You are on page 1of 73

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TENAGA NASIONAL UNIVERSITY
MALAYSIA

ENGINEERING MEASUREMENT

LAB. MANUAL

MESB 333

1
Table of Contents

Laboratory Syllabus 3
Overview 4
Laboratory Time 5
Format for Logbook 6
Format for Formal Report 7

Lab No.1: Strain Measurement


Prelab Questions 9
Experiment I: Getting to know the equipment 10
Experiment II: The Bending System 16
Experiment III : The Torsion System
Experiment IV : The Tension System

Lab No. 2: Determining fluid (air) velocity and Discharge Coefficient


Prelab Questions 20
Experiment I: Velocity Measurement Using Pitot Tube 21
Experiment II: Determination of Discharge Coefficient 26

Lab No.3 Temperature Measurement


Prelab Questions 31
Experiment I: Time Constant 32
Experiment II: Type K Thermocouple 39
Experiment III: Humidity Measurement 42

Lab No.4 Photo Transducer


Prelab Questions 45
Experiment I: Photo Diode 51
Experiment II: Photo Conductive Cell 54
Experiment II: Photo Transistor 57

Lab No. 5 Flow Rate Measurement


Prelab Questions 60
Experiment: Flow Rate Measurement Devices 61

Lab No. 6 Introduction to PID Controller


Prelab Questions 66
Experiment: PID Controller 67

Lab No. 7 Free and Damped Vibration


Prelab Questions 66
Experiment I: Spring Coefficient (Stiffness) 67
Experiment II: Natural Frequency
Experiment III: Free and damped Vibration

2
Laboratory Syllabus

Lab 1 : Strain Measurement


The experiments are related to the field of mechanics of deformable solid. The 1 st experiment is on
bending of a cantilever beam. The 2nd experiment involves loading weighs on a circular bar to create
torsion. Strain gauge is used to convert the value of body deformation to corresponding electric signal
for analog reading. Simple calculation for strain is required using basic bending theory.

Informal report is required for this lab.

Lab 2 : Determining fluid (air) velocity and Discharge Coefficient


There are two experiments in this lab. These experiments are related to the field of Fluid Dynamics of
air. Both experiments use the same apparatus. 1st experiment is to measure air flow velocity. Pressure
along the test pipe will be measured to determine air flow velocity using Bernoullis equation. 2nd
experiment is to measure the discharge coefficient of an orifice plate and a nozzle. An orifice plate will
be inserted along the test pipe.

Formal report is required for this lab.

Lab 3 : Temperature Measurement


This experiment is related to the field of Heat Transfer and Thermodynamics. This experiment consists
of temperature measurement using different type of measuring devices: Pt 100 resistance thermometer,
liquid filled thermometer and NTC temperature probe etc. The apparatus consists of rice cooker, oven,
amplifier, and temperature indicator and so on connected in a simple circuit.
Understanding the working principle of resistance thermometer is important to students in order
to design their own procedures/steps to achieve the objectives and how to capture the results. The
student creativity and learning process in class is applied.

Formal report is required for this lab.

Lab 4 : Photo-electric Transducer


This lab is related to the field of physics, the behavior of light. Light intensity can be measured by
measuring the effect of the light on a device. When light falls on a material, current that corresponds to
the light intensity will be generated using transducer. Photocell, circuit box and light source are the
important devices in this experiment. The current that is produced at different level of light intensity
will be measured.

Informal report is required for this lab.

Lab 5 : Flow rate Measurement


This experiment is related to the field of fluid dynamics. This experiment involves the study of liquid
flow rate. Water is used as the fluid in this experiment. Three flow rate measurement devices: orifice
plate, variable area meter and venturi meter are used. The orifice plate and venturi meter require
calculation using Bernoulli equation to give the flow rate reading while variable area meter gives
reading directly
Informal report is required for this lab.

3
Lab 6 : Process Control Unit
This experiment is related to the field of Process Control. A system with different controllers will be
studied for it response to the controllers. The controllers are proportional controller, integrative
controller and derivative controller. The flow rate of water in a continuous loop is to be studied as a
system. This system is connected to computer software that enables the gain of each controller to be
set, and enables the result to be plotted. In this lab, the function of different controllers will be noticed.
The function of different controllers and working principle will be noticed by the students in
order to design their own procedures/steps to achieve the objectives and how to capture the
results. The student creativity is applied.

Informal report is required for this lab.

Lab 7. Vibration

In this lab, the students are to measure the stiffness of helical springs and its natural frequency. To
expose to free and damped vibration system with their characteristic that are related to the theory learn
in class.

LABORATORY & REPORTS: AN OVERVIEW

All experiments in the Engineering Measurements Laboratory require either a laboratory report
(Logbook) or a formal laboratory report for selective experiments, unless it is stated otherwise.
The reports should be simple and clearly written. Laboratory reports (logbook) are due after all
of the experiments are performed, unless it is stated otherwise. Final reports should be
submitted a week after the experiments day, unless it is stated otherwise. Any late submission
will not be entertained, unless there are concrete and unavoidable reasons.
The laboratory reports (log book) should be in hand writing and any graphs needed should be
drawn in either an appropriate graph paper or drawn using EXCEL, whichever suitable.
However, for final laboratory reports, it should be computer-generated and any graphs should
be drawn using EXCEL.
The formal laboratory reports should be submitted into pigeon hole in front the lab or to the
instructor directly.
The pre-lab questions in this lab manual should be answered and submitted during the first 5
minutes before you start your experiment accordingly.

4
Laboratory Session

Lab Technician : Khairul Anwar Bin Derahman

Tel: 03- 8921 2020 ext. 6324

Laboratory Time:

Section 1A: Thursday - 1600-1900 (BL-0-003)


Section 1B: Friday - 800-1100 (BL-0-003)
Section 2A: Wednesday - 800-1100 (BL-0-003)
Section 2B: Tuesday - 900-1200 (BL-0-003)
Section 3A: Monday - 800-1100 (BL-0-003)
Section 3B: Tuesday - 1500-1800 (BL-0-003)

Attendance:

Please sign attendant sheet upon arrived to lab. Mark will be given depending on time of arrival. Student
who comes 15 minutes after the lab begins will get 0 mark. Absence due to illness should be proven by
medical certificates (MC).

Prelab:

Turn in prelab at the beginning of each lab. No prelab will be accepted 15 minutes after the lab begins.
Prelab will not be return to the students until the end of semester. The purpose of prelab is to encourage
student to read through lab manual before coming to the lab.

Logbook:

Students are required to prepare a logbook for the purpose of recording the data and discussing the
results from each informal experiment. The logbook MUST be presented to the instructor and signed at
the end of each laboratory session. Marks will be given for each experiment done in the session. Collect
the lab front page cover from the lab technician if you are assigned to write a formal report.

Laboratory Assessment:

Students are required to prepare a logbook for the purpose of recording the data and discussing the
results from each experiment. The logbook MUST be presented to the instructor and signed at the end
of each laboratory session. Marks will be given for each experiment done in the session. Collect the lab
front page cover from the lab technician if you are assigned to write a formal report.

5
Formal Reports:

There are a total of 2 individual formal reports that need to be completed by each student throughout
the course. The formal reports should be written for the following experiments.
Experiment 2: Determining fluid (air) velocity and Discharge Coefficient. Group Report -5%
Experiment 1: Temperature Measurement.- Individual Report 7%
Duration of one-week period is provided for formal report and should be submitted during the next lab.
Report should be submitted to the lab technician personally. Grade will be deducted from the late report
as follows (except with valid reason) : Late submission penalty : Late 1 day : 90%, Late 2 days : 80
%, Late 3 days : 70%, More than 3 days: 50% of earned mark.

Plagiarism is not acceptable. It will result in half of the total grade being deducted or zero grade for
the lab report or for the whole course. In addition, poor report writing will result in meeting the
instructor for improvement in future report writing. Please use the font of Arial or Times New Roman
only.

Before submitting your hardcopy formal report to the instructor, you need to upload your
softcopy report into TURNITIN program, to check for similarity (report with silmilarity higher
than 50% will not be accepted). You will be given ID and password to upload the softcopy of your
formal report by the respective instructors.

Experiment Group:

Students will perform experiment in-group. Each experiment group consists of 3-5 students.
Group number consists of Section number, follows with number appointed. For example, the first
group from section 1A will have group number of 1A1; the second group in the same section will be
designated as 1A2 and so on.

Report must be submitted using front page supplied.

6
Format for LOGBOOK

No. Criteria

1 Title Page
With name, SID, group no., lab no., date performed, date submitted.

2 Statement of Purpose or Objective


With clear, specific purpose statement

3 Data, Observation and Results


With results clearly, orderly presented in either graph, spreadsheet, table etc with
labeled. Sample calculation if calculation is involved. Error calculation

4 Analysis and Discussion


With specific comment, explanation, support on the results based on theory. Error
and uncertainty analysis ie. Error source, comparison between the experimental
and theoretical results. Answer to question if given.

5 Conclusion
Summary of the experiment. Conclusion drawn from results in the light of the
stated objective.

6 Overall report presentation


Neat, Clear label of small title etc. With references if given

7
Format for Formal Report

General Instructions:

Font type: Arial or Time New Roman Paper size: A4

Font size: 12 pt Ink colour: black

Spacing: 1.5 Graph: computer generate

No. Criteria

1 Title Page
With name, SID, group no., lab no., date performed, date submitted.

2 Table of Content

3 Summary/Abstract
The concise overview of the report.

4 Statement of Purpose or Objective


A brief description of what the experiment is demonstrating.
5 Theory
With brief but clear background and theory related to the experiment.
6 Equipment
Diagram of the apparatus and specification.

7 Procedure
A step by step explanation of what was done in the lab and why each step was
performed.

8 Data, Observation and Results


With results clearly, orderly presented in either graph, spreadsheet, table etc
with labeled. Sample calculation if calculation is involved. Error calculation

9 Analysis and Discussion


With specific comment, explanation, support on the results based on theory.
Error and uncertainty analysis ie. Error source, comparison between the
experimental and theoretical results. Answer to question if given.

