You are on page 1of 20

South Metropolitan Public Health Unit

Whats in the Box Project 2013

Prepared by Jaye Hunter

Second year Preventive Health student University of Notre Dame


Contents

Executive Summary....................................................................................................1
1.0 Introduction...........................................................................................................1
2.0 Agency.................................................................................................................. 2
3.0 Rationale.............................................................................................................. 2
4.0 Overview...............................................................................................................4
4.1 Target Group.....................................................................................................4
4.2 Aim.................................................................................................................... 4
4. 3 Project Objectives (SMART)............................................................................4
4.4 Project Strategies..............................................................................................4
5.0 Methodology.........................................................................................................4
6.0 Results..................................................................................................................5
6.1 Survey Tool.......................................................................................................7
6.2 Pre-Test............................................................................................................ 7
6.2.1 Methodology..............................................................................................7
6.2.2 Observations..............................................................................................8
6.2.3 Results (as seen in Appendix B)................................................................8
7. 0 Discussion........................................................................................................... 9
7.1 Recommendations..........................................................................................10
8. 0 Conclusion......................................................................................................... 11
9.0 References..........................................................................................................11

Appendices
Appendix A. Whats in the Box? Survey................................................................13
Appendix B. Results from the Whats in the Box pre-test survey...........................16
Executive Summary

This report discusses the Whats in the Box project with specific emphasis on audit
tools, results of other studies and the development of an electronic resource. The aim
of the Whats in the box project is to increase healthy weight amongst primary school
children within the Mandurah population. The projects objectives are:

- To improve knowledge of healthy eating and drinking water to parents of


school age children.

- To assess healthy eating habits and knowledge of parents of school age


children in the Mandurah region.

A survey tool for the Whats in the Box project was developed (as seen in Appendix
A). The survey tool was developed by researching similar lunchbox studies, utilising
their methodology and adapting it to suit the project; the draft survey was then
implemented in a pre-test using five random participants from a local primary school
in the Mandurah region.

1.0 Introduction

The Whats in the Box project is directed towards parents of primary school aged
children, kindergarten to year seven and aims to increase healthy weight amongst
children across the City of Mandurah population by the development and
implementation of a healthy lunch box electronic resource.

The Whats in the Box project has been developed in conjunction with the Take the
Challenge a healthy lifestyle program. A gap was recognised between the health of
children and knowledge of parents in which Whats in the Box aims to fill.
Take the Challenge (TTC) is a healthy lifestyle program suitable for students from
kindergarten to year ten in Western Australian schools. Coordinated as a team
competition, teachers act as team leaders to guide their students through healthy
lifestyle activities and lessons. Class teams journey along a virtual map, progressing
as their team completes physical activity and healthy lifestyle lessons. The program
aims to support students to develop knowledge, attitudes and skills to facilitate the
adoption and maintenance of healthy lifestyles. Another key goal of TTC is to support
schools to provide healthy environments for staff and students.

This report will discuss the Whats in the Box project with specific emphasis on audit
tools, results of other studies and the development of an electronic resource.

1
2.0 Agency

The South Metropolitan Health Unit (SMPHU) functions to protect, promote and
enhance the wellbeing and health of the communities in the South Metropolitan Area
Health Service (SMAHS) (South Metropolitan Public Health Unit [SMPHU] 2011). The
health promotion team has developed strong community links and collaborates with
community groups, local government, workplaces and schools to develop and
support a range of health promotion programs (SMPHU, 2011). These programs
address national, state, and local priorities such as smoking, nutrition, alcohol and
physical inactivity (the SNAP framework) (SMPHU, 2011). Overall the South
Metropolitan Public Health Units Vision is simply; healthy people, healthy
communities.

3.0 Rationale

Currently 1 in 4 children nation wide are overweight or obese 1. Trending statistics


show that in the past thirty years, obesity rates of children in the Western Australian
demographic have tripled and if the current trends continue, one third of children will
be overweight and 10% obese in the next twenty years 2. There are not only short
term, but long term health implications of overweight and obesity; the rising levels of
childhood obesity are likely to have major health consequences: physical and
metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as
psychosocial issues; stigmatisation, discrimination and learning difficulties 3. There is
a 25-50% chance of adults being obese if they have been obese as children, this
possibility is even higher at 78% chance for obese adolescents 4.

