You are on page 1of 187

Overview Table of contents A00-1

Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Tutorials

Saphir guided interpretations

B01 Saphir guided interpretation # 1:Basic features


B02 Saphir guided interpretation # 2: Multi model
B03 Saphir guided interpretation # 3: Multi gauge, multi period
B04 Saphir guided interpretation # 4: Multi well, 2-D Map
B05 Saphir guided interpretation # 5: Gas test, rate dependant skin
B06 Saphir guided interpretation # 6: QA / QC
B07 Saphir guided interpretation # 7: 2-D Map Numerical model
B08 Saphir guided interpretation # 8: 2-D Map Numerical model (2)
B09 Saphir guided interpretation # 9: Material balance
B10 Saphir guided interpretation # 10: Real time
B11 Saphir guided interpretation # 11: Multilayer Analysis with Static Rates
B12 Saphir guided interpretation # 12: Multilayer Analysis with Transient Rates
B13 Saphir guided interpretation # 13: Numerical Multiphase

Additional examples

BX01 Additional Saphir example # 1: 2 PSS


BX02 Additional Saphir example # 2: Horizontal well
BX03 Additional Saphir example # 3: Rate grouping
BX04 Additional Saphir example # 4: Tidal effects
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01 Saphir guided interpretation #1: Basic features

This chapter is an introduction to the basic features offered by Saphir. This first interpretation can be followed in
all levels of Saphir except Saphir Reader.

B01.1 Before starting Saphir

To follow this guided interpretation, you should have:


Saphir installed on your system
The files Sapb01.rat and Sapb01.asc, which by default are copied during installation to your hard disk, and
should be located in the program example directory

B01.2 Starting a Saphir session

In the File menu of the Saphir main screen choose New, the initialization main options dialog box is opened:

Fig B01.1 Initialization main options dialog box

The initial analysis type can be selected here: Standard, Numerical or Multi-layer analysis.

This screen allows the following inputs:


Test Type: Standard or Interference.
Fluid Type: Oil, Gas, Water
Rates: Oil, Gas, Water

The well and reservoir related parameter such as:


Net drained vertical thickness, h
Well radius, rw
Average porosity
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The user can also specify:


Available rate data for loading, defined by the user.
The reference date and time to calculate the elapsed time from data vs date/time of day (TOD) files.

The user can have access to the units dialog by selecting the tab Units

Fig B01.2 Initialization Units dialog box

The default units at installation are Oil Field. Alternative units can be chosen by clicking on the Load button
(SI or Hydro systems). The system of units can be customised by selecting the desired unit for each
parameter. The Other Units are Emeraude units not used by Saphir, but a single common system of units can
be shared between the two applications.
A customised units file can be saved and reloaded whenever required.

Click on to input the test information in the table:

Fig B01.3 Initialization Information dialog box

Note: Additional information can be input by clicking Add.

Go back to the Main Option dialog by pressing on the tab.


Click on Next to accept the displayed values and the default settings. The PVT dialog is displayed:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B01.4 Fluid PVT parameters dialog

This dialog allows the input of PVT parameters when available. If PVT parameters are not available, checking
one or more of the PVT parameters will activate the Calculate option to access the Kappa PVT facility.
Click on Create to accept these default parameter values and to access to the interpretation control panel
page.
Save the current file as Sapb01 with the Save option in the File menu, in the sub-directory example under
your installation directory.

B01.3 Saphir Main Screen

The Saphir main screen, Fig. B01.5, consists of:


A control panel similar to Microsoft Outlook TM on the left of the screen. The first page to appear is
Interpretation. Options not available at this stage are greyed out. The next logical default option is
highlighted by a red frame.
The menu bar at the top of the screen gives access to standard Windows facilities.
The toolbars.
The screen pages corresponding to various aspects of the analysis; QA/QC, Edit Data, Edit Rate, 2-D Map
and Analysis, can be selected by clicking on the relevant tab.
Process messages are displayed at the bottom of the screen.

Fig B01.5 Saphir main screen; Interpretation panel


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.4 Loading a rate history file

As no file has been loaded at this stage, the only options enabled in the control panel are Load Q (rates) and
Load P (pressures). The default, framed in red, is to load the rates.
Click on to load the rate. The first dialog asks for the origin of the data.

Fig B01.6 Origin of the data

Keep Ascii file as the input origin, and click OK.


Select the file Sapb01.rat with the browser, the load dialog is displayed:

Fig B01.7 Load Rate Dialog


The main options in the load dialog are:
Type of rate information: surface (default) or downhole.
Type of time information: duration (default) or time at start.
Definition of time shift.
Re-selection of the input file.
Definition of the file format.

The format can be defined as field (series of characters separated by tab, spaces or user defined), or column
(selecting the index of the characters in the line). The default (also called free format) is indeed field mode,
where the first field contains the (decimal) time information and the second the value, in this case the rate.
Accept the default setting and click on Load.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.5 Loading a pressure history file

The rate history is now displayed in a new plot and the control panel the default option is now on Load P:

Fig B01.8 Main screen after rate load

Click on and the next dialog box asks for the origin of the data.

Fig B01.9 Data origin dialog

Keep Ascii file as the input origin and click OK to confirm; select the file Sapb01.asc with the browser. The
load dialog is displayed:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B01.10 Load pressure dialog

The program suggests loading the file Sapb01.asc in free format with no time shift, no window (i.e. no limit in
the time and pressure ranges) and no filter. These items are illustrated in the second guided interpretation and
in the relevant pages of the Reference Manual.
Click on to load the pressure history using the default settings. The pressures are now displayed on the
history plot:

Fig B01.11 Job history plot


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.6 Extracting a group

In the control panel the Extract dP option is now enabled and suggested as default: i.e. select pressure data
from a group where the diagnostic will be performed.
Click on to call the Extract dP dialog:

Fig B01.12 Extract Delta P dialog

Saphir is not restricted to extracting DeltaP for a single constant rate and an analysis can be made on a
group of rates. By default, when the rate history is loaded, Saphir creates groups that can be:

A production group: A sequence of flow periods of strictly positive rates.


An injection group: A sequence of flow periods of strictly negative rates
A build-up: A zero rate period after a production
A fall-off: A zero rate period after an injection

The dialog Fig B01.13 allows the selection of the gauge (in this example there is only one) and the group (build-
up #1 or production #1). Click on OK to confirm the choice.
The DeltaP parameters dialog is displayed:

Fig B01.13 DeltaP parameters dialog

The default settings suggest extracting the last zero flow group from the pressure history, with a filter of 100
points per cycle and a derivative smoothing of 0.1. Please note that these default settings may be modified in
the Settings page.
A value of initial pressure (P at dt=0) is suggested: it is the closest existing pressure point to the time when the
rate changes. If not, as in this case, the first pressure recorded in the build-up period is selected.
Click on OK to accept the proposed defaults values.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

A log-log plot of the pressure change and the derivative is displayed at the same time as a semi-log plot of
pressure change against superposition time and the job history plot, Fig. B01.15. Also note that the active
group extracted is highlighted on the history plot. These "Automatic" plots are always displayed after a group
has been extracted. Their scales may be changed but they cannot be deleted, as they are necessary for the
rest of the interpretation process.
The match lines have been drawn on the log-log plot, the pressure match is set where the derivative starts to
stabilize and the 45 line for the time match has been set on the early time (wellbore storage) data.
The default option on the control panel is now Model.

Fig B01.14 Main screen after extracting deltaP

It can be seen that at early time, the derivative follows a unit slope, but with a difference between the pressure
and its derivative, which is likely to come from a wrong estimation of the initial pressure. The difference is 3 psi
out of a total pressure change of several hundred psi.
The true value of p@dt=0 should be 3087 psia.
We shall override the default option and correct deltaP to get a better pressure curve.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.7 Active plot options

Activate the log-log plot by clicking on it and make the plot full page by double-
clicking on the title bar. Click on the right mouse button on the plot: the pop-up
menu shown opposite is displayed.

The equivalent toolbar specific to this plot is shown below.

Note: This is only available when the log-log plot is full screen.

B01.7.1 Correcting a flow period

Click on the right mouse button in the log-log plot area and select Set and P@dt=0 in the pop-up menu. The
following dialog is displayed:

Fig B01.15

Input the correct last flowing pressure: 3087 psia. Click OK.
The early time data are now corrected in the log-log plot and we are ready to proceed with the analysis:

Fig B01.16 Log-Log after correction


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.7.2 Drawing a semi-log straight line

Click on the right mouse button to display the pop-up menu and select the option line and then regression.
On the plot click twice to indicate the time limits between which the derivative exhibits IARF stabilisation.
Saphir displays a yellow line corresponding to the semi-log straight line slope.
At the same time, the IARF straight line is drawn on the superposition plot:

Fig B01.17 IARF straight line

The semi-log straight line can also be drawn with the same procedure on the superposition plot.
Clicking on the right mouse button on the maximized log-log or the semi-log plot, then on results or the results

button in the toolbar shows the results corresponding to the straight line. Results can also be accessed by
double clicking in the small status window at the top right of the screen.

B01.8 The file menu

This is a good time to save the file and see how it is stored:
Click on to save the interpretation at this stage.
File menu:

The available options, detailed in the reference manual are:


New To start a new interpretation
Open To open a previous interpretation
Close To close the current interpretation but remain in Saphir
Save Save file to the current name and directory
Save as Continue the interpretation with a new name
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Previous Version Reverts to the latest saved version

Print Print plots, results and listing


Print Preview To view on the screen the report final apperance
Print set up Choose the printer, the page format etc.
Exit Close Saphir

The session named Sapb01 is stored in a file named Sapb01.ks3 in the active directory.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B01.9 Model generation

The Model option is now the default on the control panel.


Clicking on Shift causes a flash sign to appear on the interpretation page icons of the control panel. This
calls the automatic equivalent of this option.
Click on to generate the automatic model.
The automatic model assumes a homogeneous infinite behaviour. The kh and C being calculated from the
current pressure and time matches, Saphir estimates a value of skin coherent with the pressure change and
generates the model. Using this model and the flow-rate history, the program then back calculates the initial
pressure Pi from p@dt = 0. The multirate model is generated and displayed with the data for comparison on the
Log-log, Semi-log and History plots, Fig. B01.18.

Fig B01.18 Main screen after the automatic model generation

Click on the model button to call the model dialog box:

Fig B01.19 Model dialog box


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Since the automatic model has been generated, Saphir is holding a value for the Skin factor and the Generate
option is enabled. The model dialog box is presented as a spreadsheet. Each parameter value can be edited in
the corresponding box. Three drop boxes select the desired model by determining the well conditions, the
reservoir type and the boundaries.
On the lower left hand side, boxes can be checked to enable special model conditions such as rate dependent
skin and changing wellbore storage. The pseudo time and show p-average can also be enabled. The Pi value
can be specified and imposed instead of using the back simulated value from the model.
In case of a multiwell configuration the user can add the interference from other wells.
On the bottom the button opens a dialog whereby the user can extend or shorten the simulation
calculation.

B01.10 Matching the model to the data

Activate the log-log plot by double clicking on the header.


Click on the right mouse button and in the pop-up menu select results to see simultaneously a short version
of the results and the facilities of the active plot.
To modify the match, click on the plot holding the mouse button down. The model can then be dragged across
the screen to the best fit with the data. The results calculated from the match are simultaneously updated.

Fig B01.20 Adjusting the match

Double click on the plot header to go back to the Main Menu. The default is Improve.
Click on Shift/Model to generate the automatic model again in order get a model consistent with the new
pressure and time matches.
The Improve option invokes a non-linear regression routine which iteratively matches the data to generated
models, changing in this case the values of C, k and S, until the best fit is obtained. In more complex models,
boundary distances, interporosity flow coefficients and all relevant parameters are taken into account. Individual
parameters may be left variable or fixed.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on to call the improve option. By default all parameters are set as variable, Fig B01.22.

Fig B01.21 Improve dialog box

The parameters are selected constant or variable in the regression by setting the corresponding check box.
Clicking on will call the following dialog:

Fig B01.22 Fitted data selection

The + (add) and - (delete) buttons allow regression points to be added or removed. Points are deleted by
defining a box, as for a Zoom-in. When the second corner of the box is selected, and the mouse released, the
points inside the corresponding time range are deleted. Additional points can be added by selecting + and
clicking at the time when the point is to be added.

Click on OK to accept the default set of points. The program returns to the Improve dialog.

Click on to start the regression process.


The program starts the non-linear regression, (Fig B01.23) changing all allowed regression parameters to
reduce the standard deviation between the simulated pressures and the data for the selected points. The
parameters of the previous iteration are displayed on the table showing their position between the limits set for
the regression.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-15
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B01.23 Regression progress dialog

Double click on the plot header to return to the main screen.

B01.11 Horner plot

Since this test was a build-up following a single production period a Horner plot is a valid alternative to the
superposition plot.
In the Control panel select the page Interpretation 2. Click on the icon to access the flexible plot facility:

Fig B01.24 Flexible plot dialog

At the top of the dialog box the user can choose in the combo box predefined plots (MDH, Horner, Square root,
Tandem root, user defined). To practice we will create a user defined plot.
The default is the superposition (multirate) plot for the X axis, and for the Y axis, pressure values on a linear
scale. To create a Horner plot, select Build-up, Saphir then suggests the equivalent production time tp, which
can be edited. Default is cumulative production divided by the last flow-rate. Click OK to confirm your choice.
The plot appears at the bottom right side of the screen showing the pressure data and the model. It also shows
the corresponding derivative (slope of the Horner curve) to allow the user to visualise stabilized IARF.
Activate this plot by a double click on the header. The plot is displayed full screen.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #1 B01-16
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Clicking on the right mouse button displays a pop-up menu which allows the drawing of a straight line (see
above) and then shows the main results calculated from the straight line. In the same pop-up menu the user
can select results, it displays a table indicating the results of the straight line.

Fig B01.25 Horner and derivative plot

Note: When exiting this Saphir session save the Sapb01 file to use it later in another guided session.

