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Meaning : Government, Governance, Society, Culture, Civil

Government: A government is the system by which a state or community is controlled. In the case of this
broad associative definition, government normally consists of legislators, administrators, and arbitrators.
Government is the means by which state policy is enforced, as well as the mechanism for determining
the policy of the state.
Society: A society is a group of people involved in persistent social interaction, or a large social
group sharing the same geographical or social territory, typically subject to the same political authority and
dominant cultural expectations. Societies are characterized by patterns of relationships (social relations)
between individuals who share a distinctive culture and institutions.
Culture: Culture can be defined in many different ways. In the words of anthropologist E.B. Tylor, it is
"that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom and any other capabilities
and habits acquired by man as a member of society."[1]Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is
defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices, discourses and material expressions, which, over
time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
Civil: relating to ordinary citizens and their concerns, as distinct from military or ecclesiastical matters.
2. Globalization, Liberalization: Meaning, Examples
Globalization: globalization is the action or procedure of international integration arising from the
interchange of world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture.[1] Advances
in transportation (such as the steam locomotive, steamship, jet engine, and container ships) and
in telecommunications infrastructure (including the rise of the telegraph and its modern offspring,
the Internet and mobile phones) have been major factors in globalisation, generating
further interdependence of economic and cultural activities.
Globalization is the opening of local and nationalistic perspectives to a broader outlook of an
interconnected and inter-dependent world with free transfer of capital, goods, and services across national
in Thailand.
Then it could have been shipped on a French freighter that had a Spanish crew.

is one factor of globalization. One can find people eating sushi in Peru or Indian food in Europe.


Liberalization: Liberalization of the economy means to free it from direct or physical controls imposed
by the government.

The primary goals of economic liberalization are the free flow of capital between nations and the efficient
allocation of resources and competitive advantages. This is usually done by reducing protectionist policies
such as tariffs, trade laws and other trade barriers. One of the main effects of this increased flow of capital
into the country is that it makes it cheaper for companies to access capital from investors. A lower cost of
capital allows companies to undertake profitable projects that they may not have been able to with a higher
cost of capital pre-liberalization, leading to higher growth rates.
We saw this type of growth scenario unfold in China in the late 1970s as the Chinese government set on a
path of significant economic reform. With a massive amount of resources (both human and natural), they
believed the country was not growing and prospering to its full potential. Thus, to try to spark
faster economic growth, China began major economic reforms that included encouraging private
ownership of businesses and property, relaxing international trade and foreign investment restrictions, and
relaxing state control over many aspects of the economy. Subsequently, over the next several decades,
China averaged a phenomenal real GDP growth rate of over 10%.

3. Good / Bad Governance : Characteristics, Examples

Good Governance:
Good Governance entails SOUND PUBLIC SECTOR MANAGEMENT (Efficiency, Effectiveness and
and a LEGAL FRAMEWORK FOR DEVELOPMENT ( Justice, Respect for Human Rights and
United Nations Public Administration
Good governance is about the processes for making and implementing decisions. Its not about making
correct decisions, but about the best possible process for making those decisions.
Characteristics of good governance
1) Accountability

o Accountability guarantees actions and decisions taken by public officials regarding government
initiatives and respond to the needs of the community thereby contributing to better governance and
poverty reduction. It also means their decisions and actions are subject to oversight so as to guarantee
that their stated objectives are met.

o The Good governance recognizes accountability in terms of improving the delivery of public services,
measuring performance and providing incentives to achieve targets and sanctions in case of non-

o Several countries such as New Zealand, Australia, Canada and USA have embraced the philosophy of
accountability and brought significant improvement in public service delivery and efficiency. USA has
enacted a Government Result and Performance Act 1993.

2) Transparency

o Transparency in local governance should mean less scope for corruption, in that dishonest behavior
would become more easily detectable, punished and discouraged in future. The history of the
industrialized countries indicates that this tend to be true in the longer term, but recent experience
shows that this relationship is not necessarily true at all in the short run.

o In the former Soviet countries, for example, local governance institutions have become much more
open to public scrutiny in the 1990s, but at the same time there can be little doubt that corruption at all
levels has greatly increased. It is to be hoped that the local mechanisms of accountability discussed
above will in tandem with greater probity at the national level improve the degree of honesty at all
levels, but at best this will take time. The message for the international development community is to
press forward with as many of these accountability mechanisms as is feasible.
o A second type of linkage between transparency and corruption has been noted by Manor when he notes
that in India, while greater transparency in local governance was not accompanied by increased
corruption, it did lead to popular perceptions of greater public malfeasance, simply because citizens
became more aware of what was going on. This pattern has surely repeated itself in many other locales.
Over time, to the extent that accountability mechanisms begin to become effective and corruption
begins to decline, the citizenry should appreciate the improvement.

3) Responsiveness

o A responsive administration is one which responds or reacts to issues, characters and situations and
takes decisions only after a thorough and dispassionate screening of all the implications as also the
alternative courses of action open. Speed is the essence in the decision-making process although speed
does not necessarily mean haste or inadvertence. Tomorrow will be too late and one has to take the bull
by its horns at the appropriate moment without the slightest procrastination or vacillation or delay. Any
attempt to delay decision-making or allow a critical situation to drift could be suicidal in consequences.

4) Effectiveness and efficiency

o Good governance means that the processes implemented by the organization to produce favorable
results meet the needs of its stakeholders, while making the best use of resources human,
technological, financial, natural and environmental at its disposal.

o Good governance means that public institutions produce policy outcomes that actually meet the needs
of the community (good outcomes) and do so in an efficient manner given the resources available

o Local government should implement decisions and follow processes that make the best use of
the available people, resources and time to ensure the best possible results for their community.

