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H2 RAINFALL-RUNOFF RELATIONSHIP

OBJECTIVE

To determine the hydrograph curve (discharge versus time) for:


1. Storm occurs in the upstream part of the catchments.
2. Storm occurs in the whole catchments area.
3. Multiple storms occur in the whole catchments area

APPARATUS
1. Rainfall runoff equipment
2. Stop Watch

PROCEDURES
Case 1: To determine the flow depth discharge

a) The pipe direction was set up towards the flow depth gauge container and not
towards the catchments area.
b) The valve was adjusted to a fixed discharge value.
c) Water was let to flow to the depth gauge container until the water surface is
stable. The flow depth is recorded and the table given is used.
d) Step 2 and 3 was repeated for a few more discharge values.

Case 2: To determine the rainfall hydrograph for the whole catchments area.

a) The valve is opened and the rain was allowed to fall to cover the whole area and
quickly the stop watch.
b) The rainfall occured for a few minutes and then the valve was closed. The flow
depth gauge container was checked for any changes on the depth.
c) Water level in the flow depth gauge container increased slowly. The depth is
recorded against time until the level falling down to consistently low level and the
table given is used.

Case 3: To determine the rainfall hydrograph at the upstream area.

a) The steps as in case 2 was repeated for the rainfall at the upstream only.

Case 4: To determine the multiple rainfall hydrograph at the whole area.

a) The steps as in case 2 was repeated for the multiple rainfall by allowing the
rainfall for a few minute and then the rainfall was stopped for a few minute and
next the rainfall was started again and the rainfall was stopped and so on.

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SUMMARY

(a) Case (II): The rainfall hydrograph for the whole catchments area.

From the hydrograph, the discharge increases as the time increases with a curve
line. Even the rain stopped after 150 second, but the discharge keep on increasing until it
reach a maximum peak at 120th second with the maximum discharge of 11.55lit/min. The
discharge starts decreases after the peak point until it reaches the inflection point at 210th
second. After that, it becomes constant at 1.03lit/min discharge.

(b) Case (III): The rainfall hydrograph at the upstream area.

The characteristic of the hydrograph is almost same with case (II). The maximum
peak reaches at 110th second with maximum discharge of 4.07lit/min. The graph decreases
after the peak and reaches a constant value of 1.03lit/min at 200th second.

(c) Case (IV): The multiple rainfall hydrograph at the whole area.

The hydrograph products two peak point as the rain falls twice continuously after
a break. The first peak with maximum discharge of 12.06lit/min at 100th second while the
second peak also 12.06lit/min but occurred at 350th second for duration of 10 second. This
multiple rainfall hydrograph is a combination of two single hydrograph with rainfall event
occurred twice at different period.

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GRAPH
1. For experiment 1, plot the calibration curve by plotting discharge (lit/min)
versus depth ( mm ). Note: You do not have to plot the graph if the graph is
given.
Depth Discharge
(mm) (lit/min)
58 22
55 20
51 18
48 16
43 14
40 12
38 10
32 8
27 6
24 4
14 2

Calibration Depth versus Discharge


(Calibration Curve)

25

20
Discharge (lit/min)

15 y = 0.0185x1.7449

10

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70

Depth (mm)

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2. Plot the storm hydrograph curve for the whole catchment area by plotting
discharge ( lit/min ) versus time ( second ) from Experiment 2. Also sketch
the effective storm histogram on the curve.

Table H2 - iii
Determination Of Storm Hydrograph At the Upstream Of
Catchment Area

Time (sec) Depth (mm) Discharge (lit/min)


0 5 0.31
10 5 0.31
20 5 0.31
30 6 0.42
40 6 0.42
50 7 0.55
60 11 1.21
70 17 2.60
80 20 3.45
90 22 4.07
100 23 4.40
110 23 4.40
120 24 4.74
130 23 4.40
140 22 4.07
150 18 2.87
160 15 2.09
170 13 1.63
180 11 1.21
190 9 0.86
200 9 0.86
210 9 0.86
220 9 0.86

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Discharge (lit/min) vs Time (sec)
10.0

9.0

8.0

Qpeak = 6.9 lit/min


7.0
Discharge (lit/min)

6.0

5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250
Time (sec)

Depth (mm)
30

25

20

15
Depth (mm)
10

0
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180
190
200
210
220
0

80
10
20
30
40
50
60
70

90

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3. Plot the storm hydrograph at the upstream of the catchment area
Experiment 3. Sketch the effective storm histogram.