What next?
Restart the same interpretation from nothing without using this documentation.
Try the same facilities on a data set of your own.
Go to the second guided interpretation, to use more control panel functions and additional options. The
second guided interpretation assumes that you are familiar with the basic facilities described in this first
introduction.
Alternatively, File, Exit and you are back to the Windows menu.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B02 Saphir guided interpretation #2: Multi model

This guided interpretation covers the use of the Ascii file format option, time shift, correction of time errors, the
manual improve and the multi-model/analysis options. This guided session will use the data sets Sapb02.rat
and Sapb02.asc stored in the Examples directory during the installation.
It is assumed that the user is familiar with Saphir to a level demonstrated in the guided session #1; therefore
the previously discussed functions will not be covered in detail in this session.

B02.1 Starting a New Interpretation

Main well test events:


The test was started on 25th April at 7:00 AM. After two false starts the well was finally flowed for over 20 hours
before being closed in for 24 hours on the 26th April around 6:30 PM.
Start Saphir, in the menu File select New and go through the initialization procedure. Define the reference
date as: 25 April 2002 00:00:00. Accept the other default values. When initialization is over, click Create >>.
This moves Saphir to the main interpretation screen with the Outlook type control panel The whats next
default (red square) is on the (rate) button.
Go to the File menu to save as Sapb02 in the example subdirectory.

B02.2 Loading the Rate History with the Format option

Click on to start the load process, use the Ascii file Sapb02.rat. Choose the file, and the content is shown
in the table in the Saphir load data dialog.
Scrolling down in the column mode, observe that the rate data is shown as time at start. Therefore, change
the setting of the time selection droplist from duration to time at start.
Staying in Column mode and scroll right and down to display the table with the data.
Using the cursor, highlight the columns (click and drag on one row only) corresponding to the time values and
select hour:min in the menu that automatically appears when the mouse button is released.
Proceed in the same way for the rate data columns and select Liquid rate:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.1

The Load button in now enabled. At this point it is possible to click on Load and the data load would proceed,
however do not do this at this point. We will investigate an alternative format. Change to Field mode and scroll
right and down to display the data. You can define the time format by clicking on the time field header and
selecting hour:min and the rate format by clicking on the rate field header and select Liquid rate. The default
unit for Liquid rate is STB/D, but this can be customized in the drop list that appears when clicking on the unit
(STB/D) button
When the format is correct all the valid lines are shown in white and the Load button is enabled:

Fig B02.2
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on the Load button and you will observe the process bar in progress during the load. A warning is
displayed:

Fig B02.3

This warning is given when the program finds the time values not to be strictly increasing and asks the user to
confirm if this corresponds to an error to be ignored or a change to the next day. In this case, 24 hours have to
be added to the time value. As the acquisition was made over several days, select Apply to all and the 24
hours jump would be systematically applied.

Fig B02.4

At the end of the load, not knowing the duration of the last flow period Saphir will ask for this duration. In this
example, accept the default value 24 hours and click OK.

B02.3 Loading the Pressure History with the FORMAT option

Select which is now the default. Accept the default ASCII in the load data dialog.
The file to load is Sapb02.asc, if you are not in the default directory (..\Examples) find it with the Windows
browser.
In the format definition window, Field mode is the default. Click on the column header button above the values of
time and choose Hour:Min:Sec.
Proceed in the same way with the pressure field: click on the pressure column header button and in the pop up
menu select Pressure. The default unit is psia, but this can be changed by using the pop up list available with
a click on the button indicating psia.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.5

The background color changes from gray to white indicating that the format is properly defined.
The pressure recording started on the 26th whereas the file reference date is the 25th. This can be corrected with
the Time shift button.
Click on Time shift. The document and the gauge reference date/time are displayed. Because the defined
format is in Time of day, only the date is enabled for the gauge reference. Change the date to the 26th, and
note that the Time Shift is automatically updated to 24 hrs. Validate with OK. Note that when you are back to
the load data dialog, the Time shift button now has a green check mark.

Fig B02.5a

Click on to execute the load and again you will get the warning:

Fig B02.5b
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

As previously, answer Apply to all.


The Job History is displayed, Fig B02.6, but the pressures are not synchronized with the rate file.

Fig B02.6 Job history plot

The default option in the control panel is now Extract dP. Click on to call the Extract dP dialog, accept
the default value and load the last flow period, in this example the build-up.

Fig B02.7 Automatic plots, unsynchronized data


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The appearance of the pressure and the derivative at early time is typical of a time error (pressure/rate not
synchronized) and it is usually the rate history that is incorrect. This error is common since the rate information
is taken from the well test report (usually hand written) whereas the pressure data comes from the gauge or
from an acquisition system with a relatively more accurate clock time, therefore the start time of the build-up
from the gauge and the well test report do not match exactly. We are now going to adjust the rate history to the
exact time at which the pressure break (shut-in) is observed.

B02.4 Adjusting the rate history

Select the Edit rates option tab. The Well test history plot is displayed:
On the left hand side there is a spreadsheet with the rate data.
On the top right hand side the pressure history plot.
In the middle the schematic of flow period groups
On the bottom right hand side the rate history plot

Fig B02.8 Job history plot in Edit rate aspect

Create a pencil thin zoom-in (on the pressure plot) of the first few pressure points of the Build Up #3. Do this
once or twice, by defining a window by click and drag. You should now see that what first appeared as the first
build-up point is, in fact, a number of points very close together and they are still in the drawdown, you can see
that P @ dt=0 does not correspond to where the rate history goes to zero, this need adjusting, Fig B02.9.
Zoom in again if necessary. Note that on the Y-axis, the Zoom works on the pressure scale only, and not on
the rate scale.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.9 Zoom in to view end of flow period

To synchronize the rate history shut-in time and the pressure history:
Click on the button (move rate to closest pressure).
Click and drag the dashed yellow vertical line on the rate plot to where the last flowing pressure point on the
pressure plot should be.
The rate and the pressure histories are now synchronized.

Fig B02.10 Rate history synchronized


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The Rate group schematic is also updated. Click on the Analysis 1 tab to go back to the interpretation
screen. With the Shift key pressed, select Extract dP, which executes an automatic Extract dP for the final
flow period; the build-up: The log-log plot now has the correct shape at early time and we can proceed with the
interpretation process.

Fig B02.11 Extract dP with corrected history

B02.5 Basic Interpretation - Log-log analysis

The build-up can be interpreted using various analytical models, first we will consider the diagnostic to show a
response rf om a homogeneous reservoir with an outer boundary detected some 3 hours after shut-in. The
following is very close to the first guided interpretation.
The program has set the pressure match on the derivative data between 1 and some 3 hours, which is
consistent with a homogeneous reservoir with a boundary effect.
Click on (shift/ ) to call the automatic model option. The program generates the automatic model as
explained in the guided interpretation #1 and displays the updated plots (homogeneous infinite acting).
The option improve is now the default in the Control panel.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B02.6 Improving the analysis "manually"

We are going to improve the match of the early part of the data before considering the boundary.
Click on the improve button in the control panel.

Fig B02.12 Manual Improve; variable selection

The program suggests the model parameters, C, S and k as variables. Leave all parameters variable then click
on . The log-log plot is displayed with the points selected for regression marked by white inverted
triangles. Delete the last three points, as we are not interested in the late time boundary effect at this stage.
Select in the menu bar. Then define a box (click & drag), exactly as in the zoom option.

Fig B02.13 Deleting the last 3 regression points

The points inside the selected box are deleted. If you make a mistake click on to recover the original points.
Click on OK to go back to the improve dialog.
Click on Run to proceed with the regression.
We did not call the automatic improve, because in this case the program would have regressed on all default
points including the last points where the boundary is observed. This would have changed the pressure match
and reduced the quality of the early time fit (time match).
When the regression is finished the three automatic plots are displayed.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.14 Improved infinite acting model

B02.7 Adding a boundary effect

Select the model button in the control panel.


The model dialog box is then displayed. In the Boundaries drop list select One Fault:

Fig B02.15 Model dialog and Boundaries menu

A default distance to the sealing fault is proposed. To help in the estimation of a more realistic distance it is

recommended to use the pick option button :


The log-log plot is displayed and you are asked to pick the time when the derivative data leaves the previ ously
established level of radial flow, at about 3 hours. Accept the distance calculated by the program and generate
the model.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.16 Boundary match before regression

We see on the log-log plot that the distance was over estimated as the limit effect occurs too late.
Accept the default manual improve , in the dialog then uncheck C and k to fix them as constants
Click on to choose the regression points, click on to recover the original points.
Click OK to go back to the previous display.
Click Run and the regression program adjusts the distance to the boundary (Fig B02.17).

Fig B02.17 Boundary match after regression


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Double click on the log-log plot header to display it full page, click on the right mouse button in the plot area
and select Results in the pop-up menu to display the results dialog box or select the third button in the log-log
plot menu bar:

Fig B02.18 Results dialog box

The data stops before the second stabilization is reached. A semi-log analysis may now be attempted.

B02.8 Semi-log analysis

Activate the log-log plot by a double click on the header, right mouse click in the plot area and choose Line in
the pop up menu (or use the ninth button in the log-log plot menu bar). Click twice to determine the time limits
of the first stabilization corresponding to the radial flow.
Saphir automatically switches to the semi-log plot (superposition) and displays the semi-log straight line
corresponding to the line that was identified on the log-log plot. Two large vertical tick marks indicate the
interval of the regressed data points, a smaller tick mark indicates the value at dt=1 hour, and p* (intercept) is
indicated by a horizontal tick on each y-axis. The result window comes up automatically and shows the results
both from the model match and the straight-line slope.

A semi-log boundary (single fault) distance analysis can also be performed.


Click on the Interpretation 2 header in the left main control panel (towards the bottom) to call the special
interpretation facilities.
Click on to call the Flexible plot facility:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B02.19 Flexible plot dialog

Choose linear pressure versus superposition time (Multi-rate).


The superposition plot is displayed. The derivative plot can be displayed by selecting Show/Derivative in the
menu by cllicking on the right button on the plot. The derivative plot will help you to recognize the IARF period.
The principle is to match the first IARF (before the fault is detected) with the first radial line. kh and skin are
calculated from this line. The second radial will correspond to the Semi-IARF after the fault is detected.
Theoretically the second radial flow straight line will have a slope twice the 1st radial if there is only one single
fault. If the slope is greater than twice the 1st radial, one could use this method, assuming intersecting faults,
to give the ratio of the angle between the faults. Based on kh and the time at which both lines intersect, the
distance to the fault is calculated.
Click on the right mouse button, select line, Combined, and Faults, Fig B02.20:

Fig B02.20 Combined Faults analysis


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The Line pop-up menu now includes specific options for the first and second radial flow. Define the first radial
by regression through the points corresponding to the first Infinite Acting Radial Flow on the derivative. In the
same way define the second line (using Draw) through the last few points, which correspond to the start of
semi-radial flow. You can also use the ninth button in the flexible plot menu bar.

Click on the right mouse button and select Results to call up the results, Fig B02.21, pull down the results
dialog box in order to see the results of both straight lines. These results are automatically updated when the
straight lines are modified. The slope of the line through the last points should be twice that of the first line so
we will adjust it to this value.

Click on the right button and in the pop-up: 2nd radial Modify. Click near the center of the plot and hold the
mouse button down. Then drag the mouse horizontally to adjust the slope, without affecting the height, until the
slope is twice that of line 1 and then drag the mouse vertically to adjust the height, without affecting the slope,
until the second line is at a tangent to the end of the model curve. If the semi-IARF was more established the
second line would go through the last data points.

Fig B02.21 Specialized boundary analysis


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-15
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B02.9 Multiple interpretations

On the right hand side of the tab bar select the tab New; it opens the new interpretation dialog box:

Fig B02.22 New Analysis

Select Nothing to start from, this means that the new interpretation will be based on nothing as if we started
from scratch, then click OK.
Click Extract dP on the Interpretation page of the Control Panel to call the Delta P dialog and proceed as
in before.
The second model will be a 2-porosity transient, thus the pressure match has to be adjusted in order for this
diagnostic to make sense. Activate the log-log plot by double clicking on the header and adjust the match by
clicking and dragging.

Fig B02.23 Log-log match adjustment


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-16
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Go back to the main screen. Click on automatic model (shift/ ) to call the automatic model option to
generate a homogeneous model fitting the early time data (Fig B02.24).

Fig B02.24 Homogeneous model match

Click on to access the model catalog and select the 2-porosity transient (sphere) reservoir model in the
reservoir drop list box (Fig B02.25).

Fig B02.25 2-porosity parameters dialog


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-17
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on the button to determine interactively the lambda and omega values.
The log-log plot is activated. Click on the time corresponding to the change of slope (fig B02.26).
Note: all the graphic zoom tool box is available for the user commodity.

Fig B02.26 2-porosity parameters graphic evaluation

Click Generate.
The main screen shows the log-log, semi-log and Cartesian plots.
Click on Shift (automatic improve) to adjust the match (Fig B02.27).

Fig B02.27 Final match with 2-porosity model


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-18
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on New and choose the option to start from Analysis #1. The Automatic plots are displayed with model
#1.
Click on model to access the model catalogue. Select a radial composite reservoir model and change the
boundary condition to infinite.

Fig B02.28 Model Dialog for Radial composite parameters

Click on the pick option to determine interactively the heterogeneity distance.

Click on the next pick option to determine interactively on the log-log plot the mobility and diffusivity ratio
value. You are asked to pick the second stabilization level.
Click Generate.
Click on Shift/ (automatic improve) to adjust the match. You can see on the screen the parameters value
progression which results in the refined match illustrated in Fig B02.29.

Fig B02.29 Composite model match after improve


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-19
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

You can continue to open as many analyses as required and go back to a previous diagnostic at any time by
clicking on the corresponding tab. When the log-log, semi-log, or history plot is maximized, you can toggle the
Compare analyses mode on. Double-click on the history plot title bar. When the plot is maximized click on

the button in the toolbar or use the right click method to access the menu to display the Active only, All, or
List:

Fig B02.30 History plot showing All analyses

Return to the main screen and save the session.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #2 B02-20
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B03 Saphir guided interpretation #3: Multi gauge, multi period

This guided interpretation covers the use of pressure data from multiple gauges, the comparative quality control
of these data sets, the criteria that can be used to select the most reliable gauge and multiple flow period
analysis. This guided session will use the data sets stored in the files Sapb03a.asc, Sapb03b.asc,
Sapb03c.asc, Sapb03d.asc and Sapb03.rat stored in the examples directory which was installed during the
setup of Saphir.
In order to make the demonstration clear and straightforward, the data is synthetic (simulated) and the gauge
acquisition problems were created to simulate some common field problems.
It is assumed that the user is conversant with the functionality taught in the two previous guided sessions.

