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Discussion by N. Subramanian and N. Prabhakar

Dear Sir, shear walls section 18.10 (Section 21.9 in older versions),

has been extensively revised in ACI 318-14 in view of

This has reference to the paper titled Behaviour of shear the performance of buildings in the Chile earthquake of

wall with openings A review authored by Muthukumar, 2010 [EERI, 2012] and the Christchurch, New Zealand,

G. and Manoj Kumar, published in The Indian Concrete earthquakes of 2011[57], as well as performance observed

Journal, February 2017, ( Vol. 91, No. 2, pp 38 - 46). in the 2010 E-Defense full-scale reinforced concrete

building tests [Wallace, 2012]. In these earthquakes and

Though the authors have provided a review on this laboratory tests, sometimes spalling of concrete and

important topic, including experimental investigations buckling of vertical reinforcement were observed at wall

carried out since 1940s to the present day, and the boundaries. Wall damage was often concentrated over a

provisions in the older versions of the Indian and wall height of 2 to 3 times the wall thicknesses, much less

American codes of practices on shear wall with openings. than the commonly assumed plastic-hinge height of one-

However, the paper looks like a chapter on literature half the wall length. Out-of-plane buckling failures over

review written for a Masters thesis of some universities

partial story heights were also observed (see Wallace,

and does not even present the latest information, especially

2012). This failure mode had been observed only in a few

with regards to code provisions. It does not include the

earlier moderate scale laboratory tests. Based on these

behaviour of shear walls in some recent earthquakes,

observations, several changes were made in the 2014

based on which the clauses in ACI 318 have been revised.

It also does not include some latest work done in India, version of the ACI code. Only a few are pointed out here.

especially in IITK and IITM, based on which the clauses ACI 318 provides two methods for determining whether

in IS 13920 have been revised. The discussers would like special boundary elements are required. The preferred

to make the following observations and comments: method is the displacement-based design procedure

described in clause 18.10.6.2,which is applicable only to

Comment 1 a cantilever wall with a critical section at the base. To use

the method, the seismic force resisting system has to be

The paper makes a reference to ACI 318 Building code

[ACI 318-2011]. This reference is to an earlier version of first sized and then analysed to determine the top-level

the ACI code, the latest version being ACI 318-14. Special design displacement u and corresponding maximum

value of axial force Puin the structural wall. The flexural

DISCUSSION FORUM

compression depth c corresponding to nominal moment

strength Mn,CS under axial force Pu is then calculated. If

. ...(1)

( )

=h.,

where and refer

to total wall height from critical

w w

section

to top of wall and length of wall, then special

boundary elements are required (see also Figure 6). In the

ACI 318-14 version of the code a factor of 1.5 has been

inserted in the denominator.

boundary zones under ACI 318-14 than under ACI 318-

11. The following four considerations were responsible

for the inclusion of the factor 1.5 [Ghosh, S.K., 2016]:

may underestimate displacement response.

2. Because collapse prevention under the maximum Walls with openings are considered to be composed of

considered earthquake is the prime objective of vertical and horizontal wall segments (Fig. 7). A vertical

ASCE 7 seismic design, the displacements caused wall segment is bounded horizontally by two openings

by the maximum considered earthquake, rather or by an opening and an edge. Similarly, a horizontal

than the design earthquake, should be considered. wall segment is bounded vertically by two openings

The maximum considered earthquake is 150% as or by an opening and an edge. Some walls, including

strong as the design earthquake. some tilt-up walls, have narrow vertical wall segments

that are essentially columns, but whose dimensions

3. There is dispersion in seismic response, making it do not satisfy requirements of special moment frame

desirable to aim at an estimate that is not far from columns. In consideration of these, ACI 318 defines a

the expected upper-bound response. wall pier as a vertical wall segment having w/bw 6.0 and

4. Damping may be lower than the 5% value hw/w 2.0. The lower left vertical wall segment in

assumed in the ASCE 7 design spectrum. Instead Fig.7(b) might qualify as a wall pier. Special provisions

of changing the constant in the denominator to 900, apply to wall pier (see Clause 18.10.8 of ACI 318-14). For

the 1.5 factor is applied to the design displacement walls with openings, the influence of the opening(s) on

to emphasize that it is the design displacement that

is modified.

reinforcement makes structural walls more susceptible

to instability failure. This is because following yielding

of the longitudinal reinforcement in tension, a single

layer of vertical web reinforcement lacks a mechanism to

restore stability. Hence ACI 318-14 requires two curtains

of web reinforcement in all walls having hw/w 2.0

(section 18.10.2.2). In addition, the slenderness ratio at

all specially confined boundary zones is limited to u/16

(section 18.10.6.4b).

