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for Enclosing a Zero of a Function

Norhaliza Abu Bakar1 , Mansor Monsi1 , Nasruddin Hassan2

1

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science

Universiti Putra Malaysia

43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia

2

School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

n izaruedge@yahoo.com

Abstract

An improved parameter regula falsi method p(l)-RF based on a di-

rect generalization of the interval parameter regula falsi p-RF method

is proposed in this paper. This method is modified by using the mid-

point of the current interval in the algorithm and the additional inner

iterations l to improve its rate of convergence. This modification on

p-RF method is then verified on several test examples. Based on the

numerical results and CPU time of p(l)-RF method, it is very clear that

this method performs very well compared to the original method.

convergence, zero of a function

1 Introduction

Apart from iterative procedures, the main tool to be used in this paper is inter-

val analysis based upon the very simple idea of enclosing the zero of a function.

Researchers such as [5] and [2] have shown that the iterative procedures which

involved interval analysis approach is much convenience because the nal in-

terval of the iterative procedure always contain the zero of the function. In

other word, the zero is always bounded in the interval.

1348 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

ula Falsi method (RF). The modication of RF method had been done by

various researchers such as [10] and [7] and only one by [9] on p-RF method.

p-RF method has higher-order of convergence even though only one function

value used [4]. We consider the equation f (x) = 0 and the function f has

a simple zero in the initial interval X (0) . The rate of convergence of p-RF

1

method [4] is at least (p + p2 + 4) (p 2).

2

In the next section, we described briey about p-RF method and then we

present our modied method called p(l)-RF method. We also described the

p(l)-RF algorithm and then we compare the CPU time and the number of

iterations obtained by p(l)-RF method and p-RF method.

2 p-RF Algorithm

The following is the algorithm for p-RF method [4].

(0) (0) (k+1)

(k+1)

Step 0 : Given that: X (0) = x1 , x2 ; X (0) ; d X (k+1) = x2 x1

with conditions

/H (1)

Step 2 : x(k) = m X (k) (midpoint of X (k) )

(k)

f x

(k)

Step 3 : X (k+1) = x(k) X

H

Step 4 : k := k + 1

Step 5 : x(k) = m X (k) (k)

f x

(k)

Step 6 : X (k+1,i2) = x(k) X

H

Step 7 : Compute

x(k) x(k1)

X (k+1,i1) = x(k) f (x(k) )+

f (x ) f (x

(k) (k1) )

1 (k+1,i2) (k)

(k+1,i2) (k1)

(k+1,i2)

K X x X x X

2

if f x(k) = 0. Otherwise, X (k+1,i1) = X (k+1,i2)

Step 8 : z (i) = m X (k+1,i1)

Step 9 : Compute

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1349

(k+1,i) z (i) x(k) (i)

X = z (i) f (z )+

f (z ) f (x )

(i) (k)

1 (k+1,i1) (i)

(k+1,i1) (k)

(k+1,i1)

K X z X x X

2

if f x(k) = 0. Otherwise, X (k+1,i) = X (k+1,i1)

Step 11 : X (k+1) = X (k+1,p)

(k+1)

Step 12 : Ifthe width of the interval X greater than , that is

(k+1)

d X > , then go to 4

Step 13 : Stop.

interval X and assume that f has a zero in X. Let the conditions (1) and

(2) be satised. The parameter p is given as an integer number for which

p 2. Then, the sequence {X (k) } calculated according to algorithm p-RF

method satises for p 2:

X (k) , k0

k

and

(p) (k1)

d X (k+1) d X (k) d X ; ( 0)

where d X (k+1) , d X (k) , and d X (k1) are the width of the intervals

X (k+1) , X (k) and X (k1) respectively. Then the R-order of convergence of p-

RF satises the inequality

1

OR ((p RF) , ) p + p2 + 4 (3)

2

The proof of these theorem is available in [4].

Now, we present the algorithm of p(l)-RF method.