B03.1 Starting the New Interpretation

This oil well test comprises of a 26 hours clean up period followed by a 51 hours build-up, then the well was
produced on increasing chokes for 26, 32, 39, 38 hours respectively and then closed in for an 85 hour final
build-up. The data was acquired with two gauges (1 and 2) set at 9870 ft and two gauges (3 and 4) set at 9888
ft. This data is stored in files Sapb03a.asc, Sapb03b.asc, Sapb03c.asc, Sapb03d.asc respectively.
Select New in the File menu and go through the initialization procedure, accepting the default values for the
different parameters. When the initialization is over, click Create >>.
The main interpretation page is opened by default with its Outlook type control panel. Click on the QA/QC
tab to open the QA/QC page.
Go to the File menu to save as Sapb03 in the example sub directory.

B03.2 Loading the data sets

Click on in the QA/QC control panel page. Choose to load from an Ascii file (default) and in the file browser
select the file Sapb03a.asc.

Fig B03.1
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click Load and observe the loading process. During the load the following dialog appears:

Fig B03.2

Select Apply to all and OK. The first pressure data set is displayed:

Fig B03.3

Follow the same procedure for the other files. All the four pressure data sets are plotted on the screen:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.4

To activate the legends click on . The active and reference gauges are as defined by the droplists

. The reference and active gauges will also be indicated


in the displayed legends.

B03.3 Quality control options

B03.3.1 Creating the difference plot

Since more than one pressure data set has been loaded the icon Difference is enabled. Click on this
icon.
The following dialog asks the user for the channel to use as a reference for the difference plot and the number of
data points used to calculate it. Choose one of the lower gauges as reference and choose Ref. Gauge
Gauges. This is in order to keep the established convention of Differential Pressure Analysis and facilitate the
recognition of wellbore phenomena such as a change in fluid densities in the wellbore.

Fig B03.5
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.6

The difference plot is displayed. You can click on the difference plot to activate it and use the zoom facility as
many times as necessary to magnify and investigate the difference curves various responses. The above plot
clearly shows that the orange curve is not synchronized in time with the others which is normal as it is rare that
different pressure gauges have the same gauge time. In order to smooth the curves the QA/QC module of
Saphir can easily do this synchronization in various ways: automatic through regression, using the mouse or
input manually the shift.
We will here show the automatic shift. It is important to choose a common event on all the data channels; the
beginning of a build-up is usually fine. Zoom in a few times on the event, see below.

Fig B03.7

It can be seen that Sapb03b is not synchronized with the other gauges, which is the reason we see a number
of peaks in the difference channel above.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

We will now proceed with the automatic synchronization.

Activate Sapb03b in the drop list and click on , Automatic Shift and the Sapb03b is automatically
synchronized with the reference channel. As a reminder all the tool bar menus are also accessible with a right
mouse click within the plot area.

The result after synchronizing can be seen as follows:

Fig B03.8

B03.3.2 Data comparison and diagnosis

The pressure difference between the gauge measurements permits diagnosis of the gauge performance and
quality, possible problems can be identified and enables the interpreter to choose the most appropriate gauge
to use for the analysis. In addition the engineer can choose which part of the data is valid for transient analysis
to avoid misinterpretations. Details on differential analysis are given in the guided QA/QC session and in the
reference manual.

The plot above is shown after time synchronization between all the gauges and the reference gauge. The
difference of gauge number 2 is not stable thus it is conceivable that the pressure gauge has a drift problem
that already at this stage eliminates this gauge from the analysis. When looking at the lower gauges (3 and 4),
the pressure difference observed (around 7 psi) is consistent with the 18 ft depth difference in an oil gradient.
Gauge 3, however, is subject to an unexplained shift between 130 and 235 hours, which makes it unreliable. It
is therefore to be rejected. Gauges 1 and 4 are consistent and do not present any apparent abnormal behavior.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The choice of gauge 4 is therefore self-explanatory as this is the gauge closest to sand face and minimum
pressure corrections in a relative unknown fluid environment will minimize errors in the interpreted average
drainage area pressure.
B03.4 Loading the flow periods

In the tab bar select Analysis 1 to display the interpretation screen and the main control panel.
In the Gauge list drop list in the toolbar select Sapb03d.

B03.4.1 loading the rate history

Click to load the rate history from the file Sapb03.rat.


The screen now shows the pressure and rate history:

Fig B03.9
B03.4.2 Refining the rate history

Click on the tab to access the rate view/edit window:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.10

In the toolbar, click on the first button to bring up the Actions drop list menu:

The icon opens the refine rates function. This allows the user to refine a rate history by splitting a flow
period and by calculating the corresponding flow rate values in agreement (in time and pressure values) with the
pressure history.

To experiment, in the toolbar click on the second button to bring up the merge rates dialog, and using
the from/to pick options, merge the flow periods from 3 to 6 and accept the average value.

Fig B03.11
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on refine rates and select with the cursor the new production period #2, from start to finish.

Fig B03.12

Validate by yes the dialog Keep new (continuous line) rate history?.

Fig B03.13

Vertical red lines shows where Saphir chose the rate changes from its pressure history analysis. The
recalculated rate history is quite similar to the original one and demonstrates the efficiency of this facility in
cases like this: increasing rate values and clear pressure behavior as long as the cumulative production is
known.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.14
B03.4.3 Loading one flow period

Click the Analysis 1 tab and then to call the Extract dP dialog, accept the default value and load the
last flow period in this case the last build-up.
The main screen displays the automatic plots with the selected gauge data:

Fig B03.15
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B03.4.4 Loading all flow periods

In the toolbar, open the Group list popup menu:

Choose List.
The Group selection dialog is displayed, select all groups:

The program will display the "Delta P parameter" dialog for each group not already loaded.

Fig B03.16

Accept the default values for all of them. The plots in the main screen show the curve for all the groups:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.17

Click on to show the legends of the groups.


On the main screen we now have the pressure data from Sapb03d for all periods of the job history, the log-log
plot and the superposition plot. On the superposition plot the various flow periods pressure data is normalized
with respect to the reference rate.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B03.4.5 Switching from one flow period to another

The user can decide in the Group list pop-up the desired pressure group to be plotted.
As an example you can select build-up #2 in the Group list pop-up and then only this group is plotted in the
various graphs.

B03.4.6 Switching to another pressure set

In the Gauge list droplist the user can select another pressure data set (1,2,3 or 4). They can be compared if
only one group is extracted. In the following Gauge Selection dialog the user can specify List and then the
pressure data sets to display:

Fig B03.18
Select All and click OK:
If the flow periods of the pressure data set were not already loaded the user is requested to input the load
information in the delta P parameters dialog as many times as needed.
Maximize the log-log plot full screen by double clicking on the plot header:

Fig B03.19
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Note: in order to avoid confusion the plot cannot be multi-flow period and multi-gauge at the same time.

B03.5 Flow period analysis

Go back to the main screen (double click on the plot header).


Select the most representative flow period with the most reliable gauge (build-up #2, Sapb03d)
Click on to generate the automatic model:

Fig B03.20

B03.6 Comparison with the other flow periods

The match with the current model can be checked on the other groups and flow periods.
Switch from one rate group to another by selecting them in the Group list pop-up menu.
The model is generated each time according to the rate history corresponding to the selected flow period and
displayed in each type of plot.
Since this pressure data set has been simulated the model match is correct for all of the flow periods but in
reality this facility can reveal an inconsistent diagnosis from a single flow period that did not reach or exhibit a
pressure behavior appearing in another.
For instance the Production period #2, which is the merge of 4 drawdowns, has a longer duration than any other
group and nevertheless shows, in spite of small peaks due to the grouping of the several flow periods,
continuity without any unexpected limit effect.
It demonstrates that the first diagnosis can be extrapolated from the 75 to the 125 hours of the Production
group #2:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.21

The model can also be compared to the complete set of groups by selecting all in the group selection dialog:

Fig B03.22
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-15
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B03.7 Comparison with the other pressure sets

In a similar way, using the Gauge list, the user can superimpose the diagnostics made with the pressure data
acquired by one gauge on the pressure acquired by another.

B03.8 Multiple analyses

The diagnostic is usually non unique, so other models can be independently considered without loosing any
results from the first analysis.
Click on the page tab New in order to initialize a new analysis and proceed as instructed in the Guided
Session #2.
Each new analysis provides the same facilities for switching from one flow period to another and from one
gauge to another without needing to reload either a pressure set nor a flow period or delta P. The data to be
analyzed is kept in the state it was left in the previous analysis.
In the group list select production #1.
Call the model dialog and add a sealing fault and using the pick option define the effect of the fault at the very
end on this drawdown (20 hr). This corresponds to a distance of approximately 2500 ft. No effect can be seen
on this flow period.

Fig B03.23

Switch in the group list to Production #2.


We can observe that the model with a sealing fault at 2500 ft shows a slight deviation at the end of the
derivative that does not show on the data of this more extended period:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #3 B03-16
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B03.24

This demonstrates that a model acceptable with one group can be rejected by looking at another. It also shows
the significance of grouping, to one flow period, several contiguous production periods.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B04 Saphir guided interpretation #4: Multi well, 2-D Map

This guided interpretation covers the use of the multiple well function 2-D Map.
This option allows the user to take into account the possible pressure interference created by the production or
injection of other wells in a connected part of the reservoir.
This guided session will use the data sets stored in the files Sapb04.asc, Sapb04.rat, Sapb04a.rat and
Sapb04b.rat stored in the Examples directory during the installation.
This guided session is also an example of how pressure interference can lead to an erroneous diagnostics. In
order to make the demonstration clear, the data is, once again, synthetic (simulated).
It is assumed that the user is fluent with the use of the functionality taught in the three previous guided
sessions.

B04.1 Starting the New Interpretation

This oil well test comprises a 24 hour production period, a 48 hour build-up and then a 24 hour production
period with a reduced rate followed by a 72 hour build-up. The well test was performed on a well in a producing
reservoir.
Select New in the File menu and go through the initialization procedure, accepting the default values for the
various parameters. When the initialization is over, click Create >>.
We are now in the main interpretation page with the main control panel.
Go to File menu to save as Sapb04 in the example sub directory.

B04.2 Loading the well test data

Click to start the load rate process, load the file Sapb04.rat and accept all the default values as indicated
in guided session #1.
Click to start the load pressure process, load the file Sapb04.asc and proceed as before.

B04.3 Analyzing the build-up#1 data

Click to call the Extract dP process, select list and choose to load all the flow periods, accept the
proposed P @ dt=0 for each flow period and all the defaults values.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B04.3.1 Analyzing the first build-up

In the Group drop list select build-up #1:

Fig B04.1

Click on to generate the automatic homogeneous infinite model. Refine the match by dragging the match
and re-execute the automatic model.

Fig B04.2
The infinite homogeneous model matches with the pressure data and derivative for 4 hours, but the data
exhibits an increasing derivative behavior that can be diagnosed as a possible limit effect.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Select in the control panel to call the model dialog and add a sealing fault. Use the pick option and
indicate the start of the limit effect around 5 hours. Click on generate. Click on Shift (automatic improve) to
adjust the match. The result is a quite satisfactory match, as shown below.

Fig B04.3

Click on the right mouse button in the area plot and select results in the pop-up menu to show the parameter
values. The result of this analysis is the presence of a sealing fault at some 400 ft.

B04.3.1 Analyzing the last build-up

In the Group drop list select Build-up #2: the current model is not so good:

Fig B04.4
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on the New tab to open a new analysis, adjust the pressure match in order to adjust it to the final
derivative stabilization and click on to generate the automatic homogeneous infinite model:

Fig B04.5

The build-up pressure derivative exhibits a shape that suggests a heterogeneous system behavior.
Select in the control panel to call the model dialog and select the dual porosity PSS reservoir model. Use
the pick option to indicate the shape and the position of the transition. Click on Generate.
Click on Shift (automatic improve) to adjust the match. The result is a good agreement:

Fig B04.6
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The conclusion is that both build-ups can be interpreted but with different models and reservoir parameters,
attempts could be made to match both with the same homogeneous (or heterogeneous) model and then to
explain the reasons why one, or the other, does not match perfectly.

B04.2 Taking into account other wells with the 2-D Map

B04.2.1 Reservoir production history

When the well was tested, the reservoir was not at rest and a few operations were performed on other wells
near the tested one:
One well, 1000ft east, was opened one hour after the tested well to produce 400 BPD for 24 hours and then
closed in for a long duration build-up.
A third well, 500 ft north, 500 ft west was produced for 4 hours at 300 BPD two hours before the second build-
up.

B04.2.2 Adding other wells to the reservoir map

We are going to add to the model the influence of these other wells using the 2-D Map facility.
Click on the 2-D Map tab to activate the reservoir map page.
The map shows the active well at the origin of the axes (coordinates 0,0).
Click on the right mouse button in the map area. Select Create Well in the pop-up menu, the cursor becomes
a yellow spot representing the new well.
Drag the new well and drop it at the correct coordinates: X= 1000 ft, Y= 0 ft, the coordinates are displayed at
the bottom of the screen in the information bar.
Repeat the operation to add a third well and drop it at: X= -500 ft, Y= 500 ft

Fig B04.7
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Positioning these wells at their exact coordinates is not easy. In order to save time we recommend you position
approximately, then to double click on the well. The New well dialog box is displayed where you can input the
exact coordinates values:

Fig B04.8

This dialog also allows loading of the well rate history by clicking on the Production tab.
Proceed with the rate load procedure and load Sapb04a.rat for the Well#1.
Click OK to validate your choice.
Repeat the same operation with the Well#2 and load Sapb04b.rat.

B04.2.3 Generating the multiwell model

Click on the New tab to initiate Analysis 3.