5) Rule of law

o The rule of law is what constrains arbitrary decision-making and arbitrary enforcement of existing laws
and policies. The rule of law requires fair and just legal frameworks that are enforced impartially. It
also requires an independent judiciary and impartial law enforcement officers

o Good governance requires fair legal frameworks that are enforced by an impartial regulatory body, for
the full protection of stakeholders.

o This means that decisions are consistent with relevant legislation or common law and are within the
powers of council. In case of Victorian local government, relevant legislation includes the Local
Government Act 1989 and other legislation such as the Public Health and Wellbeing Act 2008, and the
Equal Opportunity Act 2010.

o Fairness must always be a high priority for management. For example, managers must push their
employees to be their best, but they should also recognize that a heavy workload can have negative
long-term effects, such as low morale and high turnover. Companies also must be fair to their
customers, both for ethical and public-relations reasons. Treating customers unfairly, whatever the
short-term benefits, always hurts a companys long-term prospects.
6) Participation

o The participation of all members of society, particularly adults, in the governance process is an
essential component of good governance. Participation may be direct or indirect (i.e., through elected
representatives). Effective participation requires an informed and organized citizenry, which
necessarily requires laws and institutions that protect freedom of expression and association.

o Participation by both men and women, either directly or through legitimate representatives, is a key
cornerstone of good governance. Participation needs to be informed and organized, including freedom
of expression and assiduous concern for the best interests of the organization and society in general.

o Anyone affected by or interested in a decision should have the opportunity to participate in the process
for making that decision. This can happen in several ways community members may be provided
with information, asked for their opinion, given the opportunity to make recommendations or, in some
cases, be part of the actual decision-making process.

7) Equity and inclusiveness

o The organization that provides the opportunity for its stakeholders to maintain, enhance, or generally
improve their well-being provides the most compelling message regarding its reason for existence and
value to society.

o All members of the community, but particularly its most vulnerable groups, must feel that they have a
stake in its well-being and do not feel excluded.

8) Consensus Orientation

o Our society is composed of individuals who hold many different viewpoints and perspectives on issues
of concern to the entire community. Good governance employs processes that make it possible for
different interests to find common ground and to achieve as broad a consensus on issues as is possible.

o Good governance requires consultation to understand the different interests of stakeholders in order to
reach a broad consensus of what is in the best interest of the entire stakeholder group and how this can
be achieved in a sustainable and prudent manner.

Switzerland is a remarkably stable and economically strong country. It was recently named the worlds
most competitive country by the World Economic Forum, and its avoided the debt and unemployment
that have plagued the whole world, and its neighbours in particular.Thats not the only way it beats other
nations. From a Credit Suisse bulletin examining the countrys success:
The verdict is in, and it is unequivocal. Whether we are comparing global business locations and the civil
liberties they enjoy, considering the number of Nobel Laureates or the quality of academics, entrepreneurs,
artists and authors, Switzerland has long occupied the topmost echelons.
German economist Gerd Habermann came up with seven reasons which, while partially specific to
governments and countries, can easily be applied to business.
Small is good
Each level of government (or management) gets more expensive and more unwieldy as it gets larger. The
highest level is often the most expensive. Because Switzerland is a small country, every level is small and
agile. Additionally, the size of government doesnt scale up massively as you reach the federal level.
There are few middlemen and everyone is accountable
Switzerland doesnt have the massive bureaucratic class that many European neighbours and other
governments, and the voter has more power than almost anywhere else. That includes the ability to vote on
public spending, and elect judges. The government is accountable at all levels.
Everything is decentralized
The federal government in Switzerland has power over only a small portion of tax dollars. Cantons
(equivalent in many ways to states) and municipalities have powers of taxation. Every part of the country
competes to be as attractive to businesses and people as it can.
Most decisions are made at the local level
Because the country is so decentralized, decisions tend to be practical and informed by the needs of a small
area, so theres less lost in translation to higher authorities. Also, the impact of bad decisions is limited,
and everythings faster because people dont have to keep appealing to higher ups.
There are no career politicians
Switzerland doesnt have career politicians. Citizens serve for a time but also work independently. That
avoids the pet projects, the influence peddling, and conflicts of interest that can result when you have a
separate, professional long serving political class.
The business lesson here is that management can easily become stagnant, and centralized, long lasting
authority can be problematic.
The country is a safe haven for money and brain power
Staying neutral and avoiding political and other sorts of prejudice have seen Switzerland accumulate a
huge amount of financial and intellectual capital. Countries and businesses can lose when they put personal
ideology ahead of practicality.
Theres a core middle class attitude
Switzerlands culture isnt defined by a particular ethnicity, language, or religion, but an attitude, and one
that businesses would do well to emulate. Its defined by moderation, mainstream thinking and
deliberation, for business sense, a no-nonsense attitude and realism, Habermann writes.

Bad Governance- is the inability of a public institution to manage public affairs and public resources;
Failure of a government to meet the needs of society while making the best use of all resources at their
1 No strategic plan in place, or no evidence that an existing strategic plan has any impact
2 No evidence of ambition for the institution or its students
3 No evidence of proper monitoring or financial controls, or of taking appropriate, rapid and effective
action when failures or wrong doings are identified by others
4 No planning to provide financial sustainability or reputational gain
5 No objective benchmarking in place
6 Compliance in returns on paper, but no implementation (e.g. no real Board of Governors)
7 Failure to make use of powers granted (e.g. additional fundraising)
8 Rigid adherence to an IDP, not reviewed annually
9 Lack of flexibility in regard to opportunities (e.g. use of Alumni, in India or Overseas, who want to make
a real difference to their institution)
10 No, or inadequate, attempts to raise IRG
Example: Corruption and poverty are outcomes of bad governance and India is an example of that.
Afghanistan tops the list with governing sub index score of -3.39 Chad with -3.25 Poor Leadership in Haiti
and Venezuela.
4. Forms of Governance: Democracy, Autocracy, Monarchy, Anarchy etc
Anarchy is the complete lack of political systems. In a way, it is the state of nature, where there are no
rules and the strongest have power over the weakest. Though nations might devolve into anarchy
following internal strife or natural disaster, anarchy cannot be sustained. At a minimum, an anarchic nation
will produce a tyrannical leader, and some sense of order eventually develops.
In a dictatorship, one person has absolute power. Though there is typically a military and a bureaucracy in
such a nation, and though there are typically laws to dictate everyday goings-on, the dictator has complete
discretion. Typically, the dictator takes on, or assumes, an aura of a deity, or a cult of personality emerges.
Examples include Mussolini's Italy, Hitler's Germany, and Kim's North Korea. Dictatorial systems are
often based on military power, and the term "military dictatorship" is used.
An autocracy is the same as a dictatorship but the term is often used to convey something less sinister
than "dictatorship" implies. An autocrat may have less a cult of personality than a dictator has.
An oligarchy is, literally, rule by a few. Oligarchies are often the evolution of dictatorships from rule by a
single person to rule by a small group of people. Examples include England in 1215, when the King was
forced by nobles to sign the Magna Carta, or South Africa following the alliance of the English- and
Afrikaans-speaking elite.
A theocracy is an oligarchy based on religion the group is ruled by the group's spiritual leaders.
Religion is a powerful human phenomenon, and religious leaders can often exert great influence over the
group's actions. Examples include many modern Islamic states, such as Iran or Afghanistan under the
Taliban, and Puritan Massachusetts.
A monarchy is best described in the same way that a dictatorship is. One key difference is that dictatorship
is used as a derisive term, and monarchy is seen as much more benign. Historically, however, kings and
queens have been as brutal as many modern dictators. The major difference is the transfer of power. In a
dictatorship, power is often not transferred at all the death of the dictator signals the end of the
dictatorship; or it is transferred to a hand-picked successor. Monarchies typically have much stricter,
hereditary systems of succession, such that a monarch's first-born son is elevated to king upon the
monarch's death. Past and present examples include Saudi Arabia, England, and Thailand.
Though the word "democracy" is used in many contexts today, strictly speaking, a democracy is a system
where the people rule. Each decision that needs to be made is made by the people in toto. Such systems are
tenable only in groups up to a certain size when larger, debate and voting become lengthy and