DISCUSSION FORUM

flexural and shear strength is to be considered and a load- for damage and increased safety by increasing the

path around the opening(s) should be verified. Capacity controlled deformation capacity (Subramanian, 2013 and

design concepts and strut-and-tie models, as envisaged Subramanian and Vivek, 2016).

by Taylor et al., 1998, are suggested by the ACI Code.

A horizontal wall segment is also referred to as a coupling editions) classifies coupling beams into the following

beam, when the openings are aligned vertically over the

three categories based on aspect ratio n /h and shear

building height. Coupling beams are not considered in the

demand.

paper at all. In 1969, Prof. Paulay, as part of his doctoral

studies under the supervision of Professor Hopkins,

recognized the deficiencies in deformation capacity of the (1) Coupling beams with n /h 4 must satisfy

coupling beams of coupled wall buildings, and developed proportioning and detailing requirements specified

the innovative concept of diagonal reinforcementa for beams of special moment frames, except certain

simple yet elegant solution that greatly reduced potential dimensional limits are exempted. Such beams are

DISCUSSION FORUM

considered too shallow for efficient use of diagonally

corner is shown in Figure 9. For the second option, which

.

placed reinforcement as allowed for deeper beams.(

) will ease construction difficulties and confines the entire

Instead, flexural reinforcement is placed horizontally at beam cross section with hoops and crossties, readers may

top and bottom of the beam (see Fig. 9). = .

refer Fig.R18.10.7 of the ACI code.

(2) Coupling beams with n /h< 2 and Vu>0.33

Acw are Unfortunately these two detailing of reinforcements

required to be reinforced with two intersecting groups of (Figures 9 and 10) are not at all mentioned in the paper;

diagonally placed bars symmetrical about the mid-span (as interestingly, the detailing shown in Figure 3 and

shown in Figures 8 and 10), unless it can be shown that loss of Figure 5 are not recommended either in ACI 318 or

stiffness and strength of the coupling beams will not impair the IS 13920.

vertical load carrying ability of the structure, post-earthquake

egress from the structure, or the integrity of non-structural ACI 318-14 has also made some changes in the non-special

components and their connections to the structure. confinement requirements of section 18.10.6.5(a)and the

commentary to ACI 318-14 has added two useful figures

(3) Other coupling beams not falling within the limits of the summarizing the boundary confinement requirements

preceding two categories are permitted to be reinforced as for walls with hw/w 2 and a single critical section

either conventionally reinforced special moment frame beams controlled by flexure and axial load (See Fig. R18.10.6.4.2

or diagonally reinforced beams. of ACI 318-14).

Clause 18.10.7.4 of ACI 318 prescribes two confinement Replies from the authors

reinforcement options for coupling beams with diagonal At the outset, the authors would like to thank the reader

reinforcement. The first option of confining individual for initiating the discussion and providing insightful

diagonals using hoops and crossties such that corner and comments related to this important topic of shear wall

alternate diagonal bars are restrained in a hoop or crosstie with openings, especially with respect to code provisions

DISCUSSION FORUM

of ACI 318 and IS 13920. The authors acknowledge the b) New procedure for estimating design moment of

fact that ACI 318-2014 and IS 13920:2016 are the recent resistance of structural walls with boundary elements.

code provisions available in practice.

c) Expression for calculating special confining

Response to comment 1: The authors also acknowledge . in boundary element in structural wall

reinforcement

( )

the significant changes brought in the ACI 318-2014, (See Clause10.4 of the code).

especially with respect to Earthquake Resistant

Structures in general and shear wall in particular. = .