10 Conclusion
Summary of the experiment. Conclusion drawn from results in the light of the
stated objective.

11 Overall report presentation


Neat, Clear label of small title etc. With references if given

8
MESB 333 LAB NO.1 :
STRAIN MEASUREMENT
PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: ________________________SID: ______________Group:______ Date:_______________

1. What is stress? Strain? What is the relationship between stress and strain?

2. What is the principle used in strain gauge measurements?

3. What is the different between quarter, half and full bridge?

4. How to eliminate error due to temperature changes?

5. In measuring the torsion strain, how can the axial or bending strain be eliminated? Sketch to
explain.

9
MESB 333 Lab No.1
Strain Measurement
____________________________________________________________________________

1. Theory

A material will be deformed to certain extend when external forces act on it. This deformation
will cause changes in length and diameter of the material. The strain produced is directly
proportional to the stress at a limited region, which is called the limit of proportionality (i.e. there
is linear relation between the two). The stress-strain graph is a straight line in this region. In this
experiment, we are going to study the performance of an electrical resistance strain gauge as well
as to verify its accuracy on measuring the strain of a bending material.

Hooke's Law, which relates stress and strain, can be applied in the limit of proportionality
region. Young's Modulus of Elasticity is the gradient of straight line in the stress-strain graph. The
mathematical relationship is:

dL P
(1)
L EA E

where,
dL : change in length L
: strain
P : force on cross section area A
E : Youngs Modulus of Elasticity
: axial stress

Equipment used to measure dL is called extensometer. It is a mechanical method to measure


dL where change in length can be magnified. However, a better way to measure dL is by using the
electronic measurement. Longitudinal strain is associated to the changes in length of a material.
While diametral strain is associated to the changes in the diameter of a material. Poisson's ratio is
the ratio of longitudinal strain to diametral strain or can be given as

Poissons ratio() = lateral contraction per unit breadth


Longitudinal extension per unit length

When the length and the diameter of a material change, the electrical resistance of the material
will change too. The relationship between the change in the dimension to the electrical resistance
of the material can be related mathematically as equation shown:
L
R
A ..(2)

where,

R : electrical resistance

: specific resistance of material

10
L : length

A : cross sectional area

From the relationship, it is clear that the resistance will increase when the material is
stretched. Conversely, compression will cause the resistance to decrease. Strain gauge uses
this principle to measure the strain.

2. Calculation of axial strain

Theoretically, the strain value can be calculated using the theory of bending at the
point of attachment of the strain gauge. For a rectangular cross-sectional area cantilever beam,

M E My

I y R I
..(3)

Where,

M : bending moment = (Applied load X moment arm)

bd 3
I : second moment of area of cantilever = (Width b and thickness d)
12
: axial stress

y : half the thickness of the cantilever =d

E : modulus of elasticity

R : radius of curvature of cantilever due to M

Strain is defined as change in length per unit length, that is

dL y

L R
.(4)

From the theory of bending

1 M

R EI
.(5)

Hence, the theoretical strain value is

y My

R EI
(6)

11
From the dimension of cantilever beam, M = 420* Load (N.mm)

*420 mm is the distance from the load point to strain gauge.

Measurement of the resistance is usually done using the Wheatstone Bridge. The gauge is
attached to the material using a high-grade adhesive. Since temperature will affect the resistance,
this factor must be taken into consideration too

Having studied the use of a strain gauge for measuring tensile(axial) strain and stress,
a more complicated application can now be considered. Reverting to the diagram of
the standard bridge there are further ways of exploiting the measuring technique. In
this experiment, we are going to study the measurement of torsion strain.

Suppose the temperature compensation gauge used as R, can be attached to the structural element
being tested in such a way it is subjected to an equal but opposite strain to the R, gauge. This will double
the meter reading while providing the temperature compensation and is known as reversed active strain
gauging. This could have been done in the case of bending by attaching a strain gauge on the underside
of the cantilever where the compression due to bending equals the tension where the top surface gauge
is fixed. The leads from the underside gauge would then replace the leads from the dummy gauge. Now
consider a hollow round tube used as a cantilever.

Figure 3. Cantilever round bar exert with torsion.

In bending there is a neutral axis at the horizontal axis, so any gauge fixed
symmetrically about this neutral axis will not record a strain, By applying torque at the free
end of the cantilever, a uniform shear is induced along the whole length. This in turn
produces diagonal tension and compression stresses of equal value along the
corresponding 450 helical directions. Hence by fixing two strain gauges at A and B as
shown the following conditions are satisfied:

(1) Temperature compensation

(2) Net axial strain effect is zero for either A or B

(3) Gauge A is subjected to diagonal tension while gauge B is in diagonal


compression, or vice versa.

12
The meter will therefore indicate twice the diagonal strain from which the stress can
be derived using the modulus of elasticity.

2.3 Calculation of torsion strain

Hookes Law



E
..(7)

For the torsion specimen the comparable theoretical equation is

T G Tr

J r L J

..(8)

where

T : torsion = (Applied Load X eccentricity)

J : polar moment of inertia of tube =



32
D o
4
D1
4

Do : outside diameter

Di : inside diameter

: surface shear stress

r : outside radius of tube

G : modulus of rigidity

: angular twist over length L

The shear stress acts circumferentially and has to be accompanied by a system of


complementary stresses including diagonal tensile and compressive stresses, which are

13
perpendicular to each other. Hence there are equal direct strains along opposing 450
helices on the surface of the tube given by

q Tr

E EJ

(9)

and the meter will indicate 2*.

3 Wheatstone Bridge

R1 R2

A M C

+ _
Figure 1 Wheatstone bridge

R3 R4

D
R1 will be the strain gauge attached to the material. It is also called an active gauge. R2 is a similar
strain gauge to R1. But, it is attached to an unstressed part of the material. The effect of temperature
on R1 and R2 will be similar. R3 and R4 are high stability resistors of equal value.

M is a digital voltmeter or a purpose designed high stability high gain amplifier with a digital
meter and a zeroing circuit. Voltage applied to A and C is a constant DC voltage. Normally it is 1-
2 volts. External zeroing is applied in Wheatstone Bridge. External zeroing means the meter M will
show zero reading. This is done by having a variable resistor at D. Zeroing can be done by varying
the variable resistor. Zeroing is required because factor like weight of the material can affect the
results.

Refer to the strain gauge trainer manual in the moodle for more detail
how to perform this experiments.

14
MESB 333 LAB NO. 2:
VELOCITY MEASUREMENT
AND DETERMINATION OF DISCHARGE COEFFICIENT
PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: _____________________SID: ______________ Group:______ Date:______________

1. Draw a diagram and explain briefly how to measure pressure using pitot tube?

2. What is coefficient of discharge?

3. What is Reynolds number?

4. Describe three different flow characteristics and what determines each characteristic?

5. What is orifice plate is use for ? Gives 2 examples UNITS for measuring flowrate?

15
MESB 333 Lab No.2
Determining fluid(air) velocity and Discharge Coefficient

1. Experiment I
Velocity Measurement Using Pitot Tube

1.1. Objective
This experiment allows student to learn the method of measuring air flow velocity using pitot
tube. The student will understand the working principle of pitot tube as well as the importance of
Bernoulli equation in deriving and calculating the velocity.

1.2. Theory
A pitot tube is used to explore the developing boundary layer in the entry length of a pipe which
has air drawn through it. With pitot tube, the velocity distribution profiles can be determined at a
number of cross-sections at different locations along a pipe. With pitot tube, air flow velocities in
the pipe can be obtained by first measuring the pressure difference of the moving air in the pipe at
two points, where one of the points is at static velocity. The Bernoulli equation is then applied to
calculate the velocity from the pressure difference.

2p
v or 2 gh' (1)

p The pressure difference between the pitot tube and the wall pressure tapping measured using
manometer bank provided (gx where x is the level of fluid used in the manometer).

h The pressure difference expressed as a 'head' of the fluid being measured (air)

The air density at the atmospheric pressure and temperture of that day.(kg/m3)

g gravitational acceleration constant (9.81 m/s2)

When fluid flows past a stationary solid wall, the shear stress set up close to this boundary due to
the relative motion between the fluid and the wall leads to the development of a flow boundary
layer. The boundary layer may be either laminar or turbulent in nature depending on the flow
Reynolds number.

The growth of this boundary layer can be revealed by studying the velocity profiles at selected
cross-sections, the core region still outside the boundary layer showing up as an area of more or
less uniform velocity.

16
If velocity profiles for cross-sections different distances from the pipe entrance are compared, the
rate of growth of the boundary layer along the pipe length can be determined. Once the boundary
layer has grown to the point where it fills the whole pipe cross-section this is termed "fully
developed pipe flow".

1.3. Reynolds Number

The Reynolds number is a measure of the way in which a moving fluid encounters an obstacle. It's
proportional to the fluid's density, the size of the obstacle, and the fluid's speed, and inversely
proportional to the fluid's viscosity (viscosity is the measure of a fluid's "thickness"--for example,
honey has a much larger viscosity than water does).
vd
Re

fluid density

v : fluid velocity

d : obstacle size

coefficient of fluid dynamic viscosity

A small Reynolds number refers to a flow in which the fluid has a low density so that it responds
easily to forces, encounters a small obstacle, moves slowly, or has a large viscosity to keep it
organized. In such a situation, the fluid is able to get around the obstacle smoothly in what is known
as "laminar flow." You can describe such laminar flow as dominated by the fluid's viscosity--it's
tendency to move smoothly together as a cohesive material.

A large Reynolds number refers to a flow in which the fluid has a large density so that it doesn't
respond easily to forces, encounters a large obstacle, moves rapidly, or has too small a viscosity
to keep it organized. In such a situation, the fluid can't get around the obstacle without breaking
up into turbulent swirls and eddies. You can describe such turbulent flow as dominated by the
fluid's inertia--the tendency of each portion of fluid to follow a path determined by its own
momentum.

The transition from laminar to turbulent flow, critcal flow, occurs at a particular range of
Reynolds number (usually around 2500). Below this range, the flow is normally laminar; above it,
the flow is normally turbulent.