Inappropriate food intake is a major contributor to the increased prevalence of


childhood obesity within Australia 5. Therefore Australian children over-consuming
extra foods at school is of concern 6.
Approximately one-third of a childs daily intake is consumed during school hours,
consequently the quality of a lunchbox can have a significant impact on overall health
and wellbeing 7.
The school environment should be recognised as an important setting for intervention
and change. With the amendment of poor eating behaviours at school, childhood
obesity statistics could potentially lower 3.

2
Move and Munch 8 is an initiative developed by the Government of Western Australia
with the aim of gathering information on school aged children regarding participation
in physical activity, dietary intake and body measurements (weight, height, waist and
hip measurements). Move and Munch 8 conducted quantitative research giving a
snapshot of what Western Australian children do and eat, data was collected and
recorded in 2008 using the Child and Adolescent Physical Activity and Nutrition
Survey (CAPANS).
CAPANS collected information of children from primary school years 3, 5 and 7.

National guidelines recommend the daily intake of vegetables for children aged 8
11 years to be three serves per day. Move and Munch 8 results show that 42% of
primary boys (8 11 years) meet the guidelines and 43% of primary girls (8 11
years) meet the guidelines.

One serve of fruit per day is the guideline recommended nationally for children aged
8 11 years; 63% of primary boys (8-11 years) meet these guidelines, while 70% of
primary girls (8 11 years) meet the guidelines for the Move and Munch study.

Majority of Australian children are eating packed lunches at school that contain
higher energy dense foods, than lunches eaten at home 7. Such energy dense foods
are defined as extra foods by the Australian Guide to Healthy Eating (AGHE) and are
not essential in providing necessary nutrients and instead contain too much added
fat, salt and sugars 6.

In the study about the Lunchbox contents of Australian School Children by Sanigorski
et.al., 3 it was found that bread was the most frequently consumed food and
contributed 20% of the total energy intake required in a school day, biscuits followed
at 13%, fruit 10%, muesli/fruit bars 8%, packaged snacks 7%, and fruit juice/cordial
6%. Overall it was found that 68% of children had fruit in their lunchboxes, however
over 90% of lunchboxes had energy-dense, low nutritional value foods junk foods
packed. 2

The Aussie Lunchbox Project, conducted by the University of Curtin, Western


Australia (Author) reported that the majority of students took packed lunches almost
every day (74%) of the contents of those packed lunches included foods such as
crisps, savoury biscuits, muesli bars, fruit bars, cakes and sweet biscuits. Fruit was
the second most commonly packed item, with 42% of lunch boxes containing some

3
kind of fruit. Yet 30% of childrens lunchboxes that contained fresh fruit was not eaten
at all and the higher fat and sugar content foods that were also packed, were opted
to be eaten instead.

Opening up Australian Preschoolers Lunchboxes conducted by Kelly et. Al., 6 had


findings stating that sandwiches and home cooked meals were the most frequently
packed food item in lunchboxes, followed by fresh fruit. Yet, extra food or drink
(unnecessary foods) were supplied in 60% of lunchboxes.

4.0 Overview

4.1 Target Group


The Whats in the Box project was designed to target parents or carers who prepare
the lunchboxes of children in the age groups of 4 8 years and 9 11 years old from
the SMPHU PARK health region. The Whats in the Box program will also target the
school aged children, teachers, principles and school health nurses.

4.2 Aim
To increase healthy weight amongst primary school children within the Mandurah
population.
4. 3 Project Objectives (SMART)
To improve knowledge of healthy eating and drinking water to parents of
school age children.
To assess healthy eating habits and knowledge of parents of school age
children in the Mandurah region.
4.4 Project Strategies
Develop, implement and evaluate a healthy lunch box electronic resource.
Design and develop a survey tool for nutritional knowledge of parents of
school age children

5.0 Methodology

A number of methods were used to search out valid studies and papers regarding
the content of childrens lunch boxes. Literature searches were refined to papers
published after 2001, key word searches were used in the following databases:
Summon it (a general/ broad search engine) as well as Ebsco databases;
Academic Search Premier, AP news, Australia/ New Zealand Reference Centre,
Health Source, Education Research complete, Health Business Elite and

