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SCAD GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING


SIXTH SEMESTER
B.E DEGREE - COMMON INTERNAL ASSESMENT TEST - I
ME 6604 GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION
(REGULATIONS 2013)
ANSWER KEY

PART-A TOTAL MARKS : 70

Answer ALL Questions (5 x 2 = 10 Marks)

1. What is the basic difference between compressible and incompressible fluid flow?

Compressible Incompressible
1. Fluid velocities are appreciable 1. Fluid velocities are small
compared with the velocity of compared with the velocity of
sound sound

2. Density is not constant 2. Density is constant

2. State the meaning of stagnation state, stagnation pressures and stagnation temperatures.

The state of a fluid attained by isentropically decelerating it to zero velocity at zero


elevation is referred as stagnation state.

The pressure of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is known as
stagnation pressure.
The temperature of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is known as
stagnation temperature.

c2
T0 = T +
2 Cp

T = static temperature

T0 = stagnation temperature

c2
= velocity temperature
2 Cp

3. What are the different regions of compressible flow?


The adiabatic energy equation for a perfect gas is derived in terms of fluid velocity
and sound velocity (a). This is then plotted graphically on the c- a co-ordinates, a
steady flow ellipse is obtained.
The various regions of flow are:
(i) Incompressible region (M 0)
(ii) Subsonic region (M < 1)(iii)
Transonic region (0.8 1.2)
(iv) Supersonic region (M > 1 and M < 1)
(v) Hypersonic region (M 5)

4. What is the mach number and its uses?

Mach number is defined as the ratio between the local fluid velocity to the velocity of
sound.
local fluid velocity C
I,e Mach Number M= =
velocity of sound a
It is used for the analysis of compressible fluid flow problems. Critical mach number
is a dimensionless number at which the fluid velocity is equal to its sound
velocity.

Therefore,

5. Define zone of action and zone of silence with neat sketch.

6. Define Crocco Number.


It is defined as the ratio between fluid velocity (c) and its maximum fluid velocity (cmax).
c
Cr =
c max

7. Define maximum velocity of fluid (Cmax)


It is the velocity where fluid is having maximum velocity. It is expressed by

c max
a0
=
2
1

PART-B
Answer ALL Questions (8+16+16+16=56 Marks)

8. An air jet ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kgk) at 400k has sonic velocity. Determine

1. Velocity of sound at 400K


2. Velocity of sound at the stagnation conditions
3. Maximum velocity of the jet
4. Stagnation enthalpy

Given:

= 1.4
R = 287 J/kgk
T = 400k

At sonic condition, Mach number M = 1

c
M= =1 c=a
a

To find:

(i) a (ii) ao (iii) Cmax (iv) ho (v) Cr

Solution:

Velocity of sound, a = RT

a = 1.4 X 287 X 400

a = 400.8 m/s

Stagnation temp Mach number relation


T0 1
= 1+ M2
T 2

T0 1
= 1+ (1)2
T 2
T0 1.41
= 1+
400 2

T0
= 1.2
400

T0 = 480 K

Velocity of sound at stagnation condition

a0 = R T 0

= 1.4x287x480

a0 = 439.16 m/s

From stagnation enthalpy equation

a2 1 2 1 2 a20
h0 = + c = c =
1 2 2 max 1

2
1 2 a0
c =
2 max 1

2 2 a20 2( 439.16 )
2
c max = =
1 1.41

c 2max = 964.3 x 103


2
c max = 981.9 m/s

From stagnation enthalpy condition

1 2
h0 = c
2 max

1
= ( 981.9 )2
2

h0 = 482.06 x 103 J/Kg


C a
Crocco number, Cr = =
C max C max

400.8
= = 0.408
981.9

At sonic condition

M=1

c
M= =1
a

c=a

9. Air ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kg K) enters a straight axis symmetric duct at 300K, 3.45 bar and
150 m/s and leaves it at 277K, 2.058 bar and 260 m/s. The area of cross section at
entry is 500 cm2. Assuming adiabatic flow determine

1. Stagnation temperature
2. Maximum velocity
3. Mass flow rate
4. Area of cross section at exit

Given:
= 1.4
R = 287 J/kgK
T1 = 300K
P1 = 3.45 bar = 3.45 x105 N/m2
C1 = 150 m/s
T2 = 277K
P2 = 2.058 bar = 2.058 x 105 N/m2
C2 = 260 m/s
A1 = 500 cm2 = 500 x 10-4 m2

Solution:

Sound velocity, a1 = RT 1

Sound velocity at inlet, a1 = 347.19 m/s

c1
Mach number, M1 =
a1

Inlet Mach number, M1 = 0.432

Stagnation Temperature, T01 = 311.2 K


Maximum velocity, cmax = 790.69 m/s

Mass flow rate, m = 30.05 kg/s

Area of cross section at exit, A2 = 0.0446 m2

OR

10. Derive effect of Mach number on compressibility?

Effect of mach number on compressibility:

From Bernoulli equation, the stagnation pressure for incompressible flow is

1 2
P0 = P + c
2

P 0P
1 2 = 1
c
2

This equation shows the value of pressure co-efficient (sometime referred to as


compressiblity factor) is unity.