1.4. Calculation of air flow velocity

The manometer tube liquid levels must be used to calculate pressure differences, h and pressure
heads in all these experiments. Starting with the basic equation of hydrostatics:

p = gh (2)

17
we can follow this procedure through using the following definitions:

Example:

Manometer tubes 1(static pressure*) 2(stagnation pressure)

Liquid surface readings X1 X2


(mm)

Angle of inclination, = 0

pressure term is used since this reading is in mm of manometer fluid and not the pressure of unit
Pa.

Therefore the equivalent vertical separation of liquid levels in manometer tubes,

h = (x1 - x2)cos (3)

If k is the density of the kerosene in the manometer, the equivalent pressure difference p is:

p = k gh = k g(x1 - x2) cos (4)

The value for kerosene is k = 787 kg/m3 and g = 9.81 m/s2. If x1 and x2 are read in mm, then:

p = 7.72(x1 - x2)cos [N/m2] (5)

The p obtained is then used in second equation (1) to obtain the velocity.

To use the first equation (1), convert this into a 'head' of air, h. Assuming a value of 1.2 kg/m3 for
this gives:

k ( x1 x2 )
h' . . cos [N/m2] (6)
air 1000

18
1.5 Apparatus

Figure 1 Experiment apparatus

1.6 Procedure

a) Five mounting positions are provided for the pitot tube assembly. These are: 54 mm, 294 mm,
774 mm, 1574 mm and 2534 mm from the pipe inlet
b) Ensure that the standard inlet nozzle is fitted for this experiment and that the orifice plate is
removed from the pipe break line.
c) Set the manometer such that the inclined position is at 00.
d) Mount the pitot tube assembly at position 1 (at 54mm, nearest to the pipe inlet). Note that the
connecting tube, the pressure tapping at the outer end of the assembly, is connected to a
convenient manometer tube. Make sure that the tip, the L-shape metal tube of the pitot tube
is facing the incoming flow.
e) Note that there is a pipe wall static pressure tapping near to the position where the pitot tube
assembly is placed. The static pressure tapping is connected to a manometer tube.
f) Position the pitot tube with the traverse poisition of 0mm. Start the fan with the outlet throttle
opened.
g) Starting with the traverse position at 0mm, where the tip is touching the bottom of the pipe,
read and record both manometer tube levels of the wall static and the pitot tube until the
traveverse position touching the top of the pipe.
h) Repeat the velocity traverse for the same air flow value at the next positon with the pitot tube
assembly. Make sure that the blanking plugs is placed at the holes that are not in use.

19
1.7 Results

Data Sheet for Velocity Measurement Using Pitot Tube

Pitot Tube at 54 mm Pitot Tube at 294 mm


Traverse Static 'Pressure' Reading Static 'Pressure' Reading
Position ____________(mm) ____________(mm)
(mm)

Stagnation x p velocity Stagnation x p Velocity


2
'Pressure' (mm) (N/m ) (m/s) 'Pressure' (mm) (N/m2) (m/s)
Reading Reading
(mm) (mm)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

Pitot Tube at 774 mm Pitot Tube at 1574 mm


Traverse Static 'Pressure' Reading Static 'Pressure' Reading
Position ____________(mm) ____________(mm)
(mm)
Stagnation x p velocity Stagnation x p Velocity
'Pressure' (mm) (N/m2) (m/s) 'Pressure' (mm) (N/m2) (m/s)
Reading Reading
(mm) (mm)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

20
Pitot Tube at 2534 mm

Static 'Pressure' Reading ____________(mm)

Traverse Stagnation x p velocity


Position 'Pressure' (mm) (N/m2) (m/s)
(mm) Reading(mm)
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80

Calculate air velocity at each point using equations (1), (5) or (6).
Plot the traverse velocity profiles in one graph (Velocity against traverse position). Note
that the boundary layer grows in the pipe to fill the whole cross-section; fully developed
pipe flow most likely occurred by the third or fourth position.
Give your comments on the velocity profiles.
Include error analysis.

21
2 Experiment II
Determination of Discharge Coefficient

2.1 Objective
This experiment will ask student to determine the discharge coefficients, CD for orifice plate and
the small nozzle.

2.2 Introduction
An orifice plate meter forms an accurate and inexpensive device for measuring the discharge
for the flow of liquids or gases through a pipe. The orifice provided can be inserted into the
suction pipe at the flanged joint approximately half way along its length. The multi-tube
manometer provided is used to measure the pressure drop across the orifice and this is related to
the discharge determined independently.

In this experiment, we are going to determine the discharge coefficient experimentally for an
orifice plate in an airflow pipe. Also using the static pressure tapings provided, we are
determining the pressure distribution along the pipe downstream of the orifice plate. From the
obtained CD of the orifice plate, we will determine the CD of a small nozzle.

2.3 Theory
The orifice plate meter forms a jet, which expands to fill the whole pipe, some diameter
distance downstream. The pressure difference between the two sides of the plate is related to the
jet velocity, and therefore the discharge, by the energy equation:

Q A jv j AoCc v j AoCc Cv 2gh

where Q = discharge (volume/time)


Aj = jet cross-section area at minimum contraction (vena contracta)
2
Ao = orifice cross- /4: d = orifice size)
vj = jet velocity at minimum contraction (vena contracta)
Cc = coefficient of contraction of jet
Cv = coefficient of velocity of jet
g = gravitational acceleration (9.81 ms -2)
h = pressure difference 'head' of air across orifice (refer to equation (6) of Exp. I)

These two coefficients are normally combined to give a single coefficient of discharge: CD = Cc.Cv
Equation (1) now becomes

Q C D Ao 2 gh
(2)

If Q can be determined independently, then the discharge coefficient can be determined as follows:-

Q
CD (3)
A o 2gh

Values of Qi can be determined if the standard nozzle is fitted at the pipe inlet.

Q i A i C ' D 2gh i (4)

22
If hi = the drop in pressure head across the inlet, the discharge = (k/air )* (xbefore nozzle xafter nozzle):
in which Ai = standard nozzle cross-section area (= d2 /4) and CD assumed to be 0.97. Values of

h I are obtained from the manometer tube levels connected to the pipe inlet pressure tapping and
open to the atmosphere.

2.4 Calculating the CD of orifice plate:


From equation (4), with the Qi obtained from standard nozzle where CD of standard nozzle is
assumed to be 0.97, we can calculate the CD of orifice plate. Assuming that Qi across standard
nozzle and Qo across orifice plate is the same, apply equation (3)

Qo
CD
Ao 2 gho
(5)

Where ho = (k/air)*(x across orifice)

Ao = cross section area of orifice plate hole

2.5 Apparatus

Figure 2 Experiment Diagram


2.6 Procedure

(a) Insert the orifice plate in position (taking care to observe the instructions as to) in which the
surface should face the approaching airflow.
(b) Connect all the static pressure tapping points to the manometer tubes ensuring that one
manometer tube remains unconnected to record room air pressure and that one is attached to
the first tapping point adjacent to the standard inlet nozzle which should be fitted.
(c) Turn on fan with low airflow (damper plate closed) and read all manometer tubes, including
any open to the air (reading should be taken after the fan is on).
(d) Gradually increase air flow by increasing the damper opening to 100%, and take read at all
opening.

23
Measure the diameter of the orifice plate, and the pipe for computing the cross sectional area
and Reynolds number.

2.7 Results

Table 5.1 Static Pressure Readings when using Standard Nozzle (80 mm)
Damper Openings (% Openings)

0% 25% 50% 75% 100%


Points mm of kerosene
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before
Orifice
After Orifice
1574mm
2534mm

Table 5.2 Static Pressure Readings when using Small Nozzle (50 mm)
Damper Openings (% Openings)

0% 25% 50% 75% 100%


Points mm of kerosene
Room
pressure
After nozzle
54mm
294mm
774mm
Before
Orifice
After Orifice
1574mm
2534mm

24
From table 5.1using equation (4) calculate the Qi, then using equation (3) where Q=Qi
calculate the CD for orifice plate for each damper opening.
For data in table 5.2, using similar procedures, but this time using the value of CD for orifice
found previously, you need to calculate the CD for small orifice for each damper opening.
For each case, plot values of CD obtained against corresponding values of Reynolds number
(Re) obtained using the relationship:

vd
Re

..(6)
where : the coefficient of dynamic viscosity of the air air density

v : is the mean pipe velocity (Qi/Ap)

d : the pipe diameter.

Also plot longitudinal pressure profiles for both tables from the manometer readings.
(mm kerosene against tapping position)
Discuss what happen as the air flow past through the orifice plate.
Discuss the CD obtained for orifice and small nozzle.
What happen to the CD when you increase the damper opening?
What happen to the manometer reading when the damper opening changes. Discuss.
Any obstruction such as an orifice plate would actually cause a pressure drop but by
analyzing the graph below or from your data you should see that the reading in mm of
kerosene is increased. Explain.

Pressure Drop across Orifice Plate


mm Kerosene

Air Flow

Tapping position along test pipe

25
MESB 333 LAB NO. 3
TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENT
PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: _____________________SID: ______________ Group:______ Date:______________

1. Describe the working principle of a thermistor and resistance thermometer. What are the
differences?

2. What is time constant?

3. What are the materials commonly used for resistance thermometer?

i) ________________________________________

ii) ________________________________________

iii) _________________________________________

4. Gives two examples where PTC thermistors are generally used?

i) ________________________________________

ii) _______________________________________

26
MESB 333 Lab No. 3
Temperature Measurement
______________________________________________________
1 Experiment I
Time Constant

1.1 Objective

Design your experiment in order:

1. To compare the time constant of different type of temperature measuring devices with
reference to mercury filled thermometer (smallest time constant).
2. To understand the relationship between resistance and temperature.

1.3 Theory

Temperature is a measure of hotness. Together with a measure of thermal mass of a body it


gives an indication of the total thermodynamics energy that body contains. There are many scales
for the comparison of temperatures, the most important is with their corresponding values for
melting ice and boiling water (which are common reference temperatures) being given in the
table below.

