storage tank loss calculation in excell sheet

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ks [rectangle in shape] are filled up with Isopropanaol (liquid 1) at the initial temperature of 45 oC and it is required to maintain the liquid temperature at 30oC

Project No: XXX All the tanks are placed adjacent to each other with minor gap in between. Tanks are stored in a closed building maintained at room temperature let's say 10 oC and a wind speed of around 2miles/hr.

Project Title: XXX How long will it take to drop down temperature from 45 to 30 oC with/without insulation OR after what time tanks are required to heat up with/without insulation ? Data is given as below.

Document: Storage Tank Heat Loss Calculation Colour Key

Sheet Ref: Tank Heat Loss Calcs - Liquid 1 Manual Input

Revision: 1 Results

Last Updated: 31/12/2010 Do not use

Revision detail: 1) Correction cell reference C94 for Grashof number vap. Phase Assumptions and important notes

2) Note added regarding calculation of equivalent diameter cell C142 Sources and titles

3) Recalculation introduced to iterate to more accurate coefficients (see cells C316 and below)

4) C replaced by K for correct calculation in SI units

5) Cooling time formula modified to compensate for non-linearity

Important values

Reference Method Used: Predict Storage Tank Heat Transfer Precisely - By J.Kumana and S.Kothari and calculations

Important Notes:

1) Uniform temperature inside the tank

2) Provision is made to select back wall area - However, to calculate the maximum heat loss back wall area should be considered-- (see the cell number C330 and C335)

3) Provision is made to select insulation thickness --- (See the cell number C221)

Main Data Input

Physical Properties Units Air density at room temperature and pressure

Mol. Wt of air M 29 kg/kmol

Liquid in the tank ISOPROPANOL Gas const R 8.31 kJ/kmol K

Density, 790 1.25 1.25 kg/m3 Room Temp t 10 o

C

Specific Heat,Cp 3.0 1.005 1.005 kJ/kg K T 283 K

3000 1005 1005 J/kg K Air Density, PM/RT air = 1.25 kg/m3

Viscosity, 2.42 - - cP or m.Pa.s

0.00242 0.0000198 0.0000198 kg/m.s Thermal Conductivity of ISOPROPANOL

Thermal conductivity,k 0.199 0.0257 0.0257 W/m.K k = 3.56 x 10 -5 x Cp ( 4/M)1/3 ------------> from Coulson & Richardson. Vol 6, Page 321

Co-efficient of volumetric expansion, 0.00075 0.00343 0.00343 1/K Thermal Conductivity k= 0.199 W/m.K

Molecular Mass of liquid,M 60 - - kg/kmol

Boiling Point, oC 82 - - o

C

355.15 K

Dry wall 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

Wet wall 5000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

Roof 7000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

Bottom 4000 W/m2 K Source: Chemical Engineering Design by Coulson and Richardson, Volume 6, Page 640

Metal walls (Carbon Steel, max 0.5% Carbon),kM 54 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials

Insulation (Glass wool), kI 0.04 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials

Ground (Earth), kG 1.5 W/m K Source: Engg Toolbox : Thermal Conductivity of some common Materials

Temperature Units

Liquid in tank. TL 35 oC Minimum temp requirement by process

Outside air, TA 10 oC Assumed - as tanks are inside the building

Ground, TG 12 oC Assumed - just above ambient temperature

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K

Outside air, TA 283.15 K

Ground, TG 285.15 K

Gravitional constant, g 9.81 m/s2

Calculation

Calculation for Grashof Number (NGr)

Grashof Number, NGr = L3 x 2 x g x x T /2

( 2 x g x x /2 ) 7.84E+08

( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T 7.84E+08 x L3 x T

( 2 x g x x /2 ) 1.34E+08

( 2 x g x x /2 ) L3 x T 1.34E+08 x L3 x T

Prandtl Number,NPr = Cp x /k

Note: as an initial approximation, assume that the wall temperature is the average of the vapour and outside air temp

Tw = (TV + TA )/ 2 First Guess

Tw 295.9 K After iteration see below

% of liquid full (in terms of height) 95%

L =2.55m

Proportional height in contact with liquid, Lw 2.42 m

T = Tv - Tw 10.25 K Lw

Proportional height in contact with vapour, L - Lw 0.13 m

NGr 2.85E+06

m

For vertical plates and cylinders, Nusselt Number, NNu

1

3.

