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You are on page 1of 62

Submitted by Mariyam Zafar

Roll no 916

B.E 6

Lahore

Experiment :

Objective:

To evalute the effect of pole and zero location upon the time response of first and second

order system.

Pre lab:

1.Given the transfer function G(s)= a/ (s+a). Evalute settling time and rise time for the

following values of a=1,2,3,4.plot the poles

Solution:

For a=1

>>a=1

a=

>> numf=[a]

numf =

>> denf=[1 a]

denf =

1 1

>> t=tf([numf],[denf])

Transfer function:

1

-----

s+1

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on the scope we get

In the command window, write

>>p=pole(t)

p=

-1

>>z=zero(t)

z=

>>y=pzmap(t)

y=

-1

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time and settling time.

For a =2

>>a=2

a=

>> num=[a]

num =

2

>> den=[1 a]

den =

1 2

>> t=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

2

-----

s+2

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this.

By clicking on scope we get.

>> p=pole(t)

p=

-2

>> z=zero(t)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t)

y=

-2

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time and settling time

For a=3

>>a=3

a=

>> num=[a]

numf =

3

>> den=[1 a]

den =

1 3

>> t=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

3

-----

s+3

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this.

By clicking on scope we get

p =pole(t)

p=

-3

>> z=zero(t)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t)

y=

-3

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time and settling time

For a=4

>>a=4

a=

>> num=[a]

num=

4

>> den=[1 a]

den =

1 4

>> t=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

4

-----

s+4

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

In the command window

>> p=pole(t)

p=

-4

>> z=zero(t)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t)

y=

-4

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time and settling time

For 2nd order system

a) evaluate percent overshoot, settling time, peak time, and rise time for the

following values, a=4, b= 25. Also plot the poles.

Solution:

>>a=4

a=

>> b=25

b=

25

>> num=[b]

num=

25

>> den=[1 a b]

den =

1 4 25

>> t1=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

25

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 25

then draw the diagram in the simulink.

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

>> p=pole(t1)

p=

-2.0000 + 4.5826i

-2.0000 - 4.5826i

>> z=zero(t1)

z=

y=

-2.0000 + 4.5826i

-2.0000 - 4.5826i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, peak time rise time and settling time,peak time and

overshoot

b) Calculate the values of a and b so that imaginary part of the poles remains the

same but the real part is increased 2 times over that of (a) and repeat prelab(2a).

Solution:

>>a=8

a=

8

>> b=37

b=

37

>> num=[b]

numf=

37

>> den=[1 a b]

den =

1 8 37

>> t1=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

37

--------------

s^2 + 8s + 37

Write simulink in the command window. Then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

In the command window

>> p=pole(t1)

p=

-4.0000 + 4.5826i

-4.0000 - 4.5826i

>> z=zero(t1)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t1)

y=

-4.0000 + 4.5826i

-4.0000 - 4.5826i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole,peak time,overshoot, rise time and settling time

c) Calculate the values of a and b so that the imaginary part of the poles are remain

the same but the real part is decreased1/2 time over of (a) and repeat prelab(2a).

Solution:

a=2, b=22

>>a=2

a=

2

>> b=22

b=

22

>> num=[b]

num ==

22

>> den=[1 a b]

den =

1 2

>> t1=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

22

--------------

s^2 + 2s + 22

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

In the command window

>> p=pole(t1)

p=

-1.0000 + 4.5826i

-1.0000 - 4.5826i

>> z=zero(t1)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t1)

y=

-1.0000 + 4.5826i

-1.0000 - 4.5826i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, peak time,overshoot, rise time and settling time

3.

a) For the system of prelab 2(a) calculate the values of a and b so that the real

part of the poles remains the same but the imaginary part is increased 2

times ove that of prelab 2(a) and repeat prelab 2(a)

b)

Solution :

A=4, b=88

In the command window w

>>a=4

a=

>> b=88

b=

88

>> num=[b]

num =

88

>> den=[1 a b]

den =

1 4 88

>> t1=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

88

--------------

s^2 + 4s + 88

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

In the command window

>> p=pole(t1)

p=

-2.0000 + 9.1652i

-2.0000 - 9.1652i

z=zero(t1)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t1)

y=

-2.0000 + 9.1652i

-2.0000 - 9.1652i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, peak time,overshoot ,rise time and settling time

b) For the system of prelab 2(a) calculate the values of a and b so that the real

part of the poles remains the same but the imaginary part is increased 4

times over that of prelab 2(a) and repeat prelab 2(a).

Solution :

A= 4, b=340

>>a=4

a=

>> b=340

b=

340

>> num=[b]

num=

340

>> den=[1 a b]

den =

1 4 340

>> t1=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

340

--------------

s^2 + 4s + 340

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

In the command window

>> p=pole(t1)

p=

-2.0000 +18.3303i

-2.0000 -18.3303i

>> z=zero(t1)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t1)

y=

-2.0000 +18.3303i

-2.0000 -18.3303i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time peak time,overshoot and settling time

4

a) For the system of prelab 2(A) calculate the values of a and b so that tha

damping ratio remains the same but the natural frequency is increased 2

times over of prelab 2(a) and repeat prelab 2(a).