Scale Melting Ice Boiling Water

Celsius (or Centigrade) 0 0C 100 0C

Fahrenheit 32 0F 212 0F

Kelvin (Absolute Scale) 273 K 373 K

In this experiment you will be familiarized with the following temperature measurement devices:

a) Resistance thermometer (TYPE K)

b) Thermistor (NTC)

1.4 The Liquid Filled Thermometer

This type of thermometer depends on the expansion of a liquid associated with an increase in
temperature. The most common type is the mercury-in-glass thermo meter. This thermometer
consists of a capillary tube with a bulbous end . clean , dry mercury is introduced and the

27
thermometer heated to drive off the air. The end is then scaled leaving mercury and mercury
vapour only.

On heating, the mercury expands relative to the glass container and a column is pushed along the
bore of the tube. A scale along the tube, calibrated in units of temperature, gives a direct reading
of temperature. The mercury-in-glass thermometer is an accurate device but is very fragile and
care should be exercised in use. This type of thermometer should not be used in applications such
as the food industry where mercury poisoning could occur in the event of breakage.

The mercury may be replaced by other fluids according to the application. For example, alcohol
is cheaper and may be used at lower temperatures than mercury. A mercury-in-glass thermometer
is supplied with the Temperature Measurement Bench due to its stable and accurate performance.

For accurate measurement of temperature using a liquid filled thermo meter, it is important that
the thermometer is immersed into the medium being measured by the correct amount. The depth
of immersion is usually stated on the stem of the thermo meter and defines the condition under
which calibration is maintained. The immersion depth may be partial or total and is independent
of filling or range

1.5 The Vapor Pressure Manometer

For industrial applications, the liquid-in-glass thermometer is far from suitable due to its fragility
and the difficulty in reading. In these applications the glass is replaced by a metal container and
mechanical indication is substituted. One example of this type of thermo meter is the vapor
pressure thermo meter.
This consists of a metal bulb partially filled with fluid, which is connected to the sensing element
of a Bourdon gauge. The space above the fluid is filled with vapor of the fluid, the pressure of
which is display on the Bourdon gauge. The gauge is calibrated directly in units of temperature
corresponding to the equivalent, pressure of the vapor but calibration is far from linear due to the
pressure increasing more and more rapidly as the temperature increases. For this reason, the vapor
pressure thermometer is suitable only for operation over short ranges of temperature and suffers
from lack of sensitivity at low readings. In service, the range should be selected so that the gauge
remains within operational limits with the normal operating point at approximately two thirds of
fullscale reading.
Vapor pressure thermometers offer the advantage of remote reading. The thermometer may be
ordered with a metal capillary tube connecting the bulb to the gauge, permitting remote operation
over distances up to sixty meters. Correct orientation of the bulb and gauge should be preserved
f or ac- curate results. The vapor pressure thermometer supplied with the bench has the Bourdon
gauge connected directly to the stem f or case of operation

1.6 The Bi-Metal Thermometer

Expansion of solids may be used to measure temperature but direct measurement is


impractical due to the very small movements involved. However, if two thin met al strips, having
d if f erent coeff icients of linear expression, are mechanically fastened together, the result is a
strip which bends significantly when heated. This combination is called a Bi-metal strip and the
sensitivity may be increased by coiling the strip into a spiral. One end of the strip is f ixed to the
case and a pointer is attached to the other end. L inear scale may be obtain ed by suitable cho ice

28
of metals.
This type of thermometer is very robust and has many applications throughout industry where
accuracy of measurement is not imp ortant.

The bi- metal thermometer supplied w ith the bench is mounted on th e back-board and gives a
direct reading of ambient air temperature.

1.7 Resistance Thermometer

The resistance of a material changes with temperature. Resistance thermometer uses this
relationship in measuring the temperature. If high accuracy is required, the material used in
resistance thermometer is platinum. Nickel is used in general operation and monitoring. Copper
is also suitable but only in a restricted temperature range of approximately 250oC, because copper
tends to corrode more severely when subjected to oxidation.

Figure 3.1 shows the resistance change of the metals as a function of the temperature T. They
have a positive temperature coefficient . For the purpose of comparison a resistance
characteristics of a thermistor (NTC) was added, which runs much more non-linearly, and in
contrast to the metals, demonstrates a negative coefficient .

For small temperature ranges we may assume that linear relationships exist between resistance
and temperature. From figure 3.2 one can deduce the temperature-dependent resistance ratio
R(T) caused by the resistance change R is:

R(T) = Ro + R (1)

The rise of this function is m = R/T.

R = mT (2)

Knowing that, R(T) = Ro + R, thus:

R(T) = Ro + mT

= Ro (1 + m/Ro T)

R / R o
= Ro (1 + T) (3)
T

R / R o
= Ro (1 + 1T) where, 1 =
T

29
450

400

350

300

250
Ni 100 Pt100

R/W
200

150

100 Cu100
50

0
-200 0 200 400 600 800 1000
T/0C

Figure 3.1

1 is the linear temperature coefficient of the resistive material. It provides the relative change in

resistance (R/ Ro) for a certain temperature change (T), for example 0.4% change in resistance

R(T)

R Ro = R(To)

per degree.

Figure 3.2

From Figure 3.1 we can see that for large measurement ranges no linear relationship between
resistance R and temperature T can be assumed. In this case we must take into consideration,
apart from the linear temperature coefficient 1 , also the square temperature coefficients 2, and
for very large temperature changes T also the cubic temperature coefficients 3, and if
necessary the biquadratic value 4.


R (T) R o 1 1T 2T2 ... n Tn (4)

where, T T To

30
1.8 Thermal Response

The thermal response of a thermo meter to changes in te mperature is probably the most important
characteristic to consider when selecting instrumentat ion f or a particular application.
A thermo meter may be extremely accurate and stable in performance but totally unsuitab le f or
use in a dynamic situation, due to a time lag between system temperature and thermometer
reading.

The d iagra m below shows typical response curves f or a thermo meter when step changes in
temperature are applied .

The response of the thermo meter is def ined by the t ime ta ken f or the te mperature reading to
change by 63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value
irrespective of step change and is def ined as the "t ime constant" f or the thermometer. Th e time
constant and response profile f or a thermometer will change if the system is modif ied. For
example, t he speed of response of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected from the
system being measured by a ther mo meter. The response will also be af fected by the thermal
contact between the thermometer and pocket, f luid f illing of the pocket resulting in a reduction in
time constant.

The response of the thermometer is def ined by the t ime taken f or the te mperature reading to change by
63.2% of the step change. For any thermometer, this time will be a constant value irrespective of step
change and is def ined as the "time constant" f or the thermo meter. Th e time constant and re- sponse
prof ile for a thermometer will change if the system is modified. For example, the speed of response
of a thermometer will be slowed down if it is protected from the system being measured by a thermometer.
The response will also be af f ected by the thermal contact between the thermometer and pocket, f luid f
illing of the pocket resulting in a reduction in time constant.

31
Figure 3.3 Experiment apparatus
setup

32
1.9 Apparatus Setup

Note: To discharge the hot water from the pot, request assistant from lab technician.

Base on Figure 3.3, construct the experiment procedure in order to achieve the objective.

33
2 Experiment II

Type K thermocouple

2.1 Objective

Design the experiment in order:

- To investigate the working principle of Type K Thermocouple


- To find the sensitivity of the type K thermocouple
- To investigate the relation between voltage output and temperature

2.2 Thermistor

Thermistors consist of semi-conducting polycrystalline material. In the production of


temperature sensors copper dioxide (CuO2) is preferred. It demonstrates a sever (non-linear)
drop in resistance for an increase in temperature. It possesses a negative temperature coefficient,
which is the reason why these sensors are called NTC resistors.

If the CuO2 is mixed with the ingredients of a ferroelectric material (e.g. BaTi), the
temperature coefficient is initially negative only for low temperatures. After reaching a threshold
temperature the temperature coefficient becomes very strongly positive in a narrow temperature
range. For even higher temperatures the temperature coefficient reverts back to negative.
Because of the clearly delineated positive temperature coefficient range, these sensors are called
PTC resistors. They are mainly used for trigger purposes.

2.3 Features of NTC and PTC thermistors

NTC sensors possess a high sensitivity, which is easily 10 times higher than that of metal
resistance thermometers. The non-linearity of NTCs and their broad manufacturers' tolerances
exclude them from use for precision instruments. In the temperature range between -60oC and
+150oC they are frequently used in the area of household appliances and medical technology
because of their high sensitivity and corresponding simple circuitry.

The effect of NTCs, whereby the resistance lowers as the temperature increases, is
explained by the semiconductor mechanism. In semi-conductors (as opposed to metal
conductors) the valency electrons have relatively strong bonds to the atomic nuclei of the crystal
lattice. A rise in temperature loosens this bond and more and more electrons enter into the
conduction band, where they are available for charge transport (i.e. for increased current), thus
reducing the ohmic resistance.

PTCs behave in the same manner below the threshold temperature. The resistance
lies only somewhat higher than for NTCs, because, due to the mixture of a ferroelectric
material to the semiconductor material an additional resistance of both components
results (series connection). However, with increasing temperature a strong increase in
resistance is observed within a narrow temperature range, which is caused so rapidly by
the sudden cancelling of a uniform orientation of all magnetic forces in the ferroelectric

34
material. Through thermal motion an amorphous crystal structure is produced, which
results in a considerable prolongation of the current paths, on which the electrons move
through the PTC. If this transition is completed, the resistance then drops again as the
rise in temperature continues. Thus the function R(T) of the PTC follows the
characteristic of its semiconductor components, supplemented by the characteristics of
its ferroelectric components.

They are generally intended for applications where a considerable change of


esistance is required as a function of themperature, or of dissipated power, for example:
heating elements, temperature indication, control or alarm, time-delay of relays, circuit
protection etc.

