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50PopularSQLInterviewQuestionsforTesters
Inthistutorial,wehavelistedthe50mostpopularlyaskedSQLinterviewquestionsfortesters.

BelowarethemostcommonandusefulSQLinterviewquestionsfortesterssothatyoucanpreparefor
interviewwhilelearningSQL.

SQLInterviewQuestions&Answers
Alsoread=>AllaboutDatabaseTesting

Q#1.WhatdoesSQLstandfor?
Ans.SQLstandsforStructuredQueryLanguage.

Q#2.Howtoselectallrecordsfromthetable?
Ans.Toselectalltherecordsfromthetableweneedtousefollowingsyntax:

Select*fromtable_name

Q#3.Definejoinandnamedifferenttypeofjoins?
Ans.Joinkeywordisusedtofetchdatafromrelatedtwoormoretables.Itreturnsrowswherethereisatleast
onematchinboththetablesincludedinjoin.Readmorehere.
Typeofjoinsare

1.RightJoin
2.OuterJoin
3.FullJoin
4.CrossJoin
5.SelfJoin.

Q#4.Whatisthesyntaxtoaddrecordtoatable?
Ans.ToaddrecordinatableINSERTsyntaxisused.

Ex:INSERTintotable_nameVALUES(value1,value2..)

Q#5.Howdoyouaddacolumntoatable?
Ans.Toaddanothercolumninthetablefollowingcommandhasbeenused.

ALTERTABLEtable_nameADD(column_name)

Q#6.DefineSQLDeletestatement.
Ans.Deleteisusedtodeletearoworrowsfromatablebasedonthespecifiedcondition.
Basicsyntaxisasfollows:

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DELETEFROMtable_name

WHERE<Condition>

Q#7.DefineCOMMIT?
Ans.COMMITsavesallchangesmadebyDMLstatements.

Q#8.Whatisaprimarykey?
Ans.APrimarykeyiscolumnwhosevaluesuniquelyidentifyeveryrowinatable.Primarykeyvaluescan
neverbereused.

Q#9.Whatareforeignkeys?
Ans.Whenaonetablesprimarykeyfieldisaddedtorelatedtablesinordertocreatethecommonfieldwhich
relatesthetwotables,itcalledaforeignkeyinothertables.
ForeignKeyconstraintsenforcereferentialintegrity.

Q#10.WhatisCHECKConstraint?
Ans.ACHECKconstraintisusedtolimitthevaluesortypeofdatathatcanbestoredinacolumn.Theyare
usedtoenforcedomainintegrity.

Q#11.Isitpossibleforatabletohavemorethanoneforeignkey?
Ans.Yes,atablecanhavemanyforeignkeysandonlyoneprimarykey.

Q#12.WhatarethepossiblevaluesforBOOLEANdatafield.
Ans.ForaBOOLEANdatafieldtwovaluesarepossible:1(true)and0(false).

Q#13.Whatisastoredprocedure?
Ans.AstoredprocedureisasetofSQLquerieswhichcantakeinputandsendbackoutput.

Q#14.WhatisidentityinSQL?
Ans.AnidentitycolumnintheSQLautomaticallygeneratesnumericvalues.Wecandefinedastartand
incrementvalueofidentitycolumn.

Q#15.WhatisNormalization?
Ans.Theprocessoftabledesigntominimizethedataredundancyiscallednormalization.Weneedtodividea
databaseintotwoormoretableanddefinerelationshipsbetweenthem.

Q#16.WhatisTrigger?
Ans.TriggerallowsustoexecuteabatchofSQLcodewhenatableeventoccurs(Insert,updateordelete
commandexecutedagainstaspecifictable)

Q#17.Howtoselectrandomrowsfromatable?
Ans.UsingSAMPLEclausewecanselectrandomrows.

Example:
SELECT*FROMtable_nameSAMPLE(10)

Q#18.WhichTCP/IPportdoesSQLServerrun?
Ans.BydefaultSQLServerrunsonport1433.

Q#19.WriteaSQLSELECTquerythatonlyreturnseachnameonlyoncefromatable?
Ans.Togettheeachnameonlyonce,weneedtousetheDISTINCTkeyword.

SELECTDISTINCTnameFROMtable_name

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Q#20.ExplainDMLandDDL?
Ans.DMLstandsforDataManipulationLanguage.INSERT,UPDATEandDELETEareDMLstatements.

DDLstandsforDataDefinitionLanguage.CREATE,ALTER,DROP,RENAMEareDDLstatements.

Q#21.CanwerenameacolumnintheoutputofSQLquery?
Ans.Yesusingthefollowingsyntaxwecandothis.

SELECTcolumn_nameASnew_nameFROMtable_name

Q#22.GivetheorderofSQLSELECT?
Ans.OrderofSQLSELECTclausesis:SELECT,FROM,WHERE,GROUPBY,HAVING,ORDERBY.Only
theSELECTandFROMclausearemandatory.

Q#23.SupposeaStudentcolumnhastwocolumns,NameandMarks.Howtogetnameandmarksoftop
threestudents.
Ans.SELECTName,MarksFROMStudents1where3<=(SELECTCOUNT(*)FROMStudentss2WHERE
s1.marks=s2.marks)

Q#24.WhatisSQLcomments?
Ans.SQLcommentscanbeputbytwoconsecutivehyphens().

Q#25.DifferencebetweenTRUNCATE,DELETEandDROPcommands?
Ans.DELETEremovessomeorallrowsfromatablebasedonthecondition.Itcanberolledback.