...(2)

The authors would like to compliment the paper titled

Significant changes from the 2011 to the 2014 edition of d) Addition of a figure showing reinforcement detail

ACI 318 authored by Prof. S.K. Ghosh which explains

for coupled structural wall with diagonal reinforcement

the provisions related to special shear walls with more (which is same as Fig 10).

stringent requirements proposed in the recent code (ACI

318-14) with respect to special confining reinforcement

following the performance of buildings in few of the It has to be noted that the minimum thickness of wall

recent earthquakes such Chile earthquake in 2010, for coupled structural walls in seismic zones is 300

Christchurch earthquake in 2011. The authors would also mm and not 150 mm, as mentioned in the paper. The

like to acknowledge the contribution made through the minimum ratio of length of wall to its thickness should

experimental full scale testing of RC building as a part be 4. Moreover, the structural wall is classified as squat,

of E-Defense project. The scope of this paper is limited to intermediate and slender depending on whether the

the shear wall with openings and hence the coupled shear hw/w ratio is less than 1, in between 1 and 2, and

walls were not highlighted in the paper. greater than 2 ,respectively. Accordingly the minimum

reinforcement is prescribed, based on the research at

Though it is acknowledged that the reinforcement IITM (Rohit et al., 2011), as shown in Table 1, and not as

detailing advocated in the code provisions (ACI 318- presented in the paper (note some errors in the table of

2014), the importance of reinforcement shown in the IS 13920 are corrected in the Table 1).

published paper was presented and discussed in the

following paper (referred in reference 44).

Reply: The authors acknowledge the comment with

respect to the new code IS 13920:2016 titled Ductile

44. Sittipunt, C., and Wood, S.L. (1995). Influence of web Design and Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures

reinforcement on the cyclic response of structural walls. subjected to Seismic Forces - Code of Practice. It is also

ACI Structural Journal, 92(6), 745-767. to be acknowledged that the key provisions have been

incorporated with respect to the minimum reinforcement

Comment 2 ratios and minimum thickness specified for different

Again, the paper makes a reference to the old Indian types of special shear walls (Squat, intermediate and

Standards IS 13920:1993. After circulating two drafts in slender). Also, the definition of squat, intermediate and

2006 and 2014, the Bureau of Indian Standards released slender was incorporated for the first time in the code

the new version of IS 13920 in 2016, and changed the based on the aspect ratio of the shear wall.

tile itself to include the word Design. The new code

has several significant additions and changes from the

In fact, at the time of submission of manuscript, the copy

previous code, especially on structural (shear) walls.

of the first revision of the code (IS 13920:2016) was not

These are (see Clause 10.1 of IS 13920:2016):

available for purchase to the knowledge of the authors

and hence only the provisions of IS 13920:1993 were

a) Improved provisions for design of slender RC structural incorporated.

walls.

.

(

(.

) )

.

(

)

==..

= .

DISCUSSION FORUM

Table 1. Minimum

Table

Table 1 reinforcement

1 Minimum ratios

Minimumreinforcement

reinforcement ininvertical

ratios

ratios in vertical

vertical and

and

and horizontal

horizontal

horizontal directions

directions

directions ofwalls

ofofstructural structural

structural walls

asas walls

perISIS

per as per IS 13920:2016

13920:2016

13920:2016

Table 1 Minimum reinforcement ratios in vertical and horizontal directions of structural walls as per IS 13920:2016

Type

Type of wallType

w /tw>of

of

25 wall

wall ww/t/t

w>w>

2525 Minimum

Minimum reinforcement

reinforcement

Minimum ratios ratios

ratios

reinforcement

Type of wall /t > 25 w Minimum

w reinforcement ratios

Squat wall

wall (( ) )==..

Squat wall (

) = .

hw/w< 1 w/

hwh/ w<

w< 11

hw/w< 1

,

= . + .

= . + . (

( .. )

)

,

, = . + . ( . )

==

++ .

.

..

,

,

, ,

= ,, + . . ,

,

,

(( )<<((

)

)

)

) < ( )

(

Intermediatewall

Intermediate Intermediate

wall wall (( ) )==..