2.4 Temperature function and temperature coefficient of NTC thermometers

The resistance R(T) = RT of NTC materials can be described as a function of the


temperature using the following equation:

RT = AeB/T (5)

The material constant B is given in Kelvin, e.g. B = 3800 K. The constant A gives the
resistance for infinitely high temperature. As the sensor cannot register this temperature,
the constant A cannot be used as a practical parameter. The requirements for practical
application can be better satisfied with the following dependency RT. For this the
reference temperature To = 20oC is used, for which the resistance has its nominal value
Ro. Due to the fact that in the above equation only A is unknown, the equation is then
solved for A, which is inserted into RT:

R(To) = Ro = AeB/To

A = Roe-B/To (6)

Subsitute (6)into equation (5)

RT = RoeB(1/T - 1/To) (7)

Construct the experiment procedure in order to achieve the objective.

35
3 Experiment III

Humidity

3.1 Objective

Design the experiment in order:

- Understanding of whirling pyschorometer (hygrometer)


- Understanding of wet and dry bulb thermometer
- Measurement of ambient humidity using dry and wet bulb.
-

3.2 Introduction

Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the air. Relative humidity is defined as the ratio of the
partial pressure of water vapor in a parcel of air to the saturated vapor pressure of water vapor at
a prescribed temperature. Humidity may also be expressed as specific humidity. Relative
humidity is an important metric used in forecasting weather. Humidity indicates the likelihood of
precipitation, dew, or fog. High humidity makes people feel hotter outside in the summer because
it reduces the effectiveness of sweating to cool the body by reducing the evaporation of
perspiration from the skin. This effect is calculated in a heat index table

Hygrometers are instruments used for measuring humidity. A simple form of a hygrometer is
specifically known as a psychrometer and consists of two thermometers, one of which includes
a dry bulb and the other of which includes a bulb that is kept wet to measure wet-bulb
temperature. Modern electronic devices use temperature of condensation, changes in electrical
resistance, and changes in electrical capacitance to measure humidity changes. Hygrometers
measure humidity while psycrometers measure realative humidity in the air.

In a psychrometer, there are two thermometers, one with a dry bulb and the other with a wet bulb.
Evaporation from the wet bulb lowers the temperature, so that the wet-bulb thermometer usually
shows a lower temperature than that of the dry-bulb thermometer, which measures dry-bulb
temperature. When the air temperature is below freezing, however, the wet bulb is covered with
a thin coating of ice and yet may be warmer than the dry bulb. Relative humidity is computed
from the ambient temperature as shown by the dry-bulb thermometer and the difference in
temperatures as shown by the wet-bulb and dry-bulb thermometers. Relative humidity can also
be determined by locating the intersection of the wet- and dry-bulb temperatures on a
psychrometric chart. One device that uses the wet/dry bulb method is the sling psychrometer,
where the thermometers are attached to a handle or length of rope and spun around in the air for
a few minutes.

36
Your are given a whirling hygrometer for humidity measurement apparatus, write down the
procedure to achieve the objectives and to measure the Humidity of the Engineering
Measurement Lab.

Figure 3.3 Whirling hygrometer

37
MESB 333 LAB NO. 4 :
PHOTO ELECTRIC TRANSDUCER
PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: _____________________SID: ______________ Group:______ Date_______________

1. How to measure the intensity of a light?

2. What is the principle of photo electric transducer?

3. What is the Lamberts Cosine Law?

4. What is the Inverse square Law?

5. Give three type of photo transducer?

a.

b.

c.

38
MESB 333 Lab No.4
Photo Transducer

1 Introduction.
In this lab, the students are to be expose to several type of photo transducer with their
characteristic that are related to Inverse Square Law and Lamberts Cosine Law.

1.1 Objective

To understand the photo transducers effect and its relations with Inverse Square Law and
Lamberts Cosine Law. Students will measure the effect of the incident light on the behavior of
a photodiode, phototransistor and photo conductive cell.

1.2 Theory

When light falls onto certain material, its energy will be given up as being described by the
principle of photo-electric transducer. The energy will become energy in the form of electric
current. Human eyes is an example of a photo-electric transducer. Eyes act as a transducer by
converting light energy to signals that will be sent to the brain for further process.
Experimentally, one can know the intensity of the light falls on an object by measuring the
corresponding electric current caused by the light. In this experiment, you will learn to use photo-
electric transducer to measure the intensity of light in relation to the induced current and
resistance.

The variety of colors existing in this world is due to the fact that sun-light has different
components of light. Color of light is determined by its frequency, which in turn proportional to
the reciprocal of its wavelength. The relationship between light frequency, speed of light and
wavelength is given in the equation
v

f
1
f

Where, f = frequency

v = speed of light, 3 x 108 m/s

= wavelength

= time to complete a cycle of wave

The spectrum for light with its wavelength has been measured experimentally as shown below.

39
Table 4.1Spectrum for light
COLOR WAVELENGTH (mm)
Violet 440
Blue 470
Blue-Green 490
Green 520
Yellow-Green 550
Yellow 580
Orange 600
Red 690
Deep-Red 700

Light is a form of electromagnetic radiation. Alternatively, light can be considered as consisting


of little packets of energy, called photons, and the energy of each photon is directly proportional
to the frequency of light. From the light wavelength and frequency relationship, the smaller the
wavelength, the higher will be the frequency. With the relationship that energy is directly
proportional to the frequency of light, higher frequency will translate to higher energy. Therefore,
blue light has a higher energy that red light because the wavelength for blue light is shorter than
v

f
v
f

the red light as shown in table 5.1.

Luminous intensity for light has unit of candela, cd. 1 cd equals to 1/60 of luminous intensity
coming from an area of 1 cm2 of platinum melting at 2046 K. Light can be described in term of
luminous flux with a unit called LUMEN. A lumen is a luminous flux from a point source of 1
candela within a solid angle of 1 steradian. Luminous flux can be thought of as light power, or the
energy (number of photons) emitted per second.

Another definition is illumination. An illumination at any point on the surface is defined as


the luminous flux per unit area falling perpendicular to the surface. When a luminous flux of 1
lumen falls onto a surface area of 1 m2 , it is called an illumination of 1 LUX (lx)

1.3 The Inverse Square Law

If the radius of an imaginary sphere is increased from 1 m to 2 m, the area subtended


on the surface by the solid angle of 1 Sr is increased from 1 m2 to 4 m2, in proportion to the square
of the radius. The luminous flux over this area is still 1 m2 but the illumination has now fallen to
a quarter of its previous value as the luminous flux is spread over four times the area.


E
d2

40
Hence, the illumination on a surface is inversely proportional to the square of its distance from
the source. The illuminance, E (lux) is given as,

Where = luminous flux (lumen)

d = distance (m)

1.4 Lamberts Cosine Law

If there is an angle of between the surface of the transducer and the oncoming light, the
luminous flux falling on the transducer surface is exactly the same as that which would fall on a
normal surface (Figure 5.1). However,

Area surface 1 = cos = Illumination surface 1


Area surface 2 Illumination surface 2


Incident
Light 1 2

Figure 4.1

Thus the modification of the inverse square law becomes:


E cos
2
d
1.5 The Photo-Conductive Cell

A semiconductor, as its name implies is a material with an electrical conductivity in


between that of an insulator conductor and a conductor. Typical materials of interest are
Germanium and Silicon, but other materials and combinations of materials behave in a similar
fashion. They are extensively used in semiconductor devices, e.g diodes and transistors.

Electrical conduction in such a material occurs when free charge carriers, e.g electrons,
are available in the material to move when an electric field is applied. It happens that in certain
semiconductors, light energy falling on them is of the correct order of magnitude to release charge
carriers which will increase the flow of current produced by an applied voltage. This is known as
the PHOTO-CONDUCTIVE effect, and device is called a PHOTO-RESISTOR or a PHOTO-
CONDUCTOR, or sometimes a LIGHT DEPENDENT RESISTOR, as incident light will
effectively vary its resistance.

The current, or the number of charge carriers would expect to be related to the number of

41
photons, or the intensity of the incident light, and will be investigated. The colour of the light
will affect the response, due to the different energies of the photons. Small number of charge
carriers are also produced at room temperature by thermal effects, and this will also contribute to
the current.

The physical effects which cause this phenomenon are rather involved, but are given here to
make the study complete. In an intrinsic (pure) semi-conductor crystal all the valence electrons
have covalent bonds together with their neighbours. There may be represented on a diagram of
energy bands. It is found that there is a forbidden energy gap of the order of an electron volt
(1eV) between the valence band (where the electrons are bound to their parent atoms) and the
conduction band the electrons are now free charge carriers). This corresponds to the minimum
energy necessary to break a covalent bond and form a hole/electron pair. The electron is raised
into the conduction band and contributes to conduction as well as the hole left in the valence
band. This theory is fully described most standard textbooks. It is of interest to us now if this
energy can be supplied by light photons.

Consider first the effect of impurities in the semiconductor. Very small amounts of the correct
impurities can introduce either extra holes (P type) or extra electrons (N type) because atomic
structure. These will appear on our energy diagram as energy levels just below the conduction
band (doNor Ievel for N type) or just above the valence band (accePtor level for P type). If
photons of the correct energy illuminate such a specimen, several things may happen, as shown
in Fig 4.2

Conduction band

doNor
level
photon Impurity
Energy gap
excitation Intrinsic Eg
excitation
AccePtor
level
Valence band

Figure 4.2 Effect of photons in energy bands of a semiconductor with both P & N type impurities

An electron/'hole pair may be generated by a high energy photon as described above. The
electron jumps the gap into the conduction band. This is called intrinsic excitation.
An electron in the doNor level" (for N type) may be excited into the conduction band.
A valence electron may fill a hole in the accePtor level (for P type).

These last two transitions are known as impurity excitations and require less energy than
intrinsic excitations. However, the density of states in the conduction and valence bands greatly
exceeds the density of impurity states. At room temperature, most of the impurity atoms are

42
ionised in any case. Thus, photoconductivity is due principally to intrinsic excitation. Impurities
however do have advantages as discussed later. Our transducer is actually an N-type semi-
conductor.

The carriers generated by the photo-excitation will move if an external voltage is applied to
the device. This superimposes a regular drift on their random diffusion motion colliding with
others. They may however, recombine with an available hole or electron before they reach the
edges of the material. This may affect the response time of the device, cut down the available
current (loss of sensitivity) or introduce non-linearities. Those carriers remaining will constitute
the device current which thus depends initially on the number of photons.