Click on in the control panel to call the model dialog, select a homogeneous infinite model and check Add
other wells, then click on generate.
Click on Shift (automatic improve) to adjust the match.
Display all the build-ups and activate the log-log plot:

Fig B04.9
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The same homogeneous infinite acting model matches with both build-ups.
Displaying all the flow periods would show a complete agreement demonstrating that the apparent limit or
heterogeneity effects were due to the influence of interfering wells.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #4 B04-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B05 Saphir guided interpretation # 5: Gas test

This guided interpretation is a modified isochronal test on a gas well. The well was flowed for 10-hour periods at
2000, 4000 and 6000 Mscf/d, each flow period being followed by a build-up of 10 hours. After another 10-hour
flow at 8000 Mscf/d the well was choked back to 7500 Mscf/d and flowed until stabilization before being closed
for a final build-up of 24 hours.
It is assumed that the user has followed the Guided Interpretations # 1 to # 4.

B05.1 Starting a new interpretation

Start a new Saphir gas project and follow the default path to enter the required PVT, well and reservoir
characteristics. The file Sapb05.asc was copied during the program installation to the Example directory, and is
the only file that is needed to start this interpretation. The file is the pressure file and we will proceed to load the
file as usual through the control panel Interpretation Load P. We should have the resulting pressure plot as
shown below.

Fig B05.1

We have not loaded a flow-rate and one can observe that Saphir has assigned a zero flow-rate to the duration
of the pressure history. In this case we have no flow-rate file, thus we will have to build the history from a written
well test report. This is the case for many well test interpretations and aim to illustrate the procedure adopted in
Saphir.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B05.2 Defining the flow history

Choose the tab .

In the Edit Rates page, Split a rate and Actions Add a rate are enabled in the toolbar.

Select the Split icon and position the cursor at the end of the first drawdown and click.

Fig B05.2

In the dialog you define the flow rate before and after the split. Enter 2000 Mscf/d before and 0 Mscf/d after the

split. The rate synchronizing buttons Move rate to cursor position and Move rate to nearest
pressure are now enabled in the toolbar.
Then make another split at the end of the first build-up, 0 Mscf/d before and 4000 Mscf/d after the split.
Continue until the flow rate history is complete. Follow the schedule to the right. Rates
Mscf/d
Zoom in and adjust the start of all flow-periods using the Move rate to nearest pressure . The 2000
figure below illustrates the final pressure and flow rate history before extracting the delta P of the last 0
build-up. 4000
0
6000
0
8000
7500
0

Fig B05.3
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B05.3 Interpretation

Extract Delta P for the final build-up and generate the automatic model .
A good log-log and semi-log match is obtained but the simulation is not consistent with the data during the first
four drawdowns. The automatic model generates the entire response with a constant skin equal to the skin
during the build-up that has been analyzed. The discrepancy in the simulation is indicative of rate dependent
skin.

Fig B05.4

The rate dependant skin parameters can be established by making a semi-log analysis of all the build-ups
and/or drawdowns.

We will proceed and analyze all the build-ups. Choose the List option from the Group drop list:

Select all the build-ups.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B05.5

Maximize the log-log plot and, using the button Line/Single , click once for the start of the regression
interval and again for the end of the interval. The line will be regressed on the reference group, which is in this
case build-up # 4, the log-log plot automatically shifts to the semi-log (superposition) plot and the results and
the semi-log straight line are displayed.

Fig B05.6

One could proceed to draw the other straight lines on the semi-log plot but it is recommended that the lines
be drawn on the log-log plot to be sure that the IARF period is chosen correctly. Thus we switch to the log-log
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

plot . Choose another reference group through the button , and regress the straight lines on each
group.
Most of the options in the plot menu bars are available through a pop-up menu, which is available by a right
click in the plot.

Fig B05.7

The Skin vs Rate plot is automatically generated as soon as two straight lines have been drawn. When
additional straight line are drawn, it is necessary to update the line of Skin vs Rate by pressing the right
mouse button on the plot and selecting line/reset in the drop menu.

When the Skin vs. Q plot has been deleted it is possible to recall it by pressing in the Interpretation
(2) control panel.
The resulting plot is shown maximized below with the results.
We have now four points in the relationship S = S0 + Dq and the rate dependency can be established.

Fig B05.8
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The results can be input in the current model if rate dependant skin is selected.

Fig B05.9
The resulting history match is illustrated as follows:

Fig B05.10

It is possible to regress on the history (simulation) plot. Select Improve . Check the radio button
Improve on simulation, we can now improve on both the rate dependant skin relationship and initial pressure.

Fig B05.11
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

In case the transient analysis of each flow period does not result and a satisfactory Skin versus rate plot cannot
be constructed (which is often the fact with real data), then we can approach the problem of rate dependency
as follows:
We guess a value for dS/dQ, let say, 0.002 Mscd/d-1; this value is typically a small number. We analyze the
final build up to get a value for the skin using the automatic model option. We call the model catalog and
choose rate dependant skin, input the guessed value for dS/dQ (Fig B05.12) and use the calculator to adjust
the skin at zero (no turbulence).

Fig B05.12

Click on the calculator and choose the button to adjust the skin to the skin found

during the analysis of the final build-up (S = 11.5576 in this case), then click on to update the
model skin at no turbulence to the resulting value using the relationship S = S0 + Dq.

Fig B05.13
Finally the values that we are going to use to calculate the model has been updated and we can generate the
model.

Fig B05.14
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

We can then run the regression on the Simulation again and a good match is obtained without having to
generate the Skin versus rate plot.

B05.4 Inflow performance relationship (IPR)

The modified isochronal test is carried out to determine the inflow performance and absolute open flow potential
of a well. For gas tests, in addition to the Darcy and m(P) relationships, multi-rate IPRs are incorporated in
Saphir for the C and n method and Jones, also known as LIT or a & b.

The IPRs are accessed by the IPR/AOF button in the Interpretation (2) control panel. Select Vertical
well IPR and LIT. The IPR dialog is then displayed.

Fig B05.15

Set the type of test in the top left of the dialog, to Modified isochronal. Then select the pick option in the test
points dialog at the top right. The flow-rate history plot is opened and you should click in each of the drawdown
periods, but not in the Extended flow period at this stage.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B05.16

Click OK to leave the dialog and the flow-rate/pressure test points table is displayed. From the picks, the
program has retained the flow-rate during the period, the lowest flowing pressure recorded during the drawdown,
Pwf, and the highest shut-in pressure, Pws, before the drawdown.

When the Test points table is in the mode, the pressure data and flowrates may be edited,
inserted or deleted.

Fig B05.17

The flowing pressure for the Extended flow period is now required. Go to the Extended period dialog in the
bottom right and select pick, the flow-rate history is displayed again and the pick should be in the Extended
flow period. The program retains the flow-rate and the last flowing pressure.
Finally the average pressure must be entered and since this is an infinite system, a Pi of 6000 psi should be
used.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #5 B05-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B05.18

The IPR is plotted with its natural scale, in this case (Pavg2-Pwf2)/Q versus Q.

By selecting Change scale in toolbar, the IPR can be changed to a linear plot of Pwf versus Q
(deliverability curve).

Fig B05.19
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B06 Saphir guided interpretation QA/QC

B06.1 Introduction

The following guided session will use files installed during the Saphir installation in the Examples directory. The
files Sapb06U.asc and Sapb06L.asc will be used. An Excel Spreadsheet that is useful for the analysis is
furnished under the file name Sapb06.xls. The pressure files are the same as those published in one of the
examples in SPE 24288, referred to in this manual.
The files are data couples of elapsed time and corresponding pressure.

It is assumed that the user has at least been through the Guided Saphir Interpretations #1 and #2.

Launch Saphir and start a new project using the default path. Standard test, oil and default PVT, well and
reservoir parameters.

Click on the QA/QC tab in the control panel and proceed to load the file Sapb06U.asc. Click on
The gauge attributes should always be completed fully, it is particularly important that a proper gauge name is
given as this will identify the data when various channels are displayed in the plot window. In the example below
the channel name is Upper, however it is good practice to use the serial number of the pressure gauge, even
though this is repeated.

Fig B06.1

Load the Lower Gauge, Sapb06L.asc, the plot window should resemble Fig B06.2
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

It is the Difference Channel that will be an indicator if further investigation will be performed, and the general
rule is: If one anomaly has been noted, then it is highly likely that others are present but then may be masked
by coarse time scales.

Generate the difference, Lower Pressure - Upper Pressure is the normal convention, but Saphir 3 can generate
any difference (see below). There is also a choice of how many points to generate in the channel, usually a high
number is best since this gives the differences a higher definition.

Fig B06.2

Fig B06.3

Fig B06.4
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The top plot is the pressure plot and the difference plot below is the child plot. Each plot can be activated by
clicking on the vertical header of the plot to the left in the screen. Currently the pressure plot is activated. Using
the drop list for Reference and Active the active and the reference gauge can be swapped.
In order to better understand the sequence of events of this field example, it is necessary to highlight a few
important facts:
1. The shut-in was made with a mechanical Downhole Shut-in Valve, set in a completion nipple some 30
meters above sandface.
2. The pressure gauges are high accuracy memory recorders (HPs) and were suspended in tandem
below the shut-in valve.
3. The complete tool string was run on slickline wireline.
4. Pressure equalization after the end of the planned build-up was achieved by mechanical wireline.
5. The well produced sand during the test and sand had settled out above the shut-in valve during the
build-up, thus it was not possible to immediately pull the tool string out of the hole. A period of cleaning
and bailing was necessary, and we have this long static period after the equalization of the shut-in tool.
The flowing pressure was unstable and periodic, slugging of the pressure was caused by long flow lines
between the wellhead and the gathering station (onshore environment).

Fig B06.5

B06.2 Synchronization and anomaly detection

The observed pressure difference between the gauges appears stable during the build-up, however after the
equalization of the shut-in tool there is a definite change in the difference value.
This may indicate that the fluid between the gauge sensing points changed and justifies further investigation to
determine if any phase segregation could have taken place during other parts of the build-up, which would have
caused those parts to be invalid for transient analysis.
It is evident that the stable difference during most of the build-up reflects no changes in the fluid (no phase
segregation), however it is necessary to investigate what could have happened during early time. Due to the
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

coarse time scale it is necessary to enlarge the early time build-up event. However, before we do so we will
synchronize the two data channels.
By enlarging an event, such as the start of the build-up, we can readily observe that one gauge is lagging
behind the other, (see below for illustration of this).

Fig B06.6

The synchronization can be done automatically in the current zoom window. However in this case we will use
mouse synchronization first.

Make sure the Active gauge is the Upper in the Active droplist. Click on or use the pop-up menu
available with a right click in the plot window: Shift Active>>Mouse. Click on the Upper gauge and holding
the mouse button down drag it on top of the Lower gauge. See below.

Fig B06.7
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

When you shift a data set with the mouse you cannot avoid to also shift in the Y direction, thus it is critical to
reset the Y (pressure shift) in order to retain the correct difference value. Right click and chose the menu Shift
Active>>Reset Y. We can now check if the synchronization is satisfactory by zooming in further (see below),
and then running an automatic shift, which executes non linear regression in the current zoom window in order
to minimize the difference.

Fig B06.8

Make sure the Upper gauge is the Active gauge and the Lower gauge is the Reference gauge in the drop lists.

Click on or right click in the plot window and choose the menu Shift Active>>Automatic. The automatic
shift will take place (Hint: If this does not seem to work, the current window may contain too much data and it
may be necessary to zoom in on the event further in order for Automatic shift to work).
The synchronization is finished and it is now time to look for any phase segregation and anomalies. If we go
back to the default scale we can see that now the difference channel is much smoother.

Fig B06.9
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

We will now enlarge the early time data of the build-up with its difference channel. We can see from the plot
that phase segregation takes place after a short time of stabilization, just after the well was shut-in by the
downhole valve. Double click in the difference plot to maximize it and zoom in on the early build-up.

Fig B06.10

During the segregation the gauge pressures are affected by this wellbore phenomenon and cannot be used for
transient analysis. The fact that this takes place at early time aggravates the implication as the diagnostics are
done in log-log coordinates and a short time may represent several early time log cycles, therefore leaving the
interpreter with very little valid data at intermediate and late time due to the compression of the data.

B06.3 Differential Pressure Analysis

B06.3A Principle and Background

The analysis is based upon the difference in pressure measured between tandem pressure gauges (the
simplest case), or a combination of pressure differences if more gauges are used during the survey.
The study of these differences can reveal the following problems and has a direct impact on the choice of the
data measurements to be used for transient analysis:
Phase segregation in the wellbore
Fluid interface movements (oil, gas and water)
Temperature anomalies affecting the pressure gauge and / or identification of gauges with technical
problems, such as:
Pressure gauges outside of claimed accuracy and resolution specifications
Gauge drift
Gauge battery running out
Other technical or electronic malfunctions
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

By convention the pressure difference between gauges is calculated so that an increase in the difference
channel represents an increase in the fluid density between the gauge sensing points, and a decrease
represents a reduction of the fluid density.
The difference channel behavior will be identical whatever the gauge offset may be (the upper gauge may well
read a higher pressure than the lower gauge, possibly due to a gauge problem, but the difference channel
would have the same identifiable shape).
The simple analysis is based upon the study of the pressure and temperature differences between two gauges
placed in the test string at different depths. The figure below illustrates schematically what happens at the
pressure sensors of two sensing points, if a gas-oil, oil-water, gas-water or a mixed interface is moving
downwards.
Differential pressure (Pbot -Ptop)

Upper gauge Ptop

Lower gauge Pbottom

TIME

The example assumes that any background behavior is following a constant transient or is in pseudo-steady
state.
Once the interface hits the upper sensor the pressure at this sensing point remains constant as the interface
moves towards the lower pressure point.
The pressure at the lower sensor declines linearly if the fluid interface movement is constant, and becomes
constant again after the interface has moved below the lower pressure point. The difference in pressure between
the two sensing points follows the difference in fluid gradient between oil and gas.

B06.3B The guided interpretation

The Differential Pressure Analysis does not stop with a qualitative evaluation of the phenomenon.
It is now necessary to establish what fluid is present at what time. This will give an estimate of the quality of the
measurements.
To do this we will need to determine the delta-p for several events, and use a special spreadsheet constructed
for this purpose.
As shown before a stabilized difference channel is always indicative of no change in the fluid density between
the gauge sensing points.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

In order to illustrate the changes in fluid density that took place in this particular test we will select events and
use the QA/QC plot to read the values in time and delta-p. The figures below illustrate the choice of events.

