New presentation very brief.
Jersey, this good news touched people of different languages. 4
What Should I Say? Speak to the person in charge if
It was wonderful to be a part of this arrangement. Everyone
there are several workers. You might say: Its hard to find
who participated in it was happy. None of us wanted to leave
businesspeople at home, so were visiting you at your
at the end of the day.
workplace. I know youre working, so Ill be very brief. So
Can you expand the ways in which you preach the good that we will not be confused with salesmen, it is usually best
news? Our primary method is that of going from house to not to mention the donation arrangement unless we are asked
house. (Acts 20:20) However, would you consider witnessing how our work is financed. Depending on the nature of the
in the marketplace or in the mall? business, you may ask the manager for permission to speak
briefly to the workers. Repeat your presentation to them. If a
worker seems busy, shorten your presentation and leave him a
*** km 9/96 p. 5 pars. 18-20 Preach the Good News tract. If it is not possible to talk with the workers, perhaps you
Everywhere *** will be allowed to leave literature in the break room or other
18
Informal Witnessing in Shopping Malls: While it is common area.
not always possible to preach formally from store to store in 5
Jesus and Paul preached to people at their places of
shopping malls because of local restrictions on such business with confidence, and so can you. (Matt. 4:18-21;
activities, some publishers create opportunities to witness 9:9; Acts 17:17) Ask Jehovah to help you to have a calm heart
there informally. They sit down on a bench and strike up a and to be bold. (Acts 4:29) Business territory has few not-at-
friendly conversation with others who stop to rest. When homes, so why not give this productive form of witnessing a
interest is shown, they discreetly offer a tract or a magazine try?
and endeavor to make arrangements for a return visit. After
spending a few minutes witnessing in one section of the mall,
they proceed to another and engage someone else in *** km 7/04 p. 4 How to Preach in Business Territory ***
conversation. Of course, care should be taken not to attract How to Preach in Business Territory
undue attention while witnessing informally in this way.
1
19 Would you like to preach in territory where people
When greeting a person, begin the conversation on a
generally welcome visitors and where not-at-homes are rare?
friendly note. If your listener responds, ask a question, then
You may be able to do so right in your congregation territory.
listen attentively as he expresses himself. Take a personal
How? By calling on the businesses found there. Publishers
interest in what he is saying. Show that you value his opinion.
witnessing from store to store often enjoy good results.
Where possible, agree with him.
2
20 Some congregations have business districts as part of
One sister had a delightful talk with an elderly woman
their assigned territory. The brother caring for the territory
by mentioning how high the cost of living has become. The
may prepare special map cards of these heavily concentrated
woman readily agreed, and a lively conversation resulted.
113
business sections. Any residential territory map cards that from store to store, dress as you would if you were attending
overlap them should clearly indicate that the businesses are a meeting at the Kingdom Hall. If possible, enter the store
not to be worked as part of the territory. In other territories, when there are no customers waiting to be served. Ask to
businesses can be worked along with the residences. If you speak to the manager or to the person in charge. Be warm,
have never done business witnessing, start by trying a few and above all, be brief. There is no need to be apologetic.
smaller stores. Many businesses are customer-oriented and have come to
3
expect interruptions.
Use a Simple Approach: When witnessing from store
23
to store, it is important to dress as you would for a meeting at After greeting a storekeeper, you might say this:
the Kingdom Hall. It is also good to choose a time when the Businesspeople have such full schedules that we rarely find
store is not busy. If possible, enter when there are no them at home, so we are visiting you here at your place of
customers waiting to be served. Ask to speak to the manager business to leave you a very thought-provoking article to
or the person in charge. Be brief and to the point. What might read. Then make a comment or two about a magazine being
you say? offered.
4 24
When speaking with a storekeeper or manager, you Or you might try this when approaching a manager:
might say something like this: Business people have such We have noticed that businesspeople make it a point to be
full schedules that we rarely find them at home, so we are well-informed. The latest issue of The Watchtower (or
visiting you at your workplace. Our magazines give a global Awake!) features an article that affects all of us personally.
perspective on current events. Then feature one brief point Explain what it is, and conclude by saying: We are sure you
from one magazine. will enjoy reading it.
5 25
Or you might try this simple approach: Many people If there are employees, and it seems appropriate, you
would like to know more about the Bible but have very little might add: Would you mind if I gave the same brief
time. This tract explains a free study program that is available presentation to your employees? If permission is granted,
to help you find answers to your Bible questions. Then point remember you have promised to be brief, and the manager
out pages 4-5 of the tract Would You Like to Know More will expect you to keep your word. If any employees wish to
About the Bible? enter into a long discussion, it would be best to call on them
6
at their home.
If the person in charge seems to be busy, you might just
26
offer a tract and say: I will stop by again when you are not Recently, a few publishers in a small town joined the
so busy. I would like to know what you think of this tract. circuit overseer in store-to-store work. Some of the publishers
7
were apprehensive at first, having never done the work
Cultivating Interest Shown: You may even be able to before; but they soon relaxed and began to enjoy it. In less
conduct a Bible study in business territory. A special pioneer than an hour, they spoke to 37 people and placed 24
regularly delivered the magazines to a businessman. When magazines and 4 brochures. One brother observed that
the man expressed appreciation for what he was reading, the normally they would not be able to contact as many people in
pioneer demonstrated the Bible study arrangement, using the one month of house-to-house work as they did while working
Require brochure. A study was established right there at the from store to store in that short time.
mans place of work. Taking into account the circumstances,
the pioneer limited it to 10 or 15 minutes each time. May we, *** km 1/10 pp. 4-6 A Help for Telephone Witnessing
likewise, continue to search for deserving ones by witnessing ***
in business territory. A Help for Telephone Witnessing