The actual process is extremely complicated and depends on several factors, including the
density of the states in the energy bands, the probability that a photon will excite an electron, and
other factors, including carrier lifetime and mobility which depends upon recombinations and
trappings. Thermal effects also play a part.

1.6 SAFETY & PRECAUTION

1. Only plug the banana plug into the banana socket according to the experiment manual when
doing experiment, plugging the plug into the wrong socket may damage the electronics
component inside the control box.
2. Check the wiring connection between banana socket first before turn on the control box.
3. Do not connect the positive terminal of the power supply to negative terminal of the power
supply without connecting to any load between them.
4. Make sure the connection between the measurement point and the measurement meter are in
correct polarity.
5. Make sure the connection of the lamp to the power source are in correct polarity.
6. If the experiment is conducted during day light, take the reading as soon as possible in case
the day light varies. Also keep your hand away from the rig when taking readings in case they
cause unwanted reflections of light onto the transducers.
7. While the lamp is turn on, avoid touching the lamps body.
8. Before using the multi-meter to do voltage/current measurement, make sure the correct
measurement range is selected on the multi-meter. Also make sure the banana plug is
connected to correct terminal of the multi-meter.

Pre-experiment procedure

1. Read the safety instruction given before conducting the experiment.


2. Read and understand the theory of photo transducer before lab session.
3. Read and understand the theory of Inverse Square Law and Lamberts Cosine Law before lab
session.
4. Prepare the accessories needed for the experiment.

43
2 Experiment 1: Photodiode

2.1. PROCEDURES

Part 1: Photo diode - Inverse Square Law

1. Make sure the control boxs main switch is turn off first before start doing wiring
connection.
2. Unplug all the banana plug from the banana terminal first before assembling out the circuit.
3. Start connecting the circuit using banana plug to respective banana socket, by using circuit
diagram below as reference.

Fig. 4.3 - Schematic for the photodiode experiment

4. Make sure all the wiring connection is according to the circuit diagram. Before switch on
the power supply, let the lab instructor to check the connection of circuit.
5. Plug in the lamps banana plug into the Lamps power supply banana socket, make sure the
polarity is correct.
6. Adjust the position of the photo transducer box so that its angular scale of the photodiode
facing the light source is 0.
7. Ensure the hole of the photo transducer box is not facing other light source, affecting your
reading value during experiment.
8. Turn on the mains switch, wait all the measurement meter initialized first before start
conducting experiment.
9. Switch on the lamps power supply, check whether the lamp got light up or not.
10. Adjust the position of the light facing the photo transducer box, while carefully adjusting
the position of the lamp with distance 1 meter.
11. Move the bulb to get different distance.
12. At each value of different distance, record down the values of the voltage and current on
your table.

Part 2: Photo diode - Lamberts Cosine Law

1. With the circuit of Part 1 still connected, return the photo transducer box and lamp to their
starting positions (distance 1 meter)
2. Switch on the lamp again.
3. Rotate the angular scale shown on the photo transducer box to 30 anti-clockwise and
record the reading.
4. Repeat the procedure 3 for the angles as shown in the table below.

44
5. After finish the experiment, switch off the lamp power supply and the main power supply
switch on the control box.

2.2. RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Part 1: Photo diode - Inverse Square Law

Table 4.2 Experiment Result of Photo diode response

Applied voltage:_____________Volt

Distance (m) Current (A) Resistance ()

1000

900

800
700
600

500
400
300
200
100

Switch Off the


lamp

For each distance, calculate the resistance of the transducer by applying Ohms law and
dividing the applied voltage by the current flowing, R = Vdc/I
What is the relationship between resistance and distance at constant voltage?
Why the current did not become zero when the lamp is switch off?
How can you relate the result obtained with Inverse Square Law? Plot graph if required?
Plot a graph of current flowing against distance. Label your graph with the value of applied
voltage. Discuss the shape of the graph.

45
Part 2: Photo diode - Lamberts Cosine Law

Table 4.3 Experiment Result of Photo diode - Lamberts Cosine Law

Angle (Degrees) Current (A) Resistance ()

30 (ACW)

25

20

15

10

5(CCW)

5 (CW)

10

15

20

25

30

Plot a graph of current flowing against angle.


Does the graph follow accurately the cosine law?
Suggest the principal advantages and disadvantages of the Photo diode.

46
3 Experiment 2: Photo Conductive Cell

3.1 Procedure

Part 1: Photo Conductive Cell - Inverse Square Law

1. Make sure the control boxs main switch is turn off first before start doing wiring
connection.
2. Unplug all the banana plug from the banana terminal first before assembling out the circuit.
3. Start connecting the circuit using banana plug to respective banana socket, by using circuit
diagram below as reference:

Fig. 4.4 - Wiring Diagram for Photo Conductive Cell Experiment


4. Make sure all the wiring connection is according to the circuit diagram. Before switch on
the power supply, let the lab instructor to check the connection of circuit.
5. Check the potentiometer (VR) control knob on the Operational Amplifier section of the
control box is set to minimum first.
6. Plug in the lamps banana plug into the Lamps power supply banana socket, make sure the
polarity is correct.
7. Adjust the position of the photo transducer box so that its angular scale of the photodiode
facing the light source is 0.
8. Ensure the hole of the photo transducer box is not facing other light source, affecting your
reading value during experiment.
9. Adjust the multi-meters rotary switch into the correct range. i.e. 200mA range for current
meter and 20V for voltage meter.
10. Turn on the mains switch, wait all the measurement meter initialized first before start
conducting experiment.
11. Switch on the lamps power supply, check whether the lamp got light up or not. After that,
position the lamp holder again at the distance of 1meter.
12. Adjust the potentiometer to get 10mA. Record down the voltage and this value should be
constant for the experiment.
13. Leave the equipment like this for at least 5 minutes. This is to ensure the necessary pre-
conditioning of the device is carried out.
14. Move the lamp backwards to vary the distance and the affect on the transducer. Record the
voltage and current value at each step.
15. Switch off the lamp and take the reading again corresponding to ambient light illumination.
Part 2: Photo Conductive Cell : Lamberts Cosine Law

47
1. With the circuit of Part 1 still connected, return the photo transducer box and lamp to their
starting positions.
2. Switch on the lamp again and slowly adjust the potentiometer (VR) until the multi-meter
reads about 10mA initial value.
3. Rotate the angular scale shown on the photo transducer box to 30 anti-clockwise and
record the reading.
4. Repeat the procedure 3 for the angles as shown in table below.
5. After finish the experiment, switch off the lamp power supply and the main power supply
switch on the control box.

3.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Part 1: Photo Conductive Cell- Inverse Square Law

Table 4.4 Experiment Result of Photo Conductive Cell response

Distance (mm) Current (mA) Voltage Device Resistance


(Volt) ()
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
Off of the lamp

- Plot, discussion, analysis and conclusion.

48
Part 2: Photo Conductive Cell - Lamberts Cosine Law

Table 4.5 Experiment Result of Photo Conductive Cell Lamberts Cosine Law

Angle (Degrees) Current (A) Resistance ()


30 (ACW)
25
20
15
10
5
0
5
10
15
20

25

30

- Plot, discussion, analysis and conclusion.

49
4 Experiment 3: Phototransistor

4.1 Procedure

Part 1: Phototransistor - Inverse Square Law

1. Make sure the control boxs main switch is turn off first before start doing wiring
connection.
2. Unplug all the banana plug from the banana terminal first before assembling out the
circuit.
3. Start connecting the circuit using banana plug to respective banana socket, by using
circuit diagram below as reference:

Fig. 4.5 - Wiring Diagram for Photo-transistor Experiment


4. Make sure all the wiring connection is according to the circuit diagram. Before switch on
the power supply, let the lab instructor to check the connection of circuit.
5. Check the potentiometer (VR) control knob on the Operational Amplifier section of the
control box is set to minimum first.
6. Plug in the lamps banana plug into the Lamps power supply banana socket, make sure
the polarity is correct.
7. Adjust the position of the photo transducer box so that its angular scale of the photodiode
facing the light source is 0.
8. Ensure the hole of the photo transducer box is not facing other light source, affecting your
reading value during experiment.
9. Adjust the multi-meters rotary switch into the correct range. i.e. 200mA range for
current meter and 20V for voltage meter.
10. Turn on the mains switch, wait all the measurement meter initialized first before start
conducting experiment.
11. Switch on the lamps power supply, check whether the lamp got light up or not. After that,
position the lamp holder again at the distance 1 meter.
12. Adjust the potentiometer to get different voltage.
13. Leave the equipment like this for at least 5 minutes. This is to ensure the necessary pre-
conditioning of the device is carried out.
14. Move the lamp backwards to vary the distance and affect on the transducer. Record the
voltage and current value at each step.
15. Switch off the lamp and take the reading again corresponding to ambient light
illumination.

50
Part 2 Phototransistor - Lamberts Cosine Law:

1. With the circuit of Part 1 still connected, return the photo transducer box and lamp to
their starting positions corresponding to 100% relative illumination.
2. Switch on the lamp again and slowly adjust the potentiometer (VR) until the multimeter
reads about 10mA initial value.
3. Rotate the angular scale shown on the photo transducer box to 30 anti-clockwise and
record the reading.
4. Repeat the procedure 3 for the angle of 20, 10 until 0 up to 30 clockwise.
5. After finish the experiment, switch off the lamp power supply and the main power supply
switch on the control box.

4.2 RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Part 1: Phototransistor - Inverse Square Law

Table 4.6 Experiment Result of Phototransistor - current Response

Distance (mm)

1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100

Voltage

(V) Current (mA)

10

- Plot, discussion, analysis and conclusion.

51
Part 2: Phototransistor - Lamberts Cosine Law

Table 4.7 Experiment Result of Phototransistor - Lamberts Cosine Law

Angle (Degrees) Current (A) Resistance ()


30
25
20
15
10
5(CCW)
0
5(CW)
10
15
20

25

30

Plot graph and write the analysis according to the objective of the experiment.