Intermediate wall (

) = .

1 hw/w 2 1 1hh w/

w/ ww

22

1 hw/w 2 ==..

,

, = .

,

, ==..

, = .

,

==..

++ ..

,

,

, = . + .

Slender

Slender walls

walls

Slender walls Slender walls (( ) )==..

(

++ .. ((

.. )

)

w/

hwh/ w>

w> 22

) = . + . ( . )

hw/w> 2 hw/w> 2

==..

,

,

, = .

,

= .

= .

,

, = .

==..

++ ..

,

,

, = . + .

h=h=Ratio

Ratio ofofhorizontal

horizontalreinforcement

reinforcement areatotogross

area grossconcrete

concrete area

area ofof section

section

h= Ratio

h= Ratio of horizontal of horizontalarea

reinforcement area toarea

grossofconcrete area of section

v=v Ratio of vertical reinforcement areaconcrete

= Ratio reinforcement

of vertical to

reinforcementgross areatoto grossconcrete

gross section

concrete area

area ofofsection

section

v= Ratio

v= Ratio of vertical of verticalarea

reinforcement reinforcement

toreinforcement

gross area toarea

concrete grossofconcrete

section area of section

v,web

v,web = =Ratio

Ratioofofweb

webvertical

vertical reinforcement areatoto

area gross

gross concrete

concrete area

area ofofsection

section

v,web= Ratio of v,webvertical

web = Ratio of web verticalarea

reinforcement reinforcement

to gross area toarea

concrete grossofconcrete

section area of section

v,net = Ratio of net vertical reinforcement area to gross

= Ratio of net vertical reinforcement area to gross concrete area

v,net concrete areaofofsection

section

v,net

v,net= Ratio of net = Ratioreinforcement

vertical of net verticalarea

reinforcement area toarea

to gross concrete grossofconcrete

section area of section

depending upon the level of interaction between the

The paper is devoid of any formula or suggestions for the

frame and shear wall.

design of shear walls with openings, which would have

made the paper useful to the practicing engineers.

Comment 4

Reply: Though the design formulas of shear wall were The paper has not included several important papers

not presented in the paper, the authors have mentioned and reports, such as those of Medhekar andJain (1993),

the importance of size and position of openings on the Ingle and Jain (IITK-GSDMA/EQ22), Rohit, et al. (2013),

structural response of shear wall. Most of the times, the Moehle, et al.(2011), and Wallace (2012),among the list of

size and position are decided on the basis of the functional references:

requirements and hence the ductile design and detailing

becomes important in order to avoid shear failure. The In our opinion, the paper would have been more

authors acknowledge the code provisions with respect to comprehensive if the above comments had been included

design & detailing of shear wall around the openings. It in it.

is also to be noted that the dual structural configuration

of shear wall frame may also to be incorporated in the

References

future revisions. The wall frame buildings are quite

popular in residential and commercial buildings. Though 56. Canterbury Earthquakes Royal Commission (2012). Final

Report-3 Parts, Ministry of Business, Innovation, and

the shear wall is generally extended till the full height

DISCUSSION FORUM

Employment, Wellington, New Zealand[http://canterbury. The following are the few references that may be worth

royalcommission.govt.nz/CommissionReports/] reading related to shear walls and ductile detailing.

57. EERI (Earthquake Engineering Research Institute)(2012) 2010

Maule, Chile, Earthquake Special Issue, Earthquake Spectra, 68. Ghosh, S.K. (2016) Significant changes from the 2011 to the

Vol. 28, No.S1, EERI, Oakland, CA. 2014 edition of ACI 318, PCI Journal, Vol. 61, No.2, Mar.-

58. Ghosh, S.K. (2016) Significant changes from the 2011 to the Apr., pp.56-80.

2014 edition of ACI 318, PCI Journal, Vol. 61, No.2, Mar.-Apr., 69. Rohit, D.H.H., P. Narahari, R. Sharma, A. Jaiswal and C.V.R.

pp.56-80. Murty, When RC Columns Become RC Structural Walls,

59. Ingle, R.K., and Jain, S.K., Explanatory Examples for Ductile The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 85, No. 5, May 2011, pp.