*** km 9/96 p. 5 pars. 21-26 Preach the Good News While we properly give priority to the house-to-house
Everywhere *** method of preaching, telephone witnessing is an effective
way to spread the good news in a congregations assigned
21
Working From Store to Store: Some congregations territory, especially where there are many homes to which we
have business districts as part of their assigned territory. The cannot gain access.Luke 10:5-7; Acts 5:42; 20:20.
brother caring for the territory may prepare special map cards
of these heavily concentrated business sections. Any This feature of the ministry can be encouraging to
residential territory map cards that overlap them should brothers and sisters who are limited in mobility and spend
clearly indicate that the businesses are not to be worked as much of their time at home. Publishers will enjoy an
part of the territory. In other territories, business places can be interchange of encouragement when they arrange to share in
worked along with the residences. The elders may invite this form of witnessing with these faithful ones. (Rom.
qualified publishers to work the business territories on a 1:11, 12) Also, during inclement weather, publishers may
regular basis so that store-to-store work is not neglected. choose to participate in telephone witnessing. Generally
speaking, groups should be kept small so that all make the
22
If you are invited to share in this work and you have best use of time.
never done it before, a good way to muster up boldness is to
work a few smaller stores first; then, when you feel more A helpful work sheet is provided on pages 5-6 for use
confident, work the larger ones. (1 Thess. 2:2) When working when witnessing by telephone. Space is provided to add

114
presentations that are effective in your territory or that you are concerned about . . . [Mention a current news item
feel more comfortable using. Feel free to photocopy the work of local concern.]
sheet and write on the copy rather than on the original. You
may find it helpful to sit at a table and have the work sheet in [Insert your own.]
front of you. [Then continue with your presentation. You may read a
What else will you need when witnessing by telephone? suggestion from the Reasoning book, Our Kingdom
Review this check list as you prepare. Ministry, or prepare your own.]

Personal Bible [Insert your own.]

Reasoning From the Scriptures To offer a Bible study on the initial call:

Good News for People of All Nations Hello. My name is . . . I am one of your neighbors from . . .
Street. Im calling because I give Bible lessons free of
What Does the Bible Really Teach? charge and I have openings in my schedule. Here are
some of the subjects that will be discussed from your
Current magazines and Our Kingdom Bible. [Read two or three of the chapter titles from the
Ministry Bible Teach book.] Which of those interests you the
Variety of tracts and brochures most? [Allow for response.] What I read to you are
chapter titles from a book entitled What Does the Bible
Handbills Really Teach? I would be happy to come by and drop off
a copy. There is no charge for the book.
House-to-house records and pencil or pen
If the householder hesitates, you might say:
SAVE
Then perhaps I could call you again to discuss briefly what
TELEPHONE WITNESSING WORK SHEET
the Bible really teaches on the subject you are interested
KEEP THESE POINTS IN MIND: in. Are you usually home at this time?

Relax. Be yourself. Demonstrate courteousness, patience, [Insert your own.]


and friendliness.
If the householder says . . .
Speak slowly, deliberately, and with sufficient volume.
WHOM DO YOU REPRESENT?
Smile and gesture as if the person can see you.
I am one of Jehovahs Witnesses, and continue with your
Avoid unnecessary pauses. presentation.

Allow the householder to share in the conversation, and HOW DID YOU GET MY NUMBER?
thank him for his expressions.
From the directory, and continue with your presentation.
If you are asked a question, repeat it out loud so that your
IM ON A DO-NOT-CALL LIST.
partner can help you find the answer in the Bible,
Reasoning book, or another publication. (It is usually Since Im not selling anything, I dont have that list, and
better not to put the caller on a speakerphone.) continue with your presentation.
Do not mention the donation arrangement, as this could be If the householder requests that Jehovahs Witnesses not
misinterpreted as a form of telephone solicitation. At an call him again . . .
appropriate time after you have met the householder
face-to-face, you may inform him that our work is Ill make a note of that, and we will endeavor to honor
supported entirely by voluntary donations. your wishes, and discontinue your presentation. [A
dated note with the name of the person should then be
INTRODUCTIONS placed in the territory envelope.]
Hello. My name is . . . I am calling because I am not able If you get an answering machine . . .
to come and see you personally. I live here in the
community. [You might give the name of your street or Im sorry that I didnt find you at home. My name is . . . I
neighborhood.] Im interested in your opinion was calling to invite you to a Bible-based discourse on
regarding . . . the subject ......

Hello. My name is . . . Im helping people in the [Day and time:] ......


