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# Client: XXX Problem Description: Six Storage tanks [rectangle in shape] are filled up with Isopropanaol (liquid 1) at the

ks [rectangle in shape] are filled up with Isopropanaol (liquid 1) at the initial temperature of 45 oC and it is required to maintain the liquid temperature at 30oC
Project No: XXX All the tanks are placed adjacent to each other with minor gap in between. Tanks are stored in a closed building maintained at room temperature let's say 10 oC and a wind speed of around 2miles/hr.
Project Title: XXX How long will it take to drop down temperature from 45 to 30 oC with/without insulation OR after what time tanks are required to heat up with/without insulation ? Data is given as below.
Document: Storage Tank Heat Loss Calculation Colour Key
Sheet Ref: Tank Heat Loss Calcs - Liquid 1 Manual Input
Revision: 1 Results
Last Updated: 31/12/2010 Do not use

Revision detail: 1) Correction cell reference C94 for Grashof number vap. Phase Assumptions and important notes
2) Note added regarding calculation of equivalent diameter cell C142 Sources and titles
3) Recalculation introduced to iterate to more accurate coefficients (see cells C316 and below)
4) C replaced by K for correct calculation in SI units
5) Cooling time formula modified to compensate for non-linearity
Important values
Reference Method Used: Predict Storage Tank Heat Transfer Precisely - By J.Kumana and S.Kothari and calculations

Important Notes:
1) Uniform temperature inside the tank
2) Provision is made to select back wall area - However, to calculate the maximum heat loss back wall area should be considered-- (see the cell number C330 and C335)
3) Provision is made to select insulation thickness --- (See the cell number C221)
Main Data Input
Physical Properties Units Air density at room temperature and pressure

## Liquid Air Vapor Room Pressure P 101.325 kPa

Mol. Wt of air M 29 kg/kmol
Liquid in the tank ISOPROPANOL Gas const R 8.31 kJ/kmol K
Density, 790 1.25 1.25 kg/m3 Room Temp t 10 o
C
Specific Heat,Cp 3.0 1.005 1.005 kJ/kg K T 283 K
3000 1005 1005 J/kg K Air Density, PM/RT air = 1.25 kg/m3
Viscosity, 2.42 - - cP or m.Pa.s
0.00242 0.0000198 0.0000198 kg/m.s Thermal Conductivity of ISOPROPANOL
Thermal conductivity,k 0.199 0.0257 0.0257 W/m.K k = 3.56 x 10 -5 x Cp ( 4/M)1/3 ------------> from Coulson & Richardson. Vol 6, Page 321
Co-efficient of volumetric expansion, 0.00075 0.00343 0.00343 1/K Thermal Conductivity k= 0.199 W/m.K
Molecular Mass of liquid,M 60 - - kg/kmol
Boiling Point, oC 82 - - o
C
355.15 K

## Assumed fouling coefficient, hF Units

Dry wall 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Wet wall 5000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Roof 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640
Bottom 4000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

## Thermal Conductivities Units

Metal walls (Carbon Steel, max 0.5% Carbon),kM 54 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials
Insulation (Glass wool), kI 0.04 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials
Ground (Earth), kG 1.5 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials

## Wall and roof, 0.9 Assumed - less than 1

Temperature Units

## Vapour in tank, TV 33 oC Assumed - just below the liquid temp

Liquid in tank. TL 35 oC Minimum temp requirement by process
Outside air, TA 10 oC Assumed - as tanks are inside the building
Ground, TG 12 oC Assumed - just above ambient temperature

## Vapour in tank, TV 306.15 K

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K
Outside air, TA 283.15 K
Ground, TG 285.15 K
Gravitional constant, g 9.81 m/s2

Calculation
Calculation for Grashof Number (NGr)
Grashof Number, NGr = L3 x 2 x g x x T /2

## NGr for the liquid phase

( 2 x g x x /2 ) 7.84E+08
( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T 7.84E+08 x L3 x T

## NGr for the vapour phase

( 2 x g x x /2 ) 1.34E+08
( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T 1.34E+08 x L3 x T

