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EXPERIMENT NO. 1

Energy Losses in Bends

Introduction

This report discusses an experiment to study the relationship of loss coefficient and pipe fittings
and also the relationship between the head loss and dynamic head and the loss coefficient and
volumetric flow rate. In this experiment, all losses across pipe fittings were measured except the
gate valve which deliberately kept fully open. The objective of the experiment is to determine the
loss factor through a range of pipe fitting including bends, a contraction and an enlargement. This
report presents the procedures for the experiment, the experiment's results, and an analysis of those
results.

Materials

F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fitting Apparatus

The F1-10 Hydraulics Bench which allows us to measure flow by timed volume collection

A stopwatch to determine the flow rate of the water

Clamps for pressure tapping connection tubes

Spirit level

Thermometer

Procedure

In this experiment, the F1-22 Energy Losses in Bends and Fitting Apparatus and F1-10 Hydraulics
Bench were set according to the set up given. After the equipment set up, the measurement began.
The losses across all pipe fitting were measured except the gate valve, which deliberately kept
fully open. The flow from the control valve were adjusted and, at a given flow rate, the height
reading were taken from all the manometers after the levels have steadied. In order to determine
the volume flow rate, a timed volume collection had been carried out using volumetric tank. This
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was achieved by closing the ball valve and measuring the time that had been taken to accumulate
a known volume of the fluid in the tank, which was read from the sight glass. The fluid was
collected for at least one minute to minimized timing errors. This procedure was repeated a total
of four sets of measurements over a flow range from approximately 8-7 liters per minute

Data and Calculations:

1st Trial

FITTING Manometer Manometer Head Volume Time Flow Veloci Dynamic K


h1 h2 Loss V Rate ty Head
3
m m h2-h1 m s Qt v v2/2g
m m3/s m/s m
-3 -5
Mitre 241 268 27 5.5x10 85 6.47x10 0.2144 2.343x10-3 11523.69
Elbow 290 306 16 5.5x10-3 85 6.47x10-5 0.2144 2.343x10-3 6828.85
-3 -5 -3
Short Bend 311 325 14 5.5x10 85 6.47x10 0.2144 2.343x10 5975.25
Enlargement 333 344 11 5.5x10-3 85 6.47x10-5 0.1219 7.574x10-4 4694.84
Contraction 322.5 342 19.5 5.5x10-3 85 6.47x10-5 0.2144 2.343x10-3 8322.66
Long Bend 334 343.5 9.5 5.5x10-3 85 6.47x10-5 0.2144 2.343x10-3 4054.63

2nd Trial

FITTING Manometer Manometer Head Volume Time Flow Veloci Dynamic K


h1 h2 Loss V Rate ty Head
m m h2-h1 m3 s Qt v v2/2g
m m3/s m/s m
Mitre 125 202 77 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.7524 0.0289 2664.36
Elbow 252.5 300 47.5 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.7524 0.0289 1643.60
Short Bend 309.5 346 36.5 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.7524 0.0289 1262.98
Enlargement 377.5 408 30.5 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.4276 9.319x10-3 3272.88
Contraction 345.6 406.5 60.9 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.7524 0.0289 2107.27
Long Bend 379 407 28 5x10-3 22 2.27x10-4 0.7524 0.0289 968.86
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3rd Trial
FITTING Manometer Manometer Head Volume Time Flow Veloci Dynamic K
h1 h2 Loss V Rate ty Head
3
m m h2-h1 m s Qt v v2/2g
m m3/s m/s m
-3 -5
Mitre 272 287 15 5.5x10 115 4.78x10 0.1584 1.279x10-3 11727.91
Elbow 299 308 9 5.5x10-3 115 4.78x10-5 0.1584 1.279x10-3 7036.75
Short Bend 312 318 6 5.5x10-3 115 4.78x10-5 0.1584 1.279x10-3 4691.16
Enlargement 324 329 5 5.5x10-3 115 4.78x10-5 0.0900 4.128x10-4 12112.40
Contraction 318 328.5 10.5 5.5x10-3 115 4.78x10-5 0.1584 1.279x10-3 8209.54
Long Bend 323 327 4 5.5x10-3 115 4.78x10-5 0.1584 1.279x10-3 3127.44

4th Trial

FITTING Manometer Manometer Head Volume Time Flow Rate Veloci Dynamic K
h1 h2 Loss V Qt ty Head
m m h2-h1 m3 s m3/s v v2/2g
m m/s m
Mitre 215.5 243 27.5 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.4527 0.0104 2644.23
Elbow 264.5 278 13.5 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.4527 0.0104 1298.08
Short Bend 287 299 12 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.4527 0.0104 1153.85
Enlargement 308 316 8 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.2573 3.37x10-3 2373.89
Contraction 296 319 23 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.4527 0.0104 2211.54
Long Bend 310 317.5 7.5 5.5x10-3 40.26 1.366x10-4 0.4527 0.0104 721.15
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Discussion

Four trials were measured for the experiment with different flow rates. For every trial, the
group recorded the difference in height of different fittings. Through this we could determine the
pressure drop, its dynamic head, velocity and the value of K.

When fluid is flowing in pipes, the fluid experiences some resistance due to which some
of the energy of the fluid is lost. The major factor affecting the fluid flow is due to friction and as
for the minor factor, the sudden expansion or contraction, the bends in pipe, and pipe fittings were
also remarkable as a resistance to the flow of fluid.

When the direction of flow is altered or distorted, as when the fluid is flowing round bends
in the pipe or through fittings of varying cross-section, energy losses occur which are not
recovered. This energy is dissipated in eddies and additional turbulence and finally lost in the form
of heat. However, this energy must be supplied if the fluid is to be maintained in motion, in the
same way, as energy must be provided to overcome friction. Losses in fittings have been found,
as might be expected, to be proportional to the velocity head of the fluid flowing. In some cases
the magnitude of the losses can be calculated but more often they are best found from tabulated
values based largely on experimental results.

Conclusion

Therefore, energy losses in pipes used for the transportation of fluids are essentially due
to friction, as well as to the diverse singularities encountered. These losses are usually converted
into head reductions in the direction of the flow. The knowledge of data of such transformation
allows the determination of the necessary power needed for the transportation of the fluid
between two points. It constitutes the necessary calculation basis necessary for the design and
analysis of transport and distribution networks.
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Questions and Answer:

1. Comment on any relationship noticed. What is the dependence of head losses across pipe
fittings upon velocity?

Ans. Upon observing from the table and graphs that had been obtained we found that the
value of K decreases with increase in flow rate for some fittings. With this, the head loss
in a particular fitting increases with increase in velocity.

2. Examining the Reynolds number obtained, are the flows laminar or turbulent?

Ans. Using the data gathered and after some calculations, the Reynolds number appears to
be very high which tells us that the flow is a turbulent flow.

3. Is it justifiable to treat the loss coefficient as constant for give fitting?

Ans. Yes, it is. It is justifiable to treat or assume loss coefficient to be constant for given
fitting since it directly varies with velocity, flow rate and head loss.