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Channel Configuration and Random Access

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A PICH is defined by its PHICH group number and an orthogonal sequence


number within the group. A PHICH group is a set of PHICH transmitted in the
same set of RE. For normal CP, 8 UEs can be addressed with 1 PHICH group

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Band 38 (2570-2619.9 MHz): 37750-38249


Band 39 (1880-1919.9 MHz): 38250-38649
Band 40 (2300-2399.9 MHz): 38650-39649
Band 41 (2496-2689.9 MHz): 39650-41589

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Physical layer cell identity is used to differentiate neighbor cells . It consists of two parts;
physical layer cell identity group and physical layer identity, and is calculated with the
following formula:
physical layer cell identity = 3 x physical layer cell identity group + physical layer identity.

Guidance for configuration:


Neighbor cells should have different values, and in a three cell eNB all cells should have
phyCellId which belongs to same physical layer cell identity group. For example, in a three
cell eNB, good PhyCellIds values are 0, 1, 2

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Lets examine the Special subframe in details. This subframe is also 1 ms, so it
contains 14 OFDM symbols for normal CP and 12 for extended CP. For Normal CP,
the 14 OFDM symbols are divided into three parts, and used for DwPTS, GP and
UpPTS respectively. There are 9 formats listed in the figure above that show
different number of OFDM symbols for each part. The colored rows are what RL15
supported. It can be seen that the UpPTS is 1 or 2 symbols, we choose longer one.
The GP has a much longer configuration (9 symbols in Format 5), which provide
more down-to-up conversion time that allowing much larger cell coverage.
The configuration 3 or 4 is configured for TDD LTE WiMAX coexistence
deployment. So tddSpecSubfConf can only be configured to '3' (ssp3), '4' (ssp4) or
'7' (ssp7) if actReduceWimaxInterference is set to 'true.

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Cell ID:
One of 504 IDs detected from the index of PSS and the
combination of two SSS segments
CP length:
Detected from the relative PSS-to-SSS time distance
TDD/FDD:
Detected from the relative PSS-to-SSS time distance
5ms timing:
Detected from PSS time position
10ms timing:
Detected from the interlaced SSS segments swapping:

Primary Synchronization Signal (PSS) (so called primary synchronization channel), random
access preamble (PRACH) , HARQ ACK/NACK responses (PUCCH) and sounding reference
signals(SRS). The ZC sequences are used in LTE because they provide an advantage of having
a lower Peak-to-Average-Power (PAPR) ratio

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Frequency:
Occupies central 72 sub-carriers (excluding the DC)
Time:
TTI/scrambling period: 40ms
Duration: first 4 OFDM symbols in slot #1
TBS:
Fixed TB size of 40 bits (including 16 bit CRC)
Transmission Scheme:
QPSK, Tail Biting Convolutional Coding
TX diversity: none, SFBC, SFBC-FSTD depending on the number of cell-
specific antenna ports

The System Frame Number is provided to synchronize the UE with eUTRAN


total SFN is 10 bit long
eNodeB dynamically broadcast the 8 MSB of SFN to UE (i.e. inside MIB)
UE implicitly can decode the 2 least significant bits from SFN to identify
the TTI for MIB de-interleaving

00 first radio frame


01 second radio frame
10 third radio frame
11 last (fourth) radio frame

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PBCH Structure:
Frequency:
- Occupies central 72 subcarriers (excluding DC)

Time:
- TTI / scrambling period: 40ms
- Duration: first OFDM symbols in slot #1

TBS:
- Fixed TB size of 40 bits (including 16 bit CRC)
(MIB = 14 Bits / Spare Bits = 10 / CRC 16 Bits)
(Available bits in 40ms = 1920 in case of normal cyclic prefix)

Transmission Scheme:
- QPSK, Tail Biting Convolution Coding
- Tx diversity: none, SFBC (Space-Frequency Block code), SFBC-FSTD (Frequency
Switched Transmit Diversity-SFBC) depending on the number of cell-specific
antenna ports. In addition for decoding the CRC (Cyclic Redundancy Check) on each
MIB is masked with a codeword representing the number of transmit antenna
ports.