5. Democracy : Three pillars of Democracy, Functioning of Democracy, World Democracies

Three pillars of Democracy:
The Executive, Legislative, and the Judiciary.

The Executive comprises the President, Vice-President, and a council of ministers (consisting of the
cabinet ministers, minister of states and deputy ministers). The Legislative consists of the two houses of
the Parliament, namely, the Lok Sabha (House of the People) and the Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The
Judiciary has the Supreme Court at its apex.

Functioning of Democacry:
For the people, of the people and by the people. People can vote to form the government.

World Democracies:

6. Fundamental Rights & Duties

The Fundamental Rights is defined as the basic human rights of all citizens.
The Fundamental Duties are defined as the moral obligations of all citizens to help promote a spirit of
patriotism and to uphold the unity of India.
Fundamental Rights

Right to Equality
Right to Freedom
Right against Exploitation
Right to Freedom of Religion
Cultural and Educational Rights
Right to Constitutional Remedies
It shall be the duty of every citizen of India

To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National
To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending
religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practices derogatory to the dignity
of women;
, lakes, rivers and wild life, and to have compassion for living creatures;
To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation
constantly rises to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
Who is a parent or guardian to provide opportunities for education to his child or ward, as the case may
be, between the age of six to fourteen years(this fundamental duty has been added by 86th constitutional
amendment in 2002)

7. Indian Constitution: Background, Feature of Indian Constitution, Important Articles, Important

The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. [1] It lays down the framework defining
fundamental political principles, establishes the structure, procedures, powers and duties of
government institutions and sets out fundamental rights, directive principles and the duties of citizens.
It is the longest written constitution of any sovereign country in the world.[Note 1][2] The nation is
governed by it. B. R. Ambedkar is regarded as its chief architect. It imparts constitutional supremacy
and not parliamentary supremacy, as it is not created by the Parliament but, by a constituent assembly,
and adopted by its people, with a declaration in its preamble. [3] Parliament cannot override the
constitution. It was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, and came into effect
on 26 January 1950.[4] With its adoption, the Union of India became the modern and contemporary
Republic of India replacing the Government of India Act, 1935 as the country's fundamental governing
document. To ensure constitutional autochthony, the framers of the constitution repealed the prior Acts
of the British Parliament via Article 395 of the constitution.[5] India celebrates its coming into force on
26 January each year, as Republic Day. [6] It declares India a sovereign, socialist, secular, [7]
democratic republic, assuring its citizens of justice, equality, and liberty, and endeavours to promote
fraternity among them.[8]
Seven Important amendments in Indian Constitution
We all know that the Republic Day holds a very special and honourable place in Indian history. It's the
day that India put into effect her permanent Constitution and her governing document. What most of us
aren't aware of is, the Amendments of the Constitution that enable India, her Government and her
citizens to lead a dutiful and righteous life. This Republic Day, let's take a moment to recognize some
of India's most iconic Amendment acts throughout the years of its existence and how it affects us as
20th Amendment - December 22, 1966 - Indemnify & validate judgments, decrees, orders and
sentences passed by judges. Validate the appointment, posting, promotion and transfer of judges except
those not eligible for appointment under article 233. This Amendment was needed to overcome the
effect of judgement invalidating appointments of certain judges in the state of Uttar Pradesh. This was
also done to validate the judgements passed, in order to ensure that justice is served fairly.
24th Amendment - November 5, 1971 - Enable parliament to dilute fundamental rights through
amendments to the constitution What this means to the citizens of India is that, in event of any
situation, the Parliament of India has no right to curtail or take away fundamental rights that are
guaranteed in Part III of the Constitution, in any of its amendments. Rather it can include it as part of
the amendment act, guaranteeing effective exercise of fundamental rights.
61th Amendment - March 28, 1988 - Reduce age for voting rights from 21 to 18 An iconic move in
1988 led to the voting rights being lowered from age 21 to age 18, allowing the much younger lot to
have a say on the affairs of the country. Today, there are about 52 lakh voters 18 year old voters in
India; bringing about a change every time they vote.
75th Amendment - May 15, 1994 - Provisions for setting up Rent Control Tribunals It provides for
setting up of State-level Rent Tribunals to exclude the jurisdiction of all courts, except that of the
Supreme Court, under Article 136 of the Constitution. This enables effective exercise of the Right
Control Act, supervised by a committee - the Rent Control Tribunal; which ensures fairness if ever an
issue should crop up between the owner and the tenant of a rented property.
86th Amendment - December 12, 2002 - Provides Right to Education until the age of fourteen and
early childhood care until the age of six The call to provide right to education until the age of fourteen
and early childhood care until the age of six, comes as an important move in the Amendment. Earlier,
there wasnt any amendment to help recognize the need for educational rights for children. Recently, a
critical development led to extend this right till the age of 16.
88th Amendment - January 15, 2004 - To extend statutory cover for levy and utilization of Service
Tax This Article provides for the insertion of a brand new article 268A, that states that taxes on
services shall be levied by the Government of India/India/Republic of Asian country/Bharat/Asian
country/Asian nation and such tax shall be collected by the Government of India and therefore the
States within the manner provided in clause.
94th Amendment - June 12, 2006 - To provide for a Minister of Tribal Welfare in newly created
Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh States In 2000, India gave birth to two new states namely - Jharkhand and
Chattisgarh. Given that both Jharkhand and Chattisgarh fall under the category of states with maximum
tribal group presence, a need for a Minister of Tribal Welfare was made part of the 94th amendment.
Today, both states have their own ministers, governing over the needs of these tribal groups. While we
can expect other important amendments to come up during the coming years, and with the new
Government in place; let's remember to remember our amendments and put them to effective use as
citizens. Let's ensure better responsibility, respect and abide by the value of the Indian Constitution!
Features of the Indian Constitution
1) The lengthiest Constitution in the world
The Indian Constitution is the lengthiest and the most detailed of all the written Constitutions of the
world containing 449 articles in 25 parts, 12 schedules, 5 appendices and 101 Amendments.

