ME6604 GDJP

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You are on page 1of 13

SIXTH SEMESTER

B.E DEGREE - COMMON INTERNAL ASSESMENT TEST - I

ME 6604 GAS DYNAMICS AND JET PROPULSION

(REGULATIONS 2013)

ANSWER KEY

1. What is the basic difference between compressible and incompressible fluid flow?

Compressible Incompressible

1. Fluid velocities are appreciable 1. Fluid velocities are small

compared with the velocity of compared with the velocity of

sound sound

2. State the meaning of stagnation state, stagnation pressures and stagnation temperatures.

elevation is referred as stagnation state.

The pressure of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is known as

stagnation pressure.

The temperature of the fluid when the fluid velocity is zero at zero elevation is known as

stagnation temperature.

c2

T0 = T +

2 Cp

T = static temperature

T0 = stagnation temperature

c2

= velocity temperature

2 Cp

The adiabatic energy equation for a perfect gas is derived in terms of fluid velocity

and sound velocity (a). This is then plotted graphically on the c- a co-ordinates, a

steady flow ellipse is obtained.

The various regions of flow are:

(i) Incompressible region (M 0)

(ii) Subsonic region (M < 1)(iii)

Transonic region (0.8 1.2)

(iv) Supersonic region (M > 1 and M < 1)

(v) Hypersonic region (M 5)

Mach number is defined as the ratio between the local fluid velocity to the velocity of

sound.

local fluid velocity C

I,e Mach Number M= =

velocity of sound a

It is used for the analysis of compressible fluid flow problems. Critical mach number

is a dimensionless number at which the fluid velocity is equal to its sound

velocity.

Therefore,

It is defined as the ratio between fluid velocity (c) and its maximum fluid velocity (cmax).

c

Cr =

c max

It is the velocity where fluid is having maximum velocity. It is expressed by

c max

a0

=

2

1

PART-B

Answer ALL Questions (8+16+16+16=56 Marks)

8. An air jet ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kgk) at 400k has sonic velocity. Determine

2. Velocity of sound at the stagnation conditions

3. Maximum velocity of the jet

4. Stagnation enthalpy

Given:

= 1.4

R = 287 J/kgk

T = 400k

c

M= =1 c=a

a

To find:

Solution:

Velocity of sound, a = RT

a = 400.8 m/s

T0 1

= 1+ M2

T 2

T0 1

= 1+ (1)2

T 2

T0 1.41

= 1+

400 2

T0

= 1.2

400

T0 = 480 K

a0 = R T 0

= 1.4x287x480

a0 = 439.16 m/s

a2 1 2 1 2 a20

h0 = + c = c =

1 2 2 max 1

2

1 2 a0

c =

2 max 1

2 2 a20 2( 439.16 )

2

c max = =

1 1.41

2

c max = 981.9 m/s

1 2

h0 = c

2 max

1

= ( 981.9 )2

2

C a

Crocco number, Cr = =

C max C max

400.8

= = 0.408

981.9

At sonic condition

M=1

c

M= =1

a

c=a

9. Air ( = 1.4, R = 287 J/kg K) enters a straight axis symmetric duct at 300K, 3.45 bar and

150 m/s and leaves it at 277K, 2.058 bar and 260 m/s. The area of cross section at

entry is 500 cm2. Assuming adiabatic flow determine

1. Stagnation temperature

2. Maximum velocity

3. Mass flow rate

4. Area of cross section at exit

Given:

= 1.4

R = 287 J/kgK

T1 = 300K

P1 = 3.45 bar = 3.45 x105 N/m2

C1 = 150 m/s

T2 = 277K

P2 = 2.058 bar = 2.058 x 105 N/m2

C2 = 260 m/s

A1 = 500 cm2 = 500 x 10-4 m2

Solution:

Sound velocity, a1 = RT 1

c1

Mach number, M1 =

a1

Maximum velocity, cmax = 790.69 m/s

OR

1 2

P0 = P + c

2

P 0P

1 2 = 1

c

2

compressiblity factor) is unity.

But for the compressible flow the value of pressure co-efficient deviates from unity.

For isentropic compressible flow the relationship between stagnation pressure and

stagnation temperature is given by

P0 T0

P

= ( ) T

1

P0 1 2

P

= ( 1+

2

M ) 1

----------------------------------------(1)

n(n1) 2 n ( n1 ) (n2) 3

(1+x)n = 1+ nx + + + .......

2! 3!

1 2

Here x = M , n=

2 1

1

[ 1+

1 2

2

M ] 1

= 1 +

1 [ 1 2

2

M ] + 1 1

2!

x

2 3

1 2

[ 1 2

2

M

] + 1 1

3!

1 x [ 1 2

2

M

]

= 1 +

2

2

M + 1 [

( 1)

1

X

]

( 1)2 4

M

+

2 4

1 [

( 1)

1

2( 1)

][

X

( 1)3 6

M

]

6 8

= 1 +

2

2

M +

[ ]

1

1 1

X

( 1)2 4

M

+

2 4

1

[ ][ ]

1 1

2

1

X

( 1)3 6

M

6 8

2 4 ( 2 ) 6

=1+ M + M + M

2 8 48

2 4

[ 1+

1 2

2

M ] 1

= 1+

2

M +

8

M +

( 2 ) 6

48

M

P0 2 4 ( 2 ) 6

= 1+ M + M + M

P 2 8 48

P0 2 4 ( 2 ) 6

-1 = M + M + M

P 2 8 48

P 0P 2 4 ( 2 ) 6

= M + M + M

P 2 8 48

2

by M

2

P 0P

M2 (2 ) 4

P 2 = 1 + + M -----------------------(2)

M 4 24

2

2

C C

Mach Number M = = M2 =

a a

2

C2

M2 = a = RT

RT

2

M C2

=

2 2 RT

2

M C2

= -----------------------(3)

2 2 RT

2 2

P 2 PC RT C RT

M = = PV = RT ; P = ;P= RT

2 2 RT 2 RT V

2

P 2 C

M = -----------------------(4)

2 2

P 0P1

M

2

(2 )M 4

c 2

= 1+ + + .