Fig B06.11

Fig B06.12

The events have been numbered from 1 to 6, and the values for each event correspond to the entries in the
spreadsheet shown in Table 1. The values are simply read off the difference channel using the option Pick

Point or the mouse pointer. The values are not exact so eye balling the value is justified which again
justifies slight changes in the values in order for the Differential Pressure Analysis to converge to an
explainable and consistent result.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Each delta pressure value corresponds to a particular fluid density, or mixture density, of the fluid present
between the gauge sensing points. The first event, taken when the well is on a high flowrate, caused by the
added component of friction in the annular space created in the tubulars due to the placement of the gauge.
When the well is shut in the difference drops and stabilizes at a certain level, after equalization this level
increases and stabilizes again. At early time we have identified phase segregation.
Thus in sequence we can determine the following:
1. Event 2 and 3: Constant fluid density
2. Event 4 and 5: Constant fluid density, but lighter than Event 2 and 3
3. Event 6: Constant fluid density, heavier than Event 4 and 5
Therefore we have three possible scenarios as no gradient survey was run at the end of the test and we can
only guess at what fluid was present before pulling out of hole.
Scenario 1: Event 1: Flowing
Event 2 and 3: Oil
Event 4 and 5: Gas
Event 6: Oil
Scenario 2: Event 1: Flowing
Event 2 and 3: Water
Event 4 and 5: Oil
Event 6: Water
Scenario 3: Event 1: Flowing
Event 2 and 3: Water
Event 4 and 5: Gas
Event 6: Water
In the spreadsheet, the delta-p values are entered in column 3 and the assumed liquid (column 5) and
corresponding densities (column 6). An implied offset is then calculated (column 8) which is simply the
difference between the delta-p value from the difference channel and the theoretical value (column 7) calculated
using the assumed density and the known distance between the sensing points. This implied offset must be
the same (or close) for all fluid assumption as long as no gauge drift takes place. The resulting residual
difference (difference between Dp from QA/QC and the corrected delta-p (column 9) using one single value of
the offset, should therefore go to zero (column 10).

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE ANALYSIS

EVENT From Difference Channel dGradient Assumed Assumed Calculated Implied Observed dp Residual
Time dp Fluid Gradient dp Offset corrected Difference
(lower-upper) between Gauges (lower-upper)
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
(hr) (psi) (psi/m) (psi/m) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi)

Event 1 17.10 6.30 Friction 2.340 6.51 -0.21 6.51 0.00


Event 2 17.18 2.90 -1.22 Oil 1.120 3.11 -0.21 3.11 0.00
Event 3 17.22 2.90 0.00 OIl 1.120 3.11 -0.21 3.11 0.00
Event 4 17.33 0.20 -0.97 Gas 0.147 0.41 -0.21 0.41 0.00
Event 5 22.50 0.20 0.00 Gas 0.147 0.41 -0.21 0.41 0.00
Event 6 32.00 2.90 Oil 1.120 3.11 -0.21 3.11 0.00

Input Fields

Upper Gauge Assumed Accuracy Offset: -0.21 psi


Lower Gauge

Distance Between Sensors 2.78 m TVD Accuracy Offset:

Lower Gauge = Upper Gauge -X psi


Pressure Gradients
Gas gradient (psi/m) 0.147
Oil Gradient (psi/m) 1.120
Water gradient (psi/m) 1.680

Table 1
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #6 B06-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The analysis will only work with the right assumptions and Table 1 clearly shows this.

DIFFERENTIAL PRESSURE ANALYSIS

EVENT From Difference Channel dGradient Assumed Assumed Calculated Implied Observed dp Residual
Time dp Fluid Gradient dp Offset corrected Difference
(lower-upper) between Gauges (lower-upper)
[1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] [10]
(hr) (psi) (psi/m) (psi/m) (psi) (psi) (psi) (psi)

Event 1 17.10 6.30 Friction 2.340 6.51 -0.21 8.07 1.56


Event 2 17.18 2.90 -1.22 Water 1.680 4.67 -1.77 4.67 0.00
Event 3 17.22 2.90 0.00 Water 1.680 4.67 -1.77 4.67 0.00
Event 4 17.33 0.20 -0.97 Oil 1.120 3.11 -2.91 1.97 -1.14
Event 5 22.50 0.20 0.00 Oil 1.120 3.11 -2.91 1.97 -1.14
Event 6 32.00 2.90 Water 1.680 4.67 -1.77 4.67 0.00

Input Fields

Upper Gauge Assumed Accuracy Offset: -1.77 psi


Lower Gauge

Distance Between Sensors 2.78 m TVD Accuracy Offset:

Lower Gauge = Upper Gauge - X psi


Pressure Gradients
Gas gradient (psi/m) 0.147
Oil Gradient (psi/m) 1.120
Water gradient (psi/m) 1.680

Table 2

Table 2 illustrates that with a different assumption we see a spread of the implied offsets, thus the "Differential
Pressure Analysis will not work.

B06.4 Conclusions

We determined the validity of the data for transient analysis, and identified the fluid phases present in the
wellbore at different test times. We were able to determine a true gauge offset which is a direct measure of the
quality of the tools, and obviously this offset will have to be within the accuracy band claimed by the
manufacturer.
The identification of the fluid present at the end of the build-up is critical for proper correction of the average
drainage area pressure to datum.
When an offset is obviously outside of expected specification, caution must be adapted with respect to
calculated reservoir pressures from the gauge responses and interpreted pressures values (Pi and Pbar) from
the subsequent transient analysis.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B07 Saphir guided interpretation : 2-D Map and Numerical model (1)

B07.1 Introduction

The following guided session uses the file FieldMap.bmp installed during the set up of Saphir.
It is assumed that the user has at least been through the Guided Saphir Interpretations # 1 through # 5.
Launch Saphir and go through the process of starting a new project using the default path. Standard test, oil
and default PVT, well and reservoir parameters. This example is for Saphir advanced users only.

B07.2 2 D-Map and Voronoi

Click on the tab 2-D Map. The Tested well has been defined in the middle of the default rectangle and the
coordinates of the well is at (0,0).

Fig B07.1

Double click on the tested well and the well radius can be set and the coordinates can be confirmed at (0,0)
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.2

The second tab Production, is where the rate history of the Tested well can be defined. This rate history can
be loaded from a file or entered from the keyboard as normal.

Fig B07.3

The rate history can also be loaded through Load Q in the Interpretation Page .
At this point, we will not define a rate history, as we will proceed to illustrate some of the features of the 2-D
Map.

In the tool bar click on to load a bitmap. This menu is also available through a right click of the mouse in
the 2-D Map area :
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Choose Load another bitmap and load the bitmap FieldMap.bmp from the Examples directory.

Fig B07.4

The tested well can be moved to any of the indicated wells on the map. Just hover the mouse pointer above the
well, and click and drag it to the well that is the tested well on the map. In our demonstration we will move the
tested well to the bottom middle well called P01.

Fig B07.5

We can now define the other wells in the field by using a right click to access the appropriate menu or the add

well button . We add all the wells which are numbered from Well #1 to Well #n.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Create the well on the well P03 as a fractured well. To do it, click on the button .
Click once to set the position of one end of the fracture and a click a second time at the position of the second
fracture end. You can adjust the position of the well, just by a drag and drop. You can adjust the length and the
orientation the fracture, with a drag and drop on the end of the fracture. The fracture settings can also be
modified numerically in a table (see Well Info below).

Fig B07.6

A double click on any of the added well will bring up the dialogue specific for each well where coordinates with
reference to (0,0) can be refined and the production history of each well can be defined.
Any well can be set as fractured on not and the fracture parameters (length, angle) can be input in this well info
dialog.
Any well can be set as Tested well or declared to be taken into account or not in the simulation.

Fig B07.7
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The contour of the field can be drawn using the draw contour button. The trick is to click and follow the
contour around and clicking each time to change the direction of the boundary. The option acts as a rubber
band and the contour is finished by a double click. Anytime a mistake is made, the ESC key will set you back
to the previous point.

Fig B07.8

Fig B07.9

This map has a scale indicator, and we will use this to set the scale of the 2-D Map. Using the zoom-in feature,

we zoom in on the scale indicator and use , set scale. If the distances between wells are known, this can
also be used, and it is possible to snap the scale line drawn by the user to a beginning and ending well. Any
other known distances between points on the map can also be used.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.10

Enter 1000 m and click OK, this will rescale the whole 2-D Map.

Fig B07.11

This map has fault indications and it is necessary to include this in order to build the total picture.

With the button or the right mouse button, we will add the faults in a similar way to that which the contour
was defined. Hint: it is best if the fault starts at a node defined on the contour. This will ensure closure between
the contour and the fault. A double click ends the fault. The faults in the 2-D Map can be sealing or have some
transmissibility. Double clicking on a defined fault brings up the dialog where the Leakage factor can be
changed.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.12

The 2-D Map has now been totally defined and we can turn off the bitmap by using the button .

Fig B07.13

Clicking on will calculate the automatic Voronoi gridding, the local grid refinements for each well and the
gridding necessary to take into account the defined faults. The grid can be modified by clicking on the

Settings button , then the Grid Control tab, displaying a dialog where the user can change settings such
as the grid shape, or decide to use global or individual well settings for the gridding.

The Voronoi gridding is the basis for the numerical solution of the pressure at the Tested Well and solves the
influence of the tested well on itself and the influence of any interfering well on the Tested Well.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.14

By checking out the Automatic option, the Grid control allows also to change the type of grid set around the
fracture. It can be either pseudo radial (default) or elliptic, a zoom on the fracture well shows the difference:

Fig B07.15: Pseudo Radial fracture grid Fig B07.15: Elliptic fracture grid

B07.3 Using the Voronoi model

The previous sections described how to build a problem using the 2-D Map facility. Some features, such as the
multiple-well options are usable by both the analytical and numerical solutions. The others can only be modeled
using the Saphir numerical model, called Voronoi from the gridding it uses. The following section describes
the generation of a Voronoi model.

Let us start a new interpretation using the default values and going to Saphirs Test Design option. Start a new

Saphir project and choose the first button in the Interpretation (2) page, . We will define an analytical
model with the well in the middle of a rectangle of 10,000 ft x 6,000 ft.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.17

To define the production history click on and enter a production of duration 4,000 hrs at 1,000 stb/d and a
build-up of 2,000 hrs.

Fig B07.18

Generate the analytical solution, and extract the production period to create the diagnostic plot with the
appropriate derivative. Rename Analysis 1 to Rectangle by clicking on the tab.

Fig B07.19
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Pseudo-steady state is reached at around 100 hours drawdown.


We will now proceed to analyze the analytically calculated response numerically, using the Voronoi model.
Click on 2-D Map. We have to click on the square contour, choose set as a rectangle, input the rectangle size

and a click on will display the Voronoi grid.

Fig B07.20

Click on the Rectangle tab and choose Model button in the interpretation page . This time click on the
Numerical tab. Select pressure fields by checking the check box.

Fig B07.21
Click on to set the pressure field time steps. Check Display during generation and choose Control output
by time = 120 hrs to generate 50 pressure fields.
Generate the numerical model. A perfect match between the numerical and analytical solution is found.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

An animation of the pressure fields is played during generation of the model in the geometry plot.

Fig B07.22

Maximize the geometry plot, and click on the button to advance to the first pressure field.

Fig B07.23
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

It is possible to play back the pressure field animation manually or automatically. The user can also decide
which field to display by using a pick option.

Show first field

Show previous field

Show next field

Show last field

Stop animation

Run animation

Run animation loop


Click on to edit the settings.

Fig. B07.24

Choose or confirm Shading, Pressure and Interpolated in the Display Tab. Choose 7 colors and click on to
choose the method of min-max of the color scale, choose All fields min-max.

Then click on to run the animation. The figure B07.23 illustrates the animation at field= 3360 hrs.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B07.25

The animation can also be seen in 3-D. Click on .


The figure below illustrates the same time field as Fig. B07.23, just before the shut-in.

Fig. B07.26

Click on to switch back to 2-D.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click back on the 2-D Map tab, and click on the contour of the rectangle. We see that nodes appear and it is
possible to drag one of the nodes close to the well, thus making the rectangle smaller.

Fig B07.27

Make a new analysis based upon the first and call this analysis Small Rect.

Fig B07.28

Generate the Voronoi model again (uncheck pressure fields), and we see clearly the influence of the proximity
of the boundaries and that pseudo-steady state is reached earlier due to the smaller reservoir volume.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-15
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.29

In order to illustrate the functionality of the Voronoi model we will add a fault. Click back on the 2-D Map tab
and draw a fault as illustrated in the graphic below after having dragged the node back to approximately where
the original rectangle was.

Fig B07.30

Define a new analysis called One Fault, and generate the response.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-16
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

WARNING: We are not suggesting that this is a realistic fault ! We are merely demonstrating a facility with an
extreme behavior. However, it should be noted that such a configuration can be extended to multiple
connecting tanks. This can be achieved by implementing composite zones, which will be demonstrated in the
next Guided Saphir Interpretation.

Fig B07.31

The influence of this added fault and the fact that the diffusion has to go through a small opening where we are
starting to see the bigger reservoir before pseudo-steady state is reach is very evident in the calculated
numerical model. We can add another fault to illustrate the functionality further. Go to the 2-D Map and draw a
second fault as illustrated below.

Fig B07.32
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-17
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Define a new analysis and call it Two Faults. Generate the Voronoi model. We can see that the channel
caused by the two concentric faults also shows up in the model as a half slope.

Fig B07.33

Finally we will add an other well to illustrate this feature. In the 2-D Map we will add a well with the following
injection history 2,000 hrs 0 (production), 3,000 hrs at -1,000 BOPD (injection), 1,000 hrs build-up.

Right click in the 2-D Map and choose the option Create well, or click on the button in the toolbar.
Position the well inside the first channel and click to place it. Double clicking on the well after it has been
positioned will bring up the dialog where the coordinates of the well can be changed and the production can be
entered.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-18
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.34

Call the new analysis: Add Well and now generate the Voronoi model and add the new well to the numerical
solution.

Fig B07.35

Fig B07.36

The influence from the additional well can be clearly observed.

Maximizing any of the plots and clicking on the button enables you to visualize all the generated solutions.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-19
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B07.37
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #7 B07-20
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B08 Saphir guided interpretation: 2-D map and Numerical model (2)

B08-1 Starting the session

Create a new session accepting the default values, select 2D map, load the Bitmap FieldMap.bmp, draw the
contour and the faults, set the tested well in P01 and the other wells (see session B07.2)
Note: for the purpose of this session, do not set the scale and keep the default one.
Save the session under Sapb08.