community with their Bible questions as a public service. [Address:] ......
Have you ever wondered . . . ?
No collections are ever taken.
Hello. My name is . . . Im not a telemarketer; I am one of
your neighbors from . . . Street. Many in the community
115
3
My name is . . . , and I am calling as a public service to Do we personally feel this same indebtedness and
help people get answers to their Bible questions. I will manifest a similar eagerness to reach everyone in our
call you again. territory? While we prefer sharing the good news with others
face-to-face, as in door-to-door and street witnessing, why
[Insert your own.] limit our activity to this? It is possible that many individuals
CONCLUSIONS: in our congregation territory have never spoken with one of
Jehovahs Witnesses. How can this be?
I have a publication that Id like to share with you that 4
gives more information on the subject. I would be glad to Unworked Territory: Does your territory have high-
come by and drop it off. There is no charge. rise apartments guarded by doormen? Perhaps there are high-
security apartment complexes that are off-limits to door-to-
I enjoyed talking with you. Would it be possible for me door visitation. Has the congregation been denied entry to
(and my husband/wife) to visit your home to discuss the preach the good news in a military base or a private
subject further? We could discuss the answer to this subdivision located in the territory? Very likely some
question: ...... individuals living in such places have never heard about the
blessings of Gods Kingdom. Are there people who are never
I enjoyed our conversation. The next time I call, Id like to
found at home?
discuss the Bibles answer to this question: ...... Is this a
good time to call? 5
We need not despair of reaching these people because
they are difficult to contact. How does Jehovah view the
[Insert your own.]
situation? The apostle Peter writes: Jehovah . . . does not
If the person is reluctant for you to visit, you might say: desire any to be destroyed but desires all to attain to
repentance. . . . Furthermore, consider the patience of our
If you prefer, I would be happy to send the publication to Lord as salvation. (2 Pet. 3:9, 15) Lives are involved, and
you. Jehovah is interested in each one. (Matt. 18:14) How can we
Then perhaps I could call you again to continue our show the kind of compassion and mercy that Jehovah
discussion. Are you usually home at this time? displays for these individuals? By seeing that everyone in our
territory receives a witness.Acts 20:20, 21; Rev. 14:6, 7.
I enjoyed our conversation. Id like to invite you to a 6
Bible-based discourse on the subject ...... Organized for Thorough Activity: In the past the
Society has encouraged those who are confined to their
[Day and time:] ...... homes, either temporarily or permanently because of illness
or physical disability, to make good use of the telephone.
[Address:] ...... Those who find themselves in such a situation should
No collections are ever taken. continue this fine work. Also, reports have been received that
a number of brothers and sisters, including regular and
[Insert your own.] auxiliary pioneers, have used telephone witnessing as an
adjunct to their usual door-to-door ministry.
7
Some congregations have made a concerted effort to
arrange for telephone witnessing. When elders take the lead
in organizing the territories and providing support either
*** km 8/93 pp. 3-4 Telephone WitnessingA Way to personally or through other publishers, greater success is
Reach Many *** reported. The service overseer is responsible for supervising
Telephone WitnessingA Way to Reach Many this activity. However, any qualified elder or responsible
ministerial servant may be selected by the body of elders to
1
Evidence abounds that we are now living in the last work closely with the service overseer in organizing the
days. (2 Tim. 3:1) Without a doubt the time left for Kingdom work.
preaching and disciple making is reduced. Each of us, 8
Publishers who have overcome their initial reluctance
therefore, should act with urgency to help others become and have gained experience in telephone witnessing have
approved worshipers of Jehovah God. found it to be a productive field. At the outset, perhaps only a
2
The apostle Paul felt his responsibility to make public few publishers and pioneers will make these calls. After they
declaration of his faith. (Rom. 10:10) He knew that Gods become familiar and comfortable with this type of
will is that all sorts of men should be saved and come to an witnessing, their enthusiasm and encouraging experiences
accurate knowledge of truth. (1 Tim. 2:4) Based on his may move others to learn how to share in this interesting
knowledge of truth, Paul considered himself to be a debtor to aspect of the preaching work.
all. This increased his sense of urgency in declaring the good 9
Where to Begin: It may be possible to get names of
news. He said: There is eagerness on my part to declare the residents from the directory in the lobby of an apartment
good news . . . For I am not ashamed of the good news; it is, building. Then the telephone numbers may be looked up in
in fact, Gods power for salvation to everyone having the telephone directory. A city directory in the local library
faith.Rom. 1:14-17.
116
may list the names of occupants of every home and apartment wonder, Is a genuinely happy life possible? How do you
in the community. In some communities a special book that feel about that? [Allow time for answer.] What would you say
lists telephone numbers by street locations is available. is one of the biggest obstacles to happiness today? Or after
Photocopies of pages from the latest edition could serve as introducing yourself as above, you could say: I am involved
territories. The size of these territories should be kept in an international volunteer work, and I would like your
relatively small. thoughts on the meaning of life. As we get up in years, we
10
realize that life is very short. Is this all that life is meant to
In all forms of witnessing activity, it is most beneficial be? How do you feel about it? (See Reasoning book,
to keep accurate records. This is also true for telephone page 13, subheading Life/Happiness.) A review of the
witnessing. Carefully note helpful information on a house-to- suggestions in Our Kingdom Ministry of July 1990, page 4,
house record, such as the subject discussed, the interests of with regard to using introductions and avoiding objections
the householder, and the subject that will be discussed on the faced in telephone witnessing will provide further helpful
next call. Indicate whether another telephone call should be information.
made at a later date or a personal visit has been arranged.
17
11
Use the Bible early in the discussion. At some point in
Personal Schedule Needed: A regular routine will the conversation, when it seems appropriate to do so, mention
help build your confidence and ward off apprehension. It is that you are one of Jehovahs Witnesses. Allow the
best to call when people are more likely to be home, such as householder to share in the conversation. Do not be afraid to