Detailing of RC Buildings, NICEE, IIT Kanpur [http://www. 36-45.

iitk.ac.in/nicee/IITK-GSDMA/EQ22.pdf]. 70. IS 13920:2016, Code of Practice for Ductile Design and

60. IS 13920:2016, Code of Practice for Ductile Design and Detailing of Detailing of Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to

Reinforced Concrete Structures Subjected to Seismic Forces, (First Seismic Forces, (First Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards,

Revision), Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi, 24 pp. New Delhi, 24 pp.

61. Medhekar, M.S., andJain, S.K. (1993), Seismic behaviour, 71. Ingle, R.K., and Jain, S.K., Explanatory Examples for Ductile

design and detailing of RC shear walls, Part 1 and 2, The Detailing of RC Buildings , NICEE, IIT Kanpur [http://

Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 67, July 1993, pp. 311-18 and Sept. www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/IITK-GSDMA/EQ22.pdf].

1993, pp. 451-57. 72 Medhekar, M.S., and Jain, S.K. (1993), Seismic behaviour,

62. Moehle, J.P., T. Ghodsi, J.D. Hooper, D.C. Fields, and R. design and detailing of RC shear walls, Part 1 and 2, The

Gedhada (2011), Seismic Design of Cast-in-Place Concrete Special Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 67, July 1993, pp. 311-18 and

Structural Walls and Coupling Beams: A Gide for Practicing Sept. 1993, pp. 451-57.

Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design Technical Brief No. 6, 73. Moehle, J.P., T. Ghodsi, J.D. Hooper, D.C. Fields, and R.

NIST GCR 11-917-11, National Institute of Standards and Gedhada (2011), Seismic Design of Cast-in-Place Concrete

Technology, Gaithersburg, MD., 37 pp. Special Structural Walls and Coupling Beams: A Gide for

63. Rohit,D.H.H., P. Narahari, R. Sharma, A. Jaiswal and C.V.R. Practicing Engineers, NEHRP Seismic Design Technical

Murty, When RC Columns Become RC Structural Walls, Brief No. 6, NIST GCR 11-917-11, National Institute of

The Indian Concrete Journal, Vol. 85, No. 5, May 2011, pp. 36-45. Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD., 37 pp.

64. Rohit, D.H.H., A.K. Jaiswal, and C.V.R. Murty, Expressions 74. Wallace, J. W.(2012) Performance of Structural Walls in

for Moment of Resistance of RC Structural Walls, The Indian Recent Earthquakes and Tests and Implications for US

Concrete Journal, Vol. 87, No. 10, Oct. 2013, pp. 48-62. Building Codes, 15th Word Conference on Earthquake

Engineering(WCEE), 24-28 Sept. Lisbon, Portugal.

65. Subramanian, N., and Vivek, G.A. (2016), GEM 9: Prof. Tom

Paulay- One of the Legends of Earthquake Engineering,

Quarterly Journal of Indian Society of Structural Engineers (ISSE),

Discussions by

Vol. 18, No. 3, July-Sept. pp 3-8.

66. Subramanian, N.,( 2013) Design of Reinforced Concrete Structures, Dr. N. Subramanian, Structural Engineer, 23, Napa

Oxford University Press, New Delhi, 880 pp.,

Valley Road, Gaithersburg, MD 20878, USA.

67. Wallace, J.W.(2012) Performance of Structural Walls in Recent

Earthquakes and Tests and Implications for US Building Er. N. Prabhakar, Chartered Structural Engineer, Vasai

Codes, 15th Word Conference on Earthquake Engineering(WCEE), (E), Pin 401 208, Thane, Maharashtra.

24-28 Sept. Lisbon, Portugal.

Replies by

Reply: The authors acknowledge the contribution made

by several eminent people working on the various

Muthukumar G., Assistant Professor, Civil Engineering

aspects of shear wall. The references proposed are worth

Department at BITS Pilani, Rajasthan.

incorporating in the document and provides invaluable

information related to ductile design and detailing of Dr. Manoj Kumar, Head of Civil Engineering Department

RC structures in general, and shear wall in particular. at BITS Pilani, Rajasthan.

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