## Calculation for Prandtl Number (NPr)

Prandtl Number,NPr = Cp x /k

## Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw

Note: as an initial approximation, assume that the wall temperature is the average of the vapour and outside air temp
Tw = (TV + TA )/ 2 First Guess
Tw 295.9 K After iteration see below

## total height of the tank, L 2.55 m

% of liquid full (in terms of height) 95%

L =2.55m
Proportional height in contact with liquid, Lw 2.42 m
T = Tv - Tw 10.25 K Lw
Proportional height in contact with vapour, L - Lw 0.13 m

NGr 2.85E+06

m
For vertical plates and cylinders, Nusselt Number, NNu

1
3.
NNu = 0.138 x (NGr)0.36 x ((NPr)0.175 - 0.55) -------------Equation 15
NNu 11.81 2.3 m

Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw = NNu x k /( L - Lw) Nusselt Equation (Perry 5-13)
Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw 2.38 W/m2 K

## Coefficient of liquid at wall, hLw

Note: Here, neither NPr nor (NGr NPr) falls within the range of application of the below equations. Therefore, again apply equation Equation 15 using average temp Tw

## NGr NPr 2.64E+11

hLW =NNu x k/Lw ------------- Eq (a) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft
Nusselt Equation (Perry 5-13)

Tw = (TL + TA) / 2 First Guess NNu = 0.495 x (NGr NPr)0.25 ----------------- Equation 16
Tw 307.5 oC After iteration see below Where, NPr >100 and 104 < (NGr NPr) < 109
T = TL - Tw 0.65 K Note: In article, Equation 16 is used but as NPr and (NGr NPr) do not fall in the
range, we can't apply Equation 16 directly. Therefore, used Equation 15

NGr 7.25E+09

## Coefficient of vapour at roof, hVr

for the surfaces facing down, NNu = 0.27 x (NGr NPr)0.25 -------------Equation 20 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010
for the surfaces facing down, hVr = (0.27 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.25 ------------- Eq (b) NGr NPr = 5.55E+10 ~ 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10
7 10

## 295.9 K First guess

Note: We will apply equation (b) assuming roof of diameter and Tw = 286.6 K After iteration see below Note: Applied Equation 20 as (NGr NPr) is very close to the above range

NGr = 1.34E+08 x L x T
3

Where,
T = Tv - Tw K
T 19.55 K
L =D m Comment Extra Large: Not sure if the Characteristic Length/hydraulic diameter shoud be taken instead. See: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/hydraulic-equivalent-diameter-d_458.html
L 3.01 m Calculated equivalent diameter from the roof/bottom area of tank Equivalent Diameter for Roof/Bottom
l 2.3 m
NGr = 7.17E+10 w 3.1 m
Area 7.13 m2
hVr 1.12 W/m2 K ------------- USING Eq (b) Equivalent Diameter 3.01 m

## Coefficient of liquid at the tank bottom, hLb

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010
for the surfaces facing up, h Lb = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq ( c) NGr NPr = 4.30E+11 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10
7 10

Tw = (TL + TG) /2 Note: Applied Equation 19, though (NGr NPr) is out of range???
Tw 296.65 K First Guess

Note: We will apply equation (c) assuming tank bottom diameter and Tw = 307.6 K After iteration see below

NGr = 7.84E+08 x L3 x T
Where,
T = TL - Tw K
T 0.55 K

L =D m
L 3.01 m

NGr 1.18E+10

## Coefficient of outside air at roof, h'Ar

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19
for the surfaces facing up, h'Ar = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq (d)

Note: Assume Tws = Tw since the roof is uninsulated and get the coefficient for still air from equation (d)
295.9 K First guess
Tws 286.6 K After iteration see below

NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x T
Where,
T = Tws - TA K
T 3.45 K

NGr 1.26E+10

## Coefficient of outside air at wall, h'Aw

Note: Assume that the temperature drop across the film is one-fourth of the drop from the inside fluid to the outside air (averaged for the wet and dry walls) and use Equation 15 and (e) to find the co-efficient