4
Psychology and Behavioural Sciences Collection. A broad database search was
initially conducted, using key words regarding school lunchboxes, childhood
nutritional information and dietary intake at school, however these searches were
too broad and a large amount of literature was recovered relating to Australias
Dietary guidelines for children and adolescents, canteen information and what
children should be eating at school; instead of current research depicting what
children are being packed for lunch now. As well as the use of databases, material
was found by performing a targeted internet search using google.com search
engine, keyword searches included combinations of the following words and terms:
childrens lunchboxes, nutrition at school, lunchbox studies, dietary
guidelines, lunchbox contents, school lunch resources. The most relevant and
recent articles were selected. When the selected articles were reviewed, the
reference list was used for triple referencing and searches were conducted on other
articles that appeared to be relevant to the health topic.

Further information was gathered from government and not for profit initiatives,
such as; Lunch Right Menu Planner, Food for Health, Healthy Eating for Children,
Go for your life and The Australian Guide to Healthy Eating.

6.0 Results

From the research conducted, the three most relevant research articles to the health
topic were selected and reviewed.

Lunchbox Contents of Australian School Children: Room for Improvement was one
such article. The programs aim was to identify the main foods and beverages
consumed at primary school. The study conducted used participants from a
regionally representative sample of 18 primary schools in the Barwon South-Western
region of Victoria. The Barwon South-Western region is made up of eight networks.
All six primary schools in one network were used and a probability proportional to
size (PPS) sampling method was used to draw a representative sample of children
from primary schools across the other seven networks. Research staff, who received
extensive training, went to schools and used the School Food Checklist. As soon as
children arrived to school, food in the lunchbox was unpacked by the child and the
contents recorded by the trained interviewer. A food model booklet was provided to
assist research staff to determine serve size; electronic scales were also available to
weigh foods.

5
It is unclear how long the School Food Checklist surveying took. This study is
extremely extensive and in some ways this may be looked at as a limitation, it is also
somewhat dependant on research staffs capability and accuracy. Another barrier the
research possesses is that it is simply looking at one lunch box from one day of the
week, perhaps this is not an accurate representation of what the childs parent
usually packs for lunch. One large benefit to the study and having research staff
conducting the School Food Checklist survey was that there was no need for survey
recall.

The second program selected and reviewed was the Opening up Australian
Preschoolers Lunchboxes, the objective of this study was to describe the contents of
preschoolers lunchboxes to improve future interventions regarding obesity
prevention. A cross-sectional survey of 259 preschool children from Western Sydney
was conducted. Lunchbox data was collected using a purpose design audit tool.
Each preschool involved in the program was visited at the start of the school day;
preschools were advised of this day 24 hours prior to the visit, but were asked not to
disclose this information to parents. The lunchbox audit tool used in this study
required details of all food and beverage items, including; brand name, product
description and weight (electronic scales were provided) all food and beverage items
were then classified as one seven major categories; fruit, vegetables, dairy, breads
and cereals, extra foods, water or extra drink. A team of three or four members
visited the preschools they constituted from a pool of ten trained research officers.
The Audit tool conducted by the Opening up Australian Preschoolers Lunchboxes
study, was similar to the Lunchbox Contents of Australian School Children: Room for
Improvement program. It was extremely extensive, with weight of food recorded,
reliant on the trained individuals judgment and only taken on one day- perhaps not a
true representation of what the parent usually packs for their child. Benefits to the
study; the information was taken at random- parents could not prepare and there did
not have to be a survey recall therefore resulting in a large sample size.

The Aussie Lunchbox project, by Curtin University was another program selected and
reviewed. The projects aim was to conduct a needs assessment formative evaluation
to determine primary school students: contents of lunchboxes, storage conditions of
lunchboxes and factors affecting the selection, preparation and consumption of food
in lunchboxes. The study performed by this program was to gain qualitative and
quantitative data from primary school students and their parents. Twelve schools
(eight metro and four rural) participated in this study. A self-administered parent

6
questionnaire was developed and implemented as well as a pictograph for children to
complete and an interview process.
Limited information was found on Curtin Universities Aussie Lunchbox Project, a brief
description was found on the research, but not an extensive research report. The
Project Coordinators were contacted for further information; we received the parent
questionnaire tool, this later became the foundations of our own Whats in the Box?
survey. The Aussie Lunchbox Project questionnaire had many benefits that we could
draw on for our own research; it has been modified and adapted to better suit our
research aim. Overall a barrier to the Aussie Lunchbox Project was limited
information, yet resources that were provided were crucial to the development and
implementation of the Whats in the Box? survey tool.