4 24

2

Substitute =1.4

P 0P1

M2 M4

1 2 = 1+ + + (This is pressure coeffient equation for

c 4 40

2

compressible flow.)

11. The flight speed is 800 km/h. The stagnation conditions are 105 kPa and 35C. Find

static conditions and flight Mach number.

Given:

Flight speed, c = 800 km/hr = 222.22 m/s

Stagnation pressure, P0 = 105 kPa = 1.05 x 105 N/m2

Stagnation temperature, T0 = 35C = 308 K

Solution:

Sound velocity, a = RT

c

Mach number, M =

a

OR

12. The Pressure, temperature and Mach number at the entry of a flow passage are 2.45 bar,

26.5 C and 1.4 respectively. If the exit Mach number is 2.5, determine the following for

adiabatic flow of a perfect gas ( = 1.3, R = 0.469 kJ/kg K).

1. Stagnation temperature

2. Temperature and velocity of gas at exit

3. The flow rate per square metre of the inlet cross section

Given:

T1 = 26.5C = 299.5 K

M1 = 1.4

M2 = 2.5

= 1.3

R = 0.469 kJ/kg k = 469 J/kg K

Solution:

Stagnation temperature, T0 = T01 = T02 = 387.5 K

m

The flow rate per square metre of the inlet cross section, = 1040.96 kg/s-m2

A1

13. A nozzle in a wind tunnel gives a test-section mach number of 2.0. Air enters the nozzle

from a large reservoir at 0.69 bar and 310 K. The cross sectional area of the throat is 1000

cm2. Determine the following quantities for the tunnel for one dimensional isentropic

flow. (i) Pressures, temperatures and velocities at the throat and test-sections. (ii)

Area of cross section of the test section (iii) Mass flow rate (iv) Power

required to drive the compressor

Given:

Solution:

P0

0 =

RT0

0.69105

0 = = 0.775 Kg/m3

287310

a0 = R T 0

= 353 m/s

C2

Mach number at Exit, M2 =

a2

= 429.30 m/s

P2

= X A2 X C2

RT2

2.112105

= X 1000 X 104 X 429.30

287458.7

m = 68.87 kg/s

Case (ii)

T2 P2

= 0.874 = 0.624

T 02 P 02

T2 = 0.874x550 = 480.7 K

C2

Mach number at Exit, M2 =

a2

P

= 0.528, P = 0.528x0.69 = 0.365 bar

P0

0

a* = R T

a* = 323 m/s

c* = a* = 323 m/s

P

= 0.128 P = 0.128x0.69 = 0.0885 bar

P0

T

= 0.555 T = 0.555x310= 175 K

T0

At

= 1.687A = 1.687x1000 = 1687 cm2

A

at = R T t

= 264 m/s

Ct Ct

Mt = = =2

at 264

ct = 528 m/s

Wc = m Cp x temperature drop

Wc = 15.9x1005x(310-173) J/s

= 15.9x1005x137 J/s

Wc = 2183 KW

OR

14. The Pressure, temperature and velocity of air at the entry of a diffuser are 0.7 bar, 345 K

and 190 m/s respectively. The entry diameter of a diffuser is 15 cm and exit diameter is

35 cm. Determine the following.

(1) Exit pressure (2) Exit velocity (3) Force exerted on the diffuser walls. Assuming

isentropic flow and take = 1.4, Cp = 1005 J/kgk

Given:

= 1.4, Cp = 1005 J/kgk

Solution:

a1 = 372.32 m/s

C1

Mach number at inlet, M1 =

a1

190

= = 0.51

372.32

T1 P1

= 0.951 = 0.837

T 01 P 01

A1 F1

= 1.321 = 1.190

A 1 F 1

T1 345

T 01 = = = 362.78K

0.951 0.951

P1 0.7

P01 = = = 0.836 bar

0.837 0.837

2

A1 A1 x(0.15)

=1.321 A1 = = 4 = 0.01337

A 1 1.321

1.321

A1 = 0.01337 = A2

Area at exit, A2 = d2 2

= 0.096m2

4

A2 0.096

= = 7.180

A 2 0.01337

In this problem, d2>d1 => A2>A1. So this is divergent type diffuser. For divergent

M<1

type diffuser Mach number value is less than unity

Inlet Outlet

A2

From isentropic flow table, for = 7.18 7.26 & = 1.4

A

M2 = 0.08

P2 T2 F2

= 0.995 = 0.995 = 5.753

P 02 T 02 F

C2

Mach number, M2 = (a = RT )

a2

P

= 0.528, P = 0.528x0.836 = 0.441 bar

P0

Force exerted on the diffuser wall is equal to the thrust of the flow

= F 2 - F1

= 5.753F2* - 1.190F1*

= 6457 N

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