## NNu = 0.138 x (NGr)0.36 x ((NPr)0.175 - 0.55) ------------- Equation 15

h = 0.138 x (NGr) x ((NPr) - 0.55) x k/L
0.36 0.175
------------- Eq (e) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft

T = ((TL + TV ) / 2 ) - TA) / 4
T 6 K

NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x T
where,
L 2.55 m
NGr 1.33E+10

## h'Aw 2.49 W/m K2

------------- USING Eq (e)

Conduction coefficients for ground, metal wall and insulation ( hG, hM, hI)

## hM = kM /tM ------------- Equation 21

hI = kI /tI ------------- Equation 22
hG = 8 kG/*D ------------- Equation 23

Where,
tM 6 mm thickness of metal
0.0060 m
tI 25 mm thickness of insulation <------------- ENTER INSULATION THICKNESS
0.025 m
INSULATED
hM 9000.00 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 21
hI 1.60 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 22
hG 1.27 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 23

Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof (hRd, hRw, hRr)

## For the INSULATED side walls, assume

Tws = TA + 0.25 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,
Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is insulated
For the UNINSULATED side walls, assume
Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,
Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is uninsulated

## For the uninsulated roof, [assumed, roof is always

uninsulated]
Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA)

## Vapour in tank, TV 306.15 K

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K
Outside air, TA 283.15 K

Therefore, Tws for insulated DRYSIDE wall = TA + 0.25 (Tv - TA) First Guess
Tws 286.5 K After iteration see below
Therefore, Tws for insulated WETSIDE wall = TA + 0.25 (TL - TA) First Guess
Tws 289.6 K After iteration see below

Therefore, Tws for uninsulated roof = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA) First Guess
Tws 286.6 K After iteration see below
Let us find hR for all above using Equation 24

## hRd 2.548 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 24

hRw 2.564 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 24
hRr 2.549 W/m K2
------------- USING Equation 24

Summary
Coefficient ( W/m2 K) Dry wall Wet wall Roof Bottom

## Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw 2.38 - - -

Coefficient of liquid at wall, hLw - 53.36 - -
Coefficient of vapour at roof, hVr - - 1.12 -
Coefficient of liquid at the tank bottom, hLb - - - 63.90
Conduction coefficients for ground hG - - - 1.27
Coefficient of outside air at roof, h'Ar [for still air] - - 2.37 - Do NOT use this value
Coefficient of outside air at roof considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind which is obtained from the Graph/
enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Ar - - 3.08 - enhancement factor 1.3 Figure 2 for the wind velocity of 2 m/hr
Coefficient of outside air at wall, h'Aw [for still air] 2.49 2.49 - - Do NOT use this value
which is obtained from the
Coefficient of outside air at wall considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind Graph /Figure 2 for the wind
enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Aw 3.24 3.24 - - enhancement factor 1.3 velocity of 2 m/hr
Conduction coefficients for metal wall hM 9000 9000 9000 9000
Conduction coefficients for insulation hI 1.6 1.6 - -
Fouling coefficient, hF 7000 5000 7000 4000
Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof
(hRd, hRw, hRr) 2.548 2.564 2.549 -
Overall coefficient,Ud, Uw,Ur,Ub 0.821 1.225 0.932 1.243