in the evening and on the weekends. Schedule a regular time listen if the person wants to share what he thinks. Thank him
each week to make these calls. Some have found the hour for his expressions and observations. Be ready to commend.
before the Congregation Book Study to be a productive time. However, if the individual begins to dominate the
Find out what works best in your area. conversation or argue, tactfully terminate the call. Let Gods
12
How to Prepare: Talk with others who enjoy this spirit direct your efforts and help you search for those whose
privilege of service and get ideas. Always be positive. Look hearts are right toward him.
to Jehovah as your source of power and strength, and seek his 18
It is better for you to bring the conversation to a close
direction through prayer. (Ps. 27:14; Phil. 4:13) Plan to put than to leave it to the householder to do so. You can conclude
your whole heart into this activity, just as in other forms of simply by inviting the person to the public talk at the
witnessing.Compare Mark 12:33. Kingdom Hall, giving the address and meeting times. You
13
Experience has proved that sitting at a desk or a table may also ask if a visit may be made to his home to speak with
can be helpful. Sitting in an upright chair promotes clear him further on the subject discussed. It may even be possible
thinking and concentration. Lay out all the witnessing to present literature effectively over the telephone. Magazines
materials that you may usetracts, the literature currently may be offered with the goal of starting a magazine route.
being featured, the latest magazines or some interesting older 19
Share in the Joy of Telephone Witnessing: Will all
copies, the Bible, the Reasoning book, an invitation to the the calls become Bible studies? No, but some will. For
meetings with specific meeting times and Kingdom Hall example, one sister made over 300 calls in one month. After
address listed, a pen or a pencil, and house-to-house records. introducing herself, she explained why she was telephoning
Have your literature readily available, perhaps even open to a rather than visiting each householder. She then gave a short
particular article. Thoroughly rehearse your presentation. presentation. This resulted in 12 good calls. She is still
Keep in mind that the purpose of your call is to give a witness contacting three interested persons by telephone, and four
and to arrange a visit with the individual as soon as possible. others agreed that she could visit them at their homes. One
14
Making the Actual Call: Relax. Be yourself. A warm, individual accepted the Live Forever book and is now being
pleasing voice is needed for effective telephone witnessing. visited regularly.
The smile on your face will be reflected in your tone of voice. 20
Jesus Christ commanded his disciples to push the
Speak slowly and clearly, using sufficient volume. Be witnessing work to the most distant part of the earth. (Acts
courteous, patient, and friendly. Do not fear rejection. Accept 1:8) In some areas, carrying out this command means
the fact that people may not be interested in your message. witnessing by telephone. After reviewing the above material,
View it the same as you would in your regular door-to-door ask yourself: Can I do more in my congregation territory to
ministry. preach the good news to all sorts of men, including those
15
In your introduction, state your full name. It is best not who are living in areas never before reached? Brothers who
to say that you are phoning all the people in a particular have followed these suggestions have been greatly
building or complex, as this may result in raising barriers. encouraged by the results. They have found telephone
witnessing to be an exceptional way to glorify their
16
Many introductions from the Reasoning book may be ministry. (Rom. 11:13) May you experience this same joy
read word for word in a conversational manner. For example, through telephone witnessing.
you might introduce yourself this way: Hello, my name is
________. I am calling you because I am unable to come and
see you personally. Then, without pausing, say: I am
interested in getting your view on whether the quality of life
will ever improve. Most of us are glad to be alive, but many
117
*** yb06 pp. 52-53 Worldwide Report ***
Venezuela: A family of Witnesses recently got a new Unit 7 (a) Benefit From Counsel and Direction
telephone line in their house and a new number. Because of a
technical problem, however, they began receiving phone calls (Galatians 6:1) Brothers, even if a man takes a false step
from people who wanted to contact the local television before he is aware of it, you who have spiritual qualifications
station to talk to a lady astrologer, who was on hand. The try to readjust such a man in a spirit of mildness. But keep an
family decided to make the best of the situation. With the eye on yourself, for fear you too may be tempted.
help of the book Reasoning From the Scriptures, they
prepared some information and a few Bible texts to share Unit 7 (b) Resist the Spirit of the World
with these callers. Graciela, the mother, became an expert.
(1 Corinthians 2:12) Now we received, not the spirit of the
One day a caller said: Hello. Are you the goddess of the world, but the spirit that is from God, so that we might know
stars? the things that have been kindly given us by God.
Hello. My name is Graciela, what is yours?
Carmen. Page 81
Unit 9 (b)
Carmen, why do you want to talk to the goddess of the Unit 8 (a) Walk in the Way of Integrity
stars? Do you need help or advice?
(1 Chronicles 29:17) I well know, O my God, that you
Carmen proceeded to tell our sister about a personal examine the heart and that you take pleasure in integrity. In
problem. In a warm tone, Graciela explained where we can the uprightness of my heart, I have voluntarily offered all
get the best advice, and she read Carmen passages from the these things, and I am overjoyed to see your people who are
present here make voluntary offerings to you.
Bible. She then asked her, Dont you think we should go to
our Creator if we need reliable guidance now and in the Unit 8 (b) Participate in Various Forms of Our Ministry
future? Carmen then confessed that she had studied the
Bible with Jehovahs Witnesses in the past, so arrangements (1 Corinthians 9:23) But I do all things for the sake of the
were made for her to resume her study. Subsequently, good news, in order to share it with others.
Gracielas family has spoken to many others seeking help,
often giving them a good witness, encouraging them to listen Unit 9 (a) Workshop 2
to the Witnesses when they call, and directing them to the Participate in Various Forms of Our Ministry
local Kingdom Hall.
(Hebrews 13:15) Through him let us always offer to God a
Page 78 sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of our lips that make
public declaration to his name.
Unit 8 (b)
Pages 82-83 no citations
Maintain Boldness in Various Forms of Our Ministry
(Ephesians 6:10) Finally, go on acquiring power in the Lord Page 84
and in the mightiness of his strength. Unit 10 (a)