Solution :

A= 4,b=25

In the command window

>> a=4

a=

>> b=25

b=

25

>> omega=sqrt(b)

omega =

>> eeta=(a/(2*omega))

eeta =

0.4000

>> omega=10

omega =

10

>> eeta=0.4

eeta =

0.4000

>> b=omega*omega

b=

100

>> a=2*eeta*omega

a=

>> num=[b]

num =

100

>> den=[1 a b]

denf=

1 8 100

>> t=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

100

---------------

s^2 + 8 s + 100

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

In the command window write

p=pole(t)

p=

-4.0000 + 9.1652i

-4.0000 - 9.1652i

>> z=zero(t)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t)

y=

-4.0000 + 9.1652i

-4.0000 - 9.1652i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time, peak time,overshoot and settling time

b) For the system pf prelab 2 (a) calculate the values of a and b so that the

damping ratio remains the same but the natural frequency is increases 4

times over that of prelab 2(a) and repeat prelab 2(a).

Solution :

>> eeta=0.4

eeta =

0.4000

>> omega=20

omega=

20

>> b=omega*omega

b=

400

>> a=2*eeta*omega

a=

16

>> num=[b]

num=

400

>> den=[ 1 a b]

den =

1 16 400

>> t=tf([num],[den])

Transfer function:

400

----------------

s^2 + 16 s + 400

Write simulink in the command window. then draw the block diagram of the transfer

function. It will be like this

By clicking on scope we get

>> p=pole(t)

p=

-8.0000 +18.3303i

-8.0000 -18.3303i

>> z=zero(t)

z=

>> y=pzmap(t)

y=

-8.0000 +18.3303i

-8.0000 -18.3303i

Write ltiview in command window then import the above transfer function (G) the graph

will be like this with its pole, rise time and settling time,peak time and overshoot.

LAB

1) Using simulink set up the system of prelab 1 and plot the step response of

each of four transfer functions on a single graph by using the simulink LTI

viwer. Also record the values of settling time and rise time for each step

response.

Solution

>> a1=tf([1],[1 1])

Transfer function:

1

-----

s+1

Transfer function:

2

-----

s+2

Transfer function:

3

-----

s+3

Transfer function:

4

-----

s+4

>> step(a1,a2,a3,a4)

Now for LTI VIEWER (for rise time and settling time)

>> ltiview

Import the transfer functions one by one on tha single graph.

Settling time for a1=3.91

and rise time for a1=2.2.

and rise time for a2=1.1

and rise time for a3=0.732

and rise time for a4=0.549

1) Using simulink set up the system of prlab 2using the simulink LTI VIEWER

plot the step response of each of the 3 transfer functions on a single graph .

tlso record the values of percentage overshoot,setlling time,peak time and

rise time of each step response

Transfer function:

25

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 25

Transfer function:

37

--------------

s^2 + 8 s + 37

Transfer function:

22

--------------

s^2 + 2 s + 22

>> step(g,g1,g2)

>> ltiview

B1

Percent overshoot =25.4

Settling time =1.3

Rise time =0.732

B2

Percent overshoot=6.44

Settling time=0.988

Rise time=o.329

B3

Percent overshoot=50.4

Settling time=3.64

Rise time=0.261

1) Using simulink , set up the system of prelab 2 a)and prelab 3. Using the

simulink LTI viewer plot the step response of each of the 3 transfer functions

on a single graph . also record the values of percent overshoot , settling

time,peak time and rise time for each step response.

Solution:

Use the following commands in command window

Transfer function:

25

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 25

Transfer function:

88

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 88

Transfer function:

340

---------------

s^2 + 4 s + 340

>> step(f,f1,f2)

>> ltiview

for c1:

Percent overshoot=25.4

Settling time=1.3

Rise time=0.732

For c2:

Percent overshoot=50.4

Settling time=1.82

Rise time=0.131

For c3:

Percent overshoot=70.9

Settling time=1.91

Rise time=0.0607

4) simulink set up the system of prelab 2 a) and prelab 4 using the simulink

LTI viewer , plot the step response of ech of the three transfer functions

on a sigle graph. Also record the values of percent overshoot, settling

time, peaktime and a rise timr for each response

Solution:

Transfer function:

25

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 25

Transfer function:

100

---------------

s^2 + 8 s + 100

Transfer function:

400

----------------

s^2 + 16 s + 400

>> step(r,r1,r2)

>> ltiview

Transfer function:

25

--------------

s^2 + 4 s + 25

Transfer function:

100

---------------

s^2 + 8 s + 100

>> r2=tf([400],[1 16 400])

Transfer function:

400

----------------

s^2 + 16 s + 400

>> step(r,r1,r2)

Now for LTI VIEWER (for rise time and settling time,over shoot and peak time)

>> ltiview

for d1:

Percent overshoot=25.4

Settling time=1.3

Rise time=0.732

For d2:

Percent overshoot=25.4

Settling time=0.147

Rise time=0.841

For d3:

Percent overshoot=25.4

Settling time=0.42

Rise time=0.0734

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