EXERCISES
2 +
^Wv r~\
R(s) Gito G2W Hs)
_ . i
+ 0
WW
TT (a)
y = /{X) = e*, A N
where the operating point for the input x is x0 = 1. Iris \ Opaque tube
Determine a linear approximation valid near the oper
ating point. fb)
H2{s)
A
R(s)
ky4 G?iW G2(s) * I
s
Y(s)
ffjW 
//,(')
H2(s)
G3(s) * Fsis)
H2(s)
Bump disturbance
Preview of disturbance
1
'j( r;
<
*i
dynamics Bounce of
Desired >
deflection
J
+ S J
s K2
+ ..
T<~>
G(.v)
m auto or
._ horizontal
Ms)
FIGURE E2.13 Feedback system with measurement noise, A/(s), and plant
disturbances, Td(s).
Hl(5)
Gfr)
+
r~\ +x~
+v
.(*) G2(s) Gjlis) " W
+
1 k
i k
H2(s)
/ = kx2,
where x is the displacement of the spring. Determine
a linear model for the spring when x0 = j  FIGURE E2.21 Precision slide.
E2.18 The output y and input x of a device are related by
y = x + 1.4x3.
E2.22 The rotational velocity &> of the satellite shown in
(a) Find the values of the output for steadystate op Figure E2.22 is adjusted by changing the length of the
eration at the two operating points x0 = 1 and x0 = 2. beam L. The transfer function between <x)(s) and the
(b) Obtain a linearized model for both operating incremental change in beam length AL(s) is
points and compare them.
w(s) 2{s + 4)
E2.19 The transfer function of a system is
AZ(.v) (s + 5)(s + 1)2
Y(s) _ 15(.f + 1)
R(s) ~ s2 + 9s + 14' The beam length change is AL(i) = 1/s. Determine
the response of the rotation co(t).
Determine y{t) when r(t) is a unit step input.
Answer: (r) = 1.6 + 0.025e~5'  1.625'  1.5te'
Answer: y(t) = 1.07 + l i e  *  2.57e7', t s 0
E2.20 Determine the transfer function VQ(s)/V{s) of the op
erational amplifier circuit shown in Figure E2.20. Assume
an ideal operational amplifier. Determine the transfer
function when /?, = R2 = 100 kfl, Cx = 10 jttF, and
C2 = 5 fiF.
C,
1(
i^l'
Rotation
t
* o+
FIGURE E2.22 Satellite with adjustable rotational velocity.
o
Y(s) G^s)
Answer:
Td(s) 1 + G,(s)G2(s)H(s)
O TAs)
FIGURE E2.25
An amplifier with a
deadband region.
Problems 141
E2.28 Determine the transfer function \&(s)/V(s) for the (b) Determine Y(s)/R(s) for Figure E2.29(b).
opamp circuit shown in Figure E2.28 [1]. Let /?j = E2.30 A system is shown in Figure E2.30.
167 kfl, R2 = 240 kH, R3 = 1 kH, RA = 100 kH, and
C = 1 /iF. Assume an ideal opamp. (a) Find the closedloop transfer function Y(s)/R(s)
E2.29 A system is shown in Fig. E2.29(a). 10
when G(s) =  : .
(a) Determine G(s) and H(s) of the block diagram
s2 + 2s + 10
shown in Figure E2.29(b) that are equivalent to
(b) Determine Y(s) when the input R(s) is a unit step.
those of the block diagram of Figure E2.29(a).
(c) Compute y(t).
3r
o*WV"
+ R,
o +
FIGURE E2.28
Opamp circuit.
_L _n
ns)
1 /?(*)
k> s+ 10
PROBLEMS
Problems require an extension of the concepts of the chap
ter to new situations.
P2.1 An electric circuit is shown in Figure P2.1. Obtain a
set of simultaneous integrodifferential equations rep
resenting the network.
P2.2 A dynamic vibration absorber is shown in Figure *0
P2.2. This system is representative of many situations
involving the vibration of machines containing unbal
anced components. The parameters M2 and kl2 may
be chosen so that the main mass Mi does not vibrate
in the steady state when F(t) = a sin(a>0f) Obtain the
differential equations describing the system. FIGURE P2.1 Electric circuit.
142 Chapter 2 Mathematical Models of Systems
 I ' I I O
k
M WWWH u Hi P2.8 A bridgedT network is often used in AC control
systems as a filter network [8]. The circuit of one
k nzn bridgedT network is shown in Figure P2.8. Show that
the transfer function of the network is
FIGURE P2.3 Twomass system.
V&) 1 + IR^Cs + RiRjpV
P2.4 A nonlinear amplifier can be described by the fol Kn(i') 1 + (2, + R2)Cs + i ? , i ? 2 c V
lowing characteristic:
Sketch the polezero diagram when Rx = 0.5, = 1,
"o(') = J 4
and C = 0.5.
m < 0'
I 4
Tlie amplifier will be operated over a range of 0.5
volts around the operating point for vin. Describe the wv
amplifier by a linear approximation (a) when the op
erating point is sjj,, = 0 and (b) when the operating
point is win = 1 volt. Obtain a sketch of the nonlinear
function and the approximation for each case.
P2.5 Fluid flowing through an orifice can be represented
by the nonlinear equation
Q = K(P,  A)" 2 , FIGURE P2.8 BridgedT network.
where the variables are shown in Figure P2.5 and K is
a constant [2]. (a) Determine a linear approximation P2.9 Determine the transfer function Xi(s)/F(s) for the
coupled springmass system of Problem P2.3. Sketch
the splane polezero diagram for low damping when
M = l,b/k = l,and
4 0.1.
2
P2.10 Determine the transfer function Yi{s)jF(s) for the
FIGURE P2.5 Flow through an orifice. vibration absorber system of Problem P2.2. Determine
Problems 143
the necessary parameters M2 and &12 so that the mass [8,19]. An amplidyne is a power amplifying rotary am
Ml does not vibrate in the steady state when plifier. An amplidyne and a servomotor are shown in
F(t) a sin(&)o t). Figure P2.ll. Obtain the transfer function 9(s)/Vc(s),
P2.ll For electromechanical systems that require large and draw the block diagram of the system. Assume
power amplification, rotary amplifiers are often used vd = k2iq and vq = k{ic.
Control
field
it = Constant
lr/ \ 2 (
P \ Motor 1
1
V
f
4 Load y, b
Am plidyne **
P2.12 For the openloop control system described by the the transfer function BL{s)fVf{s) and draw a block dia
block diagram shown in Figure P2.12, determine the gram of the system. The generator voltage can be as
value of K such that y(t)  * 1 as t oo when r(r) is a sumed to be proportional to the field current if.
unit step input. Assume zero initial conditions. P2.14 A rotating load is connected to a fieldcontrolled
DC electric motor through a gear system. The motor is
assumed to be linear. A test results in the output load
Controller Process reaching a speed of 1 rad/s within 0.5 s when a constant
1 80 V is applied to the motor terminals. The output
Ms) A:
K  YU) steadystate speed is 2.4 rad/s. Determine the transfer
s+20
function 0{s)/Vf(s) of the motor, in rad/V. The induc
tance of the field may be assumed to be negligible (see
FIGURE P2.12 Openloop control system. Figure 2.18). Also, note that the application of 80 V to
the motor terminals is a step input of 80 V in magnitude.
P2.13 An electromechanical openloop control system is P2.15 Consider the springmass system depicted in Figure
shown in Figure P2.13. The generator, driven at a con P2.15. Determine a differential equation to describe
stant speed, provides the field voltage for the motor. The the motion of the mass m. Obtain the system response
motor has an inertia Jm and bearing friction />,. Obtain x(t) with the initial conditions A(0) = Xg and i(0) = 0.
+ ovV\A Motor
N
01 i
Gear ratio n =
No
Generator
Determine the value of each dependent variable by FIGURE P2.18 LC ladder network.
using the gain formula. After solving for JCJ by Mason's
signalflow gain formula, verify the solution by using
P2.19 A voltage follower (buffer amplifier) is shown in
Cramers rule.