52
MESB 333 LAB NO. 5 :

FLOW RATE MEASUREMENT

PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: _____________________SID: ______________ Group:______ Date:_______________

1. What are the examples of flow measurement techniques that use obstruction.

2. Draw the cross section of a venturi meter and label the throat, upstream, and recovery cone.

3. Why is orifice plate is used as a fluid flow measurement device?

_________________________________________________________________________

4. What is discharge coefficient ? What are Cd for orifice plate and venturi meter ? What
does the Cd value tells us ?

________________________________________________________________________

________________________________________________________________________

5. What does smaller discharge coefficient tells us?

53
MESB 333 Lab No. 5
Flow Rate Measurement

1 Objective

In this experiment, students will learn different types of flow meters devices to measure liquid
(water) volume flow rate. The flow meters used on the apparatus are venturi meter, variable area
meter and orifice plate. From these three devices, you will be able to compare the advantages
and accuracy of each device.

1.1 Theory

The theory behind this experiment is similar to the air flow rig in experiment 2. From the
pressure drop on the orifice or the venturi meter, the flowrate of the fluid can be calculated.
Applying Bernoulli equation:
V12 P V2 P
1 Z1 2 2 Z2
2g g 2g g
For same elevation, Z1 = Z2
V12 P V2 P
1 2 2
2g g 2g g
Carry the velocity to the right and pressure to the left:
2 2
P1 P2 V2 V1

g g 2g 2g

g
1
2g

P1 P2 1 V22 V12
For an ideal flow :
Q A1V1 A 2V2
A2
V1 V2
A1
1 1
SubstituteV1 int o (p1 p 2 ) (V 2 V12 )gives :
g 2g 2

2
1 1 2 A2 2
(p1 p 2 ) V2 V
2
g 2g A1

V 2 A
2
p1 p 2 2 1 2
2 A1

Now, we will write the above in term of V2:

2(p1 p 2 )
V22
2
A
1 2
A1

2(p1 p 2 )
V2
2
A2
1
A1 54

Knowing that Qideal = A2V2, thus:

2(p1 p 2 )
Qideal A 2
2
A
1 2
A1

The above is for an ideal flow. For venturi tube and the orifice, the equation must be
multiplied with the coefficient of discharge, Cd:

Qactual Cd Qideal
2( p1 p 2 )
Qactual Cd A 2
A
2
1 2
A1

Where,
Cd : discharge coefficient
Q : volume flowrate (m 3/s)
A2 : throat diameter for venturi, or orifice diameter for orifice plate
A1 : upstream pipe diameter
P : (P1-P2) pressure drop across the venturi meter or the orifice (gh)

Cd values assumed to be: Cd = 0.98 for the venturi meter


Cd = 0.63 for the orifice plate

1.2 Discharge Coefficient

What is really a discharge coefficient? You have observed in the previous experiments on the
airflow rig where the discharge coefficient is always used in relation to the orifice plate and the
nozzle. Similarly, discharge coefficient will be applied to venturi tube too. Discharge coefficient
basically tells how much the actual flow defers from the ideal flow:

Qactual
Cd
Qideal

A smaller value of discharge coefficient tells that the actual flow is smaller compare
to the ideal or theoretical value. The discharge coefficient for the orifice plate is 0.63
while for the venturi meter it is 0.98. There is more resistance to the flow imposed by the
orifice plate, and subsequently it causes some loses through the meter. This loss can be
observed from the large pressure drop across the orifice compares to the pressure drop
across the venturi meter.

55
1.3 Apparatus

Figure 1
Experiment
apparatus

The hydraulic bench and the apparatus are as shown above. The flow meter apparatus
is set up on top of the hydraulic bench. The apparatus above consists of venturi meter,
variable area meter and orifice plate and 8 bank manometer. Pressure readings of the
water flow will be taken from the 8 bank manometer.

1.3.1 Technical Data:

Venturi meter
Upstream pipe diameter = 31.75 mm
hence A1 = 7.92 x 10-4 m2
Throat dia. = 15 mm
hence A2 = 1.77 x 10-4 m2
Upstream taper = 21 0 inclusive
Downstream taper = 14 0 inclusive

Orifice plate
Upstream pipe diameter = 31.75 mm
hence A1 = 7.92 x 10-4 m2
Orifice diameter = 20 mm
hence A2 = 3.14 x 10-4 m2

1.4 Procedure

1. Observe that the apparatus is placed on the hydraulic bench. The inlet pipe of the apparatus
is connected to the hydraulic bench supply, while the apparatus outlet pipe is connected to
the pipe going to the volumeter tank.
2. Note that the hydraulic bench inlet valve is in shut position.
3. Switch on the pump then slowly open the hydraulic bench inlet valve.
4. At the same time open the flow control valve, the outlet valve on the apparatus.
5. To disperse air trapped in the flow system, close flow control valve, open air bleed screw and

56
prime manometer and tappings. When done, close back the air bleed screw.
6. Switch off the pump and adjust the levels of the manometer by adjusting the air bleed screw.
Try to get initial manometer level at a comfortable level so that when experiment is carried out
there will be enough room for the water column in the manometer to move up and down. Close
back the air bleed screw when done. Switch on the pump again.
7. Adjust the inlet and outlet valves so that variable meter gives the flow rate of 2 Liter/min.
Record the manometer reading. Increase the flow rate until 22 Liter/min.
8. Measure a certain volume of the reservoir, using stop watch measure the time taken to fill that
portion.
9. Repeat step 7 to get another set of data.

1.5 Results

Get the manometer readings for the respective flow rates of the variable meter.
Table 1 Experiment Result
Variable
Meter
Flow rate Manometer Readings (mm)
(Liter/min)
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Seconds
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

Note the followings:


Manometer 1 minus Manometer 2 = Venturi Reading
Manometer 1 minus Manometer 3 = Loss In Venturi
Manometer 4 minus Manometer 5 = Loss In Variable Area
Manometer 6 minus Manometer 7 = Orifice Plate Reading
Manometer 6 minus Manometer 8 = Loss In Orifice Plate

From the readings obtained on the Venturi meter and orifice plate calculate the volume flow
rate using the basic equation with relevant Cd factor.
Note that (p1 - p2) in the equation refers to Venturi Reading (Manometer 1 minus Manometer
2), and NOT Loss In Venturi (Manometer 1 minus Manometer 3). Similarly for Orifice Plate, use
Orifice Plate Reading.
Calculate the actual flow rate using the volume and time measured.
Don't forget to change the manometer column readings from mm to m.
Compare these calculated values and the reading on the variable area meter with the actual
flow rate. Use same units.
Calculate the velocity at point 2 (venturi meter) and 7 (orifice plate) (Use formula:
velocity=volume flow rate/cross section area) and discuss.
Also calculate the Reynolds number at these two points. Re d = Dv/,,where = absolute
viscosity = 8.937 x l0-4 Pa.s and D is the diameter of the holes.
Question for discussion
When calculating (p1 - p2) for the venturi meter, why is the reading for p2 is taken at the venturi
throat and not at the tapping after the throat?
How does the variable area meter work?
How to calculate the volume flow rate using stop watch?
What sort of losses do you think occur on the venturi meter and the orifice plate?
Why the heights should different in relation to the others in the manometer?
Why velocity at P2 and P7 are different?

57
Which flow meters devices as the smallest error? Include error analysis.

Flowrate comparision table


Variable Conversion Venturi Oriface Flowrate
Meter to Flowrate Flowrate using
Flow rate stopwatch
(Liter/min) m3/s m3/s m3/s m3/s
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

Percentage Different Relative to Variable Meter


Variable Venturi Oriface Stopwatch
Meter % % %
Flow rate
(Liter/min)
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

Velocity at p2 and p7.


Variable Velocity at Velocity at Reynolds Reynolds
Meter P2 P7 Number Number
Flow rate m/s m/s at at
(Liter/min) P2 P7
2
5
10
12
15
18
20
22

58
Lab No.6

MESB 333 LAB NO. 6:


INTRODUCTION TO PID CONTROLLER
PRELAB QUESTIONS

Name: _____________________ SID: ______________ Group:______ Date:____________

1. What is the difference between a open-loop control and close-loop control?

2. Draw the three main test signals : step, ramp, sinusoidal

3. Describe what do you understand about the control actions: proportional, derivative and Integral.

4. Draw an example of a system response with depict peak overshoot, settling time, rise time and
steady state error.

5. What are the three types of response for a second order system?

47
Lab No.6

MESB 333 Lab No. 6


Introduction to PID Controller
______________________________________________________

1 Objective

Design the experiment in order:

1. To investigate and learn the importance of the vital system characteristics in the assessment
of control loop efficiency.

2. To evaluate the PID control elements using the PCU computer controlled flow cycle.

1.1 Theory

A. Introduction to Control System


In the industrial world the field of control engineering is very crucial. Control systems are
designed to achieve specified objectives within a given set of constraints. The three common
control strategies are open-loop, feed forward and closed-loop control. The open-loop control
cannot compensate for either disturbances to the system or changes in plant parameters (Figure
7.1). For example an open-loop speed control system cannot compensate for load variation
(disturbance) and the bearings friction variation (plant parameter).

Input Control Output


Controller Process
(desired behavior) Action s (actual behavior)
Figure 6.1 Open Loop Strategy

The feedforward control attempts to compensate for disturbances before they have any effect
on the system output (Figure 6.2). This strategy can be effective if the disturbance can be
measured. However it cannot compensate for changes of the plant parameters which cannot be
measured and treated as a disturbance.

Disturbances
Measure Disturbances

Input Control Output


Controller Process
(desired behavior) Action (actual behavior)
Figure 6.2 The Feed Forward Strategy

The most common control strategy is feedback or closed loop control, as illustrated in figure
6.3. Here the process output is monitored, and control actions are taken to counteract deviations

48
Lab No.6

from the required behavior. In the case of motor speed control system, the speed is measured,
and the applied voltage is modified as required. However in practice, feedback and feedforward
are often combined in a single system.

Disturbances

Input
Control Output
Controller Process
(desired behavior)
Action (actual behavior)
Measure

Figure 6.3 the Closed-loop (feedback) Control Strategy

B. PID Controller

The term PID controller refers to proportional, integral and derivative controller. PID
controllers are the most common controller used in the industrial process control.