But for the compressible flow the value of pressure co-efficient deviates from unity.

For isentropic compressible flow the relationship between stagnation pressure and
stagnation temperature is given by

P0 T0
P
= ( ) T
1


P0 1 2
P
= ( 1+
2
M ) 1
----------------------------------------(1)

Expanding this equation as Taylor series ie

n(n1) 2 n ( n1 ) (n2) 3
(1+x)n = 1+ nx + + + .......
2! 3!

1 2
Here x = M , n=
2 1


1
[ 1+
1 2
2
M ] 1
= 1 +

1 [ 1 2
2
M ] + 1 1
2!
x

2 3
1 2
[ 1 2
2
M
] + 1 1
3!
1 x [ 1 2
2
M
]
= 1 +
2
2
M + 1 [
( 1)
1
X
]
( 1)2 4
M
+
2 4

1 [
( 1)
1

2( 1)
][
X
( 1)3 6
M
]
6 8

= 1 +
2
2
M +

[ ]
1
1 1
X
( 1)2 4
M
+
2 4
1
[ ][ ]
1 1

2
1
X
( 1)3 6
M
6 8

2 4 ( 2 ) 6
=1+ M + M + M
2 8 48

2 4
[ 1+
1 2
2
M ] 1
= 1+
2
M +
8
M +
( 2 ) 6
48
M

Substitute this value in Equation (1)

P0 2 4 ( 2 ) 6
= 1+ M + M + M
P 2 8 48

P0 2 4 ( 2 ) 6
-1 = M + M + M
P 2 8 48

P 0P 2 4 ( 2 ) 6
= M + M + M
P 2 8 48

2
by M
2

P 0P
M2 (2 ) 4
P 2 = 1 + + M -----------------------(2)
M 4 24
2
2
C C
Mach Number M = = M2 =
a a
2

C2
M2 = a = RT
RT
2
M C2
=
2 2 RT

2
M C2
= -----------------------(3)
2 2 RT
2 2
P 2 PC RT C RT
M = = PV = RT ; P = ;P= RT
2 2 RT 2 RT V

2
P 2 C
M = -----------------------(4)
2 2

Substitute (4) in equation (2)

P 0P1
M
2
(2 )M 4
c 2
= 1+ + + .
4 24
2

Substitute =1.4

P 0P1
M2 M4
1 2 = 1+ + + (This is pressure coeffient equation for
c 4 40
2
compressible flow.)

11. The flight speed is 800 km/h. The stagnation conditions are 105 kPa and 35C. Find
static conditions and flight Mach number.

Given:
Flight speed, c = 800 km/hr = 222.22 m/s
Stagnation pressure, P0 = 105 kPa = 1.05 x 105 N/m2
Stagnation temperature, T0 = 35C = 308 K

Solution:

Sound velocity at stagnation condition, a0 = R T 0

Velocity of sound at stagnation condition, a0 = 351.79 m/s

Sound velocity, a = RT

Velocity of sound, a = 337.46 m/s

Static Temperature, T = 283.42 K

Static Pressure, P = 0.78 x 105 N/m2


c
Mach number, M =
a

Mach Number, M = 0.658

OR

12. The Pressure, temperature and Mach number at the entry of a flow passage are 2.45 bar,
26.5 C and 1.4 respectively. If the exit Mach number is 2.5, determine the following for
adiabatic flow of a perfect gas ( = 1.3, R = 0.469 kJ/kg K).
1. Stagnation temperature
2. Temperature and velocity of gas at exit
3. The flow rate per square metre of the inlet cross section

Given:

P1 = 2.45 bar = 2.45 x 105 N/m2


T1 = 26.5C = 299.5 K
M1 = 1.4
M2 = 2.5
= 1.3
R = 0.469 kJ/kg k = 469 J/kg K

Solution:
Stagnation temperature, T0 = T01 = T02 = 387.5 K

Exit temperature, T2 = 199.95 K

Exit Velocity, C2 = 872.89 m/s

m
The flow rate per square metre of the inlet cross section, = 1040.96 kg/s-m2
A1

13. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test-section mach number of 2.0. Air enters the nozzle
from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross sectional area of the throat is 1000
cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one dimensional isentropic
flow. (i) Pressures, temperatures and velocities at the throat and test-sections. (ii)
Area of cross section of the test section (iii) Mass flow rate (iv) Power
required to drive the compressor