a Appreciate Jesus Role


Page 79 Unit 9 (a)
OPENING DISUCSSION
(Acts 1:8) But you will receive power when the holy spirit
Workshop 2 comes upon you, and you will be witnesses of me in
Jerusalem, in all Judea and Samaria, and to the most
Participate in Various Forms of Our Ministry distant part of the earth.

(John 14:6) Jesus said to him: I am the way and the truth
OPENING DISCUSSION and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.
(Acts 20:20, 21) while I did not hold back from telling you
any of the things that were profitable nor from teaching you (1 Corinthians 8:6) there is actually to us one God, the
publicly and from house to house. 21 But I thoroughly bore Father, from whom all things are and we for him; and there is
witness both to Jews and to Greeks about repentance toward one Lord, Jesus Christ, through whom all things are and we
God and faith in our Lord Jesus. through him.
(Hebrews 13:15) Through him let us always offer to God a QUESTION OUTLINE
sacrifice of praise, that is, the fruit of our lips that make The Person
public declaration to his name. (Colossians 1:15) He is the image of the invisible God, the
firstborn of all creation;

Page 80 Unit 9 (b) (John 1:3) All things came into existence through him, and
Pioneer Service School Review Day 3 apart from him not even one thing came into existence. What
has come into existence
118
his way, the earliest of his achievements of long ago, nor
(John 1:14) So the Word became flesh and resided among us, that the Son was beside [Jehovah] as a master worker
and we had a view of his glory, a glory such as belongs to an during earths creation, as described in these verses of
only-begotten son from a father; and he was full of divine Proverbs. It is true that in Hebrew, which assigns gender to its
favor and truth. nouns (as do many other languages), the word for wisdom
is always in the feminine gender. This would continue to be
the case even though wisdom is personified and so would not
(Hebrews 11:17) By faith Abraham, when he was tested, as rule out wisdoms being used figuratively to represent Gods
good as offered up Isaacthe man who had gladly received firstborn Son. The Greek word for love in the expression
the promises attempted to offer up his only-begotten son God is love (1Jo 4:8) is also in the feminine gender but that
does not make God feminine. Solomon, the principal writer
*** it-2 p. 53 Jesus Christ *** of Proverbs (Pr 1:1), applied the title qoheleth (congregator)
How he is the only-begotten Son. to himself (Ec 1:1) and this word is also in the feminine
Jesus being called the only-begotten Son (Joh 1:14; gender.
3:16, 18; 1Jo 4:9) does not mean that the other spirit creatures
produced were not Gods sons, for they are called sons as (John 1:1) In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was
well. (Ge 6:2, 4; Job 1:6; 2:1; 38:4-7) However, by virtue of with God, and the Word was a god.
his being the sole direct creation of his Father, the firstborn
Son was unique, different from all others of Gods sons, all of
whom were created or begotten by Jehovah through that (John 1:14) So the Word became flesh and resided among us,
firstborn Son. So the Word was Jehovahs only-begotten and we had a view of his glory, a glory such as belongs to an
Son in a particular sense, even as Isaac was Abrahams only-begotten son from a father; and he was full of divine
only-begotten son in a particular sense (his father already favor and truth.
having another son but not by his wife Sarah).Heb 11:17;
Ge 16:15. (John 12:50) And I know that his commandment means
everlasting life. So whatever I speak, I speak just as the
(Matthew 19:4-6) In reply he said: Have you not read that Father has told me.
the one who created them from the beginning made them
male and female 5 and said: For this reason a man will leave *** w08 12/15 pp. 12-13
his father and his mother and will stick to his wife, and the Appreciate Jesus Unique Role in Gods Purpose ***
two will be one flesh? 6 So that they are no longer two, but
one flesh. Therefore, what God has yoked together, let no The Word
man put apart.
6
Read John 1:14. Why is Jesus called the Word, or
*** it-2 p. 52 Jesus Christ *** Logos? This title identifies the function that he has performed
Not a co-Creator. since other intelligent creatures came into existence. Jehovah
The Sons share in the creative works, however, did not make
him a co-Creator with his Father. The power for creation used his Son to convey information and instructions to other
came from God through his holy spirit, or active force. (Ge spirit sons, even as God used that Son to deliver His message
1:2; Ps 33:6) And since Jehovah is the Source of all life, all to humans on earth. The fact that Jesus is the Word, or Gods
animate creation, visible and invisible, owes its life to him. Spokesman, is echoed in what Christ said to his Jewish
(Ps 36:9) Rather than a co-Creator, then, the Son
listeners: What I teach is not mine, but belongs to him that
was the agent or instrumentality through whom Jehovah, the sent me. If anyone desires to do His will, he will know
Creator, worked. Jesus himself credited God with the concerning the teaching whether it is from God or I speak of
creation, as do all the Scriptures.Mt 19:4-6; see my own originality. (John 7:16, 17) Jesus continues to bear
CREATION. the title The Word of God even after his return to heavenly
glory.Rev. 19:11, 13, 16.
Page 85
Unit 10 (b) 7
Just think about what this title implies. Although Jesus
is the wisest of all of Jehovahs creatures, he does not rely on
(Proverbs 8:12) I, wisdom, dwell together with shrewdness; his own wisdom. He speaks as his Father instructs him. He
I have found knowledge and thinking ability. always directs attention to Jehovah rather than to himself.
(John 12:50) What a wonderful example for us to imitate! We
(Proverbs 8:30) Then I was beside him as a master worker. I too have been entrusted with the precious privilege to
was the one he was especially fond of day by day; I rejoiced
before him all the time; declare good news of good things. (Rom. 10:15)
Appreciation for Jesus example of humility should move us
(1 Corinthians 1:24) However, to those who are called, both to avoid speaking of our own initiative. When it comes to
Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God and the wisdom conveying the lifesaving message in the Scriptures, we do not
of God. want to go beyond the things that are written.1 Cor. 4:6.
*** it-2 pp. 52-53 Jesus Christ ***Wisdom personified. *** w98 6/15 pp. 22-23 JesusThe Ruler Whose Origin
What is recorded concerning the Word in the Scriptures fits Is From Early Times ***
remarkably the description given at Proverbs 8:22-31. There
wisdom is personified, represented as though able to speak Jehovahs Spokesman
and act. (Pr 8:1) Many professed Christian writers of the Johns words draw attention to another privilege that Gods
early centuries of the Common Era understood this section to Son enjoyed, namely, being a spokesman. From the
refer symbolically to Gods Son in his prehuman state. In beginning, he served as the Word. Thus, when Jehovah spoke
view of the texts already considered, there can be no denying
that that Son was produced by Jehovah as the beginning of to Adam, and later when he addressed Adam together with
119
Eve, he likely did so through the Word. And who better to Matthew 5:24 in Jesus instructions that a person should first
convey Gods instructions for mankinds welfare than one make his peace with his brother before presenting an
who had a fondness for them?John 1:1, 2. offering on the altar.

