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Harper Lucas

CIED 1003

Dr. Orr

June 1, 2017

Google Scholar


Empowering Pre-Service Teachers to Address Diverse Populations through Targeted, Authentic

Internship Experiences

The Field Experience Journal, Volume 17, Spring 2016

Heather D. Kindall, Angela Elsass, and Tracey Crowe

2. "An Easy Switch": A Descriptive Case Study Exploring the Shift Toward Informational Text

Accompanying the Implementation of Common Core State Standards in Five Primary


Heather Denise Kindall

August, 2013


The Perceived Literacy Skills of Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants in one Teacher

Preparation Program

University of Arkansas Fayetteville

Linda Eilers. Ph.D. Heather Kindall, Ph.D. Tracey Crowe, Ed.D. Angela Elsass, Ed.D.
No publication date listed, but it had to be after 2013 as they cited research from this year: The

NCTE definition of 21st century literacies: NCTE position statement. National Council of

Teachers of English (2013). I also checked the google scholar citation, but no date was listed.,%20et%20al_Digital%20Natives%20and



The Perceived Literacy Skills of Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants in one Teacher

Preparation Program

The authors studied one hundred eleven teacher education faculty members and teacher

candidates The objective was to learn what their perceptions were and their skill levels and usage

of five different types of technology, web, technical, social, game and work oriented, in an effort

to determine if there was truly a knowledge and usage gap between, those born during or after

digital technology came into being (digital natives) and those that were born prior to the rise of

technology (digital immigrants) in the teacher preparation program used in the study. The

method used in the study was a questionnaire designed to measure digital literacy and frequency

of use. The questions were representative of the five categories of technology the researchers

and the candidates were to answer the digital survey of 52 questions using a Likert rating of 1

(least use) to 4 (highest use). The survey was sent to 302 teacher candidates and 18 faculty with

111 respondents (99 candidates, 12 faculty). The data was analyzed quantitatively using sample

t-tests, one measured skill level, the second measured frequency of use. The researchers also ran

secondary tests to see if there was any difference between the groups in the skill levels in each

technical category.
The statistics showed that digital immigrants have higher levels of usage in search and

research categories, such as libraries and search engines and greater knowledge of technical

tools. Work oriented tools and social media tools were equally utilized. Gaming systems were

used more by digital natives. The study suggests that digital immigrants may be more

technologically skilled, overall, than their native counterparts. This contradicts the common

assessment that natives are more digitally savvy and that this knowledge is related to age. This

supports other similar studies which found that even though digital natives have spent their entire

lives with access to technology, this does not mean that they are any more skilled at using it.

Study limitations were the small number of digital immigrants that participated and that they are

university faculty with jobs that require them to teach technology to educators. Additionally, the

questionnaire was not tested for accuracy prior to submission. The authors determined that more

time should be taken to determine the skill levels of teacher candidates and possibly should

receive more support in completing digital assignments. They also recommended future studies

consider additional variables, in addition to birth date. In conclusion, the study showed that

digital immigrants may have greater skill level that digital immigrants and that education

professionals should focus on utilizing technology effectively in teaching and learning in the 21 st