2) Parliamentary form of Government

The constitution of India establishes a parliamentary form of a government both at the Centre and the
State. The essence of the parliamentary government is its responsibility to the Legislature. The
is the constitutional head of the State but the real executive power is vested in the council of ministers
whose head is the Prime Minister.

3) Unique blend of rigidity and flexibility

It has been the nature of the amending process itself in federations which had led political scientists to
classify federal Constitution as rigid.

4) Fundamental Rights
The incorporation of a formal declaration of Fundamental Rights in part III of the Constitution is
deemed to be a distinguishing feature of a democratic
State. These rights are prohibitions against the State. The State cannot make a law which takes away or
abridges any of the rights of the citizens guaranteed in part III of Constitution.

5) Directive Principles of State policy (DPSP)

The Directive Principles of State Policy contained in Part IV of the Constitution, it set out the aims and
objectives to be taken up by the States in the governance of the country.

6) A federation with strong centralising tendency

The most remarkable feature of the Indian Constitution is that being a federal Constitution it acquires a
unitary character during the time of emergency. During the proclamation of emergency the normal
distribution of powers between Centre and State undergoes a vital change. The union parliament is
empower to legislate on any subject mentioned in the state list. The financial arrangements between the
Centre and State can also be
altered by the Union Government.

7) Adult Suffrage
The old system of communal electorates has been abolished and the uniform adult suffrage system has
been adopted. Under the Indian Constitution every man and women above 18 years of age has been
given the right to elect representatives for the legislature.

8) An Independent Judiciary
An independent and impartial judiciary with power of judicial review has been established under the
Constitution of India. It is a custodian right of citizens. Besides, in a federal Constitution it plays
another significant role of determining the limits of power of the Centre and States.

9) A Secular State
A Secular State has no religion of its own as recognised religion of State. It treats all religions equally.
Articles 25 to 28 of the Indian Constitution give concrete shape to this concept of secularism. It
guarantees to every person the freedom of conscience and the right to profess, practice and propagate
religion. In a Secular state, the state only regulate the relationship between man and man.

10) Single Citizenship

The American constitution provides for dual citizenship, i.e., the citizen of America and a state
citizenship. But in India there is only one citizenship, i.e., Citizen of India. No state citizenship like
citizen of Assam, Citizen of Delhi. Every Indian is Citizen of India and enjoy the same rights
of citizenship no matter in what state he resides.