NNu = 0.138 x (NGr)0.36 x ((NPr)0.175 - 0.55) -------------Equation 15

NNu 11.81 2.3 m

Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw = NNu x k /( L - Lw) Nusselt Equation (Perry 5-13)

Coefficient of vapour at wall, hvw 2.38 W/m2 K

Note: Here, neither NPr nor (NGr NPr) falls within the range of application of the below equations. Therefore, again apply equation Equation 15 using average temp Tw

hLW =NNu x k/Lw ------------- Eq (a) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft

Nusselt Equation (Perry 5-13)

Tw = (TL + TA) / 2 First Guess NNu = 0.495 x (NGr NPr)0.25 ----------------- Equation 16

Tw 307.5 oC After iteration see below Where, NPr >100 and 104 < (NGr NPr) < 109

T = TL - Tw 0.65 K Note: In article, Equation 16 is used but as NPr and (NGr NPr) do not fall in the

range, we can't apply Equation 16 directly. Therefore, used Equation 15

NGr 7.25E+09

for the surfaces facing down, NNu = 0.27 x (NGr NPr)0.25 -------------Equation 20 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010

for the surfaces facing down, hVr = (0.27 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.25 ------------- Eq (b) NGr NPr = 5.55E+10 ~ 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10

7 10

Note: We will apply equation (b) assuming roof of diameter and Tw = 286.6 K After iteration see below Note: Applied Equation 20 as (NGr NPr) is very close to the above range

NGr = 1.34E+08 x L x T

3

Where,

T = Tv - Tw K

T 19.55 K

L =D m Comment Extra Large: Not sure if the Characteristic Length/hydraulic diameter shoud be taken instead. See: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/hydraulic-equivalent-diameter-d_458.html

L 3.01 m Calculated equivalent diameter from the roof/bottom area of tank Equivalent Diameter for Roof/Bottom

l 2.3 m

NGr = 7.17E+10 w 3.1 m

Area 7.13 m2

hVr 1.12 W/m2 K ------------- USING Eq (b) Equivalent Diameter 3.01 m

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19 Where, 2 x 107 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 1010

for the surfaces facing up, h Lb = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq ( c) NGr NPr = 4.30E+11 2 x 10 < (NGr NPr) < 3 x 10

7 10

Tw = (TL + TG) /2 Note: Applied Equation 19, though (NGr NPr) is out of range???

Tw 296.65 K First Guess

Note: We will apply equation (c) assuming tank bottom diameter and Tw = 307.6 K After iteration see below

NGr = 7.84E+08 x L3 x T

Where,

T = TL - Tw K

T 0.55 K

L =D m

L 3.01 m

NGr 1.18E+10

for the surfaces facing up, NNu = 0.14 x (NGr NPr)0.33 -------------- Equation 19

for the surfaces facing up, h'Ar = (0.14 x k/D) (NGr NPr)0.33 ------------- Eq (d)

Note: Assume Tws = Tw since the roof is uninsulated and get the coefficient for still air from equation (d)

295.9 K First guess

Tws 286.6 K After iteration see below

NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x T

Where,

T = Tws - TA K

T 3.45 K

NGr 1.26E+10

Note: Assume that the temperature drop across the film is one-fourth of the drop from the inside fluid to the outside air (averaged for the wet and dry walls) and use Equation 15 and (e) to find the co-efficient

h = 0.138 x (NGr) x ((NPr) - 0.55) x k/L

0.36 0.175

------------- Eq (e) applicable for the vertical plates taller than 3ft

T = ((TL + TV ) / 2 ) - TA) / 4

T 6 K

NGr 1.34E+08 x L3 x T

where,

L 2.55 m

NGr 1.33E+10

------------- USING Eq (e)

Conduction coefficients for ground, metal wall and insulation ( hG, hM, hI)

hI = kI /tI ------------- Equation 22

hG = 8 kG/*D ------------- Equation 23

Where,

tM 6 mm thickness of metal

0.0060 m

tI 25 mm thickness of insulation <------------- ENTER INSULATION THICKNESS

0.025 m

INSULATED

hM 9000.00 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 21

hI 1.60 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 22

hG 1.27 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 23

Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof (hRd, hRw, hRr)

Tws = TA + 0.25 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,

Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is insulated

For the UNINSULATED side walls, assume

Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tbulk - TA)

Where,

Tbulk is the temperature of liquid or vapour inside the tank if the surface is uninsulated

uninsulated]

Tw = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA)

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K

Outside air, TA 283.15 K

Therefore, Tws for insulated DRYSIDE wall = TA + 0.25 (Tv - TA) First Guess

Tws 286.5 K After iteration see below

Therefore, Tws for insulated WETSIDE wall = TA + 0.25 (TL - TA) First Guess

Tws 289.6 K After iteration see below

Therefore, Tws for uninsulated roof = TA + 0.5 (Tv - TA) First Guess

Tws 286.6 K After iteration see below

Let us find hR for all above using Equation 24

hRw 2.564 W/m2 K ------------- USING Equation 24

hRr 2.549 W/m K2

------------- USING Equation 24

Summary

Coefficient ( W/m2 K) Dry wall Wet wall Roof Bottom

Coefficient of liquid at wall, hLw - 53.36 - -

Coefficient of vapour at roof, hVr - - 1.12 -

Coefficient of liquid at the tank bottom, hLb - - - 63.90

Conduction coefficients for ground hG - - - 1.27

Coefficient of outside air at roof, h'Ar [for still air] - - 2.37 - Do NOT use this value