Figure P2.19. Show that T = vQ/vin = 1. Assume an
P2.17 A mechanical system is shown in Figure P2.17, ideal opamp.
which is subjected to a known displacement x$(t) with
respect to the reference, (a) Determine the two inde
pendent equations of motion, (b) Obtain the equations
of motion in terms of the Laplace transform, assuming
that the initial conditions are zero, (c) Sketch a signal
flow graph representing the system of equations, (d) + 0
Friction
,r~ A/, *i
FIGURE P2.19 A buffer amplifier.
,r" i
f.
M3 6,
P2.20 The source follower amplifier provides lower out
put impedance and essentially unity gain. The circuit
diagram is shown in Figure P2.20(a), and the smallsig
nal model is shown in Figure P2.20(b).This circuit uses
an FET and provides a gain of approximately unity.
*4i i
<
r J ZJ
Assume that R2 R] for biasing purposes and that
Rg R2. (a) Solve for the amplifier gain, (b) Solve
for the gain when gm = 2000 (tl and Rs = 10 kil
where Rs = Ry + R2. (c) Sketch a block diagram that
1 r
represents the circuit equations.
P2.21 A hydraulic servomechanism with mechanical
feedback is shown in Figure P2.21 [18]. The power pis
ton has an area equal to A. When the valve is moved a
small amount Az, the oil will flow through to the cylin
FIGURE P2.17 Mechanical system. der at a rate p Az, where p is the port coefficient. The
Problems 145
v
(P*"."* the poles and zeros of T(s) on the splane.
'in G gs
>
>*a >xi
"it Q
02
n/WWW
(b)
FIGURE P2.20 The source follower or common drain
amplifier using an FET.
Power FIGURE P2.22 The bars are each of length L and the
spring is located at L/2.
cylinder
>WSr
'c
rWVo*^vVv1 4 6
*(*  v)
*. v
bf ,,,, A
neglects the bias resistors and the shunt capacitors. A sign technique known as feedforward correction [19],
block diagram representing the circuit is shown in Recent experiments have shown that this technique
Figure P2.24(b).This block diagram neglects the effect offers the potential for yielding excellent amplifier
of hn., which is usually an accurate approximation, and stabilization. Black's amplifier is shown in Figure
assumes that R2 + RL R\ (a) Determine the volt P2.25(a) in the form recorded in 1924. The block dia
age gain vjvin. (b) Determine the current gain ia/lbi gram is shown in Figure P2.25(b). Determine the
(c) Determine the input impedance V\Jib\. transfer function between the output Y(s) and the
input R(s) and between the output and the distur
P2.25 H. S. Black is noted for developing a negative feed
bance Td(s). G(s) is used to denote the amplifier rep
back amplifier in 1927. Often overlooked is the fact
resented by fi in Figure P2.25(a).
that three years earlier he had invented a circuit de
'ft i R
+ R,
M "ir
(a; (bl
A'(v)
ns)
1
G(s)
J G(s)
H^\P J
.
FIGURE P2.25 HS
(a) (h)
Black's amplifier.
T.S + 1
H2(s)
Speed Speed
control
input
R2(S) O r2[s)
Tension Tension
FIGURE P2.32 control
A model of the input
coupled motor
HM
drives.
P233 Find the transfer function for Y(s)/R(s) for the idle
speed control system for a fuelinjected engine as
shown in Figure P2.33.
P2.34 The suspension system for one wheel of an old
fashioned pickup truck is illustrated in Figure P2.34.
The mass of the vehicle is m% and the mass of the wheel
is m2The suspension spring has a spring constant k^ and
the tire has a spring constant k2. The damping con
stant of the shock absorber is b. Obtain the transfer
function Y\(s)j'X(s), which represents the vehicle re
sponse to bumps in the road.
P2.35 A feedback control system has the structure shown FIGURE P2.34 Pickup truck suspension.
in Figure P2.35. Determine the closedloop transfer
function Y(s)/R(s) (a) by block diagram manipulation so that the closedloop response to a step input is crit
and (b) by using a signalflow graph and Mason's sig ically damped with two equal roots at s = 10. (d)
nalflow gain formula, (c) Select the gains /C, and K2 Plot the critically damped response for a unit step
Problems 149
1
tf(.v) ' YU)
s +1 s
K < *
1
K2
'
l
X
0.5 m
24
RU) * n.v)
4
s* + 9s2 + 26s + 24
2H 1 P
1
~^^77Q
/YYY\
If
?2fi < > 0.5
6V lOeaV
Engine
P2.42 In many applications, such as reading product P2.45 To exploit the strength advantage of robot manipu
codes in supermarkets and in printing and manufac lators and the intellectual advantage of humans, a class
turing, an optical scanner is utilized to read codes, as of manipulators called extenders has been examined
Problems 151
[22]. The extender is defined as an active manipulator P2.47 The water level h{t) in a tank is controlled by an
worn by a human to augment the human's strength. The openloop system, as shown in Figure P2.47. A DC
human provides an input U(s), as shown in Figure motor controlled by an armature current ;' turns a
P2.45. The endpoint of the extender is P(s). Determine shaft, opening a valve. The inductance of the DC
the output P(s) for both U(s) and F(s) in the form motor is negligible, that is, La = 0. Also, the rota
tional friction of the motor shaft and valve is negli
P(s) = T^Uis) + T2(s)F(s). gible, that is, b = 0. The height of the water in the
tank is
h(t)
J [1.60(f) ~ h(t)]dt.
Human
w
v.
H(s)
r '
G(s)
B . Performance ,,
filter f
 B(s)
the motor constant is K, = 10, and the inertia of the
motor shaft and valve is J  6 X KT3 kgm 2 . Deter
mine (a) the differential equation for h(t) and v(t) and
i
,
,+ L (b) the transfer function H(s)IV(s).
Pis)
r
K. >r GiW * K(s) *n P2.48 The circuit shown in Figure P2.48 is called a lead
lag filter.
1
V
stability t
V+
i
(a) Find the transfer function V2(s)/\{(s). Assume an
controller ideal opamp.
(*) Gc{s)
(b) Determine V2(s)/V^s) when l?j = 100Hl,
Load i
J J
(c) Determine the partial fraction expansion for
Force of material
placed in truck bed
Truck vehicle mass
*i r Shock absorber
FIGURE P2.46
Truck support
model. la) (h)
152 Chapter 2 Mathematical Models of Systems
Amplifier
Valve
FIGURE P2.47
Openloop control
system for the
water level of a
tank.
(e) Predict the final value of y(t) for the unit step
AAAr 14,000
R(s) * i'(v)
,! 3 + 4 5 ^ + 31005 + 500)
ViM V2(s)
(d) Plot y(t) and discuss the effect of the real and
complex poles of T(s). Do the complex poles or
the real poles dominate the response?
P2.50 A closedloop control system is shown in Figure
P2.50.
(a) Determine the transfer function T(s) = Y(s)/R(s).
(b) Determine the poles and zeros of T(s).
(c) Use a unit step input, R(s) = l/s, and obtain the
partial fraction expansion for Y(s) and the value
of the residues.
(d) Plot y(() and discuss the effect of the real and
complex poles of T(s). Do the complex poles or FIGURE P2.51 Twomass system with two springs and
the real poles dominate the response? one damper.
Advanced Problems 153
ADVANCED PROBLEMS
FIGURE AP2.6
(a) Hanging crane
supporting the
Space Shuttle
Atlantis (Image
Credit: NASA/Jack
Pfaller) and
(b) schematic
representation
of the hanging
crane structure. (a) (b)
Td(s)
Controller Plant
FIGURE AP2.7
Unity feedback
control system with
, EM
K
+
o
+(
1
s + 20
+ Y(s)
controller
Gc(s)  K.