Given:

P0 = 0.69 bar, T0 = 310 K, A* = 1000 cm2, Mt = 2

Solution:

P0
0 =
RT0

0.69105
0 = = 0.775 Kg/m3
287310
a0 = R T 0

a0 = 1.4 X 287 X 310

= 353 m/s

P2 = 4x105x0.528 = 2.112x105 N/m2


C2
Mach number at Exit, M2 =
a2

C2 = M2 x a2 = 1x 1.4 X 287 X 458.7

= 429.30 m/s

Mass flow rate, m = 2A2C2

P2
= X A2 X C2
RT2

2.112105
= X 1000 X 104 X 429.30
287458.7

m = 68.87 kg/s

Case (ii)

Refer Isentropic flow table = 1.4 & M2 = 0.85

T2 P2
= 0.874 = 0.624
T 02 P 02

T2 = 0.874x550 = 480.7 K

P2 = 4x105x0.624 = 2.496x105 N/m2


C2
Mach number at Exit, M2 =
a2

C2 = M2 x a2 = 0.85x 1.4 X 287 X 480.7

Exit Velocity, C2 = 373.56 m/s

From gas tables at M=1 (Throat section)



P
= 0.528, P = 0.528x0.69 = 0.365 bar
P0

= 0.632, = 0.632x0.775= 0.49 kg/m3


0
a* = R T

a* = 1.4 X 287 X 258

a* = 323 m/s

c* = a* = 323 m/s

From gas tables at Mt = 2.0

P
= 0.128 P = 0.128x0.69 = 0.0885 bar
P0

T
= 0.555 T = 0.555x310= 175 K
T0

At
= 1.687A = 1.687x1000 = 1687 cm2
A
at = R T t

at = 1.4 X 287 X 173

= 264 m/s

Ct Ct
Mt = = =2
at 264

ct = 528 m/s

Assuming reversible flow, compressor work

Wc = m Cp x temperature drop

Wc = 15.9x1005x(310-173) J/s

= 15.9x1005x137 J/s

Wc = 2183 KW

OR

14. The Pressure, temperature and velocity of air at the entry of a diffuser are 0.7 bar, 345 K
and 190 m/s respectively. The entry diameter of a diffuser is 15 cm and exit diameter is
35 cm. Determine the following.
(1) Exit pressure (2) Exit velocity (3) Force exerted on the diffuser walls. Assuming
isentropic flow and take = 1.4, Cp = 1005 J/kgk

Given:

P1 = 0.7 bar, T1 = 345 K, C1 = 190 m/s, d1 = 15 cm = 0.15 m, d2 = 35 cm=0.35 m,


= 1.4, Cp = 1005 J/kgk
Solution:

Velocity of sound at inlet,a1 = R T 1

= 1.4 X 287 X 345

a1 = 372.32 m/s

C1
Mach number at inlet, M1 =
a1

190
= = 0.51
372.32

From Isentropic flow table for = 1.4 & M1=0.51

T1 P1
= 0.951 = 0.837
T 01 P 01

A1 F1
= 1.321 = 1.190
A 1 F 1

T1 345
T 01 = = = 362.78K
0.951 0.951

T 01 = 362.78K = T 02 ( For isentropic flow , T 01 = T 02 )

P1 0.7
P01 = = = 0.836 bar
0.837 0.837

P01 = 362.78K = P02 (For isentropic flow, T 01 = T 02 )

2
A1 A1 x(0.15)

=1.321 A1 = = 4 = 0.01337
A 1 1.321
1.321

A1 = 0.01337 = A2


Area at exit, A2 = d2 2
= 0.096m2
4

A2 0.096
= = 7.180
A 2 0.01337

In this problem, d2>d1 => A2>A1. So this is divergent type diffuser. For divergent
M<1
type diffuser Mach number value is less than unity
Inlet Outlet

A2
From isentropic flow table, for = 7.18 7.26 & = 1.4
A

M2 = 0.08

P2 T2 F2
= 0.995 = 0.995 = 5.753
P 02 T 02 F

P2 = 0.995 x 0.836 = 0.832 bar

T2 = 0.998 x 362.78 = 362.05 K

C2
Mach number, M2 = (a = RT )
a2

c2 = 0.08x 1.4 X 287 X 362.05 = 30.51 m/s

At throat ( ) section, M = 1 & = 1.4

P
= 0.528, P = 0.528x0.836 = 0.441 bar
P0

P* = 0.441 bar = P1* = P2*

Force exerted on the diffuser wall is equal to the thrust of the flow

= F 2 - F1

= 5.753F2* - 1.190F1*

= [5.753 - 1.190]F1* (F1* = F2*)

= 4.563 [0.441 X 105 X 0.01337 (1 + 1.4)]

= 6457 N