Input the rate history through the keyboard: 1000 hours of 1000 bpd production rate followed by a 1000 hours
build up.

B08-2 Basic pressure behaviour

Go to the control panel interpretation (2) and select Test design. Select numerical tab.
Press generate in the Test design dialog and extract the first production period when the simulation is
completed:

Fig. B08.1

Go back to the main screen and save the session.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B08-3 Composite Numerical

The composite Numerical Saphir facility allows the user to introduce a certain level of reservoir heterogeneity by
defining regions where different values of the reservoir characteristics can be entered.

B08-3.1 Radial composite well option

Go to 2D map and double click on the tested well symbol.

Fig. B08.2 Tested well information box

Check the radial composite gridding and input 500 ft as interface distance Ri. Press OK.

Clicking on the button, drag and drop the anchor sign just outside the circle surrounding the well:

Fig. B08.3 Composite anchor setting


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Double-click on the Composite anchor and change the name to Outer zone.
A specific set of reservoir characteristics will be assigned to the zone outside the circle.

Select the tab Analysis and the Control Panel Interpretation and click on the Model button.

Select the Numerical tab:


In the Numerical dialog box input 0.1 as D and M values:

Fig. B08.4 Numerical model dialog box

Note that M and D follows the zone color in the 2-D Map.
Then, press generate. Maximize the log-log plot.

Fig. B08.5 Log-log Composite Numerical model


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
The Composite Numerical model shows on the log log plot the divergence from the homogeneous behaviour due
to the change of mobility at 500 ft from the well.

Note: in the 2-D Map, the white zone corresponds to the pressure and time matches and is the reference.
The M and D ratio are then: (white zone condition)/(colored zone condition).
Setting the Composite anchor outside of the circle surrounding the well defines the composite system with the
same convention as in the analytical model, the M and D ratio are: (inner condition)/(outer condition).

B08-3.2 Composite reservoir zonation

Select the 2-D Map tab.

Click on the icon to create a fault.


Draw a fault isolating a part of the map (i.e. the West part as Shown in the fig.B08.6), end with a double-click.
The isolated zone is now in white (no specific parameters values).

Fig. B08.6 Zoned 2-D Map

Click on to create a composite anchor drag and drop it into the isolated zone. The zone changes color.
Double-click on the Outer zone anchor and change the name to East zone, double-click other anchor and
change the name to West zone.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Fig. B08.7 Zoned 2-D Map

Double click on the fault, and click on the composite limit icon (yellow and green) in the dialog:

Fig. B08.8 Fault information dialog box

The fault is now a composite limit and its transmissibility (leakage) can be specified, press OK:

Fig. B08.9 Zoned 2-D Map

Repeat the same procedure to create another zone in the North corner:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.10 Zoned 2-D Map

We have now a radial composite well in a composite reservoir.

Create a New analysis from analysis #1.

Click on the model icon. The dialog is still the Numerical model dialog:

Fig. B08.11 Numerical model parameters input dialog box

The yellow zone corresponds to the radial composite well status.


The green zone corresponds to the North region.
The pink zone corresponds to the West region.

In this case, we will have the following permeability contrasts if we assume that the fluid and porosity to be the
same in all zones:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Note that M and D follows the zone names and colors in the model dialog and in Fig. B08.10.

The 2D map tool bar allows zooming in, zooming out, hiding or displaying the text, the grid and the composite
zones.

Well zone (white): kh = 1000 md.ft


Channel zone (yellow): kh = 10000 md.ft
West zone (pink): kh = 100 md.ft
North zone (green): kh = 50 md.ft

Press Generate.

Fig. B08.12 Composite Numerical Model

We can observe that the radial composite effect occurs before the initial radial flow, then the multiple faults
effect and the closed sysem behaviour (Pseudo Steady State) are superimposed .

B08-3.3 Fissured composite reservoir zonation

Create a New Analysis from analysis #2.

In order to keep this session at reasonable level of complexity, go to 2D map, double click on the tested well
and uncheck the radial composite option.

Remove the Composite Anchor East Zone by clicking on the icon in the tool bar, then on the anchor,
accept to delete it.

The composite zone color are back to the 3 zones color pattern:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.13

Go to analysis #3 and press on the model icon. The dialog is still the Numerical model dialog:

Fig. B08.14

The North (pink) zone and the West (yellow) zone kept the same D and M ratio values.

The default reservoir model is homogeneous, it can be changed to 2 porosity PSS model.

Select the 2 porosity PSS for the three zones and change the Omega and Lambda value to, respectively:

Keep the default for the reference (white) zone. Note : it can be changed with the pick option.
= 0.01 and = 1e-7 for the West (yellow) zone
= 0.001 and = 1e-8 for the North (pink) zone
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.15
Press generate:

Fig. B08.16

We can observe the 2 Porosity transition of the first zone and the North and West zonations act like a
reduction of the reservoir area on the Pseudo Steady State.

B08-4 Constant pressure boundary

Create a new analysis from analysis #3.

Go to 2D map, delete the composite limits and the Composite anchors by clicking on the icon and picking
then on the item to delete.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
The reservoir is now homogeneous and the map is totally white.
Double click on the contour. The field contour properties dialog is displayed, selmect the Sealing vs Ct
Pressure tab:

Fig. B08.17

Check segment in sequence , press on the icon , the Field contour dialog disappears and the cursor
changes.
Click on one segment of the contour, this segment turns to blue and is then to constant pressure, repeat the
same procedure for each segment you want to switch to constant pressure. Change the segments as indicated
in the circle on Fig. B08.18. Press <Exc> to stop the sequence.

Use the same procedure to switch back a segment to No-flow by pressing the icon
Exit by pressing OK.

Go to analysis #4 and press on the model icon. The dialog is still the Numerical model dialog.
Select Reservoir Model as Homogeneous and:

Fig. B08.18

Press on Generate:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
The pressure curve exhibits clearly the constant pressure effect at late time.

Fig. B08.19

Note: an additional drawdown derivative curve is automatically calculated and plotted as soon as a constant
pressure limit is used. This is done in order to facilitate the diagnosis by allowing the comparison between the
multirate derivative to the drawdown derivative.

B08-5 Pressure fields generation and display

The pressure value can be calculated at each cell of the gridding in order to visualize the pressure distribution
change during the well test or the simulation:

Press on the model icon. Numerical model dialog is displayed. Check the pressure field option:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Fig. B08.20

Press on the setting icon to set the pressure field calculation parameters:

Fig. B08.21

Ask for the pressure fields to be generated during the simulation in order to follow the evolution and set the
Control Output by time period to 40 hours.

Press OK and then generate:

Fig. B08.22

The Geometry Plot, generated during the simulation, shows very clearly the effect of the constant pressure
limits.
Other well pressure history:
When the pressure field option was selected, double clicking on an other well displays the pressure and rate
history of this one.

Double click on the Geometry Plot header to maximize the view.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
The pressure maps can be visualized or modified, using the top tool bar or the drop menu displayed when right
clicking on the geometry plot:

The commands work like in a standard movie recorder.

Go to the first field and run the animation by pressing and then

Fig. B08.23

Press on to set the view parameters:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.24

The displayed item can be selected and the result can be previewed without getting out of the setting panel by
pressing Apply.

Lets visualise the various pressure representation.


Select Solid and press Apply.

The pressure is represented as a plain color in each cell:

Fig. B08.25

Select Isovalue and press on the icon setting , set the isovalues spacing to 10 psi, press OK and then
Apply:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-15
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.26

Go back to Interpolated, press Apply and select the Color Scale tab:

Fig. B08.27

The default color scale is Select 7 colors,

Press on to adjust the coloring: the default scale is all field min-max based on the min-max of all the
calculated fields during the simulation.

Fig. B08.28

Select track compressible zone which is a scaling based on the calculation of the radius of investigation, its
objective is to concentrate the coloring around the zone of maximum pressure gradient it focuses on the radius
of investigation.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-16
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Press Apply :

Fig. B08.29

The option Center on initial pressure set the color scale between a percentage below and above the initial
pressure, which can be useful only in case on injection/production.

Keep the default, and select the tab Time settings:

Fig. B08.30

The selected is presently the final (2000 hours), change it to a field at the end of the production period by

pressing the pick option :

Pick at the end of the production period:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-17
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.31

Press Apply:

Fig. B08.32

Go to Color Scale tab, press on , select All fields min/max, accept, Press OK to exit from the setting
dialog:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-18
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.33

Press on to switch to the 3D view:

Fig. B08.34

The orientation and the aspect can be changed either with the mouse (drag and drop) or with the thumb wheels
at the bottom.

Press on display or hide the Y-axis scale (pressure in this case).

Go to the first field and run the animation by pressing and then

B08-6 Field data input and display


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-19
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Press on to switch back to the 2D view:

Fig. B08.35

Go to the 2D map screen .

Press on the edit data field icon :

Fig. B08.36

Select thickness and press on load , answer Yes when the dialog ask if the tested well is in coordinates
(0,0), and load the file Sapb08-thickness.asc:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-20
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.37

Press on OK. Click on to set view parameters. Choose display tab and select thickness.
Press on Apply to visualize the thickness color map:

Fig. B08.38

Exit by pressing OK and press again on to set the view parameters. Select the tab Data Interpolation:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-21
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Uncheck the Automatic option:

Fig. B08.39

The default interpolation technique is the Krigging. Select Linear Interpolation and press Apply:

Fig. B08.40

The interpolation is not better, therefore, go back to the automatic option.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-22
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Follow the same procedure to load the porosity map data contained in the file Sapb08-porosity.asc.

Press Apply in the 2D data edition to visualize the porosity map, and then press OK to exit:

Fig. B08.41

Go to Analysis#4. Double click on the maximized Geometry Plot to return to the main screen, if necessary.

Press on the model icon. Numerical model dialog is displayed. Check the pressure field option and
check the Include thickness field and Include porosity field to take them into account in the simulation.

We can press on to display the thickness field or on for the porosity field:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-23
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Fig. B08.42

Press on Generate:

Fig. B08.43

Maximize the geometry plot.

Press . In the setting dialog, Color Scale, press to access to Color Scale min-max and select Track
compressible zone. Play the animation.

Display the field at 160 hours:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-24
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.44

Press on to switch to the 3D view:

Fig. B08.45

Press for the setting dialog access.

The data governing the shading and the vertical scale can be specified in this dialog.
Select Thickness for the shading and pressure for the vertical scale: the color then depends on the
thickness and the shape on the pressure:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #8 B08-25
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B08.46

Play the animation in 3D.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #9 B09-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B09 Saphir guided interpretation #9: Material Balance

B09-1 Material Balance

The material balance option is available to model gas tests in a closed system. It takes into account the
changing fluid compressibility with respect to the depleting average pressure.

B09-1.1 Demonstration and guided visit

Open the session with the file Sapb09.ks3.


The pressure data has been generated with a numerical simulator and takes into account the exact PVT at the
actual pressure in any point of the reservoir.

Fig B09-1 Analytical model closed square without material balance

Fig B09-1a Zoomed area of Log-Log plot


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #9 B09-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The data clearly exhibits pseudo-steady state behaviour of a closed reservoir.


The match is made with an analytical model of a well in a 4000ft x 4000ft square closed reservoir without the
gas material balance option. It is observed that the analytical model simulation exhibits a constant linear
pressure decline higher than the decline given by the numerical simulation. This is due to the fact that the fluid
compressibility increases when the pressure depletes. In other words, the same amount of extracted fluid
makes the pressure decline less. The match is poor at late time in the Log-Log plot (production #1) and does
not match the build-up at all in the History plot.
Create a new analysis from the previous one.

Click on the Model button to call the Model dialog:

Fig B09-2 Model dialog

Check the material balance option box and click Generate:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #9 B09-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Fig. B09-3 Closed system model with material balance option

Note: the 2D Geometry plot shown on this screen copy can be enabled in the Settings control panel,
Interpretation icon, Misc tab, by checking the Reservoir Geometry box on.

The analytical model utilizing the material balance calculation option now shows complete agreement with the
simulator results. The History plot also displays a yellow curve that is the result of the calculated average
pressure versus time during the extended production period.

The following P/Z vs Cumulative Production plot shows the comparison between the results of two analytical
model simulations, one using the material balance option, the other one without.

p/z vs Cumulative Production

6000
5000
Pavg / Z

4000
3000
2000
1000
0
0 10000 20000 30000 40000
Cumulative production

With material balance


Without material balance

Fig. B09-4 OGIP calculation plot

It can be seen that without the material balance option, the average reservoir pressures simulated by the
uncorrected analytical closed system model will erroneously underestimate the original gas-in-place.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #9 B09-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-1
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

B10 Saphir guided interpretation #10: Real Time Acquisition

B10-1 Real time acquisition

B10-1.1 Starting the real time simulation

In the Saphir folder start the KDataSup version 2.30T software.


The icons in the toolbar call the options which can also be accessed from the Options menu. They are, from left
to right:
- Import: Import an ASCII file to simulate an acquisition.
- Spy: Control dialog of the different data visible to RTKAPPA.
- Client: Connect to a server PC via a serial link.
- Server: Use the PC as a data server for client PCs connected via a serial link.
- Client: Export to a network socket.
- Server: Import from a network socket.
- DLL load: Load using an external DLL.
- Help: Online Help

Fig B10.1 Data Supervisor command window

Click on the Import icon to open an untitled Import window.


Use the browse option to navigate to the data file Sapb10.dat, supplied in the Examples folder. When the file
has been selected the Import button is enabled.
Leave the acquisition rate (Read every) at 1 second. The program will read the data lines in the file at a speed of
1 line every second and send the pressure reading to RTKAPPA.
Click on the Import button to start acquiring data.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-2
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

The boxes at the right side of the window now show the time & pressure at the start of the acquisition, the
current time & pressure reading, and the current point number.