## 1/Ud = 1/hvw + tM/kM + tI/kI + 1/(hAw + hRd ) + 1/ hFd

1/Ud 1.218 m2 K/W
Ud 0.821 W/m2 K

## 1/Uw = 1/hLw + tM/kM + tI/kI + 1/(hAw + hRw ) + 1/ hFw

1/Uw 0.816 m2 K/W
Uw 1.225 W/m2 K

## 1/Ur = 1/hVr + tM/kM + 1/(hAr + hRr ) + 1/ hFr

1/Ur 1.073 m2 K/W
Ur 0.932 W/m2 K

## Overall bottom coefficient, Ub

1/Ub = 1/hLb + tM/kM + 1/hG + 1/ hFb
1/Ub 0.805 m2 K/W
Ub 1.243 W/m2 K

## Recalculation of Tws and Tw for next iteration

Dry wall Tws,V = (Ud/(hRd + hAw))(Tv-TA)+TA) 286.4 K Put this value manually in cell C253 untill difference approaches zero
Tw,V=Tv-(Ud/hVw)(Tv-TA) 298.2 K Put this value manually in cell C84 untill difference approaches zero
Wet wall Tws,W = (UW /(hRW + hAW ))(TL-TA)+TA) 288.4 K Put this value manually in cell C256 untill difference approaches zero
Tw,L=TL-(Uw/hLw)(TL-TA) 307.6 K Put this value manually in cell C119 untill difference approaches zero
Roof Tws,R = (UR/(hVR + hAW ))(TV-TA)+TA) 287.0 K Put this value manually in cell C179 untill difference approaches zero
Tw,R=TV-(UR/hVR)(TV-TA) 287.0 K Put this value manually in cell D135 untill difference approaches zero
Bottom Tw,B=TL-(UB/hLB)(TL-TG) 307.7 K Put this value manually in cell D157 untill difference approaches zero

Surface area, A

## Total height, L 2.55 m

L =2.55m
Length, l 2.3 m Lw
Width, w 3.1 m
Thickness, tM 0.006 m

## Assumption: % of tank full with liquid 95%

m
1
Wet height, Lw 2.4225 m

3.
Dry height, Ld 0.1275 m

2.3 m
TOTAL dry side wall area, Ad = 2*((L - Lw)*l) + 2* ((L - Lw)*w)
DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE

## TOTAL wet side wall area, Aw = 2*(Lw * l) + 2* (Lw * w)

DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE
Aw 26.16 m2

Roof area, Ar = l * w
Ar 7.13 m2

Bottom area, Ab = l * w
Ab 7.13 m2

## Vapour in tank, TV 306.15 K

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K
Outside air, TA 283.15 K
Ground, TG 285.15 K

## T for dry side = TV - TA 23 K

T for wet side = TL - TA 25 K
T for roof = TV - TA 23 K
T for bottom = TL - TG 23 K

SUMMARY
Surface U (W/m2 K ) Area (m2) T (K) Individual Heat Loss, q (W)

## Dry wall 0.821 1.38 23 26.00

Wet wall 1.225 26.16 25 801.31
Roof 0.932 7.13 23 152.87
Bottom 1.243 7.13 23 203.76

## Total 4.22 41.8 1183.94

Heat loss from one tank, Q 1183.94 W
Q 1183.94 J/sec

## Number of tanks 1 ASSUME NUMBER OF TANKS

(Revision note: Note that heat loss is independant of number of tanks)
TOTAL heat loss from all the tanks, Q 1,184 J/sec TOTAL HEAT LOSS WITH INSULATION

## Temperature inside the tanks 45 oC

Temperature inside the tanks 318.15 K
Temperature required to be maintained in the tank 308.15 K 21.69
0.90
Specific heat capacity of liquid inside the tank 3000 J/kgK

Mass of liquid in one tank 13.65 T Mass content of liquid in the tank
Total mass of the liquid in all tanks 13.65 T
13,645 kg
Total volume of the tank =Lxlxw
T 10 K L= 2.55
l= 2.3
Overall Heat Loss affordable by tank liquid 409,356 kJ w= 3.1
409,356,473 J Volume = 18.18 m3
Total mass of liquid when tank is
100% full 14,363 kg
14.36 T
Time taken to drop the temperature up to 35 deg C ln((TA-Tstart)/((TA-Tend))= Utot x Atot/(m x Cp) x t 100% liquid height equivalent to 14.36 T
Coulson & Richardson Vol.1 Page 430 95% liquid height equivalent to 13.65 T
78,069.19 sec
21.69 hrs
0.90 days

TOTAL TIME TAKEN TO DROP DOWN TANK TEMPERATURE AT DESIRED LEVEL WITH INSULATION
equivalent-diameter-d_458.html
and T of 25 oC

and T of 25 oC