I) Proportional Control Mode

In this mode the output of the controller is proportional to the error between the set point
and the measured value. Proportional control may be expressed as either proportional gain
or proportional band. Mathematically ,

Mp =PG(SP-MV)+C = PG e(t) +C

Where, Mp = Controller Output


PG = Proportional Gain
SP = Set point
MV = measured value
C = Output with zero error
e(t) = Error as a function of time.

The error band where the output is between 0% and 100% is called the proportional band
(PB), and given by PB = 100/PG. Thus the higher the gain the smaller the band. This control
mode rarely produce adequate control, where there usually an offset (permanent error).

II) Integral Mode

This mode of control is often used to remove proportional offsets errors. The integral mode
determines an output based on the history of error. It is calculated by finding the net area under
the error curve versus time and multiplying by a constant called the integral action time (IAT)
in seconds. The controller output equation is:

PG
IAT
Mi( t ) e( t )dt

The integral Action time is defined as the time taken for the integral action to duplicate the

49
Lab No.6

proportional action of the controller, if the error remains constant during this period. It is used
commonly to remove any steady state errors incurred when using a proportional controller.

III) Derivative Control Mode

Derivative control mode is often used to reduce the response time of the system, it is based
on the time rate of the change of error. The time taken for the proportional action to duplicate
de( t )
Md PG DAT
dt
the instantaneous output of the derivative element is called derivative action time (DAT). The
controller output equation is:
The derivative control mode is never used alone as there is no controller output
corresponding to zero rate of change. So it is commonly used with Proportional controller
(PD). However, it can also exaggerate high frequency noise in the system.

C. System Response

Figure 6.4 shows the typical system response of a control system. There are three types of
response for a second order system, which are overdamped, underdamped, and critical
damped response. The system response depends on the PID gains set in the experiment. The
characteristics of the response is shown in Figure 6.5.

Figure 6.4

50
Lab No.6

Figure 6.5

Some of the important system performance parameters are:


Peak overshoot : is often expressed as percent overshoot at the first peak and given by (Peak
value- input value)/input value * 100
Settling time: The time taken to settle within 2% of the final value
Rise time: The time taken for the system to respond to a fraction of the final value on the initial
part. Typically 5-95% or 10-90%.
Steady state error: Any error between the set point and the controlled variable once the system
has stabilized.

1.2 Apparatus

1.2.1 The System Rig


The System Rig is the hardware for the process, which is to be controlled by the
microcomputer. This reflects a typical process control situation such as in the food and drink
manufacturing petrochemical industry.
Each feature on the System Rig has a manual or computer control option. Users may select
either of the modes allowing a comparison between human and computer control operation to be
made. This allows a rapid appreciation of the advantages and disadvantages under both modes of
control.

51
Lab No.6

1.2.2 Description

Figure 6.6 Process control unit

LEGEND

A - Mains switch G - Overflow pipe

B - Water pump switch H - Proportional valve

C - Bottom reservoir tank I - Water inlet port

D - Bypass valve J - Water drain port

E - Return valve K - Water pump

F - Water level tank L - Control panel

M - Level foot

52
Lab No.6

SAFETY / PRECAUTION

1. Ensure that there are sufficient water in the bottom reservoir tank before conducting the
experiments.
2. Make sure there are no leakages in the piping system before conducting the experiments.
3. Open the bypass valve before switching on the water pump and close it only after the flow is fully
circulated through the entire system for a brief period.

MANUAL SETUP

1. Place the LS-33039 PID Controller Experiment Rig. On a level table and adjust the levelling foot
if necessary.
2. Connect the main power plug to electrical supply.
3. Connect the RS-485 cable from the computer to the control box.
4. Run the Data Acquisition Software from the computer
5. Switch on the mains switch on the control box
6. Ensure there is enough water in the bottom reservoir tank before switching on the pump.
7. The LS-33039 apparatus is ready to be used.

MAINTENANCE

1. Please check for signs of leakage in the piping system from time to time. Besides that there is no
major maintenance required for this apparatus
2. Kindly seek the assistance from the manufacturer if necessary.

1.2.3 Feedback

Feedback is an essential requirement for the control of any process. It consists of various
transducers measuring the conditions on the rig and feeding this information back to the
controlling microcomputer.
On the Process Control Unit the temperature at the sump, flowline and process tank are
measured using platinum resistance thermometers. The flowrate is measured by an in-line
flowmeter. These analogue signals are fed back to the signal conditioners on the Computer
Control Module (CCM) from where they are sampled by the microcomputer via an analogue to
digital converter (ADC). LED meters are used to display the temperatures and flowrate on the
system rig. Indicators are provided for the cooler, tank full sensor and drain/divener solenoids,
giving a status check when the Process Control Unit is in operation.

1.2.4 Flow measurement

The flow rate of the fluid is measured by means of a flow meter of the impeller type. The fluid
flows through the meter rotating the impeller, which has six blades. Mounted either side of the
impeller is an infra red transmitter and receiver producing an infra red beam which is broken by
the rotating impeller. Six pulses are therefore produced for one revolution of the rotor, thus
producing a frequency output 'which is proportional to the flowrate.

53
Lab No.6

The approximate full-scale frequency is 570Hz (pulses/sec) which is converted to a voltage


by the signal conditioning circuit. This voltage is used to drive the flowrate LED display on the
rig and also converted into a digital word by the Data Acquisition circuit.

Figure 6.8

1.2.5 Pump

The pump used is a centrifugal type. It is not a positive displacement type and thus its output
is not necessarily linearly proportional to speed, though variation in speed will, of course, vary
the output flow rate.
Activating Voltage: 12V D.C; Maximum Continuous Current: 6 Amps

1.2.6 Water Drain Port

This is used to drain the bottom reservoir tank

1.3 Software Operation

a) Turn on both the computer system and the process control unit.
b) In the Windows desktop, select the LS-330390 PID icon.
c) In the program, follow the instructions in section 1 to familiarize yourself with the program.

1.3.1 Section 1: Assessment of System Performance

1. By operating the controls in the Process Control Unit, the vital characteristics can be easily
demonstrated by varying the values of the PID controller.
2. Select the Flow Control tab and in the Control select the Closed Loop tab
3. Set the Set point to 4 liter/min and set the controller setting as in the table below.
4. Click the Enabled button to start the flow.
5. Set the PID controller using the given values. Use your own values to complete the table.
6. Print out your results and observe the graphs. Label the graphs.
7. To study the effect of load change on the PID controller. Based on the plotted response from
Table 1, select the best PID controller response, introduce a disturbance by opening the by-
pass valve 30% when it has reached the stabile flow rate. Observe the response of the
controller and comment on the behavior.

54
Lab No.6

1.3.2 Section 2: Evaluation of the PID Control Elements

The PID control elements may be easily evaluated using the PCU computer controlled flow cycle.

Characteristic selection of PID elements:

The selection range of the PID elements is:


Proportional Gain: Between 1 to 10
Integral Action: Between 0 to 1
Derivative Action: Between 0 to 1

Base on Software operation in 1.3, construct the experiment procedure in order to achieve
the objective.

55
Lab No.6

MESB 333 Lab No. 7


Free and Damped Vibration
______________________________________________________

Introduction

In this lab, the students are to be expose to several type of free and damped vibration system with
their characteristic that are related to the theory learn in class.

1.1 Theory

Underdamped Syatem

The displacement solution for this kind of system is:

An alternate but equivalent solution is given by:

The displacement plot of an underdamped system would appear as:

Note that the displacement amplitude decays exponentially (i.e the natural logarithm of the amplitude ratio
for any two diaplacements seperated in time by a constant ratio is a constant)

56
Lab No.6

, Td is the period of the damped vibration.

Critically Damped System

The displacement solution for this system is:

The critical damping, Cc can be interpreted as the minimum damping that results in non-periodic
motion (i.e sample decay). The displacement plot of a critically-damped system with positive initial
displacement and velocity would appear as,

The displacement decay to a negligible level after one natural period, Tn. Note that if the initial
velocity V0 is negative while the initial displacement X0 is positive, there will exist one overshoot of
the resting position in the displacement plot.

Overdamped System

The displacement solution for this kind of system is:

The displacement plot of an overdamped system would appear as:

57
Lab No.6

The motion of an overdamped system is non-periodic, regardless of the initial conditions. The larger
the damping, the longer the time to decay from an initial disturbance.

If the system is heavily damped, > 1, the displacement solution takes the approximate form:

EXPERIMENT I

1 Objective
To determine the spring coefficient and to investigate the deflection of the spring at certain
load.

1.2 Procedure

1.3 Result and Discussion

1. Find out the spring constant, k for spring T1, T2, T3.
2. Plot a graph of force against deflection, where the spring coeffiecient is the slope,
m of the graph. The k value is in unit kg/mm or N/mm.

58
Lab No.6

EXPERIMENT II

1.1 Objective

To determine the spring coefficient and the natural frequency of single degree freedom.

1.2 Procedure

1.3 Calculation:

Use the formula below to calculate the natural frequency.

where,
k=stiffness (N/m)
m=mass (kg)
RPM of the motorized chart recorder = 5 rpm
Diameter of drum collector = 27.00mm and the circumference=84.82


=

Where,

T:time (seconds)taken to complete one cycle.

59
Lab No.6

1.4 Result and Discussion:

1. Compare natural frequency of the system between the calculated from plotted graph and formula.
2. Find out the spring constant, k from Experiment 1.
3. Repeat the experiment and observe the behaviour of different type of spring.

EXPERIMENT III

1.1 Objective

1. To demonstrate the oscillation of single degree freedom system


2. To investigate the behaviors for free vibration and damped vibration

1.2 Procedure

1.3 Calculation:

Calculate the natural frequency of the system as experiment 2.

,
The damping ratio can be obtained from the formula above

1.3 Result and Discussion:

60
Lab No.6

Do discuss if the damper is underdamped, critically damped or overdamped system.

**Please do download the details manual from the Moodle. **

61