(0) (0) (0) (0)

(k+1) (k+1)

(k+1)

Step 0 : Given that: X = x1 , x2 ; X ; d X = x2 x1

with conditions (1) and (2)

Step 1 : Set k = 0, i = 2 and l = 2

1350 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

Step 2 : x(k) = m X (k) (midpoint of X (k) )

(k)

f x

(k)

Step 3 : X (k+1) = x(k) X

H

Step 4 : k := k + 1

Step 5 : x(k) = m X (k)

(k)

f x

(k)

Step 6 : X (k+1,i2) = x(k) X

H

Step 7 : Compute

x(k) x(k1)

X (k+1,i1)

= x(k) f (x(k) )+

f (x(k) ) f (x(k1) )

1 (k+1,i2) (k)

(k+1,i2) (k1)

(k+1,i2)

K X x X x X

2

if f x(k) = 0. Otherwise, X (k+1,i1) = X (k+1,i2)

Step 8 : z (i) = m X (k+1,i1) and z (i1) = m X (k+1,i2)

Step 9 : Compute

z (i) z (i1) (i)

X (k+1,i) = z (i) f (z )+

f (z (i) ) f (z (i1) )

1 (k+1,i1) (i)

(k+1,i1) (i1)

(k+1,i1)

K X z X z X

2

if f z (i) = 0. Otherwise, X (k+1,i) = X (k+1,i1)

Step 10 : If d X (k+1,i) < , go to 18

Step 11 : If i < p then i := i + 1 and go to 8

Step 12 : X (k+1) = X (k+1,p) = X (k+1,p,l1)

Step 13 : Compute

(k+1,p,l) (l) z (l) z (l1) (l)

X = z f (z )+

f (z (l) ) f (z (l1) )

1 (k+1,p,l1) (l)

(k+1,p,l1) (l1)

(k+1,p,l1)

K X z X z X

2

(l)

if f z = 0. Otherwise, X (k+1,p,l) = X (k+1,p,l1)

Step 14 : If d X (k+1,p,l) < , go to 18

Step 15 : If l < p then l := l + 1 and go to 13

Step 16 : X (k+1) = X (k+1,p,p)

Step 17 : If d X (k+1) > , go to 4

Step 18 : Stop.

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1351

The p(l)-RF method which is based on p-RF method has its own speciality.

In this modication, we keep the computation process updated for every inner

iteration i. Therefore, we compute another midpoint z (i1) to replaced the

value of midpoint x(k) in Step 9 (refer to Section 2).

Not only that, we also introduce another inner iteration, l (l 2). This

iteration process from l = 2, 3, . . . , p takes place after the computation of inner

iteration i nished. Then, we substitute the latest interval that is X (k+1,p)

with X (k+1,p,l). Readers can track down the modication that we have done

by comparing algorithm on Section 2 and Section 3.

convergence of a procedure I [4].

Theorem 2 Let I be an interval iteration procedure with the limit x and

let (I, x ) be the set of all sequences generated by I having the properties

that limk x(k) = x and x x(k) , k 0. If there exist a p 1 and a

constant such that for all {x(k) } (I, x ) and for a norm . it holds that

x(k+1) x(k) p . Then, it follows that the R-order of convergence of I

satises the inequality

OR (I, x ) p

or the R-order of convergence of I is at least p.

Based on the Theorem 2, then we have the following theorem for p(l)-RF

method.

Theorem 3 Let the function f be twice continuously dierentiable in the in-

terval X and assume that f only has a simple real zero in X. Furthermore,

we have intervals H and K satisfying the conditions (1) and (2). Then, the

sequence calculated from the p(l)-RF method satises (p 2):

X (k) , k0 (4)

k

1 2

(2p + (l 2)) + (2p + (l 2)) + 4 (7)

2

1352 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

where (p 2) ; (1 l p) or

1 2

OR ((p(l) RF ) , ) (2p + (l 2)) + (2p + (l 2)) + 4 .

2

Proof. :

Of (4), (5) and (6) : Can be found in [4].

Of (7) : The proof of

(k+1,1) 1 K (k) (k1)

d X d X d X ,

4 H

can be found in [4]. Next, we have

(k+1,2) (2) z (2) z (1) (2)

d X d z f z +

f (z (2) ) f (z (1) )

1 (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (1)

K X z X z

2

z (2) z (1) 1 (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (1)

= d K X z X z .

f (z (2) ) f (z (1) ) 2

z (2) z (1) 1 1

By = (f ( )) ( X), it follows that

f (z ) f (z )

(2) (1) H

(k+1,2) 1 (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (1)

d X d K X z X z

2H

1 (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (k)

(k) (1)

= d K X z X x + x z .