8. Human Rights: Meaning, UN Declaration of Human Rights

Human Rights : The fundamental rights that humans have by the fact of being human, and that are neither
created nor can be abrogated by any government.
Supported by several international conventions and treaties (such as the United Nation's Universal
Declaration of Human rights in 1948), these include cultural, economic, and political rights, such as right
to life, liberty, education and equality before law, and right of association, belief, free speech, information,
religion, movement, and nationality. Promulgation of these rights is not binding on any country, but they
serve as a standard of concern for people and form the basis of many modern national constitutions.
UN Declaration of Human Rights
Simplified Version
This simplified version of the 30 Articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights has been created
especially for young people.
1) We Are All Born Free & Equal. We are all born free. We all have our own thoughts and ideas. We
should all be treated in the same way.
2) Dont Discriminate. These rights belong to everybody, whatever our differences.
3) The Right to Life. We all have the right to life, and to live in freedom and safety.
4) No Slavery. Nobody has any right to make us a slave. We cannot make anyone our slave.
5) No Torture. Nobody has any right to hurt us or to torture us.
6) You Have Rights No Matter Where You Go. I am a person just like you!
7) Were All Equal Before the Law. The law is the same for everyone. It must treat us all fairly.
8) Your Human Rights Are Protected by Law. We can all ask for the law to help us when we are not
treated fairly.
9) No Unfair Detainment. Nobody has the right to put us in prison without good reason and keep us
there, or to send us away from our country.
10) The Right to Trial. If we are put on trial this should be in public. The people who try us should not let
anyone tell them what to do.
11) Were Always Innocent Till Proven Guilty. Nobody should be blamed for doing something until it is
proven. When people say we did a bad thing we have the right to show it is not true.
12) The Right to Privacy. Nobody should try to harm our good name. Nobody has the right to come into
our home, open our letters, or bother us or our family without a good reason.
13) Freedom to Move. We all have the right to go where we want in our own country and to travel as we
14) The Right to Seek a Safe Place to Live. If we are frightened of being badly treated in our own
country, we all have the right to run away to another country to be safe.
15) Right to a Nationality. We all have the right to belong to a country.
9. International Organizations: UNESCO, WHO, WB, WWF, UNICEF, IMF etc.
UNESCO (The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency
of the United Nations based in Paris.),
WHO (The World Health Organization is a specialised agency of the United Nations that is concerned
with international public health. It was established on 7 April 1948, headquartered in Geneva,
WB (The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world
for capital programs.),
WWF (The World Wide Fund for Nature is an international non-governmental organization founded in
1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of humanity's footprint on the
UNICEF (The United Nations Children's Fund is a United Nations programme headquartered in New
York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing
IMF(The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in
Washington, D.C., of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial
stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and
reduce poverty around the world." [1] Formed in 1944 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the
ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, [4] it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29
member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system. It now plays a central
role in the management of balance of payments difficulties and international financial crises. [5] Countries
contribute funds to a pool through a quota system from which countries experiencing balance of payments
problems can borrow money. As of 2016, the fund had SDR477 billion (about $668 billion).)
10. Controversial Bills: Dowry Act, AFSPA, POTA, Article 377, Article 370, Land Acquisition
Dowry Act:
The Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961 article 3 specifies that the penalty for giving or taking dowry does not
apply to presents which are given at the time of a marriage to the bride or bridegroom, when no demand
for them have been made.
Although Indian laws against dowries have been in effect for decades, they have been largely criticised as
being ineffective.[9] The practice of dowry deaths and murders continues to take place unchecked in many
parts of India and this has further added to the concerns of enforcement.[10]
Section 498A of the Indian Penal Code required the bridegroom and his family to be automatically arrested
if a wife complains of dowry harassment. The law was wide abused and in 2014, the supreme court ruled
that arrests can only be made with a magistrates approval.
Armed Forces (Special Powers) Acts (AFSPA), are Acts of the Parliament of India that grant special
powers to the Indian Armed Forces in what each act terms "disturbed areas". [1] According to The
Disturbed Areas (Special Courts) Act, 1976 once declared disturbed, the area has to maintain status quo
for a minimum of 3 months. One such act passed on September 11, 1958 was applicable to the Naga Hills,
then part of Assam. In the following decades it spread, one by one, to the other Seven Sister States in
India's northeast. [2] Another one passed in 1983 and applicable to Punjab and Chandigarh was withdrawn
in 1997, roughly 14 years after it came to force. [3] An act passed in 1990 was applied to Jammu and
Kashmir and has been in force since. [4] The Acts have received criticism from several sections for alleged
concerns about human rights violations in the regions of its enforcement alleged to have happened. [5][6]
Politicians like P. Chidambaram and Saifuddin Soz of Congress have advocated revocation of AFSPA,
while some like Amarinder Singh are against its revocation. [7][8]
The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002 (POTA) was an Act passed by the Parliament of India in 2002,
with the objective of strengthening anti-terrorism operations. The Act was enacted due to several terrorist
attacks that were being carried out in India and especially in response to the attack on the Parliament. The
Act replaced the Prevention of Terrorism Ordinance (POTO) of 2001 and the Terrorist and Disruptive
Activities (Prevention) Act (TADA) (198595), and was supported by the governing National Democratic
Alliance. The Act was repealed in 2004 by the United Progressive Alliance coalition. The bill was defeated
in the Rajya Sabha (the upper house) by a 113-98 vote, [3] but was passed in a joint session (425 Ayes and
296 Nos), as the Lok Sabha (lower house) has more seats. It was only the third time that a bill was passed
by a joint session of both houses of Parliament. [4][5][6] The Act defined what constituted a "terrorist act"
and who a "terrorist" was, and granted special powers to the investigating authorities described under the
Act. In order to ensure that discretionary powers granted to the investigating agencies were not misused
and human rights violations were not committed, specific safeguards were built into the Act. [7]
Article 377
Chapter XVI, Section 377 of the Indian Penal Code dating back to 1860, [1] introduced during the British
rule of India, criminalises sexual activities "against the order of nature", arguably including homosexual
sexual activities. The section was decriminalized with respect to sex between consenting adults by the
High Court of Delhi on July 2009. That judgement was overturned by the Supreme Court of India on 11
December 2013, with the Court holding that amending or repealing Section 377 should be a matter left to
Parliament, not the judiciary. On 6 February 2016, the final hearing of the curative petition submitted by
the Naz Foundation and others came for hearing in the Supreme Court. The three-member bench headed
by then the Chief Justice of India T. S. Thakur said that all the 8 curative petitions submitted will be
reviewed afresh by a five-member constitutional bench. [2]
Article 370
Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is an article that grants special autonomous status to the state of
Jammu and Kashmir. The article is drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, Transitional and
Special Provisions. [1] The State's Constituent Assembly was empowered to recommend the articles of the
Indian constitution to be applied to the state or to abrogate the Article 370 altogether. After the state
Constituent Assembly has dissolved itself without recommending abrogation, the Article 370 was deemed
to have become a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution. [2][3]
Land Acquisition
As per the Act, the union or state governments can acquire lands for its own use, hold and control,
including for public sector undertakings and for "public purpose", and shall include the following
for strategic purposes relating to naval, military, air force, and armed forces of the Union, including
central paramilitary forces or any work vital to national security or defence of India or State police, safety
of the people;
for infrastructure projects as defined under the Act;
project for project affected families;
project for housing for such income groups, as may be specified from time to time by the appropriate
project for planned development or the improvement of village sites or any site in the urban areas or
provision of land for residential purposes for the weaker sections in rural and urban areas;
project for residential purposes to the poor or landless or to persons residing in areas affected by natural
calamities, or to persons displaced or affected by reason of the implementation of any scheme undertaken
by the Government, any local authority or a corporation owned or controlled by the State.[1]
The land can be acquired for private bodies for certain purposes:
for public private partnership projects, where the ownership of the land continues to vest with the
Government, for public purpose as defined in the Act;
for private companies for public purpose.[1]

11. International Law : Functioning of ICJ, Controversial Territories

The International Court of Justice (French: Cour internationale de justice; commonly referred to as
the World Court, ICJ or The Hague[2]) is the primary judicial branch of the United Nations (UN). Seated
in the Peace Palace in The Hague, Netherlands, the court settles legal disputes submitted to it by states and
provides advisory opinions on legal questions submitted to it by duly authorized international branches,
agencies, and the UN General Assembly.
The ICJ enjoys contentious, compulsory and advisory jurisdiction.
A. Contentious Jurisdiction:
The jurisdiction of ICJ founded upon the consent of the parties is known as the contentious jurisdiction. In
Nicargua case (1986) ICJR, the ICJ held that it is a fundamental principle that the consent of the state
parties to a dispute is the basis of the courts jurisdiction in contentious cases. However, the consent need
not be in any particular form and and in certain circumstances the court will infer it from the conduct of the
parties. In Corfu Channel Case (1948) ICJR between UK and Albania, the court inferred consent from the
unilateral application of the plaintiff state U.K coupled with subsequent letters from the other party
Albania. It is known as the doctrine of forum prorogatum.