Determine a relationship between the gain K and AP2.9 Consider the inverting operational amplifier in
the minimum time it takes the impulse disturbance Figure AP2.9. Find the transfer function VJ,s){Vls),
response of the system to reach y(r) < 0.1. Assume Show that the transfer function can be expressed as
that K > 0. For what value of K does the disturbance
response first reach at y{t) = 0.1 at r = 0.05? G(s) = K, + + K&,
AP2.8 Consider the cable reel control system given in V,(s)
Figure AP2.8. Find the value of A and K such that the where the gains KP, Kh and KD are functions of
percent overshoot is P.O. 10% and a desired ve Cj, C2, JRI, and R2, This circuit is a proportionalinte
locity of 50 m/s in the steady state is achieved. Com gralderivative (PID) controller (more on PID con
pute the closedloop response v(f) analytically and trollers in Chapter 7).
confirm that the steadystate response and P. O. meet
the specifications.
Reel
Amplifier Motor dynamics Actual cable
Desired
, velocity + 200 Torque 1 velocity
/?(,)=  ^ K
>
K V{s)
J * s+ 1 j+8
Measured Tachometer
FIGURE AP2.8 velocity 1
Cable reel control
0.25i + 1
system.
Design Problems 155
c,
R2
lWV Hf
v,w<
 K,M
DESIGN PROBLEMS
CDP2.1 We want to accurately position a table for a ma Table CDP2.1 Typical Parameters
chine as shown in Figure CDP2.1. A tractiondrive
motor with a capstan roller possesses several desirable for the ArmatureControlled DC Motor
characteristics compared to the more popular ball and the Capstan and Slide
screw. The traction drive exhibits low friction and no
Ms Mass of slide 5.693 kg
backlash. However, it is susceptible to disturbances. De
velop a model of the traction drive shown in Figure M,, Mass of drive bar 6.96 kg
CDP2.1(a) for the parameters given in Table CDP2.1. 'm Inertia of 10.91 lfT3 kg m2
The drive uses a DC armaturecontrolled motor with a roller, shaft, motor
capstan roller attached to the shaft.The drive bar moves and tachometer
the linear slidetable. The slide uses an air bearing, so its
friction is negligible. We are considering the openloop r Roller radius 31.7510 
model, Figure CDP2.1(b), and its transfer function in bm Motor damping 0.268 N ms/rad
this problem. Feedback will be introduced later. Kn Torque constant 0.8379 N m/amp
K Back emf constant 0.838 Vs/rad
Traction drive motor Rm Motor resistance 1.36 Q,
and capstan roller L'm Motor inductance 3.6 mH
FIGURE CDP2.1 (a) Traction drive, capstan roller, and Determine G(s) for this system.
linear slide, (b) The block diagram model. DP2.4 An operational amplifier circuit that can serve as
a filter circuit is shown in Figure DP2.4. Determine
DP2.1 A control system is shown in Figure DP2.1. The the transfer function of the circuit, assuming an ideal
transfer functions G2(s) and H2(s) are fixed. Deter opamp. Find vt)(t) when the input is Uj(f) = At,
mine the transfer functions G{(s) and //](.?) so that t >0.
156 Chapter 2 Mathematical Models of Systems
W.v) * Y(s)
FIGURE DP2.1
Selection of transfer ff.
functions.
Reference
JT A/W
1 a
<t>M. 20A f:
R2 b v> o +
"<
"1 C
FIGURE DP2.2 Television beam circuit.
Pendulum rod
Pendulum disk ^.
FIGURE DP2.5
(a) Typical clock
(photo courtesy
of SuperStock)
and (b) schematic
representation
of the pendulum.
Computer Problems 157
JM COMPUTER PROBLEMS
CP2.1 Consider the two polynomials
/?(X = s.21 + 7s + 10
and Spring
Forcing
< * constant
q(s) = s + 2.
Compute the following
(a) p(s)q(s)
function
.I'
Mass Mass
in displacement
(b) poles and zeros of G(s) =
(C) /7(1)
Pis)
CP2.2. b
(a) Compute the closedloop transfer function using
the series and feedback functions.
FIGURE CP2.4 A mechanical springmassdamper
(b) Obtain the closedloop system unit step response system.
with the step function, and verify that final value
of the output is 2/5.
unit step input. Let in = 10, k = 1, and b = 0.5. Show
that the peak amplitude of the output is about 1.8.
Controller Plant
CP2.5 A satellite singleaxis attitude control system can
s +2 be represented by the block diagram in Figure CP2.5.
A'f v i
,v+ 1 j + 3 m The variables k, a, and b are controller parameters,
and J is the spacecraft moment of inertia. Suppose the
nominal moment of inertia is J = 10.8E8 (slug ft2),
and the controller parameters are k = 10.8E8, a = 1,
and 6 = 8.
FIGURE CP2.2 A negative feedback control system. (a) Develop an mfile script to compute the closed
loop transfer function T(s) = 0(s)/0,i(s).
(b) Compute and plot the step response to a 10 step
CP2.3 Consider the differential equation input.
y + 4y + 3y = u, (c) The exact moment of inertia is generally unknown
and may change slowly with time. Compare the
where y(0) = y(0) = 0 and u(t) is a unit step. Deter step response performance of the spacecraft when
mine the solution y(t) analytically and verify by co / i s reduced by 20% and 50%. Use the controller
plotting the analytic solution and the step response parameters k = 10.8E8, a = 1, and b = 8 and a
obtained with the step function. 10 step input. Discuss your results.
CP2.4 Consider the mechanical system depicted in CP2.6 Consider the block diagram in Figure CP2.6.
Figure CP2.4.The input is given by/(i). and the output (a) Use an mfile to reduce the block diagram in
is y(t). Determine the transfer function from f(t) to Figure CP2.6, and compute the closedloop trans
y(t) and, using an mfile, plot the system response to a fer function.
Controller Spacecraft
0dU) 0(1)
Desired "> , k(s + a) 1
s+b J*2
attitude
altitude
+
Ris)
r~\ 1 s
\r * (s)
~i\. s+ 1 s2 + 2 s2
+
4s+ 2
50
s2 + 2s + 1
s2 + 2
,93 + 14
(b) Generate a polezero map of the closedloop CP2.8 A system has a transfer function
transfer function in graphical form using the
pzmap function. X(s) (20/z)(s + z)
(c) Determine explicitly the poles and zeros of the B{s) ~ s2 + 3s + 20"
closedloop transfer function using the pole and
zero functions and correlate the results with the Plot the response of the system when R(s) is a unit
polezero map in part (b). step for the parameter z = 5,10, and 15.
CP2.7 For the simple pendulum shown in Figure CP2.7, CP2.9 Consider the feedback control system in Figure
the nonlinear equation of motion is given by CP2.9, where
H(s) 4
''
FIGURE CP2.10
Block diagram of
a unity feedback R(s) *> Y(s)
system with a
reference input R[s)
and a disturbance
input Td(s).
Closedloop transfer function A ratio of the output signal Final value theorem The theorem that states that
to the input signal for an interconnection of systems lim y(t) = lim .sY(.y), where Y(s) is the Laplace
when all the feedback or feedfoward loops have been transform of y(t).
160 Chapter 2 Mathematical Models of Systems
Homogeneity The property of a linear system in which Principle of superposition The law that states that if two
the system response, y(t), to an input (0 leads to the inputs are scaled and summed and routed through a
response /3y(f) when the input is (3u(t). linear, timeinvariant system, then the output will be
identical to the sum of outputs due to the individual
Inverse Laplace transform A transformation of a function scaled inputs when routed through the same system.
F(s) from the complex frequency domain into the
time domain yielding f(t). Reference input The input to a control system often
representing the desired output, denoted by R(s).
Laplace transform A transformation of a function /(t)
from the time domain into the complex frequency Residues The constants k\ associated with the partial
domain yielding F(s). fraction expansion of the output Y(s), when the out
put is written in a residuepole format.