Fig B10.2 Import command window

B10-1.2 Loading data in real time in Saphir

Start Saphir and create a new interpretation Sapb10 with the default settings (overwrite if the example has been
done already). Create the interpretation.
In the QA/QC control panel, click on Load , then in the Load data dialog, select Real Time:

Fig B10.3 Load data origin box

The real time options are displayed in the window suggesting that you load from the channel Sapb10.dat, which
is the only available channel. If there were more channels sending data, you would select them from the drop-
list.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-3
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

Fig B10.4 Real time load option

The window shows the reference date/time (t=0) for the Saphir session, but since we started Saphir some time
after KdataSup, the first points in the loaded pressures would then be carrying negative time values. We can
set the reference time of the Saphir session to the first time in the data to be loaded by simply clicking on the

button.
The refresh rate can be left at 1 second, as you want to see the data as it is loaded.
Click on the OK button.
The pressure data is then acquired and displayed in the pressure history plot, which automatically adjusts the
scale to the range of the data.
At this time there is no flow rate history.

Fig B10.5 Saphir real time pressure acquisition plot in QA/QC panel

Switch to the Interpretation control panel.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-4
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

Fig B10.5b Saphir real time pressure acquisition plot in the main screen

The real time toolbar buttons allow you to pause, resume loading after a pause or to stop the load.

Stop the load. Pause in the acquisition without losing any data.

Resume loading after a pause. Update the data.

Get information on the Real time acquisition status (loaded channel, data point number).

Fig B10.6 Real time acquisition status box

To Extract dP and create a Log-Log plot, the user must first load a flow rate history.
Click on Load Q and select Keyboard, and input 0.25 hours @ 100 STB/D.
Extract dP and accept the default settings. The Log-Log and Semi-log plots are now displayed and
refreshed in real time.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-5
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

Fig B10.7 Log-Log and Semi-log plot in real time

Once you start to see a representative derivative response, generate the model and the regression
(Improve) as usual. At any time, the program will work as if the load was completed, but whenever the
program returns to the main screen, the data will be updated on all existing plots.

Fig B10.8 Real time drawdown analysis

If you wait for a while, you will see the simulated build-up being imported in real time from the file.
At this time, go to the Edit Rates tab, split the rate history (add a build-up), synchronize the rate and pressure
history as in guided session #2.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #10 B10-6
Saphir V.3.10 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2002 Doc V3.10.00

Fig B10.9 Split rate to create the buildup in the rate history

Switch to the Analysis 1 tab, Extract dP of build-up #1 and proceed with the build-up interpretation.

Fig B10.10 Build-up analysis in real time.

Several channels can be loaded at the same time, which encompasses that not only real time interpretation
can take place but also real time quality control in the QA/QC page.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B11 Guided interpretation #11: Multilayer Analysis with static rates

This guided interpretation covers the analysis of Multilayer Test Pressure Data, using bottom hole layer rate
data acquired during Production Logging surveys. This guided session will use the data sets stored in the files
Sapb11.asc, Sapb11.rat , Sapb11-plt.asc, stored in the examples directory which was installed during the
setup of Saphir.
In order to make the demonstration clear and straightforward, the data are synthetic (simulated) and the gauge
acquisition problems were created to simulate some common field problems.
It is assumed that the user is conversant with the functionality taught in the previous guided sessions.

B11.1 Starting the New Interpretation

This oil well test progam consists in a 26 hours clean up period followed by a 51 hours build-up, then the well
was produced on increasing chokes for 26, 32, 39, 38 hours respectively and then closed in for an 85 hour final
build-up.
Layer 1 and Layer 2 bottom hole rates are recorded with a flowmeter in stabilized conditions at the end of the
clean up eriod and at the end of the main production period.
The surface rate data are stored in Sapb11.rat, the Production Data summary are given in the file Sapb11-
plt.asc.
Create a new session, setting the reference date to 01/01/02 and accepting the default PVT and formation
parameters values.
Go to the File menu to save as Sapb11 in the example subdirectory.

B11.2 Loading the data sets

Click on in the Interpretation control panel page. Choose to load from an Ascii file (default) and in the
file browser select the file Sapb11.rat.

Fig B11.1
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on the icon to load the pressure data from Ascii and accept the default format :

Fig B11.2
We can oberve that pressure data are missing at the end of the the Clean up and main flow period due to the
PLT runs.

Click on while pressing Shift to extract automatically the last Build up:

Fig B11.3
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B11.3 Initial standard analysis

Click on improve Icon, while pressing Shift, to generate the automatic model and perform the
improve on all the parameters :

Fig B11.4

The results are a skin value of 0.14 and a kh value of 674 md.ft for a single layer with a 30 ft thickness.

B11. 4 Initial multilayer analysis

Create a new analysis and select Multilayer in the dialog :

Fig B11.5
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The user is asked for the layer information :

Fig B11.6

Set the number of layers to two and keep the thicknesses equal to 15 ft.

Two new icon appear in the Interpretation Control Panel :

which recall the previous dialog for the layer definition is necessary

and to load the layer rate data.

Click on while pressing Shift to extract automatically the last Build up , press on to
access to the model dialog :

Fig B11.7

Accept the proposed values and generate:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B11.8

Click on the improve icon, the improve dialog is displayed:

Fig B11.9

Check in all the parameter for the regression and press run.
The pressure match is perfect as shown in the flowing figure.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B11.10

Two additionnal plots appear :

The Mutilayer Diagram which summarizes the layer geometry and the Layer rate plot which shows the
calculated layer contribution.
Double click on this plot header and press the right mouse button :

Fig B11.11

Select show legend.


The default display is simulated layer contributions, pressing simulated layer rates displays the simulated
rate at the top of each layer (layer 2 and Layer 1+2).
We can observe here that the contribution are equal, consequence of the analysis results : equal kh and skin.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B11. 4 Final multilayer analysis

Create a new Multilayer analysis from the previous one.


This analysis will use the layer rate information.

Loading layer rate

Press on the Layer rate icon. To get access to the Layer rate dialog :

Fig B11.12

Press Stabilized Q to enter the layer rate data contained in the file Sapb11-plt.asc :

Date 01/01/02 time 18:00:00 measured rate top of layer 2: 300 bpd

Fig B11.13

Press OK and specify that the data corresponds to layer 2 only:


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B11.14
Repeat the operation for the other measures :

Date 01/01/02 time 18:00:00 measured rate top of layers 1+ 2: 2410 bpd
Date 09/01/02 time 00:00:00 measured rate top of layer 2: 270 bpd
Date 09/01/02 time 00:00:00 measured rate top of layers 1+ 2: 2210 bpd

Specify the layer rate description :

Fig B11.15

You can go to the browser to rename the layer rate data to Layer 2 plt1, Layer 1+2 plt1, Layer 2 plt2,
Layer 1+2 plt2:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B11.16

Or by double clicking on the data name in the browser to modify the data channel properties:

Fig B11.17

Double click on the Layer Rates plot header and select in the drop menu (right mouse button) Simulated Data
Rate to display the calculated rate corresponding to the acquisition conditions:

Fig B11.18

We observe that the simulated rates for layer 1+2 (total rate) are in agreement with the measured one, but that
the simulated layer 2 rate is not.
The pressure match is good but the rate match is wrong.

This is due to the fact that the previous analysis used only the total rate and resulted identical layer in the
absence of more information.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Improve using the layer rates

Click on the improve icon, the improve dialog is displayed, specify the regresssion on the simulation
and include layer rates, select all the parameters for the regression:

Fig B11.19

Press run, the regression is performed on the complete pressure history but using in addition the match with
the layer rates.
The pressure match is as good as before .

Double click on the Layer Rates plot header and select in the drop menu (right mouse button) Simulated Data
Rate to display the calculated rate corresponding to the acquisition conditions:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B11.20

The measured and simulated layer rates are in complete agreement, proving that the analysis is now correct.

Press on to access to the model dialog and to check the new results :

Fig B11.21

The constrast of permeability (40 md and 4.5 md) explains the difference in layer contribution.
The global analysis using the total rate was just giving a set of average formation parameters.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #11 B11-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B12 Guided interpretation #12: Multilayer Analysis, transient rates

This guided interpretation covers the analysis of Multilayer Test Pressure Data, using bottom hole layer rate
data acquired during Production Logging surveys. This guided session will use the data sets stored in the files
Sapb12.asc, Sapb12.rat , Sapb12 Bottom.asc and Sapb12 Bottom+middle.asc, stored in the examples
directory which was installed during the setup of Saphir.
In order to make the demonstration clear and straightforward, the data are synthetic (simulated) and the gauge
acquisition problems were created to simulate some common field problems.
It is assumed that the user is conversant with the functionality taught in the previous guided sessions.

B12.1 Starting the New Interpretation

This oil well test program consists in a 100 hour production period at 1000 bpd followed by a 100 hour build-up,
then the well was produced on a greater choke for a 100 hour production period at 1500 bpd and then closed in
for an 200 hour final build-up.
The bottom hole rates are recorded with a flowmeter during all the first production period on the top of the
bottom layer and during the second production period on the top of the middle layer.
The surface rate data are stored in Sapb12.rat, the Production logging data are given in Sapb12 Bottom.asc for
the first flow and in and Sapb12 Bottom+middle.asc for the second flow.
Create a new session, setting the reference date to 01/01/02, accepting the default PVT and formation
parameters values and with a standard analysis.

Go to the File menu to save as Sapb12 in the example subdirectory.

B12.2 Loading the data sets

Click on in the Interpretation control panel page. Choose to load from an Ascii file (default) and in the
file browser select the file Sapb12.rat.

Fig B12.1
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Click on the icon to load the pressure data from Ascii file Sapb12.asc and accept the default format :

Fig B12.2

Click on while pressing Shift to extract automatically the last Build up:

Fig B12.3
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B12.3 Initial standard analysis

Click on the model Icon, while pressing Shift, to generate the automatic model.

Fig B12.4

A limit effect can be observed on the derivative curve.


We will make an attempt of analysis with the production period #2.

Extract the production period #2, press on to display the Model Catalog, select a Closed Circle as
Boundaries condition and enter the limit distance by using the pick option. The limit distance should be of the
order of magnitude of 1300 ft. Impose the Pi to 5000 psi and generate.

Click on while pressing shift to perform an automatic improve, it is made on the production #2 period:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.5

The results are a skin value around 0 and a kh value of 515 md.ft and a distance to the limit of 1170 ft, for a
single layer with a 30 ft thickness.
When displaying the Build up #2, we see that the match is not satisfactory and no other improve on the build
up can give better result.

Fig B12.6
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

B12. 4 Initial multilayer analysis

Create a new analysis and select Multilayer in the dialog :

Fig B12.7

The user is asked for the layer information :

Fig B12.8

Set the number of layers to three and keep the thicknesses equal to 10 ft.

Click on while pressing Shift to extract automatically the last Build up , press on to
access to the model dialog :

Fig B12.9
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Enter the permeability equal to 17 (from the previous analysis) for all the layers, the PI equal to 5000 psi.
Set the boundaries condition to Closed circle and set the distance to 1200 ft for each layer.

Generate . The resulting match is similar to the analytical one since the three layers are identical :

Fig B12.10

Click on the improve icon, the improve dialog is displayed:

Fig B12.11

Check in all the parameter except Pi, select the regression on the simulation and press run.
The resulting pressure match does not show any improvement
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.12

Loading layer rate

Press on the Layer rate icon. To get access to the Layer rate dialog :

Fig B12.13

Press on the Load button to load the layer rate data.

The standard Data Load dialog is displayed, select the file Sapb12 bottom.asc and specify Instantaneous for
the time scale :
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.14

Presss Load.
Proceed the same way to load the data file Sapb12 bottom+middle.asc.

Specify the layers corresponding to the measures in the Edit layer rate dialog :

Fig B12.15

Double click on the Layer Rates plot header, ask to display the legend and select in the drop menu (right
mouse button) Simulated Data Rate to display the calculated rate corresponding to the acquisition conditions:
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.16

This plot demonstrates in which measure the analysis is wrong : the individual contributions are not correct.

This is due to the fact that the analysis cannot evaluate the permeability contrast by taking into account the
layer contribution.

Improve using the layer rates

Click on the improve icon, the improve dialog is then displayed, specify the regression on the
simulation and include layer rates, select all the parameters for the regression:

Fig B12.17
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Press run, the regression is performed on the complete pressure history but using in addition the match with
the layer rates.
The pressure match is better than before :

Fig B12.18

Double click on the Layer Rates plot header and select in the drop menu (right mouse button) Simulated Data
Rate to display the calculated rate corresponding to the acquisition conditions:

Fig B12.19

The measured and simulated layer rates are in quite good agreement, but the pressure match should be
improved.

Using the regression to improve the pressure match always goes back to the same approximative match.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The regression calculation found a local minimum and cannot get out to converge to the absolute minimum.

Press on to access to the model dialog and to check the new results :

Fig B12.20

The permeability contrast and the various limit distance are a good approach to the solution but are blocked at
this level.

B12. 4 Final multilayer analysis

Create a new Multilayer analysis from nothing and start again using the same procedure.
The layer rates are already loaded but the layer rate distribution has to be entered again in edit layer rate.

When the first model is described enter the permeability to 17md for all layers and the impose Pi to 5000 psi,
but keep the limit distance to 3000 ft.

Generate :
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-12
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.21

The match is not satisfactory use the improve to perform a regression on the complete simulation and using the
layer rates.

Fig B12.22

It can take few minutes.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-13
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig B12.23

The match is now perfect, as good for the pressure data as for the layer rate data.

The use of Wide Search

When such a local minimum is found and that the regression can not improve more the match it remain the
possibility to use in the improve dialog the option Wide Search.

The option will make calculate 300 (depending on the setting we specified) run of simulation in order to detect
the global minimum, then starting from this point it will run a standard regression, avoiding like that to fall in a
local minimum.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #12 B12-14
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

B13 Saphir guided interpretation #13: Numerical multiphase

B13-1 Multiphase

The objective of this tutorial is to illustrate Saphir 3.20 multiphase abilities.


In this guided session the user will be led through the Saphir dialogs and screens to enable the simulation of
the pressure response of a multiphase producer (oil and water) coupled with a water injector (into oil).
The evolution of the fluid saturations will also be studied.

B13-2 Tutorial initialization

Run Saphir and start a new project. Keep the well and reservoir characteristics at the default values and specify
the reference phase as oil, and in the available rates, add water. Specify numerical analysis; this will invoke
the non linear multiphase simulator with constant composition. See Fig. B13.1.

Fig B13.1

The next screen is the document or project specific PVT dialog. Automatically Dead oil is selected with water.
Leave the default PVT characteristics;

Note that a click on the button in the PVT toolbar will warn the user that default values for all phase
parameters and correlation are in use.