6.1 Survey Tool


The three programs selected and analysed gave insight on how the Whats in the
Box audit tool should be developed.

The original Whats in the Box survey draft was reviewed by the Health Promotion
Coordinator at The South Metropolitan Public Health Unit, from this improvements
were made. The new draft survey has decreased from 19 questions to 8, therefore it
is easier to implement to parents at school while picking their children up, it is also no
longer bias towards an electronic resource being developed. The final draft is brief
and clear, it is also organised into three sections; demographic, behavioural/
knowledge and how parents would like to receive information.

6.2 Pre-Test
The pre-test is an initial trial of the questionnaire, it is given to people similar to the
target group. The objective of the pre-test is to determine whether the survey is easy
to understand and read and to see how long it takes participants to complete.
Changes or improvements can be made to the questionnaire prior to implementing
on a larger scale.

6.2.1 Methodology
Five participants were selected at random for the pre-test, from a local primary
school in the Mandurah region; in doing this, all bias was removed from the situation.
The pre-test group was selected using a combination of probability sampling: cluster
sampling and non-probability sampling: convenience and availability sampling.

7
Probability- cluster sampling: Cluster sampling is a procedure in which clusters, such
as schools rather than individuals are selected from the population, the researcher is
able to focus efforts on natural groupings within the population.
Non probability- convenience and availability sampling: This is basically picking
survey participants at random, whoever will agree to take part in the survey will do,
as long as they can be recruited easily and quickly.

A draft standardized introduction was used when implementing the survey, it is as


follows: Hi, my name is Jaye Hunter and I am a Health Promotion Student from the
University of Notre Dame. Im currently doing some practical work at the South Metro
Public Health Unit, just down the road. I was wondering if you mind filling out this
brief survey to help me with my studies?

6.2.2 Observations
While implementing the survey observations were made and noted as follows:
- Two out of the five parents surveyed had children who were 12 years old; the
options to circle are: 4 8 years old and 9 11 years old.
- Surveys took two to three minutes on average to complete.
- Some questions which had the instructions of; tick the top three most
important to you, were not correctly completed.
- Question 5 - an open ended knowledge question was left blank in two out of
five surveys
- One parent stated they had more than one child at the school, they were then
made aware that the survey was to be based on just one child.

6.2.3 Results (as seen in Appendix B)


The first questions, 1-3 in the Whats in the Box questionnaire were based on the
demographic of participants. Of the five surveyed participants, (n=1) was male and
(n=4) were females. The ages of the participants varied. The majority of children the
questionnaire was based on were male (n=4) and (n=1) female. On majority the age
bracket of 9 11 years (n=4) was circled and (n=1) was in the age bracket of 4-8
years, although as mentioned in the observations above two participants stated their
children were 12 years old.

Questions 4 to 6 were behavioural/ knowledge based questions. Question 4 of the


questionnaire was based on what parents/carers pack in their childs lunchbox for

8
recess and lunch on an average school day, the options that were ticked the most
include: sandwich (n=5), fruit/fresh (n=4), fruit bar (n=2), muesli bar ie. Cereal bar/
LCM (n=1) , cheese (n=1), yoghurt (n=3), salad/veg (n=2) and water (n=4). A carry
on question from that, question 4a asked if a sandwich or roll is packed what types of
fillings or spreads does it contain; the most popular answers were as follows: yeast
extract eg. Vegemite (n=1), cheese spread (n=1), ham (n=4), chicken (n=2), cheese
(n=3), egg (n=1), polony/ salami/ sausage/ devon (n=1) and salad (n=2).