Linear approximation An approximate model that re
sults in a linear relationship between the output and Signalflow graph A diagram that consists of nodes con
the input of the device. nected by several directed branches and that is a
graphical representation of a set of linear relations.
Linear system A system that satisfies the properties of
Simulation A model of a system that is used to investigate
superposition and homogeneity.
the behavior of a system by utilizing actual input signals.
Linearized Made linear or placed in a linear form. Taylor
Steady state The value that the output achieves after all
series approximations are commonly employed to
the transient constituents of the response have faded.
obtain linear models of physical systems.
Also referred to as the final value.
Loop A closed path that originates and terminates on the 5plane The complex plane where, given the complex
same node of a signalflow graph with no node being number s = s + jw, the xaxis (or horizontal axis) is
met twice along the path. the saxis, and the yaxis (or vertical axis) is the ;waxis.
Mason loop rule A rule that enables the user to obtain
a transfer function by tracing paths and loops with Taylor series A power series defined by g(x) =
in a system.
^ :(x x0)m. For m < 00, the series is an
Mathematical models Descriptions of the behavior of a
system using mathematics. approximation which is used to linearize functions
Natural frequency The frequency of natural oscillation and system models.
that would occur for two complex poles if the damp Throughvariable A variable that has the same value at
ing were equal to zero. both ends of an element.
Necessary condition A condition or statement that must
Time constant The time interval necessary for a system to
be satisfied to achieve a desired effect or result. For ex
change from one state to another by a specified per
ample, for a linear system it is necessary that the input
centage. For a first order system, the time constant is
m(t) + M 2 (0 results in the response y^t) + frit),
the time it takes the output to manifest a 63.2%
where the input u^(t) results in the response y^t) and
change due to a step input.
the input 112(() results in the response yi(t).
Transfer function The ratio of the Laplace transform of
Node The input and output points or junctions in a
the output variable to the Laplace transform of the
signalflow graph. input variable.
Nontouching Two loops in a signalflow graph that do not
Underdamped The case where the damping ratio is f < 1.
have a common node.
Unity feedback A feedback control system wherein the
Overdamped The case where the damping ratio is > 1.
gain of the feedback loop is one.
Path A branch or a continuous sequence of branches
Viscous damper A type of mechanical damper where the
that can be traversed from one signal (node) to
model of the friction force is linearly proportional to
another signal (node) in a signalflow graph.
the velocity of the mass.
Poles The roots of the denominator polynomial (i.e.,
Zeros The roots of the numerator polynomial of the
the roots of the characteristic equation) of the trans
transfer function.
fer function.
Positive feedback loop Feedback loop wherein the output
signal is fed back so that it adds to the input signal.
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C H A P T E R 2
Exercises
E2.1 We have for the openloop
y = r2
e = r y and y = e2 .
So, e = r e2 and e2 + e r = 0 .
16
14
12
10
8
y
6 openloop
2 closedloop
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
r
FIGURE E2.1
Plot of openloop versus closedloop.
22
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Exercises 23
E2.2 Define
f (T ) = R = R0 e0.1T
and
R = f (T ) f (T0 ) , T = T T0 .
Then,
f
R = f (T ) f (T0 ) = T +
T T =T0 =20
where
f
= 0.1R0 e0.1T0 = 135,
T T =T0 =20
R = 135T .
E2.3 The spring constant for the equilibrium point is found graphically by
estimating the slope of a line tangent to the force versus displacement
curve at the point y = 0.5cm, see Figure E2.3. The slope of the line is
K 1.
2
1.5
1 Spring breaks
0.5
0
Force (n)
0.5
1
1.5
2
y=Displacement (cm)
FIGURE E2.3
Spring force as a function of displacement.
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E2.4 Since
1
R(s) =
s
we have
4(s + 50)
Y (s) = .
s(s + 20)(s + 10)
A1 A2 A3
Y (s) = + +
s s + 20 s + 10
where
4(s + 50)
lim y(t) = lim s 2
=1.
t s0 s(s + 30s + 200)
R2
v

A R1
+ +
+
vin v0
 
FIGURE E2.5
Noninverting opamp circuit.
vo = A(vin v ),
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Exercises 25
R1
v = vo .
R1 + R2
Therefore,
R1
vo = A(vin vo ),
R1 + R2
and solving for vo yields
A
vo = AR1
vin .
1+ R1 +R2
R1 + R2
vo = vin .
R1
E2.6 Given
y = f (x) = ex
f
y = f (x) = f (xo ) + (x xo ) +
x x=xo
where
df
f (xo ) = e, = e, and x xo = x 1.
dx x=xo =1
+ Ea(s)
R(s) G1(s) G2(s) I(s)

H(s)
FIGURE E2.7
Block diagram model.
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H2(s)
 A(s) Z(s) 1
R(s) K G1(s) G2(s) Y(s)
 W(s)  s
 E(s)
H3(s)
H1(s)
FIGURE E2.8
Block diagram model.
Exercises 27
and with E(s) = R(s) Y (s) and Z(s) = sY (s) this reduces to
Y (s) = T (s)R(s),
where
KG1 (s)G2 (s)/s
T (s) = .
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s) [(H2 (s) + H1 (s)] + G1 (s)H3 (s) + KG1 (s)G2 (s)/s
E2.9 From Figure E2.9, we observe that
and
Ff (s) = G1 (s)G2 (s)R(s)G1 (s)G2 (s)H2 (s)Ff (s)G1 (s)H2 (s)G3 (s)Ff (s) .
H2(s)
H2(s)
FIGURE E2.9
Block diagram model.
E2.10 The shock absorber block diagram is shown in Figure E2.10. The closed
loop transfer function model is
Gc (s)Gp (s)G(s)
T (s) = .
1 + H(s)Gc (s)Gp (s)G(s)
Plunger and
Controller Gear Motor
Piston System
+
R(s) Gc(s) Gp(s) G(s) Y(s)
Desired piston  Piston
travel travel
Sensor
H(s)
Piston travel
measurement
FIGURE E2.10
Shock absorber block diagram.
E2.11 Let f denote the spring force (n) and x denote the deflection (m). Then
f
K= .
x
Computing the slope from the graph yields:
(a) xo = 0.14m K = f /x = 10 n / 0.04 m = 250 n/m
(b) xo = 0m K = f /x = 10 n / 0.05 m = 200 n/m
(c) xo = 0.35m K = f /x = 3n / 0.05 m = 60 n/m
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Exercises 29
E2.12 The signal flow graph is shown in Fig. E2.12. Find Y (s) when R(s) = 0.
Td(s)
K
1
1
K2 G(s)
Y (s)
1
FIGURE E2.12
Signal flow graph.
K1 K2 = 1 ,
Y1 (s) = G3 (s) [H1 (s)Y1 (s) + G2 (s)G8 (s)W (s) + G9 (s)W (s)] ,
or
[1 + G3 (s)H1 (s)] Y1 (s) = [G3 (s)G2 (s)G8 (s)W (s) + G3 (s)G9 (s)] W (s).
H1(s)

+ + G3(s)
R1(s) G1(s) G2(s) Y1(s)
+ +
+
+ G6(s)
R2(s) G4(s) G5(s) Y2(s)
 W(s)
H2(s)
FIGURE E2.14
Block diagram model.
or
Substituting the expression for W (s) into the above equation for Y1 (s)
yields
Y1 (s) G2 (s)G3 (s)G4 (s)G5 (s)G8 (s) + G3 (s)G4 (s)G5 (s)G9 (s)
= .
R2 (s) 1 + G3 (s)H1 (s) + G5 (s)H2 (s) + G3 (s)G5 (s)H1 (s)H2 (s)
E2.15 For loop 1, we have
di1 1
Z
R1 i1 + L1 + (i1 i2 )dt + R2 (i1 i2 ) = v(t) .
dt C1
And for loop 2, we have
1 di2 1
Z Z
i2 dt + L2 + R2 (i2 i1 ) + (i2 i1 )dt = 0 .