How it must have pained the Word to see Eve and then Adam Reconciliation to God. In Pauls letter to the Romans and
disobey their Creator! And how he must have yearned to in several other letters, he uses katallasso and
remedy the ills their disobedience brought on their offspring! apokatallasso (an intensified form) in dealing with mans
(Genesis 2:15-17; 3:6, 8; Romans 5:12) Addressing Satan, being reconciled to God by means of the sacrifice of Christ
who had encouraged Eve to rebel, Jehovah declared: I shall Jesus.
put enmity between you and the woman and between your Such reconciliation to God is necessary because an
seed and her seed. (Genesis 3:15) Having witnessed what alienation has existed, a separation, a lack of harmony and of
happened in Eden, the Word realized that as the primary part friendly relations, more than that, a state of enmity. This came
of the womans seed, he would become the target of vicious through the first man Adams sin and the resultant sinfulness
hatred. He knew that Satan was a manslayer.John 8:44. and imperfection inherited by all his descendants. (Ro 5:12;
compare Isa 43:27.) The apostle could therefore say that the
When Satan later questioned faithful Jobs integrity, the Word
minding of the flesh means enmity with God, for it is not
must have felt outrage at the slanderous accusations leveled
under subjection to the law of God, nor, in fact, can it be [due
against his Father. (Job 1:6-10; 2:1-4) Indeed, in his role as
to its inherited imperfect, sinful nature]. So those who are in
archangel, the Word is known as Michael, whose name means
harmony with the flesh cannot please God. (Ro 8:7, 8)
Who Is Like God? and indicates how he champions
Enmity exists because Gods perfect standards do not allow
Jehovah against all who aspire to usurp Gods sovereignty.
for his approving or condoning wrongdoing. (Ps 5:4; 89:14)
Daniel 12:1; Revelation 12:7-10.
Of his Son, who reflected his Fathers perfect qualities, it is
As the history of Israel unfurled, the Word observed Satans written: You loved righteousness, and you hated
attempts to turn humans away from pure worship. Following lawlessness. (Heb 1:9) Hence, even though God is love
the Exodus from Egypt, God told Israel through Moses: and even though God loved the world [of mankind] so much
Here I am sending an angel ahead of you to keep you on the that he gave his only-begotten Son on mankinds behalf, the
road and to bring you into the place that I have prepared. fact remains that mankind as a whole has been in a state of
Watch yourself because of him and obey his voice. Do not enmity toward God and that Gods love toward the world of
behave rebelliously against him, for he will not pardon your mankind was love toward enemies, a love guided by principle
transgression; because my name is within him. (Exodus (Gr., agape) rather than affection or friendship (Gr., philia).
23:20, 21) Who was this angel? Likely, the prehuman Jesus. 1Jo 4:16; Joh 3:16; compare Jas 4:4.
Since Gods standard is one of perfect righteousness, he
(John 8:23) He went on to say to them: You are from the cannot countenance, or view with favor, sin, which is the
realms below; I am from the realms above. You are from this violation of his express will. He is gracious and merciful
world; I am not from this world.
and rich in mercy (Ps 145:8, 9; Eph 2:4); but he does not
(John 8:42) Jesus said to them: If God were your Father, disregard justice in order to display mercy. As correctly
you would love me, for I came from God and I am here. I observed in MClintock and Strongs Cyclopaedia (1894, Vol.
have not come of my own initiative, but that One sent me. VIII, p. 958), the relation between God and sinful man is thus
a legal one, as that of a sovereign, in his judicial capacity,
(John 8:58) Jesus said to them: Most truly I say to you, and a criminal who has violated his laws and risen up against
before Abraham came into existence, I have been. his authority, and who is therefore treated as an enemy. This
is the situation into which mankind was brought because of
The Way
(Romans 5:11) Not only that, but we are also rejoicing in the inheritance of sin from their first father, Adam.
God through our Lord Jesus Christ, through whom we have The basis for reconciliation. It is only by and through the
now received the reconciliation.
ransom sacrifice of Christ Jesus that full reconciliation to
*** it-2 pp. 760-762 Reconciliation *** God is possible; he is the way, and no one comes to the
RECONCILIATION Father except through him. (Joh 14:6) His death served as a
propitiatory sacrifice [Gr., hilasmon] for our sins. (1Jo 2:2;
4:10) The word hilasmos signifies a means of appeasing,
To reconcile means to bring back into harmony or cause
an atonement. Clearly, the sacrifice of Jesus Christ was not
to be friendly again; also to adjust or settle, as in reconciling
a means of appeasing in the sense of soothing hurt feelings
differences. In Greek, the words related to reconciliation are
on the part of God, mollifying him, for the death of his
derived from the verb allasso, which, basically, means
beloved Son certainly would produce no such effect. Rather,
change, alter.Ac 6:14; Ga 4:20, Int.
that sacrifice appeased, or satisfied, the demands of Gods
Thus, the compound form katallasso, while meaning, perfect justice by providing the just and righteous basis for
basically, exchange, came to have the meaning reconcile. pardoning sin, so that God might be righteous even when
(Ro 5:10) Paul used this verb when speaking of a womans declaring righteous the man [the hereditarily sinful man] that
making up again with her husband, from whom she had has faith in Jesus. (Ro 3:24-26) By supplying the means for
separated. (1Co 7:11) The related diallassomai appears at expiating (making complete satisfaction for) mans sins and
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unlawful acts, Christs sacrifice made it propitious apart from Christ Jesus, men have no righteousness that could
(favorable) for mans seeking and receiving a restoration to qualify them for a standing before God.Compare Isa 64:6;
right relations with the Sovereign God.Eph 1:7; Heb 2:17; Ro 7:18, 21-25; 1Co 1:30, 31; 1Jo 1:8-10.
see RANSOM.
Steps necessary for attaining reconciliation. Since God
Thus, through Christ, God made it possible to reconcile is the offended party whose law has been and is being
again to himself all other things by making peace through the violated, it is man who must become reconciled to God, not
blood he [Jesus] shed on the torture stake, and thereby God to man. (Ps 51:1-4) Man does not meet God on equal
persons once alienated and enemies because of having their terms, nor is Gods stand as to what is right subject to change,
minds on wicked works could now be reconciled by means emendation, or modification. (Isa 55:6-11; Mal 3:6; compare
of that ones fleshly body through his death, in order to Jas 1:17.) His conditions for reconciliation are therefore
present [them] holy and unblemished and open to no nonnegotiable, not subject to question or compromise.
accusation before him. (Col 1:19-22) Jehovah God could (Compare Job 40:1, 2, 6-8; Isa 40:13, 14.) While many
now declare righteous those whom he selected to become translations render Isaiah 1:18 to read, Come now, and let us
his spiritual sons; they would not be subject to any reason together, says the LORD (KJ; AT; JP; RS), a more
accusation, since they were now persons fully reconciled to, appropriate and consistent translation is: Come, now, you
and at peace with, God.Compare Ac 13:38, 39; Ro 5:9, 10; people, and let us set matters straight [let us settle the