Question 5 of the questionnaire (as seen in Appendix B, page 14) was an open
ended question, it was based on assessing the parents/carers knowledge; the
question asked what foods would you consider are not recommended for school
lunchboxes? This question has been answered on two questionnaires, and left blank
on three. The following answers were given: lollies (n=2), chips (n=2), chocolate
(n=1) and peanuts (n=1).

Question 6 is directed at the behaviour of the parents/carers and asks what things do
you consider when choosing the type of food or drink you pack for your childs school
lunchbox? The most popular answers ticked were as follows: what your child
likes/wants (n=4), nutrition/ healthy food (n=4), what is in season; for fruit and veg
(n=3), budget/ cost (n=2) and storage of food at school (n=2).

Questions 7 and 8 are based on how parents would like to receive information.
Question 7 asks what the parent/ carer would like to know more about to assist them
in making school recess and lunch; all options were ticked, except for the other
option: types and amounts of food for children and safe storage for foods at school
were both ticked the most with (n=3) each. Value for money ideas and information
about child nutrition were both ticked (n=2) and recipes (n=1).

Question 8 asks which ways would the parent/carer like to receive information about
preparing recess and lunches; the most popular options ticked were as follows:
school newsletter (n=3) and cookbook (n=2). The downloadable app (for smart
phones) which is the option relevant to the whats in the box research was ticked
(n=1).

7. 0 Discussion
The Whats in the Box pre-test survey, as seen in Appendix A and B was conducted
at a local primary school in the Mandurah region, using five parents chosen at

9
random. The Whats in the Box pre-test survey consisted of eight quantitative and
one qualitative question. Questions were organised into three sections specifically
demographic, behavioural/ knowledge and how parents would like to receive
information.

The purpose of the Whats in the Box pre-test was to determine whether the
questionnaire was easy to understand, read and how long it took respondents to
complete as well as identify any issues. All respondents approached willingly
complied to complete the survey. From the results and observations of the pre-test,
issues were identified, therefore changes can be made prior to the questionnaire
being implemented on a larger scale.
The issues identified are as follows:
- Prior arrangements were made with the school in regards to the conduction of
the pre-test questionnaire on parents of the students. However further
arrangements needed to be made on the day the survey was conducted.
- Question 1 regarded the age range of the participants children. Some survey
respondents had children who were 12 years of age, this is problematic as
the options 4 8 years old and 9 11 years old were chosen to align with the
Eat for Health Australian Dietary Guidelines.
- The only qualitative knowledge/behavioural question and has not been
completed in two of the questionnaires.
- Two questions were incorrectly completed with half of the respondents ticking
1 4 responses instead of the top three most important options.

A positive aspect of the survey was that respondents correctly completed questions
regarding how they would like to receive information. Respondents noted a variety of
ways in which they would like to receive such information about preparing school
recess and lunches, such as; school newsletter, internet, cookbook, supermarket
tours, pamphlet/booklet and a downloadable app (for smart phones).

7.1 Recommendations
- Ensure all necessary individuals at school premises; including school principal and
school registrar are aware of the survey conduction, prior to attending the premises.
- The implementation and timing of the survey needs to be considered at a time
parents are relaxed and have some spare time around the school, for example, end
of the school day, assembly periods and school sport days etc.

10
- Age brackets on the questionnaire need to be considered in order to include 12 year
old children.
- An improved or additional knowledge question could be of benefit to the
questionnaire (refer Appendix A- Question 5). For example, a question to come after
the knowledge question could be such as; why do you believe the above mentioned
foods arent recommended to be packed in school lunchboxes? The options to tick
could be as follows; empty food, high calories/not nutrient, low fibre, high sugar,
policy from school, dental, allergies and other.
- Make adjustments to the structure of the qualitative knowledge question (refer
Appendix A- Question 5) perhaps the same method of ticking; quantitative data,
should be used throughout the whole questionnaire.
- Instructions for question 6 and 7 to be altered. The current instructions are; please
tick the top three most important to you, instructions could be consistent throughout
such as please tick as many as apply.
-An instruction sheet on how to carry on with the Whats in the Box project may be of
benefit as the program is not yet complete and will potentially be continued by other
individuals.

8. 0 Conclusion
The Whats in the Box pre-test survey was conducted to identify any issues that may
occur before a larger scale research project is conducted. The identified aim of
developing a tool to assess parents knowledge and skills was successfully
implemented as part of this project.