C2 dt C1
E2.16 The transfer function from R(s) to P (s) is
P (s) 4.2
= 3 2
.
R(s) s + 2s + 4s + 4.2
The block diagram is shown in Figure E2.16a. The corresponding signal
flow graph is shown in Figure E2.16b for
4.2
P (s)/R(s) = .
s3 + 2s2 + 4s + 4.2
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Exercises 31
(a)
1
V1 V2 0.6
s s2 + 2 s + 4
1 7
R(s ) P (s)
1
(b)
FIGURE E2.16
(a) Block diagram, (b) Signal flow graph.
y = mx
where
y
m= .
x x=xo
Exercises 33
0.8 = a(0.6)3 .
y yo = 3ax2o (x xo )
m1 x1 + k(x1 x2 ) = F
m2 x2 + k(x2 x1 ) = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform (with zero initial conditions) and solving
for X2 (s) yields
k
X2 (s) = F (s) .
(m2 s2 + k)(m1 s2 + k) k 2
Then, with m1 = m2 = k = 1, we have
1
X2 (s)/F (s) = .
s2 (s2 + 2)
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G2 (s)
Y (s)/Td (s) = .
1 + G1 G2 H(s)
E2.29 (a) If
1
G(s) = and H(s) = 2s + 15 ,
s2 + 15s + 50
then the closedloop transfer function of Figure E2.28(a) and (b) (in
Dorf & Bishop) are equivalent.
(b) The closedloop transfer function is
1
T (s) = .
s2 + 17s + 65
G(s) 1 10 10
T (s) = = 2
where G(s) = .
1 + G(s) s s(s + 2s + 20) s2 + 2s + 10
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Amplitude
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Time sec
FIGURE E2.30
Step response.
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Exercises 35
a = 10.2j b = 10.2j .
Problems
P2.1 The integrodifferential equations, obtained by Kirchoffs voltage law to
each loop, are as follows:
1 d(i1 i2 )
Z
R1 i1 + i1 dt + L1 + R2 (i1 i2 ) = v(t) (loop 1)
C1 dt
and
1 d(i2 i1 )
Z
R3 i2 + i2 dt + R2 (i2 i1 ) + L1 =0 (loop 2) .
C2 dt
P2.2 The differential equations describing the system can be obtained by using
a freebody diagram analysis of each mass. For mass 1 and 2 we have
FIGURE P2.2
Analagous electric circuit.
P2.3 The differential equations describing the system can be obtained by using
a freebody diagram analysis of each mass. For mass 1 and 2 we have
CM L 1/k R 1/b .
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Problems 37
FIGURE P2.3
Analagous electric circuit.
P2.4 (a) The linear approximation around vin = 0 is vo = 0vin , see Fig
ure P2.4(a).
(b) The linear approximation around vin = 1 is vo = 2vin 1, see Fig
ure P2.4(b).
(a) (b)
0.4 4
3.5
0.3
3
0.2
2.5
0.1
2
vo
vo
0 1.5
linear approximation
1
0.1
0.5
0.2
0
0.3
0.5 linear approximation
0.4 1
1 0.5 0 0.5 1 1 0 1 2
vin vin
FIGURE P2.4
Nonlinear functions and approximations.
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P2.5 Given
Q = K(P1 P2 )1/2 .
Q = mP
where
K
m= 1/2
.
2Po
P2.6 From P2.1 we have
1 d(i1 i2 )
Z
R1 i1 + i1 dt + L1 + R2 (i1 i2 ) = v(t)
C1 dt
and
1 d(i2 i1 )
Z
R3 i2 + i2 dt + R2 (i2 i1 ) + L1 =0.
C2 dt
Taking the Laplace transform and using the fact that the initial voltage
across C2 is 10v yields
1
[R1 + + L1 s + R2 ]I1 (s) + [R2 L1 s]I2 (s) = 0
C1 s
and
1 10
[R2 L1 s]I1 (s) + [L1 s + R3 + + R2 ]I2 (s) = .
C2 s s
Rewriting in matrix form we have
1
R1 + C1 s + L 1 s + R2 R2 L1 s I1 (s) 0
= .
1
R2 L1 s L 1 s + R3 + C2 s + R2 I2 (s) 10/s
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Problems 39
or
10(R1 + 1/C1 s + L1 s + R2 )
I2 (s) =
s
where
1 1
= (R1 + + L1 s + R2 )(L1 s + R3 + + R2 ) (R2 + L1 s)2 .
C1 s C2 s
P2.7 Consider the differentiating opamp circuit in Figure P2.7. For an ideal
opamp, the voltage gain (as a function of frequency) is
Z2 (s)
V2 (s) = V1 (s),
Z1 (s)
where
R1
Z1 =
1 + R1 Cs
R2 (1 + R1 Cs)
V2 (s) = V1 (s).
R1
Z
1 Z
C
2
R2
+ 
R1 +
+
V1(s) V2(s)
 
FIGURE P2.7
Differentiating opamp circuit.
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P2.8 Let
G2 + Cs Cs G2
= Cs G1 + 2Cs Cs .
G2 Cs Cs + G2
Then,
ij V3 13 I1 /
Vj = I1 or or = .
V1 11 I1 /
2 o
1
Imag Axis
0 x x
1
2 o
3
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Real Axis
FIGURE P2.8
Polezero map.
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Problems 41
C 2 R1 R2 s2 + 2CR1 s + 1
= .
C 2 R1 R2 s2 + (2R1 + R2 )Cs + 1
s2 + 4s + 8 (s + 2 + 2j)(s + 2 2j)
T (s) = 2
= .
s + 8s + 8 (s + 4 + 8)(s + 4 8)
Taking the Laplace transform of both equations and writing the result in
matrix form, it follows that
M s2 + 2k k X1 (s) F (s)
= ,
k M s2 + bs + k X2 (s) 0
0.3
0.2
0.1
Imag Axis
 0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0
Real Axis
FIGURE P2.9
Polezero map.
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or
X1 (s)
=
1 M s2 + bs + k k
F (s)
X2 (s) k 2
M s + 2k 0
Taking the Laplace transform of both equations and writing the result in
matrix form, it follows that
M1 s2 + bs + k1 + k12 k12 Y1 (s) F (s)
=
k12 M2 s2 + k12 Y2 (s) 0
or
Y1 (s)
=
1 M2 s2 + k12 k12
F (s)
Y2 (s) k12 M1 s2 + bs + k1 + k12 0
where
Problems 43
P2.11 The transfer functions from Vc (s) to Vd (s) and from Vd (s) to (s) are:
K1 K2
Vd (s)/Vc (s) = , and
(Lq s + Rq )(Lc s + Rc )
Km
(s)/Vd (s) = 2
.
(Js + f s)((Ld + La )s + Rd + Ra ) + K3 Km s
The block diagram for (s)/Vc (s) is shown in Figure P2.11, where
(s) Vd (s) K1 K2 Km
(s)/Vc (s) = = ,
Vd (s) Vc (s) (s)
where
Ic Vq Iq Vd + Id Tm w
Vc 1 K1 1 K2 1 1 1
L cs+R c L qs+R q (L d+L a)s+R d+R a Km q
Js+f s

Vb
K3
FIGURE P2.11
Block diagram.
K
y(t)t = lim sY (s) = =1.
s0 20
It follows that choosing K = 20 leads to y(t) 1 as t .
P2.13 The motor torque is given by
where
But
Tm (s) = Km Ig (s)
and
1
Ig (s) = Vg (s) ,
(Lg + Lf )s + Rg + Rf
and
Kg
Vg (s) = Kg If (s) = Vf (s) .
Rf + L f s
L (s) Kg Km
= .
Vf (s) n1 (s)2 (s)
where
Jm s2 + bm s
1 (s) = JL s2 + bL s +
n2
and
Problems 45
80Km Km
(t)t = lim s(s) = = 2.4 or = 0.03 .
s0 Rf b Rf b
80Km 1 1 80Km
(t) = L = (1e(b/J)t ) = 2.4(1e(b/J)t ) .