8:33. dispute, Ro] between us, says Jehovah. The fault
producing the disharmony lies entirely with man, not with
What, then, can we say of men who served God in times
God.Compare Eze 18:25, 29-32.
before Christs death? This would include men such as Abel,
who had witness borne to him that he was righteous, God This does not prevent God from mercifully taking the
bearing witness respecting his gifts; Enoch, who had the initiative in opening the way for reconciliation. He did so
witness that he had pleased God well; Abraham, who came through his Son. The apostle writes: For, indeed, Christ,
to be called Jehovahs friend; Moses, Joshua, Samuel, while we were yet weak, died for ungodly men at the
David, Daniel, John the Baptizer, and Christs disciples (to appointed time. For hardly will anyone die for a righteous
whom Jesus said prior to his death, the Father himself has man; indeed, for the good man, perhaps, someone even dares
affection for you). (Heb 11:4, 5; Jas 2:23; Da 9:23; Joh to die. But God recommends his own love [agapen] to us in
16:27) Jehovah dealt with all of these and blessed them. How, that, while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us. Much
then, would such ones need any reconciling by means of more, therefore, since we have been declared righteous now
Christs death? by his blood, shall we be saved through him from wrath. For
if, when we were enemies, we became reconciled to God
These persons obviously enjoyed a measure of
through the death of his Son, much more, now that we have
reconciliation to God. Nevertheless, they, even as the rest of
become reconciled, we shall be saved by his life. And not
the world of mankind, were still sinners by inheritance and
only that, but we are also exulting in God through our Lord
had acknowledged themselves as such by the animal
Jesus Christ, through whom we have now received the
sacrifices they offered. (Ro 3:9, 22, 23; Heb 10:1, 2) True,
reconciliation. (Ro 5:6-11) Jesus, who did not know sin,
some men have been more overt or gross in their sinning than
was made to be sin for us, dying as a human sin offering, to
others, even being openly rebellious; but sin is sin, whatever
relieve persons of the charge and penalty of sin. Relieved of
the degree or extent. Since all are sinners, all men descended
the charge of sin, such ones could thus appear righteous in
from Adam have, without exception, needed the
Gods eyes, hence become Gods righteousness by means of
reconciliation with God that his Sons sacrifice made
him [Jesus].2Co 5:18, 21.
possible.
God additionally displays his mercy and love by sending
Gods relative friendship toward men such as those
out ambassadors to sinful mankind. In ancient times
considered earlier was on the basis of the faith they showed,
ambassadors were sent out primarily in times of hostility
faith that embraced the belief that God would in his due time
(compare Lu 19:14), not peace, their mission frequently being
provide the means for relieving them completely of their
to see if war could be averted or to arrange terms for peace
sinful state. (Compare Heb 11:1, 2, 39, 40; Joh 1:29; 8:56; Ac
where a state of war prevailed. (Isa 33:7; Lu 14:31, 32; see
2:29-31.) Hence, the measure of reconciliation they enjoyed
AMBASSADOR.) God sends his Christian ambassadors to
was contingent upon Gods future provision of the ransom.
men to enable them to learn his terms for reconciliation and
As shown under the heading DECLARE RIGHTEOUS, God
to avail themselves of such. As the apostle writes: We are
counted, reckoned or credited, their faith as
therefore ambassadors substituting for Christ, as though God
righteousness, and on that basis, with the absolute certainty of
were making entreaty through us. As substitutes for Christ we
his own provision of a ransom in view, Jehovah could
beg: Become reconciled to God. (2Co 5:20) Such entreaty
provisionally have friendly relations with them without
does not signify any weakening of Gods position nor of his
violating his standards of perfect justice. (Ro 4:3, 9, 10, NW
opposition to wrongdoing; it is, instead, a merciful urging to
and KJ; also compare 3:25, 26; 4:17.) Nevertheless, the
the offenders to seek peace and escape the inevitable
proper demands of his justice must eventually be satisfied, so
consequence of Gods righteous anger toward all who persist
that the crediting would be covered by actual payment of
in going contrary to his holy will, destruction being the
the required ransom price. All of this exalts the importance of
certain end of such. (Compare Eze 33:11.) Even Christians
Christs position in Gods arrangement and demonstrates that,
must be careful not to accept the undeserved kindness of
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God and miss its purpose by failing to seek continually nations, on the other hand, were alienated from the state of
Gods favor and goodwill during the acceptable time and Israel and strangers to the covenants of the promise, and . . .
the day of salvation God mercifully provides, as Pauls had no hope and were without God in the world, for they
following words show.2Co 6:1, 2. had no recognized standing with him. (Eph 2:11, 12) In
harmony with the sacred secret regarding the Seed, God
Recognizing the need for reconciliation and accepting
nevertheless purposed to bring blessings for persons of all
Gods provision for reconciliation, namely, the sacrifice of
nations of the earth. (Ge 22:15-18) The means for doing this,
Gods Son, the individual must then repent of his sinful
Christ Jesus sacrifice, therefore opened the way for those of
course and convert, or turn around, from following the way of
the alienated non-Jewish nations to come to be near by the
the sinful world of mankind. By appealing to God on the
blood of the Christ. (Eph 2:13) Not only this, but that
basis of Christs ransom, forgiveness of sins and
sacrifice also removed the division between Jew and non-
reconciliation can be obtained, bringing seasons of
Jew, for it fulfilled the Law covenant and took it out of the
refreshing . . . from the person of Jehovah (Ac 3:18, 19) as
way, thereby allowing Christ to fully reconcile both peoples
well as peace of mind and heart. (Php 4:6, 7) No longer an
in one body to God through the torture stake, because he had
enemy under the wrath of God, one has, in effect, passed
killed off the enmity [the division produced by the Law
over from death to life. (Joh 3:16; 5:24) Thereafter the
covenant] by means of himself. Jew and non-Jew now
individual must retain Gods goodwill by calling upon him
would have the one approach to God through Christ Jesus,
in trueness, continuing in the faith, and not being shifted
and in course of time, non-Jews were brought into the new
away from the hope of the good news.Ps 145:18; Php 4:9;
covenant as Kingdom heirs with Christ.Eph 2:14-22; Ro
Col 1:22, 23.
8:16, 17; Heb 9:15.
In what sense has God reconciled a world to himself?
(Romans 5:18) So, then, as through one trespass the result to
The apostle Paul speaks of God by means of Christ men of all sorts was condemnation, so too through one act of
reconciling a world to himself, not reckoning to them their justification the result to men of all sorts is their being
trespasses. (2Co 5:19) This should not be misread as declared righteous for life.
meaning that all persons are automatically reconciled to God
by Jesus sacrifice, inasmuch as the apostle immediately goes (1 Timothy 2:5) For there is one God, and one mediator
on to describe the ambassadorial work of entreating men to between God and men, a man, Christ Jesus,
become reconciled to God. (2Co 5:20) In reality, the means
