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Buttery

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Cardboard

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Buttery

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Butterscotch

Yes

Scotch Ales

Diacetyl:

-

Allow ferment to

Bitters

-

Premature

complete

- Diacetyl

Dry Stouts

racking

Czech Pils

-

Higher temperature

- Aroma

Oktoberfest

-

Low

primary fermentation

fermentation

- Mouthfeel, a

temperature

Good pure yeast strain

-

slickness on the

palate

- Mutant yeast

 

-

Practice good

- Lactic acid

sanitation

bacteria

(Pediococcus)

-

Quick wort chilling

Long periods of wort cooling

-

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Cardboard

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Papery

No

N/A

Aeration of hot wort

-

-

Quiet transfer of

beer when siphoning

- Wet cardboard

 

or transferring

- Rotten fruit

Aeration of beer during bottling

-

-

Serve beer in

appropriate amount of

- Stale

- excessive age

time

- Sherry-like

- High storage

-Cool (<55F) storage temps

temperatures

in Aroma and Flavor

-

-

Adding tap

-Add only boiled water

water to finished

without boiling

 

Cloudiness

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Cooked Corn

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Cloudiness

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Cloudy

Yes

Wheat Beers

Chill haze:

- Longer mash

Lambics

-

Insufficent

- in Appearance

American Wheat

conversion time

- Use protein rest

Permanent Haze:

- Use finings

-

High sparge

temps

- Use filtration

Bacterical Haze:

- Reduce sparge

-

Poor sanitation

temps

-

Practice good

Powdery Yeast

sanitation

Use well-flocculating yeast strain

-

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Cooked Corn

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

-

DMS (dimethyl

Yes

American Lagers Cream Ales

-

Covered boil

Open, rolling boil for an hour

-

sulfide)

 

not boiling wort for at least an hour

-

 

-

Vegetal

- Poor sanitation

(Sweet cooked

corn, celery,

 

- Reduce corn or rice

cabbage,

-

Wild yeast or

in mash

parsnips)

Zymomonas

-

Shellfish or

bacteria

-

Quick wort cooling

oyster-like in

(converted from

higher amount

Dimethyl

sulfoxide)

in Aroma and Flavor

-

High level of adjuncts

-

-

Precursor

S-methyl-

-

Overnight

methionine (SMM) occurs naturally in Pale malt, turns into DMS with heat, evaporates

cooling

Fruitiness

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Light Body

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Fruitiness

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

-

Esters

Yes

Ales

-

Alcohols

lower fermentation temperature

-

in Aroma and Flavor

-

American Dark Lagers (very light)

combining with acids at higher temperature. (Ethyl acetate, Isoamyl acetate, Ethyl Hexanoate)

Choose a different yeast

-

-

Strawberries

Dopplebock (in dark versions)

-

Raspberries

 
 

Eisbock

-

Pear

-

Plums

-

Grapefruit

-

Banana

-

Apricots. etc

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Light Body

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Watery

Yes

American Light

- Lack of dextrins

-

Use quality malt

lagers

- Weak

- Poor quality

Keep percentage of sugars small

-

Lambics

malt

in Flavor and Mouthfeel

-

-

Large

Reduce length of protein rest

-

 

percentage of

-

sugar

 

-

Lower mash

-

Over-long

temperature

protein rest

-

Use dextrin or wheat

-

High mash

malt. Flaked malt

temperature

Low Head Retention

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Phenolic

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Low Head Retention

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Flat

Yes

Lambics

-

Insufficient

-

Shorten protein rest

proteins in beer

- in Appearance

High Alcohol Beers

causes high

Use clean well- rinsed glasses

-

and Mouthfeel

surface tension

-

Dirty/oily

Use flaked wheat or barley

-

glasses

-

Low protein

-

Lower alcohol by

grist

lowering the grist bill

use hops with high alpha acids

-

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Phenolic

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Band-aid

Yes

Some Belgians

beers

- Wild yeast

Use pure yeast strains

-

- Medicinal

 

- Improper

 

Smoke beers

sanitation

-

Practice good

- Clove-like

sanitation

Some Wheat beer

-

Some malt

- Plastic

types

-

Use “clean” malt

- Smoky

-

Some yeast

Use yeast less prone to phenolic production

-

strains

in Aroma and Flavor

-

-

Chlorophenols

in water

-

filter tap water

-

Improper rinse

Use non- chlorine sanitizers

-

of chlorine

sanitizers

 

Sherry-like

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Sourness

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Sherry-like

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Sherry

Yes

Barleywines

-

Oxidative

Use different yeast strain

-

yeasts acting on

- Vinous

English Old Ales

higher alcohol

 

beers creates

-

Create less alcohol

- Wine-like

aldehydes (ie.

by lowering grist bill

trans-2-nonenal)

- Paper-like

- Serve beer younger

- Old

- Ferment cooler

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Sourness

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Tart

Yes

Witbier

-

Lactic acid

-

Practice good

Lambics

(from lactic acid

sanitation

- Sour

Flanders Ale

bacteria)

Berliner Weisse

-

Don’t employ over-

in Aroma, Flavor and Mouthfeel

-

-

Acetobacter

lengthy mash or low

(optional sourness) American Wheat or Rye, Dry Stout, Witbier and Saison

(from acetic acid)

temp mash

-perceived on sides on the tongue

-

excessive acid

rest

   

-

mashing too

long

Acetaldehyde

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Alcoholic

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Acetaldehyde

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Green apples

Yes, at low levels

L/S/P American Lagers (from yeast character is optional)

-

Premature

Allow ferment to complete

-

removal from

- Grassy

 

yeast

 

-

Practice good

can taste and smell acetic/ cidery

-

 

-

Bacterial

sanitation and beer handling to avoid O2

spoilage

contact

 

- Oxidation

- Good yeast strain

- Premature

flocculation

- Aerate wort

prepitching

-Oxygen

depletion

long lagering will reduce

-

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Alcoholic

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

- Hot, Spicy

Yes

Stronger ales and lagers

High amount of fermentables

-

-

Pitch sufficient

yeast quantity

- Vinous aroma

   

- Underpitching

-

Aerate wort

- Prickly

prepitching

mouthfeel

- Low O2 or FAN

-

warmth

Astringent

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

Bitterness

Minnesota Home Brewers Association: Sean P. Hewitt

1/26/06

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Astringent

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

-

Dry, Mouth

No

N/A

-

Extraction of

-

Don’t overcrush

puckering

tannins

(overcrushing,

Keep sparge temp low

-

in Flavor and Mouthfeel

-

oversparging)

- Alkaline water

Use acidified water in sparge

-

-

like grape skins

- Lengthy Hop

 

immersion times

-

Reduce hop

immersion times

-

Polyphenols

from acetobacter

-

Practice good

sanitation

- Oxidation

-

Reduce spice

- Spices

additions

 

Troubleshooting Off-flavors- Bitterness

 

Describe/Discuss

Ever

If so, what styles?

How is it caused?

How can it avoided/ controlled?

Appropriate?

-

Mouth

Yes

IPA’s

- High AAU hops

Use hops with lower alpha acids

-

puckering

Pales ales

- Lengthy hops

 

- Bitter

English Bitters

times

Reduce hop boil times

-

- Flavor

-

- Mouthfeel