Rf J s(s + b/J) Rf b
At t = 1/2, (t) = 1, so
Therefore,
0.0324
(s)/Vf (s) = .
s + 1.08
P2.15 Summing the forces in the vertical direction and using Newtons Second
Law we obtain
k
x + x=0.
m
The system has no damping and no external inputs. Taking the Laplace
transform yields
x0 s
X(s) = ,
s2 + k/m
where we used the fact that x(0) = x0 and x(0) = 0. Then taking the
inverse Laplace transform yields
s
k
x(t) = x0 cos t.
m
or
x1 1 4 1.5 6
=
x2 2 1 11
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11
1/4
1 1/2
6 X2
X1
1.5
FIGURE P2.16
Signal flow graph.
So,
6(1) 1.5( 11
4 ) 11( 41 ) + 1
2 (6)
x1 = 3 = 7.5 and x2 = 3 = 1 .
1 4 1 4
M1 x1 + K1 (x1 x2 ) + b1 (x3 x1 ) = 0
M2 x2 + K2 (x2 x3 ) + b2 (x3 x2 ) + K1 (x2 x1 ) = 0 .
(c) Let
G1 (s) = K2 + b2 s
G2 (s) = 1/p(s)
G3 (s) = 1/q(s)
G4 (s) = sb1 ,
where
p(s) = s2 M2 + sf2 + K1 + K2
and
q(s) = s2 M1 + sf1 + K1 .
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Problems 47
G4
G3
X3 X1
G1 G2 K1
K1
FIGURE P2.17
Signal flow graph.
I1 Va Ia
Z2 Y3 Z4
V1 V2
Y1
Y 1 Z 2 Y 3
FIGURE P2.18
Signal flow graph.
P2.19 For a noninerting opamp circuit, depicted in Figure P2.19a, the voltage
gain (as a function of frequency) is
Z1 (s) + Z2 (s)
Vo (s) = Vin (s),
Z1 (s)
where Z1 (s) and Z2 (s) are the impedances of the respective circuits. In
the case of the voltage follower circuit, shown in Figure P2.19b, we have
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Z2
Z1  
v0 v0
vin + vin +
(a) (b)
FIGURE P2.19
(a) Noninverting opamp circuit. (b) Voltage follower circuit.
Vo (s) Z1
= = 1.
Vin (s) Z1
vgs = vin vo ,
vo vo gm Rs
= gm vgs = gm (vin vo ) or = .
Rs vin 1 + gm Rs
vo 20
= = 0.95 .
vin 21
FIGURE P2.20
Block diagram model.
l1 l2 l2
z = k (x y) y .
l1 l1
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Problems 49
1
k (l 1  l 2)/l 1 DZ
p/As
X Y
1
l 2 / l 1
FIGURE P2.21
Signal flow graph.
where
k(l1 l2 )p l2 p
K1 = p and K2 = .
l1 A l1 A
P2.22 (a) The equations of motion for the two masses are
L 2 L
M L 1 + M gL1 + k
2
(1 2 ) = f (t)
2 2
2
L
M L2 2 + M gL2 + k (2 1 ) = 0 .
2
F (t)  w1 q1
1/2ML 1/s 1/s
(a) b
w2 q2
1/s 1/s
Imag(s)
g k
+ j
L + 2M
g
X
+ j k
(b) L + 4M
g
X + j
L
Re(s)
FIGURE P2.22
(a) Block diagram. (b) Polezero map.
1 (s) 1 s2 + a
= .
F (s) 2M L (s2 + a)2 b2
(c) The block diagram and polezero map are shown in Figure P2.22.
P2.23 The inputoutput ratio, Vce /Vin , is found to be
Vce (R 1) + hie Rf
= .
Vin hre + hie (hoe + Rf )
Problems 51
Thus,
Y (s)/R(s) = G(s) .
Y (s) = 0 .
Taking the Laplace transform and writing the result in matrix form yields
M s2 + bs + k (bs + k) X(s) F (s)
= .
(bs + k) ms2 + bs + k Y (s) 0
z = f (z, i) .
z = z = 0 ,
is
ki2o
= zo2 .
mg
We linearize the equation of motion using a Taylor series approximation.
With the definitions
z = z zo and i = i io ,
= z and z
we have z = z. Therefore,
= 2g z g i .
z
zo io
Taking the Laplace transform yields the transfer function (valid around
the equilibrium point)
Z(s) g/io
= 2 .
I(s) s 2g/zo
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Problems 57
K1
R(s ) Y (s)
+ s (s+1)

1 +K 2s
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
time(sec)
FIGURE P2.35
The equivalent block diagram and the system step response.
Problems 53
d
G B
+b +c
P D
+a
m
+e k
M
+g +h
+f S
FIGURE P2.28
Signal flow graph.
(a) The PGBDP loop gain is equal to abcd. This is a negative transmis
sion since the population produces garbage which increases bacteria
and leads to diseases, thus reducing the population.
(b) The PMCP loop gain is equal to +efg. This is a positive transmis
sion since the population leads to modernization which encourages
immigration, thus increasing the population.
(c) The PMSDP loop gain is equal to +ehkd. This is a positive trans
mission since the population leads to modernization and an increase
in sanitation facilities which reduces diseases, thus reducing the rate
of decreasing population.
(d) The PMSBDP loop gain is equal to +ehmcd. This is a positive
transmission by similar argument as in (3).
P2.29 Assume the motor torque is proportional to the input current
Tm = ki .
J = ki ,
where J is the moment of inertia of the beam and shaft (neglecting the
inertia of the ball). We assume that forces acting on the ball are due to
gravity and friction. Hence, the motion of the ball is described by
mx = mg bx
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gk/J
X(s)/I(s) = .
s2 (s2+ b/m)
P2.30 Given
k
H(s) =
s + 1
where = 4s = 4 106 seconds and 0.999 k < 1.001. The step
response is
k 1 k k
Y (s) = = .
s + 1 s s s + 1/
Taking the inverse Laplace transform yields
The final value is k. The time it takes to reach 98% of the final value is
t = 15.6s independent of k.
P2.31 From the block diagram we have
Therefore,
G1 (s)G2 (s) G2 (s)G3 (s)
Y1 (s) = R1 (s) + E2 (s) .
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s) 1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s)
G4 (s)
E2 (s) = H2 (s)Y2 (s) = H2 (s)G6 (s) Y1 (s) + G5 (s)E2 (s)
G2 (s)
or
G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
E2 (s) = Y1 (s) .
G2 (s)(1 G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s))
G1 (s)G2 (s)
Y1 (s) = R1 (s)
1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s)
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Problems 55
where
T1 (s) =
G1 (s)G2 (s)(1 G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s))
.
(1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s))(1 G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)) G3 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
where
T2 (s) =
G1 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)
.
(1 + G1 (s)G2 (s)H1 (s))(1 G5 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)) G3 (s)G4 (s)G6 (s)H2 (s)
L1 = G1 G3 G4 H2
L2 = G2 G5 G6 H1
L3 = H1 G8 G6 G2 G7 G4 H2 G1 .
Y2 (s) G1 G8 G6 1 G2 G5 G6 2
= ,
R1 (s) 1 (L1 + L2 + L3 ) + (L1 L2 )
1 = 1
2 = 1 L1 .
G1 G8 G6 G2 G5 G6 (1 + G1 G3 G4 H2 ) = 0 .
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m1 y1 + b(y1 y2 ) + k1 (y1 y2 ) = 0
m2 y2 + b(y2 y1 ) + k1 (y2 y1 ) + k2 y2 = k2 x
P2.35 (a) We can redraw the block diagram as shown in Figure P2.35. Then,
K1 /s(s + 1) K1
T (s) = = 2 .