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Compared to the WCDMA/HSPA, the main new feature in the channel


feedback is the frequency selectivity of the report
This is an enabler for the Frequency Domain packet Scheduling
(FDPS)
Since providing a full 4-bit CQI for all the PRBs would mean excessive UL
signaling overhead, some feedback compression schemes are used
In order to reduce feedback, the CQI is reported per subband basis
The size of the subbands varies depending on the reporting mode
and system bandwidth
The main compression methods are:
Wideband feedback
Best-M average also called UE selected subband feedback
Full Feedback also called Higher Layer Configured subband
feedback
Additionally, Delta compression can be used
E.g. in MIMO case the CQI for the 2 nd Code Word can be signaled
as a 3-bit delta relative to the CQI of the CQI of the 1 st CW

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Normal PHICH duration: PHICH uses the first OFDMA symbol of a subframe.
Extended duration: PHICH uses the first 3 OFDMA symbols of a subframe.
The maximum value of nCqiRb depends on ulChBw (in PRB)
- if ulChBw is set to '5 MHz', nCqiRb is limited to 25
- if ulChBw is set to '10 MHz', nCqiRb is limited to 50
- if ulChBw is set to '15 MHz', nCqiRb is limited to 75
- if ulChBw is set to '20 MHz', nCqiRb is not limited

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Before initiation of the non-synchronized RA procedure, UE physical layer


should receive the following information (parameters) from the higher layers (e.g.
previously received in SIB2):
Physical RA channel parameters (PRACH configuration and frequency
position)
Parameters for determining the root sequences (index to logical root
sequence table) their cyclic shifts (Ncs) and sequence set type
(unrestricted or restricted set) based on prachHsFlag

The PRACH resource is effectively 6 RB wide (6x180kHz=1.08MHz), however it


does not use standard uplink resource blocks, instead the preamble (of length 839
bits) is mapped to 839 subcarriers using a 1.25kHz subcarrier spacing.

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Each type has its suitable TDD frame configurations in terms of duration.

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Format 2 is supported only where TDD Frame Configurations 1 (DL:UL = 2


subframes:2 subframes).
Format 3 is not supported, as Nokia does not support TDD Frame Configurations
that allow 3 consecutive UL subframes yet.

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raRespWinSize : Random Access Response Window Size parameter defines the


window size for the random access response in TTIs.

The start of this UE timer is the subframe number containing the end of the preamble
+ 3 subframes => 2 ms after this subframe. The UE must receive the RAR within this
window otherwise it assumes the RACH procedure as failed.

ulpcRarespTpc TPC command indicated in the Random Access response related


to Random Access message 3 or 1st scheduled uplink transmission.

raContResoTThe maximum content resolution timer parameter defines the


maximum amount of time allowed for contention resolution.
The eNB schedules response using a RA-RNTI (derived from when the RA preamble
was heard) this is on the PDCCH and indicates DL-SCH scheduling for UE(s).
The eNB answers using the Random Access Response Identifier (RAPID), i.e. the
preamble value. Timing Advance (TA) and resources will be allocated, along with a
temporary C-RNTI.
The UE sends an Contention identity at the MAC layer. The type of identity is the M-
TMSI or a Random Number.
This is the scheduling for the response message. It indicated the newly assigned C-
RNTI.
The contention resolution is performed, i.e. the eNB send the M-TMSI or Random
Number the UE.

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Additional preamble sequences:


in case the 64 preambles cannot be generated from a single root Zadoff-Chu
sequence, then remaining preambles are obtained from the root
sequences with the consecutive logical indexes until all the 64 sequences
are found.

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Zero correlation zone existence in Zadoff-Chu sequence provides the possibility


to decode signals on PRACH even if sent on the same shared resources: on the
same frequency and in the same time.
Preamble signals generated based on two different ZC sequences are not
correlated within the geographical range related to prachCS (i.e. Cyclic Shift
configuration index)
The size of the cyclic shift, must be larger than the maximum round-trip delay, so
prachcs is dependant on the cell radius

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Calculating distance R from CS;

prachCS = 10 => Ncs = 76 samples


1xsample = 800/839 = 953 ns => shift = 76*0.956 = 72.43 us = Max Round Trip
Delay (RTD)

Distance = (RTD/2) * speed of light = (72.43/2)* 0.29979 (Km/us) = 10.85 Km

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The Random Access procedure involved the UE accessing with a preamble. LTE
has two forms:
Contention based - this is applicable to all requirements to use the PRACH.
Non-contention based - this is applicable to handover and DL data arrival. It
therefore required additional information to be sent to the UE.
64 preamble codes can be used on a cell, these can be split into contention and
non-contention based.

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raMsgPoffGrB RA Message Power Offset For Group B Selection: Path loss


threshold in dB required for selecting one of the two groups of Random Access
Preambles.
The UE will only use preambles from group B if it needs to send a large Msg3 AND
its measured path loss is less than Pmax -
PREAMBLE_INITIAL_RECEIVED_TARGET_POWER - DELTA_PREAMBLE_MSG3
- messagePowerOffsetGroupB (see 36.321 ch 5.1.2)

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raSmallVolUl Data volume assigned for the small size RACH access procedure in
case of UL or DL data arrival

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