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# I.

INTRODUCTION

Temperature can be defined as the amount of energy that a substance has. Heat exchangers
are used to transfer that energy from one substance to another. In process units it is necessary
to control the temperature of incoming and outgoing streams. These streams can either be
gases or liquids. Heat exchangers raise or lower the temperature of these streams by
transferring heat to or from the stream.
Heat exchangers are a device that exchange the heat between two fluids of different
temperatures that are separated by a solid wall. The temperature gradient, or the differences
in temperature facilitate this transfer of heat. Transfer of heat happens by three principle
means: radiation, conduction and convection. In the use of heat exchangers radiation does
take place. However, in comparison to conduction and convection, radiation does not play a
major role. Conduction occurs as the heat from the higher temperature fluid passes through
the solid wall. To maximize the heat transfer, the wall should be thin and made of a very
conductive material. The biggest contribution to heat transfer in a heat exchanger is made
through convection.
In a heat exchanger forced convection allows for the transfer of heat of one moving stream to
another moving stream. With convection as heat is transferred through the pipe wall it is
mixed into the stream and the flow of the stream removes the transferred heat. This maintains
a temperature gradient between the two fluids.
The double-pipe heat exchanger is one of the simplest types of heat exchangers. It is called a
double-pipe exchanger because one fluid flows inside a pipe and the other fluid flows
between that pipe and another pipe that surrounds the first. This is a concentric tube
construction. Flow in a double-pipe heat exchanger can be co-current or counter-current.
There are two flow configurations: co-current is when the flow of the two streams is in the
same direction, counter current is when the flow of the streams is in opposite directions.
As conditions in the pipes change: inlet temperatures, flow rates, fluid properties, fluid
composition, etc., the amount of heat transferred also changes. This transient behavior leads
to 2 change in process temperatures, which will lead to a point where the temperature
distribution becomes steady. When heat is beginning to be transferred, this changes the
temperature of the fluids. Until these temperatures reach a steady state their behavior is
dependent on time.
In this double-pipe heat exchanger a hot process fluid flowing through the inner pipe
transfers its heat to cooling water flowing in the outer pipe. The system is in steady state until
conditions change, such as flow rate or inlet temperature. These changes in conditions cause
the temperature distribution to change with time until a new steady state is reached. The new
steady state will be observed once the inlet and outlet temperatures for the process and
coolant fluid become stable. In reality, the temperatures will never be completely stable, but
with large enough changes in inlet temperatures or flow rates a relative steady state can be
experimentally .

There are numerous techniques to embellish the heat transfer, such as fins, dimples,
additives, etc. A great deal of research effort has been devoted to developing apparatus and
performing experiments to define the conditions under which an enhancement technique will
improve heat transfer. Heat transfer enhancement technology has been widely applied to heat
exchanger applications in refrigeration, automobile, process industries etc. The aim of
enhanced heat transfer is to encourage or accommodate high heat fluxes. This result in
reduction of heat exchanger size, which generally leads to lower capital cost. So there is need
to increase the thermal performance of heat exchangers, thereby effecting energy, material
and cost savings have led to development & use of many techniques termed as Heat transfer
Augmentation .These techniques are also called as Intensification or Heat Transfer
Enhancement. Augmentation techniques increase convective heat transfer by reducing the
thermal resistance in a heat exchanger. Use of Heat transfer augmentation techniques lead to
increase in heat transfer coefficient but at the penalty of increase in pressure drop. So, while
designing a heat exchanger using any of these methods, analysis of heat transfer rate and
pressure drop has to be done. Apart from this, issues like long-term performance and detailed
economic scrutiny of heat exchanger has to be studied. To achieve maximum high heat
transfer rate in an existing or new heat exchanger while taking care of the increased pumping
power, several methods have been proposed in recent years. Generally, heat transfer
augmentation techniques are classified in three broad categories. Active method, Passive
method, Compound method; In active method some external power input are required for the
enhancement of heat transfer for example surface vibration, fluid vibration, suction or
injection etc. whereas passive method generally uses surface or geometrical observed
modifications to the flow channel by incorporating inserts or additional devices for example
inserts extra components, rough surfaces, additives for fluids etc. The passive methods are
based on this principle, by employing several techniques to generate the swirl in the bulk of
the fluids and disturb the actual boundary layer so as to increase effective surface area,
residence time and heat transfer coefficient in existing system. Lastly compound method is a
combination of both the active and passive methods; the compound method involves
complex design and has limited applications.

## 1.1 Heat Transfer Considerations

The energy flow between hot and cold streams, with hot stream in the bigger diameter tube,
is as shown in Figure 7.1. Heat transfer mode is by convection on the inside as well as
outside of the inner tube and by conduction across the tube. Since the heat transfer occurs
across the smaller tube, it is this internal surface which controls the heat transfer process. By
convention, it is the outer surface, termed Ao, of this central tube which is referred to in
describing heat exchanger area. Applying the principles of thermal resistance,

## If we define overall the heat transfer coefficient, Uc, as:

Substituting the value of the thermal resistance R yields:

Standard convective correlations are available in text books and handbooks for the
convective coefficients, ho and hi. The thermal conductivity, k, corresponds to that for the
material of the internal tube. To evaluate the thermal resistances, geometrical quantities
(areas and radii) are determined from the internal tube dimensions available.

## 7.4 Basic Heat Exchanger Flow Arrangements

Two basic flow arrangements are as shown in Figure 7.2. Parallel and counter flow provide
alternative arrangements for certain specialized applications. In parallel flow both the hot and
cold streams enter the heat exchanger at the same end and travel to the opposite end in
parallel streams. Energy is transferred along the length from the hot to the cold fluid so the
outlet temperatures asymptotically approach each other. In a counter flow arrangement, the
two streams enter at opposite ends of the heat exchanger and flow in parallel but opposite
directions. Temperatures within the two streams tend to approach one another in a nearly
linearly fashion resulting in a much more uniform heating pattern. Shown below the heat
exchangers are representations of the axial temperature profiles for each. Parallel flow results
in rapid initial rates of heat exchange near the entrance, but heat transfer rates rapidly
decrease as the temperatures of the two streams approach one another. This leads to higher
exergy loss during heat exchange. Counter flow provides for relatively uniform temperature
differences and, consequently, lead toward relatively uniform heat rates throughout the length
of the unit.