1 + K1 (1 + K2 s)/s(s + 1) s + (1 + K2 K1 )s + K2
(b) The signal flow graph reveals two loops (both touching):
K1 K1 K2
L1 = and L2 = .
s(s + 1) s+1
Therefore,
K1 /s(s + 1) K1
T (s) = = 2 .
1 + K1 /s(s + 1) + K1 K2 /(s + 1) s + (1 + K2 K1 )s + K1
(c) We want to choose K1 and K2 such that
(d) For the impulse input, y(t) 0.65 at t = 1 seconds (see Figure P2.36b).
1.8
0.7
1.6
0.6
1.4
0.5
1.2
y(t)
y(t)
1 0.4
0.8
0.3
0.6
0.2
0.4
0.1
0.2
0 0
0 1 2 3 0 1 2 3
Time (sec) Time (sec)
FIGURE P2.36
(a) Ramp input response. (b) Impulse input response.
Problems 59
Therefore,
(s + Jb o ) (s + 2n )o
(s) = b K
= .
(s2 + Js + J)
s2+ 2n s + n2
J = 2M r 2 = 0.5 kg m2 .
Also,
s
k b
n = = 0.02 rad/s and = = 0.01 .
J 2Jn
o q
(t) = p en t sin(n 1 2 t + ) ,
1 2
p
where tan = 1 2 /). Therefore, the envelope decay is
o
e = p en t .
1 2
di1
2 + 2i1 + 4(i1 i2 ) = 10e2t
dt
and
Z
i2 dt + 10i2 + 4(i2 i1 ) i1 = 0 .
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5s(s2 + 6s + 13)
I2 = ,
14(s + 2)(s)
where
s+3 2
= 14s2 + 33s + 3 .
(s) =
5s 14s + 1
Then,
and
P2.41 Assume that the only external torques acting on the rocket are control
torques, Tc and disturbance torques, Td , and assume small angles, (t).
Using the small angle approximation, we have
h = V
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Problems 61
J = Tc + Td ,
where J is the moment of inertia of the rocket and V is the rocket velocity
(assumed constant). Now, suppose that the control torque is proportional
to the lateral displacement, as
Tc (s) = KH(s) ,
where the negative sign denotes a negative feedback system. The corre
sponding block diagram is shown in Figure P2.41.
Td
Tc +
H desired=0 K 1 V
+ Js 2 s H( s)
+

FIGURE P2.41
Block diagram.
or
0.7s + 10
(s) = .
s(s + 0.6)
Then, computing the partial fraction expansion, we find that
A B 16.67 15.97
(s) = + = .
s s + 0.6 s s + 0.6
The step response, determined by taking the inverse Laplace trans
form, is
P2.43 The work done by each gear is equal to that of the other, therefore
Tm m = TL L .
r1 m = r2 L .
r1 N 2 = r2 N 1 .
So,
m r2 N2
= = ,
L r1 N1
and
N1 m = N2 L
N1
L = m = nm ,
N2
where
n = N1 /N2 .
Finally,
Tm L N1
= = =n.
TL m N2
P2.44 The inertia of the load is
Lr 4
JL = .
2
Also, from the dynamics we have
T2 = JL 2 + bL 2
and
T1 = nT2 = n(JL 2 + bL 2 ) .
So,
T1 = n2 (JL 1 + bL 1 ) ,
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Problems 63
since
2 = n1 .
T = T1 + Tm = n2 (JL 1 + bL 1 ) + Jm 1 + bm 1 .
P2.45 Let U (s) denote the human input and F (s) the load input. The transfer
function is
G(s) + KG1 (s) Gc (s) + KG1 (s)
P (s) = U (s) + F (s) ,
(s) (s)
where
mv x1 = F k1 (x1 x2 ) b1 (x1 x2 ).
1 := mv s2 + b1 s + k1 .
mt x2 = k2 x2 b2 x2 + k1 (x1 x2 ) + b1 (x1 x2 ).
2 := mt s2 + (b1 + b2 )s + k1 + k2 .
Substituting X2 (s) above into the relationship fpr X1 (s) yields the trans
fer function
X1 (s) 2 (s)
= .
F (s) 1 (s)2 (s) (b1 s + k1 )2
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(t) = (t)
J (t) = Km ia (t)
va (t) = 50vi (t) = 10ia (t) + vb (t)
= Kvb
Problems 65
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Amplitude 0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (secs)
FIGURE P2.49
Step response.
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Amplitude
0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.8 2
Time (secs)
FIGURE P2.50
Step response.
P2.51 Consider the free body diagram in Figure P2.51. Using Newtons Law
and summing the forces on the two masses yields
k1x
M1
k1
x
. . M1 k2
b1(x  y)
. . x
b1(y  x) k2 y b1
M2 M2
y y
u(t) u(t)
FIGURE P2.51
Free body diagram.
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Advanced Problems 67
Advanced Problems
AP2.1 The transfer function from V (s) to (s) has the form
(s) Km
= .
V (s) m s + 1
In the steadystate,
Km 5
ss = lim s = 5Km .
s0 m s + 1 s
So,
Km = 70/5 = 14 .
Also,
(t) = Vm Km (1 et/m )
= [1 + G3 G4 H2 (s)][1 + G1 G2 H3 (s)] .
If we select
G5 (s) = G2 G3 G6 (s)
then the numerator is zero, and Y2 (s)/R1 (s) = 0. The system is now
decoupled.
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Define
QS + 1/R
:= and := 1/Ct .
Ct
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Advanced Problems 69
M3 x3 + b3 x3 + k3 x3 = u3 + b3 x2 + k3 x2
M2 x2 + (b2 + b3 )x2 + (k2 + k3 )x2 = u2 + b3 x3 + k3 x3 + b2 x1 + k2 x1
M1 x1 + (b1 + b2 )x1 + (k1 + k2 )x1 = u1 + b2 x2 + k2 x2
AP2.6 Considering the cart mass and using Newtons Law we obtain
M x = u bx F sin
where F is the reaction force between the cart and the pendulum. Con
sidering the pendulum we obtain
d2 (x + L sin )
m = F sin
dt2
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d2 (L cos )
m = F cos + mg
dt2
(m + M )x + bx + mL = u
mL2 + mgL = mLx
AP2.7 The transfer function from the disturbance input to the output is
1
Y (s) = Td (s) .
s + 20 + K
When Td (s) = 1, we obtain
y(t) = e(20+K)t .
Advanced Problems 71
The result is P.O. = 9.74% and the steadystate value of the output is
approximately 50 m/s, as shown in Figure AP2.8b.
25
20
15
10
0
0 0.01 0.02 0.03 0.04 0.05 0.06 0.07 0.08 0.09 0.1
K
Step Response
60
System: untitled1
50 Peak amplitude: 54.9
Overshoot (%): 9.74
At time (sec): 1.15
40
Amplitude
30
20
10
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5
Time (sec)
FIGURE AP2.8
(a) Percent overshoot versus the gain K. (b) Step response.
Vo (s) Z2 (s)
= ,
Vi (s) Z1 (s)
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where
R1 R2 C 2 s + 1
Z1 (s) = and Z2 (s) = .
R1 C 1 s + 1 C2 s
Then we can write
Vo (s) KI
= Kp + + KD s
Vi (s) s
where
R1 C 1 1
KP = +1 , KI = , KD = R2 C1 .
R2 C 2 R1 C 2
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Design Problems 73
Design Problems
CDP2.1 The model of the traction drive, capstan roller, and linear slide follows
closely the armaturecontrolled dc motor model depicted in Figure 2.18
in Dorf and Bishop. The transfer function is
rKm
T (s) = ,
s [(Lm s + Rm )(JT s + bm ) + Kb Km ]
where
JT = Jm + r 2 (Ms + Mb ) .
Km 1 w 1 q
Va(s) r X(s)
Lms+Rm JTs+bm s

Kb
Back EMF
1 1
v + + G + 2Gv 20 = 0
4 3
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and
1 1
20 v 4 + 3 1
G= = S.