9.0 References
1. The Australian National Preventive Health Agency Shape up Australia. (2013).
Retrieved from: http://www.shapeup.gov.au/
2. Western Australia Obesity- Think Tank: background paper. (2007). Perth.
Retrieved from:
http://cbrcc.curtin.edu.au/reports_technical_reports/070219.pdf
3. Sanigorski, A., Bell, A., Kremer, P., & Swinburn, B. (2005) Lunchbox contents of
Australian School Children: Room for Improvement. Centre of
Physical Activity and Nutrition Research. Deakin University, Victoria
Australia.
4. NSW Department of Education and Communities and the Heart Foundation.
Healthy kids: eat well, get active. Overweight and Obesity.(2013).

11
Retrieved from: http://www.healthykids.nsw.gov.au/stats-
research/overweight-and-obesity.aspx
5. Kremer, P., Bell, A., & Swinburn, A. (2006). Calibration and Reliability of a School
Food Checklist: a new tool for assessing school food and beverage
consumption. Centre for Physical Activity and Nutrition Research,
Deakin University.
6. Kelly, B., Hardt, L., Howlett, S., King, L., Farrell, L., & Hattersley, L. (2010).
Opening up Australian Preschoolers Lunchboxes. Physical Activity
Nutrition and Obesity Research Group. University of Sydney, New
South Wales, Australia.
7. Mitchell, S., Miles, C., Brennan, L., & Matthews, J. (2009). Reliability of the School
Food Checklist for in-school Audits and Photograph Analysis of
Childrens Packed Lunches. Parenting Research Centre. Melbourne,
Victoria, Australia.
8. Government of Western Australia. (2008). Be Active WAQ, Physical Activity
Taskforce. Move and Munch. Leederville, Western Australia.
9. Australian Bureau of Statistics. (2013).
Retrieved from:
http://www.abs.gov.au/AUSSTATS/abs@.nsf/Lookup/1301.0Chapter11
062009%E2%80%9310
10. National Health and Medical Research Council. (2013). Australian Dietary
Guidelines. Canberra: National Health and Medical Research Council.

12
10. 0 Appendices
Appendix A
Whats in the Box? Survey
CONFIDENTIAL PARENT QUESTIONNAIRE

Dear Parent,

The Health Promotion team at the South Metropolitan Public Health Unit are
conducting this brief lunch box survey in order to help improve future resources.

When answering the following questions, please think of only one child, not all of
your children.

This questionnaire has 8 questions which are anonymous and confidential.

Your participation would be greatly appreciated.

1. What age bracket does your child fit into?


(Please circle)
4 8 years old 9 11 years old

2. What is the gender of your child?


(Please circle one only)

Male
Female

3. What is the relationship between you and your child?


(Please circle one member only)

a I am his/her mother / stepmother


b I am his/her father / stepfather
c I am his/her legal guardian
d Other (Please specify)

4. Please tick the types of foods and drinks listed below that on an average school
day, you would pack for your childs lunchbox. (Please tick as many as apply)

a Sandwich Please complete question 4a


b Roll Please complete question 4a
c Other type of bread (Please specify)
d Rice/pasta/noodles (Please specify)
e Fruit/ fresh
f Fruit/ tinned
g Fruit/dried
h Fruit/bar
i Packet of chips ie. twisties/ cheezels

13
j Milk drinks/plain or flavoured
k Muesli bar ie. Cereal bar/ LCM
l Cake
m Cheese
n Yoghurt
o Salad/vegetables
p Savoury biscuits (Please specify)
q Sweet biscuits
r Chocolate
s Lollies
t Fruit juice
u Water
v Soft drink
w Cordial
x Other (eg leftovers) (Please specify)

4a. If you pack a sandwich or roll what types of fillings or spreads do you put in it?
(Please tick as many as apply)

a Yeast extract eg vegemite


b Peanut butter
c Jam
d Honey
e Nutella
f Cheese Spread
g Tuna
h Ham
i Chicken
j Cheese
k Egg
l Polony/salami/sausage/devon
m Salad
n Other (Please specify)