TRUNCATEremovesALLrowsfromatablebydeallocatingthememorypages.Theoperationcannotbe
rolledback

DROPcommandremovesatablefromthedatabasecompletely.

Q#26.Whatarethepropertiesofatransaction?
Ans.GenerallythesepropertiesarereferredasACIDproperties.Theyare:

1.Atomicity
2.Consistency
3.Isolation
4.Durability.

Q#27.WhatdoyoumeanbyROWID?
Ans.Itsa18characterlongpseudocolumnattachedwitheachrowofatable.

Q#28.DefineUNION,MINUS,UNIONALL,INTERSECT?
Ans.MINUSreturnsalldistinctrowsselectedbythefirstquerybutnotbythesecond.

UNIONreturnsalldistinctrowsselectedbyeitherquery

UNIONALLreturnsallrowsselectedbyeitherquery,includingallduplicates.

INTERSECTreturnsalldistinctrowsselectedbybothqueries.

Q#29.Whatisatransaction?
Ans.Atransactionisasequenceofcodethatrunsagainstadatabase.Ittakesdatabasefromoneconsistentstate
toanother.

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Q#30.WhatisdifferencebetweenUNIQUEandPRIMARYKEYconstraints?
Ans.AtablecanhaveonlyonePRIMARYKEYwhereastherecanbeanynumberofUNIQUEkeys.

PrimarykeycannotcontainNullvalueswhereasUniquekeycancontainNullvalues.

Q#31.Whatisacompositeprimarykey?
Ans.Primarykeycreatedonmorethanonecolumniscalledcompositeprimarykey.

Q#32.WhatisanIndex?
Ans.AnIndexisanspecialstructureassociatedwithatablespeeduptheperformanceofqueries.Indexcanbe
createdononeormorecolumnsofatable.

Q#33.WhatistheSubquery?
Ans.ASubqueryissubsetofselectstatementswhosereturnvaluesareusedinfilteringconditionsofthemain
query.

Q#34.Whatdoyoumeanbyqueryoptimization?
Ans.Queryoptimizationisaprocessinwhichdatabasesystemcomparesdifferentquerystrategiesandselect
thequerywiththeleastcost.

Q#35.WhatisCollation?
Ans.Setofrulesthatdefineshowdataisstored,howcasesensitivityandKanacharactercanbetreatedetc.

Q#36.WhatisReferentialIntegrity?
Ans.Setofrulesthatrestrictthevaluesofoneormorecolumnsofthetablesbasedonthevaluesofprimarykey
oruniquekeyofthereferencedtable.

Q#37.WhatisCaseFunction?
Ans.CasefacilitatesifthenelsetypeoflogicinSQL.Itevaluatesalistofconditionsandreturnsoneof
multiplepossibleresultexpressions.

Q#38.Defineatemptable?
Ans.Atemptableisatemporarystoragestructuretostorethedatatemporarily.

Q#39.Howwecanavoidduplicatingrecordsinaquery?
Ans.ByusingDISTINCTkeywordduplicatingrecordsinaquerycanbeavoided.

Q#40.ExplainthedifferencebetweenRenameandAlias?
Ans.RenameisapermanentnamegiventoatableorcolumnwhereasAliasisatemporarynamegiventoa
tableorcolumn.

Q#41.WhatisaView?
Ans.Aviewisavirtualtablewhichcontainsdatafromoneormoretables.Viewsrestrictdataaccessoftableby
selectingonlyrequiredvaluesandmakecomplexquerieseasy.

Q#42.WhataretheadvantagesofViews?
Ans.AdvantagesofViews:

1.Viewsrestrictaccesstothedatabecausetheviewcandisplayselectivecolumnsfromthetable.
2.Viewscanbeusedtomakesimplequeriestoretrievetheresultsofcomplicatedqueries.Forexample,
viewscanbeusedtoqueryinformationfrommultipletableswithouttheuserknowing.

Q#43.Listthevariousprivilegesthatausercangranttoanotheruser?
Ans.SELECT,CONNECT,RESOURCES.

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Q#44.Whatisschema?
Ans.AschemaiscollectionofdatabaseobjectsofaUser.

Q#45.WhatisTable?
Ans.Atableisthebasicunitofdatastorageinthedatabasemanagementsystem.Tabledataisstoredinrows
andcolumns.

Q#46.DoViewcontainData?
Ans.No,Viewsarevirtualstructure.

Q#47.CanaViewbasedonanotherView?
Ans.Yes,AViewisbasedonanotherView.

Q#48.WhatisdifferencebetweenHavingclauseandWhereclause?
Ans.BothspecifyasearchconditionbutHavingclauseisusedonlywiththeSELECTstatementandtypically
usedwithGROUPBYclause.
IfGROUPBYclauseisnotusedthenHavingbehaveslikeWHEREclauseonly.

Q#49.WhatisdifferencebetweenLocalandGlobaltemporarytable?
Ans.Ifdefinedininsideacompoundstatementalocaltemporarytableexistsonlyforthedurationofthat
statementbutaglobaltemporarytableexistspermanentlyinthedbbutitsrowsdisappearswhentheconnection
isclosed.

Q#50.WhatisCTE?
Ans.ACTEorcommontableexpressionisanexpressionwhichcontainstemporaryresultsetwhichisdefined
inaSQLstatement.

Conclusion:
Thatsallfornow.

HopeinthisarticleyouwillfindanswerstomostfrequentlyaskedSQLinterviewquestionsfortesters.The
knowledgeofSQLismustforanytesterandthisarticlewillhelpyouinpreparingSQLquestionforthe
interview.

HappyLearning..!!

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