In Cameroon vs. Nigeria (2002) ICJR, the ICJ stated that it is a well-established principle that the Court
will exercise jurisdiction over a state only with its consent and therefore cannot decide upon legal rights of
third states not parties to the dispute. In East Timor case (1995) ICJR, the ICJ held that it could not rule on
the lawfulness of Indonesia's conduct with regard to East Timor as Indonesia is not a party to the dispute.

Apart from this kind of contentious jurisdiction, quite a large number of bilateral and multilateral treaties
contain a clause awarding jurisdiction to the ICJ with respect to questions that may arise from the
interpretation and application of the agreements. For instance, in Bosnia vs. Yugoslavia (1996) ICJR, the
ICJ founded its jurisdiction upon Art.9 of the Genocide Convention. Similarly, in Nicaragua vs. US (1984)
ICJR, the court founded its jurisdiction on the basis of a treaty provision, Art. XXIV (2) of US-Nicaragua
Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation, 1956 providing for submission of disputes over the
interpretation or application of the treaty.

Further in Nicaragua vs. Honduras (1988) ICJR the ICJ observed that the existence of jurisdiction was a
question of law and dependent upon the intention of the parties. The Court found such intention between
the parties on the basis of Art.31 of Pact of Bogota, 1948.
B. Compulsory Jurisdiction:
Art. 36(2) of the Statute of ICJ is of great importance in extending the jurisdiction of ICJ. It says that the
state parties to the present statute may at any time recognize as compulsory the jurisdiction of ICJ in all
legal disputes concerning;
(a) the interpretation of a treaty,
(b) any question of international law,
(c) the existence of any fact amounting to breach of an international obligation and
(d) the nature or extent of reparation (damages) to be made for the breach of an international obligation.
This provision was intended to operate as a method of increasing the Courts jurisdiction, by gradual
increase in its acceptance by more and more states.
C. Advisory Jurisdiction:
The International court of Justice also has advisory jurisdiction and in its advisory jurisdiction the Court
may give advice to the General Assembly, Security Council or any member state as the case may be.
Recently the Court in its advisory jurisdiction decided the Legality of wall built by Israel case wherein
Israel allegedly in the exercise of its right of self defence from the terrorist attacks of Hamas group in
Palestine. But the Court observed that the said wall is against the well established cannons of international
law. However as this decision is not absolutely binding as such, Israel has continued with further
construction of the said wall.
Controversial Territories:

Jammu and Kashmir

The former princely state of India and Pakistan (once part of the British Empire, now part of India,
Pakistan, and China) has been disputed since the British relinquished control of the subcontinent in
the 1940s. A heavily militarized, 450-mile-long (724-kilometer-long) Line of Control has long pitted
Indian and Pakistani forces against each other in this contested Himalayan region.

The stakes were raised in 1998 when Pakistan started to catch up with India technologically and both
countries publicly tested their nuclear weapons. In some ways that escalation, however, may be part
of what is containing the crisis. "In many cases, these disputes simply linger," says Haass. "It
becomes politically too difficult to compromise and militarily too dangerous to press your case."

Indian army soldiers patrol the disputed area near the Line of Control between India and Pakistan in
December 2013.

East China Sea

A chain of remote, energy-rich islands known as the Senkaku Islands in Japan and the Diaoyu
Islands in China are the subject of a territorial and maritime dispute between the two powers that has
been escalating in recent years, especially over the past few months. (See "Why Are China and Japan
Sparring Over Eight Tiny, Uninhabited Islands?")

China has been trying to assert control over airspace in the East China Sea that overlaps with a zone
declared by Japan more than four decades ago, after years of post-World War II control by the U.S.
Japan argues that the islands were vacant (when no one occupies or controls territory, it is
considered terra nullius, "land belonging to no one") until 1895 when its government laid claim to
them; China argues that it owned the islands before then.

China is involved in multiple other territorial disputes, including the long struggle over Tibet, which
"is an example of a dispute where there is one state and an area inside it wants to be separate,"
says Ron Hassner, an associate professor of political science at the University of California,
Berkeley, who has written extensively about territory disputes. Tibet would top his list of current
disputes, he says, because of its large territory and population. (He says the oldest still-active dispute
on record is between England and Spain over Gibraltar.) He adds, "Another form of territorial
dispute is when two states argue over a piece of land that lies between them, such as Jammu and

Western Sahara

The former Spanish colony of Western Sahara in northwest Africa has been in political limbo since
Spain withdrew from the area in 1976. Although the action was not recognized
internationally, Morocco succeeded in annexing the approximately 100,000 square miles (259,000
square kilometers) of resource-rich desert territory shortly thereafter, and it has remained disputed
ever since.