Coefficient of outside air at roof considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind which is obtained from the Graph/

enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Ar - - 3.08 - enhancement factor 1.3 Figure 2 for the wind velocity of 2 m/hr

Coefficient of outside air at wall, h'Aw [for still air] 2.49 2.49 - - Do NOT use this value

which is obtained from the

Coefficient of outside air at wall considering wind Obtained by multiplying above value by wind Graph /Figure 2 for the wind

enhancement factor for the assumed wind velocity, h*Aw 3.24 3.24 - - enhancement factor 1.3 velocity of 2 m/hr

Conduction coefficients for metal wall hM 9000 9000 9000 9000

Conduction coefficients for insulation hI 1.6 1.6 - -

Fouling coefficient, hF 7000 5000 7000 4000

Radiation coefficients for dry and wet sidewalls, and roof

(hRd, hRw, hRr) 2.548 2.564 2.549 -

Overall coefficient,Ud, Uw,Ur,Ub 0.821 1.225 0.932 1.243

1/Ud 1.218 m2 K/W

Ud 0.821 W/m2 K

1/Uw 0.816 m2 K/W

Uw 1.225 W/m2 K

1/Ur 1.073 m2 K/W

Ur 0.932 W/m2 K

1/Ub = 1/hLb + tM/kM + 1/hG + 1/ hFb

1/Ub 0.805 m2 K/W

Ub 1.243 W/m2 K

Dry wall Tws,V = (Ud/(hRd + hAw))(Tv-TA)+TA) 286.4 K Put this value manually in cell C253 untill difference approaches zero

Tw,V=Tv-(Ud/hVw)(Tv-TA) 298.2 K Put this value manually in cell C84 untill difference approaches zero

Wet wall Tws,W = (UW /(hRW + hAW ))(TL-TA)+TA) 288.4 K Put this value manually in cell C256 untill difference approaches zero

Tw,L=TL-(Uw/hLw)(TL-TA) 307.6 K Put this value manually in cell C119 untill difference approaches zero

Roof Tws,R = (UR/(hVR + hAW ))(TV-TA)+TA) 287.0 K Put this value manually in cell C179 untill difference approaches zero

Tw,R=TV-(UR/hVR)(TV-TA) 287.0 K Put this value manually in cell D135 untill difference approaches zero

Bottom Tw,B=TL-(UB/hLB)(TL-TG) 307.7 K Put this value manually in cell D157 untill difference approaches zero

Surface area, A

L =2.55m

Length, l 2.3 m Lw

Width, w 3.1 m

Thickness, tM 0.006 m

m

1

Wet height, Lw 2.4225 m

3.

Dry height, Ld 0.1275 m

2.3 m

TOTAL dry side wall area, Ad = 2*((L - Lw)*l) + 2* ((L - Lw)*w)

DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE

Ad 1.38 m2

DO YOU WANT TO CONSIDER BACK WALL AREA? YES <------------MAKE A SELECTION HERE

Aw 26.16 m2

Roof area, Ar = l * w

Ar 7.13 m2

Bottom area, Ab = l * w

Ab 7.13 m2

Liquid in tank. TL 308.15 K

Outside air, TA 283.15 K

Ground, TG 285.15 K

T for wet side = TL - TA 25 K

T for roof = TV - TA 23 K

T for bottom = TL - TG 23 K

SUMMARY

Surface U (W/m2 K ) Area (m2) T (K) Individual Heat Loss, q (W)

Wet wall 1.225 26.16 25 801.31

Roof 0.932 7.13 23 152.87

Bottom 1.243 7.13 23 203.76

Heat loss from one tank, Q 1183.94 W

Q 1183.94 J/sec

(Revision note: Note that heat loss is independant of number of tanks)

TOTAL heat loss from all the tanks, Q 1,184 J/sec TOTAL HEAT LOSS WITH INSULATION

Temperature inside the tanks 318.15 K

Temperature required to be maintained in the tank 308.15 K 21.69

0.90

Specific heat capacity of liquid inside the tank 3000 J/kgK

Mass of liquid in one tank 13.65 T Mass content of liquid in the tank

Total mass of the liquid in all tanks 13.65 T

13,645 kg

Total volume of the tank =Lxlxw

T 10 K L= 2.55

l= 2.3

Overall Heat Loss affordable by tank liquid 409,356 kJ w= 3.1

409,356,473 J Volume = 18.18 m3

Total mass of liquid when tank is

100% full 14,363 kg

14.36 T

Time taken to drop the temperature up to 35 deg C ln((TA-Tstart)/((TA-Tend))= Utot x Atot/(m x Cp) x t 100% liquid height equivalent to 14.36 T

Coulson & Richardson Vol.1 Page 430 95% liquid height equivalent to 13.65 T

78,069.19 sec

21.69 hrs

0.90 days

TOTAL TIME TAKEN TO DROP DOWN TANK TEMPERATURE AT DESIRED LEVEL WITH INSULATION

equivalent-diameter-d_458.html

and T of 25 oC

and T of 25 oC

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