5. What foods would you consider are not recommended for school lunchboxes?
(Please write in the space provided)
___________________________________________________________

14
6. What things do you consider when choosing the type of food or drink you pack for
your childs lunchbox to take to school?
(Please tick the top three most important to you)
a What your child likes/wants
b What is on special that week
c The weather/season
d Nutrition/ healthy food
e What is in season (for Fruit and Veg)
f Budget/cost
g Packaging of food
h Storage of food at school
i Convenience
j Other (Please specify)

7. What would you like to know more about to assist you to make school recess and
lunch?
(Please tick the top three most important to you)
a Recipes
b Value for money ideas
c Information about child nutrition
d Types and amounts of food for children
e Safe storage of foods for schools
f Other (Please specify)

8. Which of the following ways would you like to receive information about
preparing school recess and lunches?
(Please tick as many as apply)
a School newsletter
b Internet
c Parents training course
d Cookbook
e Computer CD
f Supermarket tours
g Pamphlet/booklet
h Downloadable App (for smart phones)
i Other (Please specify)

Thank you for taking the time to answer the Whats in the Box? questionnaire.

15
Appendix B
Results from the Whats in the Box pre-test survey
Questions 1 8

5. What age bracket does your child fit into?


(Please circle)
4 8 years old 9 11 years old
1 4

6. What is the gender of your child?


(Please circle one only)

Male 4
Female 1

7. What is the relationship between you and your child?


(Please circle one member only)

a I am his/her mother / stepmother 3


b I am his/her father / stepfather 1
c I am his/her legal guardian
d Other (Please specify) 1 (Grandmother)

8. Please tick the types of foods and drinks listed below that on an average school
day, you would pack for your childs lunchbox. (Please tick as many as apply)

a Sandwich 5
b Roll 0
c Other type of bread (Please specify) 0
d Rice/pasta/noodles (Please specify) 0
e Fruit/ fresh 4
f Fruit/ tinned 0
g Fruit/dried 0
h Fruit/bar 2
i Packet of chips ie. twisties/ cheezels 0
j Milk drinks/plain or flavoured 0
k Muesli bar ie. Cereal bar/ LCM 1
l Cake 0
m Cheese 1
n Yoghurt 3
o Salad/vegetables 2
p Savoury biscuits (Please specify) 0
q Sweet biscuits 0
r Chocolate 0

16
s Lollies 0
t Fruit juice 0
u Water 4
v Soft drink 0
w Cordial 0
x Other (eg leftovers) (Please specify) 0

4a. If you pack a sandwich or roll what types of fillings or spreads do you put in it?
(Please tick as many as apply)

a Yeast extract eg vegemite 1


b Peanut butter 0
c Jam 0
d Honey 0
e Nutella 0
f Cheese Spread 1
g Tuna 0
h Ham 4
i Chicken 2
j Cheese 3
k Egg 1
l Polony/salami/sausage/devon 2
m Salad 2
n Other (Please specify) 0

5. What foods would you consider are not recommended for school lunchboxes?
(Please write in the space provided)

- Lollies (2)
- Chips (2)
- Chocolate (1)
- Peanuts (1)

6. What things do you consider when choosing the type of food or drink you pack for
your childs lunchbox to take to school?
(Please tick the top three most important to you)

a What your child likes/wants 4


b What is on special that week 0
c The weather/season 0
d Nutrition/ healthy food 4
e What is in season (for Fruit and Veg) 3
f Budget/cost 2
g Packaging of food 0

17
h Storage of food at school 2
i Convenience 0
j Other (Please specify) 0

7. What would you like to know more about to assist you to make school recess and
lunch?
(Please tick the top three most important to you)

a Recipes 1
b Value for money ideas 2
c Information about child nutrition 2
d Types and amounts of food for children 3
e Safe storage of foods for schools 3
f Other (Please specify) 0

8. Which of the following ways would you like to receive information about
preparing school recess and lunches?
(Please tick as many as apply)

a School newsletter 3
b Internet 1
c Parents training course 0
d Cookbook 2
e Computer CD 0
f Supermarket tours 1
g Pamphlet/booklet 1
h Downloadable App (for smart phones) 1
i Other (Please specify) 1 was not specified

18