(Hebrews 9:22-26) Yes, according to the Law nearly all
was provided whereby all those of the world of mankind things are cleansed with blood, and unless blood is poured
willing to respond could gain reconciliation. Hence, Jesus out no forgiveness takes place. 23 Therefore, it was necessary
came to give his soul a ransom in exchange for many, and for the typical representations of the things in the heavens to
he that exercises faith in the Son has everlasting life; he that be cleansed by these means, but the heavenly things require
far better sacrifices. 24 For Christ did not enter into a holy
disobeys the Son will not see life, but the wrath of God place made with hands, which is a copy of the reality, but into
remains upon him.Mt 20:28; Joh 3:36; compare Ro heaven itself, so that he now appears before God on our
5:18, 19; 2Th 1:7, 8. behalf. 25 This was not done to offer himself often, as when
the high priest enters into the holy place from year to year
Nevertheless, Jehovah God purposed to gather all things with blood that is not his own. 26 Otherwise, he would have to
together again in the Christ, the things in the heavens and the suffer often from the founding of the world. But now he has
things on the earth. (Eph 1:10) Though a destruction of those manifested himself once for all time at the conclusion of the
systems of things to do away with sin through the sacrifice of
who refuse to set matters straight (Isa 1:18) with Jehovah himself.
God is required, the result will be a universe in total harmony
with God, and mankind will again rejoice in Gods friendship (Acts 10:43) To him all the prophets bear witness, that
and enjoy the full flow of his blessings as at the start in Eden. everyone putting faith in him receives forgiveness of sins
Re 21:1-4. through his name.
Jehovah God terminated his covenant relationship with (Ephesians 2:18) because through him we, both peoples,
Israel as a nation because of its unfaithfulness and its national have free access to the Father by one spirit.
rejection of his Son. (Mt 21:42, 43; Heb 8:7-13) Evidently the
apostle refers to this when saying that the casting of them (1 John 2:2) And he is a propitiatory sacrifice for our sins,
away meant reconciliation for the world (Ro 11:15), for as yet not for ours only but also for the whole worlds.
the context shows, the way was thereby opened for the world
outside the Jewish community or congregation. That is, the (Hebrews 7:25) So he is able also to save completely those
who are approaching God through him, because he is always
non-Jewish nations now had opportunity to be joined with a alive to plead for them.
faithful Jewish remnant in the new covenant as Gods new
nation, spiritual Israel.Compare Ro 11:5, 7, 11, 12, 15, 25. (John 16:23, 24) In that day you will ask me no question at
all. Most truly I say to you, if you ask the Father for anything,
As Gods covenant people, his special property (Ex he will give it to you in my name. 24 Until now you have not
19:5, 6; 1Ki 8:53; Ps 135:4), the Jewish people had enjoyed a asked for a single thing in my name. Ask and you will
measure of reconciliation to God, though still in need of full receive, so that your joy may be complete.
reconciliation by means of the foretold Redeemer, the
Messiah. (Isa 53:5-7, 11, 12; Da 9:24-26) The non-Jewish
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(1 Peter 2:21) In fact, to this course you were called, because Jesus had to live in such a way as to make that truth become
even Christ suffered for you, leaving a model for you to reality, fulfilling it by what he said and did, how he lived, and
follow his steps closely. how he died. Thus, he had to be the truth, in effect, the
embodiment of the truth, as he himself said he was.Joh
14:6.
Page 86 For this reason the apostle John could write that Jesus was
Unit 10 (a) full of undeserved kindness and truth and that, though the
Law was given through Moses, the undeserved kindness and
The Truth the truth came to be through Jesus Christ. (Joh 1:14, 17) By
(John 18:37) So Pilate said to him: Well, then, are you a means of his human birth, his presenting himself to God by
king? Jesus answered: You yourself are saying that I am a baptism in water, his three and a half years of public service
king. For this I have been born, and for this I have come into
the world, that I should bear witness to the truth. Everyone in behalf of Gods Kingdom, his death in faithfulness to God,
who is on the side of the truth listens to my voice. his resurrection to heavenby all these historical events
Gods truth arrived, or came to be, that is, came to
(Luke 24:44) He then said to them: These are my words that realization. (Compare Joh 1:18; Col 2:17.) The whole career
I spoke to you while I was yet with you, that all the things of Jesus Christ was therefore a bearing witness to the truth,
written about me in the Law of Moses and in the Prophets to the things to which God had sworn. Jesus was thus no
and Psalms must be fulfilled.
(John 1:17) Because the Law was given through Moses, the shadow Messiah or Christ. He was the real one promised. He
undeserved kindness and the truth came to be through Jesus was no shadow King-Priest. He was, in substance and fact,
Christ. the true one that had been prefigured.Ro 15:8-12; compare
Ps 18:49; 117:1; De 32:43; Isa 11:10.
*** it-2 p. 60 Jesus Christ ***His Vital Place in Gods
Purpose. This truth was the truth that would set men free if they
Jehovah God saw fit to make his firstborn Son the central, or showed themselves to be on the side of the truth by
key, figure in the outworking of all His purposes (Joh 1:14- accepting Jesus role in Gods purpose. (Joh 8:32-36; 18:37)
18; Col 1:18-20; 2:8, 9), the focal point on which the light of To ignore Gods purpose concerning his Son, to build hopes
all prophecies would concentrate and from which their light
would radiate (1Pe 1:10-12; Re 19:10; Joh 1:3-9), the on any other foundation, to form conclusions regarding ones
solution to all the problems that Satans rebellion had raised life course on any other basis would be to believe a lie, to be
(Heb 2:5-9, 14, 15; 1Jo 3:8), and the foundation upon which deceived, to follow the leading of the father of lies, Gods
God would build all future arrangements for the eternal good Adversary. (Mt 7:24-27; Joh 8:42-47) It would mean to die
of His universal family in heaven and earth. (Eph 1:8-10;
2:20; 1Pe 2:4-8) Because of the vital role he thus plays in in ones sins. (Joh 8:23, 24) For this reason Jesus did not
Gods purpose, Jesus could say, rightly and without hold back from declaring his place in Gods purpose.
exaggeration: I am the way and the truth and the life. No one
comes to the Father except through me.Joh 14:6. True, he instructed his disciples, even with sternness, not
to broadcast his Messiahship to the public (Mt 16:20; Mr
*** it-2 p. 62 Jesus Christ *** 8:29, 30) and rarely referred to himself directly as the Christ
except when in privacy with them. (Mr 9:33, 38, 41; Lu
Bearing Witness to the Truth. To Pilates question, 9:20, 21; Joh 17:3) But he boldly and regularly drew attention
Well, then, are you a king?, Jesus replied: You yourself to the evidence in the prophecies and in his works that proved
are saying that I am a king. For this I have been born, and for he was the Christ. (Mt 22:41-46; Joh 5:31-39, 45-47; 7:25-
this I have come into the world, that I should bear witness to 31) On the occasion of talking to a Samaritan woman at a
the truth. Everyone that is on the side of the truth listens to well, Jesus, tired out from the journey, identified himself to
my voice