2H

By d (AB) d (A) |B| + |A| d (B) [4] we have

(k+1,2) 1 (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (k)

(k)

(1) 2

d X d K X z X x + x z

2H

1 K (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (k)

(k)

(1) 2

d X z X x + x z .

2 H

Again, we use d (AB) d (A) |B| + |A| d (B) and we have

(k+1,2) 1 K (k+1,1) (2)

(k+1,1) (k)

(k)

(1) 2

d X d X z X x + x z

2 H

K (k+1,1) (k+1,1) (k)

(1) 2

+ X (2)

z d X x (k)

+ x z

H

1 (k+1,1) (k+1,1)

(2) K

K

d X z

+ X z d (2)

2 H H

(k+1,1) 2

X x(k) + x(k) z (1) +

K (k+1,1) (k) (k)

(k) 2

X z (2)

d X X (k)

+ X X .

H

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1353

K K

By using d and the fact that d ((X x)n ) 2 (d (X))n , we have

H H

(k+1,2) 1 (k+1,1) K (k+1,1) K

d X 2 d X + X z

(2)

2 H H

(k+1,1) 2 K

X x(k) + x(k) z (1) + X (k+1,1) z (2)

H

(k) (k) (k) 2

(k)

d d X ,d X + d X ,d X .

(k+1,2) 1 (k+1,1) K (k+1,1) K

d X 2 d X + X z

(2)

2 H H

(k+1,1) 2 K

X x(k) + x(k) z (1) + X (k+1,1) z (2)

H

(k) (k) 2

d 2d X , 2d X .

(k+1,2) 1 K (k+1,1) K (k+1,1)

d X

2 d X

+ X z (2)

2 H H

(k+1,1) (k) 2 K (k+1,1)

X x + x z + X

(k) (1)

z (2)

H

(k) (k) (k)

2 2d X , 2d X 4d X .

By using X (k) x(k) d X (k) and x(k) z (1) d X (k) , we then have

(k+1,2) 1 K (k+1,1) K (k+1,1)

d X 2 d X + X X (k+1,1)

2 H H

(k)

X X (k) + d X (k) 2 +

K (k+1,1) (k) 2

X X (k+1,1)

16 d X

H

1 K (k+1,1) K (k+1,1)

2 d X

+ d X

2 H H

(k) (k) 2 K (k+1,1) (k) 2

d X +d X

+ d X 16 d X

H

1354 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

(k+1,2) 1 K (k+1,1) (k) 2

d X = 3 d X 2d X +

2 H

K (k+1,1) (k) 2

16 d X d X

H

1 K (k+1,1) (k) 2

=

12 d X d X +

2 H

K (k+1,1) (k) 2

16 d X d X

H

1 K (k+1,1) (k) 2

= 28 d X d X

2 H

(k+1,2) K 2

d X = 14 d X (k+1,1) d X (k)

H

Therefore,

(k+1,2) K 2

d X 14 d X (k+1,1) d X (k)

H

K 1 K (k) (k1) (k) 2

= 14 d X d X d X

H 4 H

2

(k+1,2) 7 K (k) 3 (k1)

d X d X d X

2 H

(i1) i

7 K (k) 2i1 (k1)

d X (k+1,i) d X d X

2 H

2i1 (k1)

d X (k+1,i) i d X (k) d X ,

with

(i1) i

7 K

i = , i = 1, 2, . . . , p.

2 H

2p1 (k1)

d X (k+1) p d X (k) d X p 0 .

d X (k+1,p,1) d X (k) .

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1355

d X (k+1,p,2) d X (k+1,p,1)

(k+1,p,2) z (l) z (l1) (l)

d X d z (l) f z +

f (z ) f (z

(l) (l1) )

1 (k+1,p,1) (l)

(k+1,p,1) (l1)

K X z X z .

2

By using the same approach as above, then we will get the following result

(k+1,p,2) K

d X 4 d X (k+1,p,1) d X (k)

H

p1 p

K 7 K (k) 2p1 (k1) (k)

= 4 d X

H d X d X

H 2

p1 p+1

7 K

= 4 d X (k) 2p1+1 d X (k1) .