Table H2 - iii
Determination Of Storm Hydrograph At the Upstream Of
Catchment Area

Time (sec) Depth (mm) discharge (lit/min)


0 5 0.31
10 5 0.31
20 5 0.31
30 6 0.42
40 6 0.42
50 7 0.55
60 11 1.21
70 17 2.60
80 20 3.45
90 22 4.07
100 23 4.40
110 23 4.40
120 24 4.74
130 23 4.40
140 22 4.07
150 18 2.87
160 15 2.09
170 13 1.63
180 11 1.21
190 9 0.86
200 9 0.86
210 9 0.86
220 9 0.86

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Hydrograph

Storm hydrograph At The Upstream Catchment Area (Case III)

8.0

7.0
Discharge (lit/min)

6.0

Qpeak = 4.9 lit/min


5.0

4.0

3.0

2.0

1.0

0.0
0 50 100 150 200 250

Time (sec)

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Histogram

Depth (mm) versus Time (sec )


50

45

40

35

30
Depth (mm)

25

20

15

10

440
460
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
0
20
40
60
80

Time ( sec )

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4. Plot the multiple storm hydrograph and sketch the effective storm histogram
Experiment 4.
Table H2 - iv
Determination Of Multiple Storm Hydrograph For The Entire Catchment
Area

Time (sec) Depth (mm) Discharge (lit/min)


0 5 0.31
10 6 0.42
20 7 0.55
30 8 0.70
40 17 2.60
50 22 4.07
60 25 5.09
70 29 6.59
80 33 8.26
90 35 9.15
100 42 12.58
110 45 14.19
120 45 14.19
130 38 10.56
140 34 8.70
150 28 6.20
160 21 3.75
170 16 2.33
180 14 1.85
190 11 1.21
200 10 1.03
210 9 0.86
220 9 0.86
230 9 0.86
240 8 0.70
250 8 0.70
260 9 0.86
270 11 1.21
280 20 3.45
290 29 6.59
300 35 9.15
310 37 10.08
320 38 10.56
330 39 11.05
340 39 11.05
350 39 11.05
360 39 11.05
370 38 10.56
380 35 9.15
390 28 6.20
400 22 4.07
410 17 2.60

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420 14 1.85
430 12 1.41
440 11 1.21
450 10 1.03
460 9 0.86
480 9 0.86

Hydrograph
20

Discharge ( Lit/min ) versus time ( sec )


18

16 Qpeak = 14.8 lit/min

14
Discharge (lit/min)

Qpeak = 11.5 lit/min


12

10

0
0 100 200 300 400 500
Time (sec)

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Histogram

Depth (mm) versus Time (sec)


50

45

40

35

30
Depth (mm)

25

20

15

10

460
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380
400
420
440
0
20
40
60
80

Time (sec )

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COMMENT

From the experiment, the hydrograph that we plotted does not produce a smooth
curve as applied in theoretical hydrograph and this might have some differential between
both values. This may be caused by several reasons as shown below:
a) Parallax error may occurred during the reading of water level in the flow depth
gauge is taken.
b) There is a leaking at the valve when it is opened and this will affect the output
of rainfall.
c) It is difficult to pump out the excess water from the flow depth gauge container
after conducting case (II). This will take long time because we have to wait
until the water infiltrate totally. With the period we have for the experiment, it
is not enough to wait for it.
d) The rainfall is not distributed uniformly as two of the sprinkles do not function
properly and causes non-uniformly rainfall in certain area.
e) The apparatus is in bad condition and do not well functioned.
f) All the rainwater has not totally infiltrated before continues with other cases of
rainfall.

CONCLUSION

A hydrograph consists of three major components, which are surface runoff, base
flow, and intermediate flow. In civil engineering works, hydrograph can be analyzed for
the purpose of:
a) To determine the quantity of various hydrograph components.
b) To derive the relationship between the effective rainfall and surface runoff.
c) To estimate the volume of rainwater occurred by a rainfall event which is
important in hydrological structure and design.

By conducting the experiment above, we can obtain the calibration curve and
hydrograph of each rainfall cases. The data of experiment is useful for water resources and
hydrological research at that particular catchments area.

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