3v 12
DP2.3 Taking the Laplace transform of
1 3 1
y(t) = et e2t + t
4 4 2
yields
1 1 3 1
Y (s) = + 2 .
s + 1 4(s + 2) 4s 2s
or
Vo (s) R2 Cs 1
= .
Vin (s) R2 Cs + 1
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Design Problems 75
Computer Problems
CP2.1 The mfile script is shown in Figure CP2.1.
pq =
p=[1 7 10]; q=[1 2]; 1 9 24 20
% Part (a) P=
pq=conv(p,q) 5
% Part (b) 2
P=roots(p), Z=roots(q) Z=
% Part (c) 2
value=polyval(p,1) value =
4
FIGURE CP2.1
Script for various polynomial evaluations.
CP2.2 The mfile script and step response is shown in Figure CP2.2.
0.35
0.3
0.25
Amplitude
To: Y(1)
0.2
0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4
Time (sec.)
FIGURE CP2.2
Step response.
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Computer Problems 77
CP2.3 Given
y + 4y + 3y = u
Step Response
0.35
0.3
0.25
t=[0:0.1:5];
y = step(sys,t);
0.15 ya=0.3333+0.1667*exp(3*t)0.5*exp(t);
plot(t,y,t,ya); grid;
0.1
title('Step Response');
xlabel('Time (sec)');
ylabel('Amplitude');
0.05
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time (sec)
FIGURE CP2.3
Step response.
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mx + bx + kx = f .
Taking the Laplace transform (with zero initial conditions) yields the
transfer function
1/m
X(s)/F (s) = .
s2 + bs/m + k/m
The mfile script and step response is shown in Figure CP2.4.
1.6
1.4
1.2
Amplitude
1
To: Y(1)
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0 50 100 150
Time (sec.)
FIGURE CP2.4
Step response.
CP2.5 The spacecraft simulations are shown in Figure CP2.5. We see that as J
is decreased, the time to settle down decreases. Also, the overhoot from
10o decreases as J decreases. Thus, the performance seems to get better
(in some sense) as J decreases.
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Computer Problems 79
16
14
10
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
Time (sec)
%Part (a)
a=1; b=8; k=10.8e+08; J=10.8e+08;
num=k*[1 a];
den=J*[1 b 0 0]; sys=tf(num,den);
sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
%
% Part (b) and (c)
t=[0:0.1:100];
%
% Nominal case
f=10*pi/180; sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y=step(sysf,t);
%
% Offnominal case 80%
J=10.8e+08*0.8; den=J*[1 b 0 0];
sys=tf(num,den); sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y1=step(sysf,t);
%
% Offnominal case 50%
J=10.8e+08*0.5; den=J*[1 b 0 0];
sys=tf(num,den); sys_cl=feedback(sys,[1]);
sysf=sys_cl*f ;
y2=step(sysf,t);
%
plot(t,y*180/pi,t,y1*180/pi,'',t,y2*180/pi,':'),grid
xlabel('Time (sec)')
ylabel('Spacecraft attitude (deg)')
title('Nominal (solid); Offnominal 80% (dashed); Offnominal 50% (dotted)')
FIGURE CP2.5
Step responses for the nominal and offnominal spacecraft parameters.
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p=
7.0709
num1=[4]; den1=[1]; sys1 = tf(num1,den1);
num2=[1]; den2=[1 1]; sys2 = tf(num2,den2); 7.0713
num3=[1 0]; den3=[1 0 2]; sys3 = tf(num3,den3); 1.2051 + 2.0863i
num4=[1]; den4=[1 0 0]; sys4 = tf(num4,den4); 1.2051  2.0863i
num5=[4 2]; den5=[1 2 1]; sys5 = tf(num5,den5); 0.1219 + 1.8374i
num6=[50]; den6=[1]; sys6 = tf(num6,den6); 0.1219  1.8374i
num7=[1 0 2]; den7=[1 0 0 14]; sys7 = tf(num7,den7); 2.3933
sysa = feedback(sys4,sys6,+1); 2.3333
sysb = series(sys2,sys3);
0.4635 + 0.1997i
sysc = feedback(sysb,sys5);
0.4635  0.1997i
sysd = series(sysc,sysa);
syse = feedback(sysd,sys7);
sys = series(sys1,syse) z=
% poles 0
pzmap(sys) 1.2051 + 2.0872i
% 1.2051  2.0872i
p=pole(sys) 2.4101
z=zero(sys) 1.0000 + 0.0000i
1.0000  0.0000i
Polezero map
2.5
1.5
0.5
Imag Axis
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8
Real Axis
FIGURE CP2.6
Polezero map.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Computer Problems 81
where
CP2.7 The mfile script and plot of the pendulum angle is shown in Figure CP2.7.
With the initial conditions, the Laplace transform of the linear system is
0 s
(s) = .
s2 + g/L
To use the step function with the mfile, we can multiply the transfer
function as follows:
s2 0
(s) = 2
,
s + g/L s
which is equivalent to the original transfer function except that we can
use the step function input with magnitude 0 . The nonlinear response
is shown as the solid line and the linear response is shown as the dashed
line. The difference between the two responses is not great since the initial
condition of 0 = 30 is not that large.
30
L=0.5; m=1; g=9.8;
theta0=30;
20 % Linear simulation
sys=tf([1 0 0],[1 0 g/L]);
[y,t]=step(theta0*sys,[0:0.01:10]);
10
% Nonlinear simulation
[t,ynl]=ode45(@pend,t,[theta0*pi/180 0]);
plot(t,ynl(:,1)*180/pi,t,y,'');
(deg)
0
xlabel('Time (s)')
ylabel('\theta (deg)')
10
function [yd]=pend(t,y)
L=0.5; g=9.8;
20 yd(1)=y(2);
yd(2)=(g/L)*sin(y(1));
yd=yd';
30
0 2 4 6 8 10
Time (s)
FIGURE CP2.7
Plot of versus xt when 0 = 30 .
2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
CP2.8 The system step responses for z = 5, 10, and 15 are shown in Fig
ure CP2.8.
1
x(t)
0.5
0
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5
Time (sec)
FIGURE CP2.8
The system response.
G(s) s2 + 2s + 1
T (s) = = 2 .
1 + G(s)H(s) s + 4s + 3
s+1
T (s) = .
s+3
2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Computer Problems 83
Pole?Zero Map
1
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
Imaginary Axi s
?0.2
?0.4
?0.6
?0.8
?1
?3 ?2.5 ?2 ?1.5 ?1 ?0.5 0
Real Axi s
>>
Transfer function:
ng=[1 1]; dg=[1 2]; sysg = tf(ng,dg); s^2 + 2 s + 1
nh=[1]; dh=[1 1]; sysh = tf(nh,dh); 
sys=feedback(sysg,sysh) s^2 + 4 s + 3
%
pzmap(sys)
% poles p=
pole(sys)
zero(sys) 3
1
zeros
z=
1
1
FIGURE CP2.9
Polezero map.
CP2.10 Figure CP2.10 shows the steadystate response to a unit step input and a
unit step disturbance. We see that K = 1 leads to the same steadystate
response.
2011 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained
from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,
recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
0.35
K=[0.1:0.1:10]; 0.3
sysg=tf([1],[1 20 20]);
for i=1:length(K)
0.25
nc=K(i); dc=[1];sysc=tf(nc,dc); Input Response SteadyState
Steadystate response
syscl=feedback(sysc*sysg,1);
systd=feedback(sysg,sysc); 0.2
y1=step(syscl);
Tf1(i)=y1(end); 0.15
y2=step(systd);
Tf2(i)=y2(end);
0.1
end
Disturbance Response SteadyState
plot(K,Tf1,K,Tf2,'')
xlabel('K') 0.05
ylabel('Steadystate response')
K=1
0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
K
FIGURE CP2.10
Gain K versus steadystate value.
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