2 H

p1 p+(l1)

(k+1,p,l) 7 K 2p+(l2) (k1)

d X 4 (l1) d X (k) d X

2 H

or we can write it as

(k) 2p+(l2) (k1)

d X (k+1,p,l) l1

p d X d X

where

p1 p+(l1)

7 K

pl1 =4 (l1) , 2 l p.

2 H

(k) 2p+(l2) (k1)

d X (k+1) l1

p d X d X (8)

where

p1 p+(l1)

7 K

pl1 =4 (l1) , 2 l p.

2 H

Therefore, based on this result and [4] the R-order of convergence of p(l)-RF

method is

1 2

OR ((p(l) RF) , ) (2p + (l 2)) + (2p + (l 2)) + 4

2

1356 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

where p 2, 2 l p.

If we compare the R-order of convergence of p(l)-RF method and p-RF

method, so it is clear that p(l)-RF method is more eective. Let p = 5, then

lets substitute the value of p into (3) rst. Hence,

1

OR ((p RF) , ) p + p2 + 4

2

1

= 5 + 52 + 4

2

1

= 5 + 29

2

1

OR ((p RF) , ) 5 + 29 .

2

Next, substituting p = 5 into (3) gives

1 2

OR ((p(l) RF) , ) (2p + (l 2)) + (2p + (l 2)) + 4

2

1 2

= (2(5) + (l 2)) + (2(5) + (l 2)) + 4

2

1 2

= (8 + l) + (8 + l) + 4

2

1 2

OR ((p(l) RF) , ) (8 + l) + (8 + l) + 4 .

2

5 Numerical Results

We now compare the performance of p(l)-RF method with p-RF method. The

comparisons are based on the CPU (Central Processing Unit) time and number

of iterations which are presented in Table 1 and Table 2 respectively. The

following table contains the test functions used to test the performance of

both methods where the zero of each function contain in the nal interval.

We also present the nal interval results that contain the zeros of the functions

6 and 7 produced by p-RF method and p(l)-RF method in Table 3 and Table

4 respectively. The stopping criterion used is d X (k+1) < = 1015 for p = 5

and 2 l 5. The procedure p-RF and p(l)-RF have been implemented using

Matlab R2007a [1] in associate with Intlab [12].

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1357

1 2xe + 1 2e5x [4]

5

[0, 1] [0.13825715505682, 0.13825715505683]

2 x3 2x 5 [13] [2, 3] [2.09455148154232, 2.09455148154233]

3 2

3 x + 4x 10 [6] [1, 2] [1.36523001341409, 1.36523001341410]

x 2

4 e 4x [3] [4, 4.5] [4.30658472822069, 4.30658472822071]

5 xex 0.1 [11] [0, 1.0] [0.09127652716086, 0.09127652716087]

4

6 (x 1)(x + 1) [8] [0.2, 2.0] [0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001]

9

7 x (x 1) 1 [4] [0.1, 2.2] [1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684]

p-RF method p(l)-RF method

1 0.022837 0.010817

2 0.020433 0.016827

3 0.015625 0.014423

4 0.025240 0.015625

5 0.028846 0.019231

6 0.034856 0.018029

7 0.032452 0.019231

p-RF method p(l)-RF method

k i (i = 2, . . . , p) k i (2 i p)

1 2 5 2 2

2 2 5 2 2

3 2 5 2 2

4 2 5 2 2

5 3 5 2 2

6 3 5 2 2

7 3 5 2 2

1358 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

[ 0.85358999999999, 1.09498146639512 ] [ 0.85358999999999, 1.09498146639512 ]

[ 0.97528133236619, 1.02316965237787 ] [ 0.97528133236619, 1.02316965237787 ]

[ 0.99513872890716, 1.02316965237787 ] [ 0.99513872890716, 1.02316965237787 ]

[ 0.99513872890716, 1.01935332764408 ] [ 0.99513872890716, 1.00923360327808 ]

[ 0.99513872890716, 1.01547680514940 ] [ 0.99733393674489, 1.00274565275650 ]

[ 0.99513872890716, 1.01194208444040 ] [ 0.99963385731345, 1.00036649028933 ]