12. Indias Relation with Neighbours: Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka
Pakistan has been antagonistic when maintaining relations with India. But India has made extreme efforts
to improve and stabilize relations with Pakistan. Pakistan has been buying arms from the USA. From
Indian viewpoint, it would create tension in the region. Reports indicated that Pakistan assist and conduct
training for terrorists in Punjab and Kashmir. Pakistan has been raising the Kashmir issue on various
international media. India has conveyed its concern to Pakistan over all these issues. India has assured
Pakistan that it would never attack Pakistan, but the actions of Pakistan are conflicting to the ideologies of
bilateralism enshrined in the Simla Agreement. Thus the relations between India and Pakistan are bitter.
Indias relations with Afghanistan are healthy and there is co-operation in economic, technical and cultural
fields. India applauded the UN-sponsored Geneva Agreement on Afghanistan in 1988. India recapped its
stand for an independent, non-aligned Afghanistan. Country realized that the Afghans themselves should
be allowed to decide upon their future without external pressure. To maintain friendly relations, India
provided Rs.10 crore assistance for relief and rehabilitation of Afghan refugees. India is also supporting
Afghanistan in public health, small-scale industries, and education. Bilateral relations between India and
Afghanistan have been customarily strong and pleasant. While India was the only South Asian country to
identify the Soviet-backed Democratic Republic of Afghanistan in the 1980s. Its relations were weakened
during the Afghan civil wars and the rule the Islamist Taliban in the 1990s. India assisted the rebellion of
the Taliban and became the largest regional provider of humanitarian and reconstruction aid. The new
constitutionally elected Afghan government strengthened its ties with India in wake of persisting tensions
and problems with Pakistan, which is continuing to shelter and support the Taliban. India espoused a
policy of cooperation to boost its standing as a regional power and contain its competitor Pakistan, which
supports Islamic militants in Kashmir and other parts of India. India is the major regional investor in
Afghanistan, having committed more than US$2.2 billion for rebuilding purposes.
Relations between India and Bhutan are friendly since past and it is strengthened recently. Co-operation in
economic field between the two countries has advanced them. India has helped Bhutan in industry
development such as in the field of telecommunications, hydel survey, education and forestry. Historically,
there have been strong ties with India. Both countries signed a friendship treaty in 1949, where India
would support Bhutan in foreign relations. On 8th February 2007, the Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty was
substantially revised under the Bhutanese King, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck. Whereas in the
Treaty of 1949 Article 2 read as "The Government of India undertakes to exercise no interference in the
internal administration of Bhutan. On its part, the Government of Bhutan agrees to be guided by the advice
of the Government of India in regard to its external relations." In the revised treaty, it is described as, "In
keeping with the abiding ties of close friendship and cooperation between Bhutan and India, the
Government of the Kingdom of Bhutan and the Government of the Republic of India shall cooperate
closely with each other on issues relating to their national interests. Neither government shall allow the use
of its territory for activities harmful to the national security and interest of the other". The revised treaty
also includes in it the preamble.
Indian government believe in maintaining good relations with neighbouring countries. Bangladesh is one
of its close neighbour. India had recognised Bangladesh as a separate and independent state, did so on 6
December 1971. India fought together with the Bangladeshis to liberate Bangladesh from West Pakistan in
1971. Bangladesh and India share a common tradition. They are pleasant and both nations make great
efforts to solve the problem of waters of Ganga at Farakka and Tin Bigha corridor in a spirit of give and
take. India has helped Bangladesh in the recovery of cyclone victims in 1985. In broad sense, the relations
between the two nations continue to be amiable. But major issues in relation with these two nation is that
of about 145,000 Chakma refugees who crossed over to India. Bangladesh's relationship with India has
been difficult in terms of irrigation and land border disputes post 1976. Nevertheless, India has maintained
favourable relationship with Bangladesh during governments formed by the Awami League in 1972 and
1996. The solutions of land and maritime disputes have taken out nuisances in ties.
Sri Lanka:
India and Sri Lanka has conventionally close to each other. Huge numbers of Tamil of Indian origin live in
Sri Lanka. This created cultural problem in Sri Lanka. Although the problem of the people of Indian origin
settled in Sri Lanka was solved by P.M. Lal Bahadur Shastri in a friendly manner, but the killings of the
Tamil in that country worsen the relations between the two countries. With the signing of Indo-Sri Lanka
Accord in 1987 relations improved. The Indian Peace-keeping Forces have returned to India after having
performed their job. Assassination of Rajiv Gandhi by LTTE activities put the relations between the two
countries in melancholies.
13. Additional Concepts:

Article 370 of the Indian Constitution is an article that grants special autonomous status to the state
of Jammu and Kashmir. The article is drafted in Part XXI of the Constitution: Temporary, Transitional and
Special Provisions.[1] The State's Constituent Assembly was empowered to recommend the articles of the
Indian constitution to be applied to the state or to abrogate the Article 370 altogether. After the state
Constituent Assembly has dissolved itself without recommending abrogation, the Article 370 was deemed
to have become a permanent feature of the Indian Constitution.
The state of Jammu and Kashmir's original accession, like all other princely states, was on three matters:
defence, foreign affairs and communications. All the princely states were invited to send representatives to
India's Constituent Assembly, which was formulating a constitution for the whole of India. They were also
encouraged to set up constituent assemblies for their own states. Most states were unable to set up
assemblies in time, but a few states did, in particular Saurashtra Union, Travancore-Cochin and Mysore. In
May 1949, the rulers and chief ministers of all the states agreed to accept the Constitution of India as their
own constitution. The states that did elect constituent assemblies suggested a few amendments which were
accepted. The position of all the states (or unions of states) thus became equivalent to that of regular Indian
provinces. In particular, this meant that the subjects available for legislation by the Central and State
governments was uniform across India.[4]
In the case of Jammu and Kashmir, the representatives to the Constituent Assembly[5] requested that only
those provisions of the Indian Constitution that corresponded to the original Instrument of Accession
should be applied to the State. Accordingly, the Article 370 was incorporated into the Indian Constitution,
which stipulated that the other articles of the Constitution that gave powers to the Central Government
would be applied to Jammu and Kashmir only with the concurrence of the State's constituent assembly.
This was a "temporary provision" in that its applicability was intended to last till the formulation and
adoption of the State's constitution.[6] However, the State's constituent assembly dissolved itself on 25
January 1957 without recommending either abrogation or amendment of the Article 370. Thus the Article
has become a permanent feature of the Indian constitution, as confirmed by various rulings of the Supreme
Court of India and the High Court of Jammu and Kashmir, the latest of which was in October 2015

Human trafficking is the trade of humans, most commonly for the purpose of forced labor, sexual
slavery, or commercial sexual exploitation for the trafficker or others.[1][2] This may encompass providing
a spouse in the context of forced marriage,[3][4][5] or the extraction of organs or tissues,[6][7] including
for surrogacy and ova removal.[8] Human trafficking can occur within a country or trans-nationally. Human
trafficking is a crime against the person because of the violation of the victim's rights of movement
through coercion and because of their commercial exploitation. Human trafficking is the trade in people,
especially women and children, and does not necessarily involve the movement of the person from one
place to another.
According to the International Labour Organization (ILO), forced labor alone (one component of human
trafficking) generates an estimated $150 billion in profits per annum as of 2014.[9] In 2012, the I.L.O.
estimated that 21 million victims are trapped in modern-day slavery. Of these, 14.2 million (68%) were
exploited for labor, 4.5 million (22%) were sexually exploited, and 2.2 million (10%) were exploited in
state-imposed forced labor.[10]
Human trafficking is thought to be one of the fastest-growing activities of trans-national criminal
Human trafficking is condemned as a violation of human rights by international conventions. In addition,
human trafficking is subject to a directive in the European Union

Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services
produced in a period (quarterly or yearly). Nominal GDP estimates are commonly used to determine the
economic performance of a whole country or region, and to make international comparisons. Nominal
GDP per capita does not, however, reflect differences in the cost of living and the inflation rates of the
countries; therefore using a basis of GDP at purchasing power parity (PPP) is arguably more useful when
comparing differences in living standards between nations.
Gdp of india: 2.074 trillion USD

A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from rest of the
country. SEZs are located within a country's national borders, and their aims include: increased trade,
increased investment, job creation and effective administration. To encourage businesses to set up in the
zone, financial policies are introduced. These policies typically regard investing, taxation, trading,
quotas, customs and labour regulations. Additionally, companies may be offered tax holidays, where upon
establishing in a zone they are granted a period of lower taxation.
The creation of special economic zones by the host country may be motivated by the desire to
attract foreign direct investment (FDI).[1][2] The benefits a company gains by being in a special economic
zone may mean it can produce and trade goods at a lower price, aimed at being globally
competitive.[1][3] In some countries the zones have been criticized for being little more than labor camps,
with workers denied fundamental labor rights.
The operating definition of a SEZ is determined individually by each country. According to the World
Bank in 2008, the modern day special economic zone typically includes a "geographically delimited area,
usually physically secured (fenced-in); single management/administration; eligibility for benefits based
upon physical location within the zone; separate customs area (duty-free benefits) and streamlined
procedures."special economic zone are those industrial zone which have been set up by government of
India to attract foreign companies to invest in the country.[

A treaty is an agreement under international law entered into by actors in international law, namely
sovereign states and international organizations. A treaty may also be known as an (international)
agreement, protocol, covenant, convention, pact, or exchange of letters, among other terms. Regardless of
terminology, all of these forms of agreements are, under international law, equally considered treaties and
the rules are the same. [1] Treaties can be loosely compared to contracts: both are means of willing parties
assuming obligations among themselves, and a party to either that fails to live up to their obligations can
be held liable under international law. [2]

Goods and Services Tax (GST) is an indirect taxation in India merging most of the existing taxes into
single system of taxation. It was introduced as The Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act
2016, following the passage of Constitution 122nd Amendment Bill. The GST is governed by GST
Council and its Chairman is Union Finance Minister of India Arun Jaitley.
GST is a comprehensive indirect tax on manufacture, sale and consumption of goods and services
throughout India (Except state of Jammu and Kashmir) , to replace taxes levied by
the central and state governments.
This method allows GST-registered businesses to claim tax credit to the value of GST they paid on
purchase of goods or services as part of their normal commercial activity. Administrative responsibility
would generally rest with a single authority to levy tax on goods and services.[1] Exports would be
considered as zero-rated supply and imports would be levied the same taxes as domestic goods and
services adhering to the destination principle in addition to the Customs Duty which will not be subsumed
in the GST.
ion (RTI)
Right to Information (RTI) is an Act of the Parliament of India to provide for setting out the practical
regime of right to information for citizens and replaces the erstwhile Freedom of information Act, 2002.
Under the provisions of the Act, any citizen of India may request information from a "public authority" (a
body of Government or "instrumentality of State") which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty
days. The Act also requires every public authority to computerise their records for wide dissemination and
to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for
information formally.
This law was passed by Parliament on 15 June 2005 and came fully into force on 12 October 2005. The
first application was given to a Pune police station. Information disclosure in India was restricted by
the Official Secrets Act 1923 and various other special laws, which the new RTI Act relaxes. It codifies a
fundamental right of citizens.

The right to education has been recognized as a human right in a number of international conventions,
including the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights which recognises a right to
free, compulsory primary education for all, an obligation to develop secondary education accessible to all,
in particular by the progressive introduction of free secondary education, as well as an obligation to
develop equitable access to higher education, ideally by the progressive introduction of free higher
education. Today, almost 70 million children across the world are prevented from going to school each
day.[1] As of 2015, 164 states were parties to the Covenant.[2]
The right to education also includes a responsibility to provide basic education for individuals who have
not completed primary education. In addition to these access to education provisions, the right to education
encompasses the obligation to avoid discrimination at all levels of the educational system, to set minimum
standards and to improve the quality of education.

The Jan Lokpal Bill, also referred to as the Citizen's Ombudsman Bill, is an anti-corruption bill drawn
up by civil society activists in India seeking the appointment of a Jan Lokpal, an independent body to
investigate corruption cases.[1] This bill also proposes improvements to the Lokpal and Lokayukta Bill
2011,[2] which was to be passed by Lok Sabha in December 2011.[3]
The Jan Lokpal aims to effectively deter corruption, compensate citizen grievances, and protect whistle-
blowers. The prefix Jan (translation: citizens) signifies that these improvements include inputs provided by
"ordinary citizens" through an activist-driven, non-governmental public consultation.
1913 Rabindranath Tagore (Literature - Awarded "because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and
beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own
English words, a part of the literature of the West)

1930 C.V.Raman ( Physics - For his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the effect
named after him)

1979 Mother Teresa (Peace - For work undertaken in the struggle to overcome poverty and distress,
which also constitutes a threat to peace)

1998 Amartya Sen (Economics - For his contributions to welfare economics)

2014 Kailash Satyarthi (Peace - Awarded jointly to Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai "for their
struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education)

CARE has been working in India for over 65 years, focusing on ending poverty and social injustice.

Smile Foundation is a national level development organisation directly benefitting over 400,000 children
and their families every year, through more than 200 live welfare projects on education, healthcare,
livelihood and women empowerment, in over 950 remote villages and slums across 25 states of India.
Children, their families and the community become the target group for Smile Foundations activities as
child education cannot be done in isolation and nothing else but education for children can bring long
lasting change in the society.

BRICS is the acronym for an association of five major emerging national

economies: Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa. Originally the first four were grouped as
"BRIC" (or "the BRICs"), before the induction of South Africa in 2010.[4] The BRICS members are all
leading developing or newly industrialized countries, but they are distinguished by their large, sometimes
fast-growing economies and significant influence on regional affairs; all five are G-20 members.[5] Since
2009, the BRICS nations have met annually at formal summits. China will host the 9th BRICS
summit in Xiamen on September 3rd, 4th and 5th, 2017.[6]The term does not include countries such
as South Korea, Mexico and Turkey for which other acronyms and group associations were later created.
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