Accept the next PVT screen and change Sw to 0.2 in the final PVT dialogue. Click on the button So and Sg

from flash to adjust the value of So. The saturations entered here are only used for a constant system
compressibility calculation. The user will later specify the Analysis specific PVT and define initial saturations
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

for model generation and simulation. The next screen shows the PVT characteristics calculated for the

reference phase. will define the new project.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

B13-3 Numerical Interpretation panel

After the creation of the new project, Saphir switches automatically to the Interpretation panel and creates

Numerical 1 new analysis tab.


Two new buttons are added to the Interpretation panel.

Edit numerical PVT. This PVT is Analysis specific. Thus each analysis can have a different
PVT.

Edit numerical KrPc. The definition is Analysis specific. Each analysis can have different
relative permeability definitions.

B13-4 Tutorial analysis specific PVT and KrPc

Click on in the Interpretation panel. This accesses the analysis specific PVT dialogue and the user
can here change the parameters. Observe that Dead Oil and Water has been carried over from the document

specific PVT defined during start up. In this guided session keep the default values. button will warn the
user that default parameters and correlations are being used.

Click on to define the relative permeability definition for this analysis. In the tab KrData enter the
following values:

Swr = 0.1, Sorw = 0.2, Krwo = 1, Krow = 1. Use the power law model at power 1.65 and 2 respectively for water
and oil with no extrapolation. See Fig B13.2.

Fig B13.2
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

The user can access the plot of the relative permeabilities versus the water saturation by clicking on the tab Kr
Two-phase. Fig. B13.3.

Fig. B13.3

It is possible to interactively change the relative permeability curves at the click of the mouse by dragging the
handles (yellow squares) on the curves.

B13-5 Defining the 2-D Map and the wells

Click on the tab to access the 2-D Map. Double click on the contour and choose set as a
rectangle at 30,000 x 30,000 ft as indicated Fig B13.4

Fig. B13.4

The tested well which is the reference well until the user chooses to change this is at coordinate (0,0). Now add

a well at coordinate (-3000 ft, 0), use the button to place the well approximately. Double click on the well
and set the coordinates exactly, see Fig. B13.5.
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-5
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B13.5

Double click on the tested well to define the production history. Click on the tab Production and enter 1000
days of Oil rate = 5,000 STB/D and Water rate = 500 STB/D. Fig B13.6. Again double click on the added well,
designated Well#1, which is going to be specified as an injection well by entering a negative water rate. Enter
the same duration as the Tested well and a Water rate = -6,000 STB/D and no Oil production.

Fig. B13.6: Tested well & Well#1 productions


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-6
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

B13-6 Running the simulation

Click back on the tab Numerical 1, . Choose the option Test Design in the Interpretation (2)
panel. Check add other wells and store pressure fields, run the simulation with initial pressure Pi= 5,000
psia, a permeability kh= 1500 mD and initial water saturation Swi= 0.2. See Fig. B13.7.

Fig B13.7

The simulated pressure response is illustrated in Fig. B13.8.

Fig B13.8
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-7
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Extract dP to see the loglog plot and click on Model to generate the simulation again with the default

parameters that are the same as those of the test design. Click on the button by the store results
fields and choose Display during generation. Fig. B13.9.

Fig. B13.9

The main screen after generation is illustrated in Fig. B13.10.

Fig. B13.10
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-8
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

There are now two match lines on the loglog plot. The white dotted line corresponds to the stabilisation
obtained if only the oil phase is mobile. The green dotted line corresponds to the stabilisation at Swi (initial
water saturation specified in the model).The results returned are the absolute permeability kh and the effective
permeabilities to oil and water at Swi.

The user can now display the simulated pressure history and the simulated phase rates in the history plot. You
can right click in the rate area of the history plot and select Show phase rates All.

The history plot is illustrated in Fig. B13.11. The user can observe that water breakthrough happens at about
4000 hrs production.

Fig. B13.11

B13-7 Simulation value fields

The geometry plot is automatically created. Maximise this plot and click on the button to define the
setting of the value fields available after this simulation. It can be seen that the field values Pressure, Sw and
So is available. See Fig. B13.12
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-9
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B13.12

Fig. B13.13

Leave the shading as selected on Pressure with the other default selections. Visit the tab Color Scale, use 7
colors and check always visible. The always visible option will display a defined color scale of the chosen
value on the geometry plot. By setting the maximum and minimum pressure to 5,800 and 3,000 psia
respectively as indicated in Fig B13.13 the colors of Fig. B13.14 should be close to yours. Click OK and return
to the geometry plot. You can now play back the evolution of the pressure fields by using the tape recorder
buttons in the toolbar.

Click the button to return to 0, and then to play back the pressure evolution. The final pressure field of
the tested well will look something like Fig. B13.14.

Fig. B13.14
Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-10
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Revisit the settings option of the geometry plot. This time choose Shading for the value Sw (water
saturation). Click on the Color Scale tab and check that you have 3 colors as indicated in Fig. B13.15. Then

click the button to return to 0, and play back the fields using the button .

Fig. B13.15

The final field in the geometry plot clearly shows that water has broken through, Fig B13.16. is a zoomed
version of the plot.

Fig. B13.16

Click on the toolbar button in the geometry plot. This will display the plot in 3D. Choose the settings button

. Select the setting as indicated in Fig. B13.17.


Installation and Learning Guide Saphir guided interpretation #13 B13-11
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2004 Doc V3.20.00

Fig. B13.17

The 3D plot will look something like Fig. B13.18 depending on the settings and the zoom applied. The 3D plot
exhibits the pressure variation as the vertical scale, showing clearly the injection and the production well. The
colour coding is the evolution of Sw (in this case at the field after 7,000 hrs production) and indicates clearly
that the injected water is pouring into the producing well.

Fig. B13.18
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX01-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

BX01 Additional Saphir Example #1: 2 PSS

This chapter is for Saphir Advanced users only


After going through the guided interpretations B01 to B07 you should now be familiar with the loading/editing of
data as well as the default Saphir path. This chapter provides a series of examples on selected models and
facilities:
All the files are copied to your computer when downloaded from our web site as these files are not copied
during the Saphir installation. The style of this Chapter is much more condensed than that of the guided
interpretations and features already explained are not detailed here. These brief notes should help you as you
work through the examples.

BX01.1 Pseudo-steady state double-porosity

Before starting this example, locate the ifle Sapbx01.ks3. Start Saphir and open the interpretation project
Sapbx01. Both rates and pressures are loaded and the flow period has already been extracted.

Fig BX01.1

The pressure derivative shows the typical trends of a reservoir with pseudo-state double-porosity. However, none
of the theoretical stabilizations is apparent on the data.
In a double-porosity (or 2 layer) model, IARF must correspond to the radial flow of the total system. Even when
this section is not developed, it is possible to get a first estimate with the line option and then refine this
estimate interactively. In this case, the first estimate will be close enough so that we can let the Improve
make the necessary refinements.
Make the log-log plot active (one click in the plot header). Define a line at the end of the derivative (right click in

the log-log plot, Line). Maximize the log-log plot and reset the match , the pressure match snaps to the
IARF straight line.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX01-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX01.2

Select automatic Model. The model response is of course quite far from the data but:
The reset match set the pressure match to the level of the IARF line we defined, and computed the time match
accordingly.
A skin estimate has been made by the automatic model.

Fig BX01.3
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX01-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Select Model, and 2-Porosity P.S.S.

Fig BX01.4

Accept the proposed parameter values, and the value calculated for the Skin. The model requires the input of

Lambda and Omega, for which a Pick option exists that can be activated by the button to the right of the
parameter menu. Click on this button

Fig BX01.5

The log-log plot is displayed on the screen with the instruction Pick the minimum of the transition and drag to
adjust. Set the cursor on the derivative at the bottom of the "valley", about the middle of the 4th log cycle.
Moving the mouse up and down changes the depth of the valley, and moving the mouse left and right moves it
left or right. Adjust for the best fit on the derivative, then click. The parameters Omega and Lambda are
displayed and can be edited. Accept the values and generate the response.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX01-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX01.6

Select automatic improve to obtain the refined match illustrated below.

Fig BX01.7
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX02-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

BX02 Additional Saphir Example #2: Horizontal well

BX02.1 Horizontal Well

This section illustrates the use of the horizontal well model on data simulated with the Test Design option of
Saphir. The interpretation is called Sapbx02.ks3. Open Sapbx02. Extract the build up.

Fig BX02.1

The automatic pressure match has been set at the right level by the program, i.e. on the final stabilization
corresponding to radial flow in the horizontal plane. The corresponding value of transmissivity is kr.h, kr being
the radial permeability and h the formation thickness.
Go to Model, select the horizontal well. In the parameter input screen the value of well lenght should be set to
1000 and zw should be left at the default 25 ft.

Fig BX02.2
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX02-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

The parameter kz/kr has a pick option and it should be selected. The log-log plot appears and you are asked to
Pick the 1st stabilization level on the derivative. Pick as shown below

Fig BX02.3

The type of top and bottom boundaries can be selected from the drop lists. Sealing or gas cap for the top
boundary and sealing or water drive for the bottom boundary. There is no evidence of pressure maintenance
here so both boundaries should be left as Sealing. Generate the response. A non-linear regression can be run
to refine the match. Select Improve and run (Automatic Improve is disabled for this model in view of its
complexity).

Fig BX02.4
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX03-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

BX03 Additional Saphir Example #3: Rate grouping

BX03.1 Automatic Rates Grouping

This section illustrates the use of the Test Design option to predict the response to a test sequence and the
use of the grouping function to analyze a long production period when the flow-rates decline with time.
Start a new Saphir project Sapbx03, using the default parameters and Oil. Load the flowrate file Sapbx03.rat.
The sequence consists of 21 periods of 10 hours each with the flowrate declining by a few barrels every 10
hours.

Fig BX03.1

Select the first button in the Interpretation (2) control panel Test Design .
The Model menu is opened. Accept the default value for C, 300 mD.ft for kh. Leave the Pi at 5000 psi and the
Skin at 0. To introduce gauge limitations click on gauge and, change the gauge type to Strain and edit the
resolution to 1 psi, gauge type changes to User defined.

Fig BX03.2
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX03-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Generate the simulated response for a homogeneous infinite reservoir.


In order to extract the whole drawdown the first solution would be to merge all the flow periods, if we chose not
to take advantage of Saphirs automatic grouping system which groups consecutive flow periods of the same
type into one group.

Press on the tab Edit Rates and use the button Merge Rates, to merge from period 1 to 21. The
routine calculates the average rate which is applied throughout the drawdown and transforms the declining rate
history into one single rate.

Fig BX03.3

Select Automatic Load delta P. The derivative appears to show a constant pressure boundary and a quite good
match can be made with a constant pressure circle.

Fig BX03.4

The assumption that the rates could be averaged therefore leads to an erroneous interpretation, as we know the
reservoir to be homogeneous infinite. The automatic rate grouping allows a correct interpretation, without any
simplification of the true rate history.
Reload the flow rate file Sapbx03.rat. Then click the tab Edit Rates where it can be seen that Saphir has
automatically grouped the declining rates into one production period: Production #1.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX03-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX03.5

The automatic load extracts the delta P data for the entire sequence, showing infinite behavior which can be
easily analyzed.

Fig BX03.6

The general superposition function takes into account the changes in the rate history and normalization with
respect to the individual rates is done on the semi-log and log-log. This ensures that consecutive periods in
Infinite Acting Radial Flow produce aligned sections on both plots.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX03-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1990-2003 Doc V3.20.00
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX04-1
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1994-2003 Doc V3.20.00

BX04 Additional Saphir Example #4: Tidal effects

In this example we will demonstrate the facilities developed in Saphir to remove tidal effects.
The files Sapbx04raw.asc and Sapbx04seabed.asc are used. It is assumed that the user is already familiar
with Guided Sessions 1 through 6.

BX04.1 Tides

Tidal effect on pressure measurements can be strong, especially when data acquisition occurs offshore (for
instance in the North Sea). But it may also occur in onshore fields. This type of effect can heavily influence the
derivative behavior and errors in the analysis are frequent. Therefore, it is important to remove this effect without
removing the true reservoir response before attempting any interpretation.

BX04.2 Example tide removal

Launch Saphir and open a new session using the default oil parameters.
Change to the QA/QC page and load the first measurements Sapbx04raw.asc. This file contains the raw data
from a build-up which has been affected by the tidal effects in the area.
Zoom in until displaying correctly the tide effect.

Fig BX04.1

Next load the file Sapbx04seabed.asc in a new plot in the QA/QC page. This measurement is in fact the
pressure response at the seabed by the well head due to tidal effects.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX04-2
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1994-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX04.2

Fig BX04.3

Calling the tidal facility , a dialog with a composite plot (see Fig BX04.4). The upper one contains the
active gauge of the active QA/QC plot (this facility cannot be called when a child plot is active). The lower one
contains the tidal signal if already loaded. If not, the user needs to load this signal, either coming from a seabed
gauge or from a software-generated signal. Note that, entering the well location; a new facility will soon be
integrated in Saphir 3 to allow the generation of this tidal table.
Anyway, using the droplists the user can choose the correct data channel to be put in each plot.
The data to be corrected in the upper plot.
The Tide table in the lower plot.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX04-3
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1994-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX04.4

In order to phase (synchronize) the tide signal with the measured down hole data the user can do this manually

using the mouse by click and drag in the tides plot after clicking the button or right clicking in the plot for
the contextual menu.

Fig BX04.5

Then the tide amplitude is calculated , use of the right mouse button will also access this option. The
signal is removed from the data and the resulting curve is shown in the upper plot.

The button Auto-match time shift and amplitude for tides that will run a non linear regression to make the
correction can also be used.
Installation and Learning Guide Additional Saphir Examples BX04-4
Saphir V.3.20 - KAPPA Engineering 1994-2003 Doc V3.20.00

Fig BX04.6

The user can reset this at any time by entering zero values in the Time Shift and Amplitude fields and then
click Apply. A manual time shift and amplitude can of course also be used.
The new signal can be added as a new data channel to the session by clicking Create Gauge:

Fig BX04.7

The corrected pressure can now be used in the analysis just like any other pressure channel loaded in Saphir.