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# Jasmine Amin

Mr. Hartung

Science 2

## May 26, 2017

The Telegraph

The telegraph was developed by Samuel Morse in 1844. During the civil war the military

laid out a telegraph cable along the United States 15,000 miles long. This was used for military

alone. There were also mobile telegraph wagons. They reported and received word from the

soldiers beyond the front line. Because of the telegraph military soldiers were able to

communicate at a more efficient pace; they were able to get the information across faster. News

sources also used the telegraph to repost on the civil war. The telegraph made an impact on the

civil war by making communication faster for both the north and the south.

## Unlike a regular magnet an electromagnetic feeds on electricity. A magnet is any object

that creates a magnetic field. It creates a magnetic field by having electricity run through the

magnet. A magnetic field is an area of space that holds magnetic influence. Magnetic field

compromises other objects in its vicinity. The poles of the electromagnet are also different from

a regular magnet. Poles of a magnet are the positive and negative end of the magnet. (Shown in

figure 1)By revising the the flow of electricity through the electromagnet the poles of the

electromagnet can be reversed. For example when building a telegraph if you change the end of

the battery from negative to positive you are changing the flow of electricity. Because the
electric current creates a magnetic field the electromagnet can work. For example, in creating a

telegraph when you wrap the wire around the nail you are creating a series of loops. The wire has

an electric current and when it is being wrapped around the magnetic field becomes concentrated

(Figure 1)

## Source: Physics 4 kids

In order for electricity to work it needs to be able to move. Circuits are a pathway for

electricity to move. For example when turning on a light switch you are closing or attaching all

the circuits and the lights are then able to turn on. When you turn off the lights you are opening

the circuit or disconnecting them and the light is unable to turn on.The strength of an

electromagnet can be varied upon, the number of coils of wire, number of voltage and or battery,

and properties of the core. By wrapping a wire around an object can make the electromagnet

stronger. If you use more than one battery or have a battery of high voltage the strength of the

electromagnet with increase. Electromagnets are temporary magnets. This is because of the

battery life. As soon as the battery dies the circuit stops flowing and the magnetic field no longer

exists.

The telegraph works by sending electric currents over wire put out between transmitter

and the receiver. The transmitter has a clicker and the receiver the electromagnet. On the

transmitter there is a switch it is in an electric circuit. There are also open and closed circuits. An
incomplete circuit is considered an open circuit. A complete circuit, is a closed circuit. A closed

circuit, however if not performing any work is still a closed circuit. The Association of Energy

Engineers give an example of a dead battery. If all circuits are connected to a dead battery it is

still considered a closed circuit. The switch turns in an electric current. As the message is taped

in, the switch completes a circuit which then allows an electric current to flow around it. With

any electric circuit a minimum of two wires are required between the receiver and the

transmitter. Telegraphes used a code system called Morse Code. The code was created by two

men, one named Morse and Vial. The codes were used both on paper and though sound. When it

became clear that people translating the codes were capable of just using sound there paper was

no longer used. The code assigned different letters and numbers to to a set of dots. Short ones

and long ones. The more frequently used letters were given easy codes such as the letter e.

## Infrequently used letters such as z were given more complex codes.

In creating a telegraph the materials included were: a wire, 2 nails, 2 screws, 2 blocks of

wood, bendable metal, 9 volt battery, tape and a hot glue gun. To create the telegraph hammer

the 1nail into each block of wood. Then tape a 9 volt battery to one of the blocks, this will be

your receiver. Then wrap the wire around nail. The more times the wire is wrapped the stronger