[ 0.99513872890716, 1.00907728269631 ] [ 0.99999583298527, 1.00000416704239 ]

[ 0.99787416316147, 1.00202177682740 ] [ 0.99999583298527, 1.00000416704239 ]

[ 0.99989175268693, 1.00202177682740 ] [ 0.99999583298527, 1.00000416704239 ]

[ 0.99993828354072, 1.00006977151653 ] [ 0.99999748724824, 1.00000012407578 ]

[ 0.99999603617088, 1.00000399775332 ] [ 0.99999999682872, 1.00000000001257 ]

[ 0.99999976544888, 1.00000023469400 ] [ 0.99999999848497, 1.00000000001257 ]

[ 0.99999998619637, 1.00000001380423 ] [ 0.99999999887529, 1.00000000001257 ]

[ 0.99999999999969, 1.00000000000029 ] [ 0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001 ]

[ 0.99999999999996, 1.00000000000001 ]

[ 0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001 ]

[ 0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001 ] Already converge

[ 0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001 ]

[ 0.99999999999999, 1.00000000000001 ]

Table 3: The results of p-RF and p(l)-RF methods with f (x) = (x 1) x4 + 1

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1359

[ 1.00029766383684, 1.12207347842121 ] [ 1.00029766383684, 1.12207347842121 ]

[ 1.06183800081867, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.06183800081867, 1.08898632512707 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.07286786740548, 1.08250938586611 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.07343530774921, 1.07818318802548 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.07513541284123, 1.07639744906999 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08898632512707 ] [ 1.07573926681963, 1.07579286549305 ]

[ 1.07286786740548, 1.08067519964994 ] [ 1.07576212659559, 1.07579286549305 ]

[ 1.07543570827449, 1.08067519964994 ] [ 1.07576212659559, 1.07578604343998 ]

[ 1.07543570827449, 1.07669506897587 ] [ 1.07576212659559, 1.07576632330652 ]

[ 1.07556002323090, 1.07598559639626 ] [ 1.07576605337270, 1.07576606614498 ]

[ 1.07569584953018, 1.07583658668433 ] [ 1.07576606006073, 1.07576606614498 ]

[ 1.07574338687893, 1.07578875214866 ] [ 1.07576606024736, 1.07576606614498 ]

[ 1.07576606254727, 1.07576606935031 ] [ 1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684 ]

[ 1.07576606394863, 1.07576606616207 ]

[ 1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684 ]

[ 1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684 ] Already converge

[ 1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684 ]

[ 1.07576606608683, 1.07576606608684 ]

Table 4: The results of p-RF and p(l)-RF methods with f (x) = x x9 1 1

1360 N. A. Bakar, M. Monsi and N. Hassan

We can see that in Table 1, the CPU time of p(l)-RF method is lesser than

p-RF method. Table 2 contains the number of iteration k which applied for

the whole steps of both algorithms and inner iteration i in Steps 8-10 of both

methods after the algorithms stopped by using the given convergence criterion.

In certain cases the number of iterations k are the same for both methods, but

the number of inner iterations i for p(l)-RF are lower. This indicate that p(l)-

RF method have reached the stopping criterion and converges to the zero of

the function much faster. For a clearer view on the CPU time and number of

iterations of both methods, we represent the results in a form of bar charts as

in Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) respectively.

Furthermore, Table 3 and Table 4 are the computer output of the functions

6 and 7 respectively. It is clear that p(l)-RF method has achieved excellent

performance where the algorithm of p(l)-RF is terminated earlier by using

the same convergence criterion. In fact, we have shown that the R-order of

convergence of p(l)-RF method is greater than does p-RF method or

7 Acknowledgement

We are indebted to Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for funding this research

under the grant UKM-GUP-2011-159.

References

[1] A. Gilat, MATLAB: An introduction with applications, Hobuken,

NJ:Wiley, 2008.

(1978), 153-163.

[3] F. Costabile, M.I. Gualtieri, S.S. Capizzano, An iterative method for the

computation of the solution of nonlinear equations, Calcolo, 36 (1999),

17-34.

demic Press, New York, 1983.

An improved parameter regula falsi method 1361

gorithms with error bounds for nding zeroes of polynomial, SIAM. J.

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